Power distribution system should provide with an uninterrupted flow of energy at smooth
sinusoidal voltage at the contracted magnitude level and frequency to their customers. PS
especially distribution systems, have numerous non linear load s, which significantly affect the
quality of power. Apart from nonlinear loads, events like capacitor switching, motor starting and
unusual faults could also inflict power quality (PQ) problems. PQ problem is defined as any
manifested problem in voltage, current or leading to frequency deviations that result in failure or
mal operation of customer equipment. Voltage sags and swells are among the many PQ problems
the industrial processes have to face. Voltage sags are more severe. During the past few decades,
power industries have proved that the adverse impacts on the PQ can be mitigated or avoided by
conventional means, and that techniques using fast controlled force commutated power
electronics (PE) are even more effective. PQ compensators can be categorized into two main
types. One is shunt connected compensation device that effectively eliminates harmonics. The
other is the series connected device, which has an edge over the shunt type for correcting the
distorted system side voltages and voltage sags caused by power transmission system faults.

The STATCOM used in distribution systems is called DSTACOM (Distribution-
STATCOM) and its configuration is the same, but with small modifications. It can exchange
both active and reactive power with the distributio n system by varying the amplitude and phase
angle of the converter voltage with respect to the line terminal voltage. Installation of a large
number of SVCs and experience gained from recent STATCOM projects throughout the world
motivates us to clarify certain aspects of these devices. The FACTS devices offer a fast and
reliable control over the transmission parameters, i.e. Voltage, line impedance, and phase angle
between the sending end voltage and receiving end voltage. On the other hand the custom power
is for low voltage distribution, and improving the poor quality and reliability of supply affecting
sensitive loads. Custom power devices are very similar to the FACTS. Most widely known
custom power devices are DSTATCOM, UPQC, DVR among them DSTATCOM is very well
known and can provide cost effective solution for the compensation of reactive power and
unbalance loading in distribution system.


In recent days, modern industrial devices are mostly based on the electronic devices such
as programmable logic controllers and electronic drives. The electronic devices are very
sensitive to disturbances and become less tolerant to power quality problems such as voltage
sags, swells and harmonics. Voltage dips are considered to be one of the most severe
disturbances to the industrial equipment’s. Voltage support at a load can be achieved by reactive
power injection at the load point of common coupling. D-STATCOM injects a current into the
system to correct the voltage sag and swell. The power quality devices are power electronic
converters connected in parallel or series with the lines and the operation is controlled by a
digital controllers. The modeling of these complex systems that contains both power circuits and
control systems can be done different bases. One of the Power electronic solution to the voltage
regulation is the use of a D-STATCOM.D-STATCOM is a class of custom power devices for
providing reliable distribution power quality. They employ a shunt of voltage boost technology
using solid state switches for compensating voltage sags and swells. The D-STATCOM
applications are mainly for sensitive loads that may be drastically affected by fluctuations in the
system voltage. The performance of the DSTATCOM depends on the control algorithm i.e. the
extraction of the current components. Among these control schemes instantaneous reactive
power theory and synchronous rotating reference frame are most widely used.
Increase in such non-linearity causes different undesirable features like low system
efficiency and poor power factor. It also causes disturbance to other consumers and interference
in nearby communication networks. The effect of such non-linearity may become sizeable over
the next few years. Hence it is very important to overcome these undesirable features.
Classically, shunt passive filters, consist of tuned LC filters and/or high passive filters are used to
suppress the harmonics and power capacitors are employed to improve the power factor. But
they have the limitations of fixed compensation, large size and can also exile resonance
conditions. Active power filters are now seen as a viable alternative over the classical passive
filters, to compensate harmonics and reactive power requirement of the non- linear loads. The
objective of the active filtering is to solve these problems by combining with a much-reduced
rating of the necessary passive components. Various topologies of active power filters have been
developed so far. The shunt active power filter based on current controlled voltage source
converter has been proved to be effective even when the load is highly non- linear. Most of the
active filters developed are based on sensing harmonics and reactive volt-ampere requirements of


the non- linear load and require complex control. A new scheme has been proposed in which the
required compensating current is determined by sensing load current which is further modified
by sensing line currents only. An instantaneous reactive volt-ampere compensator and harmonic
suppressor system is proposed
With the deregulation of the electric power energy market, power quality has become an
important issue of concern for both electric utilities companies and consumers. In this
environment, electric utilities are expected to compete with each other for the customer. The
power quality has serious economic implications for consumers, utilities and electrical
equipment manufacturers. Modern industry involves the use of nonlinear and electronically
switched devices in distribution systems. Integration of non-conventional generation
technologies such as fuel cells, wind turbines, and photo-voltaic with utility grids often requires
power electronic interfaces. These devices contribute the problems of power quality such as
voltage fluctuations, flicker, harmonics, and asymmetries of volta ges. Moreover, modern high-
tech industrial equipments are more sensitive to these power quality problems. Therefore, there
is a stringent need of better quality power supply because acceptable power quality levels if not
achieved, may result in costly downtimes. In view of this, the concept of DSTATCOM is
introduced. The power electronic devices are one of the common loads in many industries like
the steel industry, labs and colleges. The problem with the power electronic devices is that they
deteriorate the power quality by introducing harmonic distortion in the power system network.
The unbalance load currents with large reactive components results in voltage fluctuations and
imbalance due to the system impedance. Their presence also affects the performance of other
electric equipment connected in the power system network. It is due to the fact that it produces
very high levels of harmonic distortion in the power system network. So, it is of utmost necessity
to take proper measures to reduce this power quality problem. The one possible solution to the
above- mentioned problem is the application of a DSTATCOM, which is a distribution static
synchronous compensator. The load compensation by DSTATCOM helps to maintain unity
power factor load while balancing the load.


Our technological world has become deeply dependent upon the continuous availability
of electrical power. In most countries commercial power is made available via nationwide grids,
interconnecting numerous generating stations to the loads. The grid must supply basic national
needs of residential, lighting, heating, refrigeration, air conditioning and transportation as well as
critical supply to governmental, industrial, financial, commercial, and medical and
communications communities. Commercial power literally enables today’s modern world to
function at its busy pace. Many power problems originate in the commercial power grid, which
with its thousands of miles of transmission lines is subject to weather conditions such as
hurricanes, lightning storms, snow, ice and flooding along with equipment failure, traffic
accidents and major switching operations. Also power problems affecting today’s technological
equipment are often generated locally within a facility from any number of situations such as
local construction, heavy startup loads, faulty distribution components and even typical
background electrical noise.
Widespread use of electronics in everything from home electronics to the control of
massive and costly industrial processes has raised the awareness of power quality. Power quality
or more specifically a power quality disturbance is generally defined as any change in power
(voltage, current or frequency) that interferes with the normal operation of electrical equipment.
The study of power quality and ways to control it is a concern for electric utilities, large
industrial companies, businesses and even home users. The study has intensified as equipment
has become increasingly sensitive to even minute changes in the power supply voltage, current,
and frequency.

“Power Quality is the degree to which both the utilization and delivery of electric power
affects the performance of electric equipment”.
In general there is no unique definition of power quality. The power quality problem can be
viewed from two different angles related to each side of the utility meter, namely the Utility and
Consumer. An alternative definition of PQ is adopted.


Power quality and reliability cost the industry large amounts due to mainly sags and
short-term interruptions. Distorted and unwanted voltage wave forms, too. And the main concern
for the consumers of electricity was the reliability of supply. Here we define the reliability as the
continuity of supply. As shown in Fig.2.2, the problem of distribution lines is divided into two
major categories. First group is power quality, second is power reliability. First group consists of
harmonic distortions, impulses and swells. Second group consists of voltage sags and outages.
Voltage sags is much more serious and can cause a large amount of damage. If exceeds a few
cycle, motors, robots, servo drives and machine tools cannot maintain control of process. Both
the reliability and quality of supply are equally important. For example, a consumer that is
connected to the same bus that supplies a large motor load may have to face a severe dip in his
supply voltage every time the motor load is switched on. In some extreme cases even we have to
bear the black outs which is not acceptable to the consumers. There are also sensitive loads such
as hospitals (life support, operation theatre, and patient database system), processing plants, air
traffic control, financial institutions and numerous other data processing and service providers
that require clean and uninterrupted power. In processing plants, a batch of product can be ruined
by voltage dip of very short duration. Such customers are very wary of such dips since each dip
can cost them a substantial amount of money. Even short dips are sufficient to cause contactors
on motor drives to drop out. Stoppage in a portion of process can destroy the conditions for
quality control of product and require restarting of production. Thus in this scenario in which
consumers increasingly demand the quality power, the term power quality (PQ) attains increased

Fig 2.2: Power Quality and Reliability


ground loops. • Circuit breakers trip without being overloaded. Harmonic resonance. Notching.3 POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS & ISSUES: A recent survey of Power Quality experts indicates that 50% of all Power Quality problems are related to grounding. Clean ground. • Electronic systems fail or fail to operate on a frequent basis. Fault. Ground. Oscillatory transient etc. Nonlinear load. individual customers are responsible for more substantial fraction of the problems of power distribution systems. Distortion. • Equipment fails during a thunderstorm. Flicker. and neutral to ground voltages. ground current or other ground associated issues. Impulse. 6 . ground bonds. Ground loops. Dirty power. • Electronic systems work in one location but not in another location. Interharmonics. Dropout. Transient. Electromagnetic compatibility. Voltage fluctuations. Momentary interruption. The commonly used terms those describe the parameters of electrical power that describe or measure power quality are Voltage sags. Electrically operated or connected equipment is affected by Power Quality. The following symptoms are indicators of Power Quality problems: • Piece of equipment misoperates at the same time of day. Blink. Over voltage. Ground noise. Harmonics. Noise. Interruptions Swells. Crest factor. Furthermore. 2. It is however to be noted that while most problems associated with the transmission systems arise due to the forces of nature or due to the interconnection of power systems. Blackouts. Under voltage. Triplens. Critical load. Raw power. Brownouts. Voltage imbalance. • Automated systems stop for no apparent reason. Common mode noise. transmission lines are often having an impact on the quality of the power supplied.Transmission lines are exposed to the forces of nature. Spikes (Voltage). Voltage regulation. Determining the exact problems requires sophisticated electronic test equipment. THD. Even though the power quality problem is distribution side problem. each transmission line has its load ability limit that is often determined by either stability constraints or by thermal limits or by the dielectric limits. Voltage variations. Voltage dip.

3.1 Causes for Sag:  Motor Starting  Transformer Energization  Transmission Faults 2.1: Voltage Sags and Swells 2.2 Voltage Unbalance: In a balanced sinusoidal supply system the three line-neutral voltages are equal in magnitude and are phase displaced from each other by 120 degrees.3. for durations from a half-cycle to a few seconds.1. at the power frequency.3.1 Causes for Unbalance:  Unequal system impedances  Unequal distribution of (a) Single-phase loads (b) Phase to Phase loads (c) Unbalanced Three phase loads 7 . • Voltage Sag is Characterized by two parameters – Magnitude and Duration • Power Electronics Loads are Sensitive to Voltage Sags Fig 2.3.2 Causes for Swell:  Single line to ground fault  Removing a large load / adding a large capacitor bank Voltage Sags and Swells: • Reduction in the ac voltage.3.1.3. 2.

2. 8 .3.3.1 Causes: (1) Induction Motor drive • Arc furnaces • Arc welders • Frequent motor starts 2.3.Human eye is most sensitive to voltage waveform modulation around a frequency of 6-8Hz.2.4 Voltage Interruption: Voltage interruption is nothing but the supply voltage goes close to zero that means lower than 10% of its nominal voltage.3.3.3 Voltage Flicker 2. which the human eye can detect as a variation in the lamp intensity of a standard bulb due to sudden changes in the real and reactive Power drawn by a load. equipment failure.3.2 Effect: Lamp flicker . Fig 2.3 Voltage Flicker: Repetitive or random variations of the voltage envelope modulated at frequencies less than 25 Hz. and control system malfunction.3. Interruptions can results the power system faults.

programmable logic control system and may be damage the sensitive equipments. The voltage variation. programmable logic controller. or in the amplitude from an established reference level. Harmonics cause communication interference. harmonics causes ma lfunctioning of electronics equipments namely microprocessor based system. and malfunction of equipments. A longer interruption harms practically all operations of a modern society.linear element in power systems such as power electronic devices. adjustable speed drives etc. A non. the problems can be caused by the equipment supplied with electric power for example.5 Harmonics: It is a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. Redundancy at all levels of the electric- power system reduces the incidence and duration of line-voltage disturbances. In addition. sag. protection devices. A. static power converters. The issue of electric power quality is gaining importance because of several reasons: • The society is becoming increasingly dependent on the electrical supply. or a complete interruption. Due to all this problems the whole system will be derated. also stoppage of sensitive equipments like computer. heating.2.3. The disturbance can be caused by harmonics in the current or by events in the main voltage supply system. Effect of power quality problems in different equipments Some of the equipment affected by power-quality problems are discussed under the following heads: 9 .4 EFFECT OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS IN EQUIPMENTS: The first sign of a power-quality problem is a distortion in the voltage waveform of the power source from a sine wave. • The advent of new power electronic equipment. arc discharge devices etc creates harmonics in system. • New equipments are more sensitive to power quality variations. swell. has brought new disturbances into the supply system. Due to all this problems it may cause tripping of contractors. such as variable speed drives and switched mode power supplies. 2. A small power outage has a great economical impact on the industrial consumers. power-electronic converters.

5. Waveform distortion. Controllers d. Contactors and Relays B.5 SOURCES OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS:  Large motor starting  Different faults  Lightning The above problems cause high current and large drops in lines and leads to voltage sag. the ideal AC line supply by the utility system should be a pure sine wave of fundamental frequency (50/60Hz).  Capacitive Loads  Open circuits These problems lead to voltage swell. 2. Technically speaking. Mainly the seven types of Power Quality problems are there. Voltage fluctuations. They are 1. 7. 3. a. Transients. A perfect power supply would be one that is always available always within voltage and frequency tolerances and has a pure noise. Personal computers c. Voltage Swell.Different power quality problems. their characterization 10 . Voltage Sag. Interruptions. Power Quality means the ability of utilities to provide electric power without interruption.free sinusoidal wave shape. 2. 2. Adjustable speed drives e. 6.6 CAUSES OF POWER QUALITY: The causes of power quality problems are generally complex and difficult to detect. Aircraft electrical System b. 4. Frequency variations.

The solution to the voltage quality can be done from customer side or from utility side First approach is called load conditioning. We can therefore conclude that the lack of quality power can cause loss of production. 11 . 2.6. which ensures that the equipment is less sensitive to power disturbances.7 SOLUTIONS TO POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS: There are two approaches to the mitigation of power quality problems. The other solution is to install line conditioning systems that suppress or counteracts the power system disturbances.  Equipment’s not suitable for local supply. the line conditioning systems or utility side solutions will play a major role in improving the inherent supply quality. Shunt active power filte rs operate as a controllable current source and series active power filters operates as a controllable voltage source. Currently they are based on PWM converters and connect to low and medium voltage distribution system in shunt or in series. 2. It is therefore imperative that a high standard of power quality is maintained. However.methods and possible causes are discussed above and which are responsible for the lack of quality power which affects the customer in many ways. damage of equipment or appliances or can even be detrimental to human health. some of the effective and economic measures can be identified as following.  Unbalanced load on a three phase system. This project demonstrates that the power electronic based power conditioning using custom power devices like DSTATCOM can be effectively utilized to improve the quality of power supplied to the customers. with the restructuring of power sector and with shifting trend towards distributed and dispersed generation. allowing the operation even under significant voltage distortion.  Long distance from a distribution transformer with interposed loads  Unreliable grid systems.  Switching of heavy loads. Series active power filters must operate in conjunction with shunt passive filters in order to compensate load current harmonics.1 Major causes of power quality problems:  Rural location remote from power source.

but is not limited to sufficient voltage limiting for protecting sensitive electronic control circuits from voltage surges. superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES).7. sags or interruptions.2 Thyristor Based Static Switch: The static switch is a versatile device for switching a new element in to the circuit when the voltage support is needed. filter. IEEE 519 : IEEE 519-1992. The static switch can be used in the alternate power line applications. A. It typically takes years to push changes through the process. storage capacitors or even fly wheels driving dc generators.8 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS: Power quality is a worldwide issue.7. These are usually dc storage systems such as UPS. Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems.1 Lightning and Surge Arrester: Arrester is designed for lightning protection of transformers. 2. 2. 12 . the static switch can used to switch one or more devises such as capacitor. alternate power line.7. It has a dynamic response time of about one cycle. and keeping related standards current is a never-ending task. Enough energy is fed to the system to compensate for the energy that would be lost by the voltage sag or interruption. The output of these devices can be supplied to the system through an inverter on a momentary basis by a fast acting electronic switch. batteries. Most of the ongoing work by the IEEE in harmonic standards development has shifted to modifying Standard 519-1992. To correct quickly for voltage spikes.2. 2. energy storage systems etc. established limits on harmonic currents and voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) or point of metering.3 Energy Storage Systems: Storage system can be used to protect sensitive protection equipment from shutdowns caused by voltage sags or momentary interruptions.

The voltage harmonic distortion limits apply to the quality of the power.ISC is the maximum short circuit current at the point of coupling “PCC”.IL is the maximum fundamental frequency 15-or 30. For instance. IEEE Standard For Voltage Harmonics : • IEEE-519 .minutes load current at PCC. IEEE 519 Standard for Current Harmonics: • General Distribution Systems [120V.5]. for systems of less than 69 kV. All of the harmonic limits in IEEE 519 are based on a customer load mix and location on the power system.Voltage Distortion Limits . Note that the harmonic limits differ based on the ISC/IL rating. • General Sub-transmission Systems [69 kV-161 kV] The current harmonic distortion limits apply to limits of harmonics that loads should draw from the utility at the PCC. 2) Assure that the electric utility can protect its electrical equipment from overheating. distortion limits are those with ISC/IL<20 . where ISC is the maximum short circuit current at the PCC.The limits of IEEE 519 are intended to: 1) Assure that the electric utility can deliver relatively clean power to all of its customers. 13 . For all power generation equipment. The voltage distortion limits are 3% for individual harmonics and 5% THD. a. TDD is the Total Demand Distortion (=THD normalized by IL. Each point from IEEE 519 lists the limits for harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC) or metering point with the utility. IEEE 519 requires limits of 3 percent harmonic distortion for an individual frequency component and 5 percent for total harmonic distortion. it is likely that some harmonic suppression may be necessar y. with a high amount of nonlinear loads.3. and excessive voltage stress due to excessive harmonic voltage. loss of life from excessive harmonic currents. although. and I is the maximum demand load current at the PCC b. Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits [1.69 kV] Below current distortion limits are for odd harmonics. The limits are not applied to particular equipment.

The tests according to this standard are type tests. voltage regulation in the utilization of equipment within the tolerance limits under all load conditions. three-phase. simplicity of operation. the latter extends the range above 16 A. reliability. • Nominal voltage up to 600 V. Guidance is provided in design. IEC 61000-3-2 (1995-03): It specifies limits for harmonic current emissions applicable to electrical and electronic equipment having an input current up to and including 16 A per phase. two or three wires. b. and continuity of an overall system to achieve safety of life and preservation of property. and flexibility to permit development and expansion. and intended to be connected to public low. Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants: A thorough analysis of basic electrical-system considerations is presented. construction. The European standards. placing current harmonic limits on equipment. IEEE Standard 141-1993. IEC 61000-3-2 & 61000-3-4. IEC 61000-3-2 and IEC 61000-3-4 (formerly 1000-3-2 and 1000-3-4): a. The former is restricted to 16 A. IEC/TS 61000-3-4 (1998-10): It specifies to electrical and electronic equipment with a rated input current exceeding 16 A per phase and intended to be connected to public low-voltage ac distribution systems of the following types: • Nominal voltage up to 240 V. 14 . are designed to protect the small consumer's equipment. These recommendations specify the information required to enable a supply authority to assess equipment regarding harmonic disturbance and to decide whether or not the equipment is acceptable for connection with regard to the harmonic distortion aspect. single-phase. • Nominal frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz.B. three or four wires.voltage distribution systems. C. care and maintenance.

and examples of reliability analysis. G. Included are basic concepts of reliability analysis by probability methods. electrical preventive maintenance.9 pu in rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations of 0. Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment: Recommended design.1 pu and 1.1 pu and 0. There is a separate chapter for grounding sensitive equipment.5 to 1 minute.an increase to between 1. and maintenance practices for electrical power and grounding (including both power-related and signal-related noise control) of sensitive electronic processing equipment used in commercial and industrial applications. Emergency and standby power. installation.a decrease to between 0. surges. virtually free of frequency excursions and voltage dips.5 cycles to 1 minute.  Swell . IEEE Standard 1100-1999. Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems: This standard presents a thorough investigation of the problems of grounding and the methods for solving these problems. operators and owners with guidelines for assuring uninterrupted power. Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications: This standard is recommended engineering practices for the selection and application of emergency and standby power systems. IEEE Standard 142-1991.8 pu in rms voltage or current at the power frequency durations from 0. IEEE Standard 446-1987. The limits of  Sag (dip) . Recommended Practice for Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial-PowerSystems: The fundamentals of reliability analysis as it applies to the planning and design of industrial and commercial electric power distribution systems are presented. E. cost of power outage data. and evaluating and improving reliability of the existing plant are also addressed. economic evaluation of reliability. and transients. IEEE Standard 493-1997. F. equipment reliability data. It provides facility designers. 15 . fundamentals of power system reliability evaluation.D.

I. and equipment using solid state power conversion have created entirely new areas of power quality considerations. transmission. user equipment.IEEE Standard 1159-1995.Momentary volta ge disturbances occurring in ac power distribution and utilization systems. sensitive. impact of poor power quality on utility and customer equipment. Guide for Service to Equipment Sensitive to Momentary Voltage Disturbances: Computers. this standard covers recommended methods of measuring power-quality events. The methodology presented is intended to be used as a planning tool to quantify the voltage sag environment and process sensitivity. Harmonic distortion limits are also discussed. faults. IEEE Standard 1346-1998 Recommended Practice for Evaluating Electric Power System Compatibility with Electronic Process Equipment: A standard methodology for the technical and financial analysis of voltage sag compatibility between process equipment and electric power systems is recommended. J. Monitoring of electric power quality of AC power systems. computer. definitions of power quality terminology.IEEE Standard 1250-1995. 16 . Many different types of power-quality measurement devices exist and it is important for workers in different areas of power distribution. and reclosing duty present on typical distributions systems. and processing to use the same language and measurement techniques. and the measurement of electromagnetic phenomena are covered. Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality: As its title suggests. and guidance toward mitigation of these effects are described..like products. There is an increasing awareness that much of this new user equipment is not designed to withstand the surges. their potential effects on this new.H.

17 . IEEE Standard P1564 gives the recommended indices and procedures for characterizing voltage sag perfor mance and comparing performance across different systems. A new IEC Standard 61000-2-8 titled “Environment —Voltage Dips and Short Interruptions” has come recently. This standards warrants considerable discussion within the IEEE to avoid conflicting methods of characterizing system performance in different parts of the world.K. IEC Standard 61000-4-15 defines the measurement procedure and monitor requirements for characterizing flicker. Standards related to Custom Power: IEEE Standard P1409 is currently developing an application guide for custom power technologies to provide enhanced power quality on the distribution system. Standards related to Distributed Generation: The new IEEE Standard P1547 provides guidelines for interconnecting distributed generation with the power system.e. Standards related to Voltage Sag and Reliability: The distribution voltage quality standard i. Standards related to Flicker: Developments in voltage flicker standards demonstrate how the industry can successfully coordinate IEEE and IEC activities. L. N. The IEEE flicker task force working on Standard P1453 is set to adopt the IEC standard as its own. This is an important area for many utilities that may want to offer enhanced power quality services. M.

3. FACTS CONTROLLERS With the rapid development of power electronics. FACTS devices can be utilized to control power flow and enhance system stability.1 FACTS DEFINITION: According to IEEE. The first aspect is the flexible power system operation according to the power flow control capability of FACTS devices. The other aspect is the improvement of transient and steady-state stability of power systems. • Power Conditioning. • Power Quality Improvement. there are two main aspects that should be considered in using FACTS devices. there is an increasing interest in using FACTS devices in the operation and control of power systems with new loading and power flow conditions. is defined as follows: Alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electronics based and other static controllers to enhance controllability and power transfer capability. A better utilization of the existing power systems to increase their capacities and controllability by installing FACTS devices becomes imperative. Due to the present situation. 3. The basic applications of facts-devices are: • Power Flow Control. 18 . • Increase of Transmission Capability. which is the abbreviation of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. • Reactive Power Compensation. • Flicker Mitigation. FACTS devices are the right equipment to meet these challenges. Particularly with the deregulation of the electricity market. • Interconnection of Renewable and Distributed Generation and Storages. • Stability Improvement. • Voltage Control. FACTS. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices have been proposed and implemented in power systems.

1: Operational limits of Transmissions Lines for different voltage levels The development of facts-devices has started with the growing capabilities of power electronic components. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for high and even highest voltage levels. The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal limits. The power electronic allows very short reaction times down to far below one second.1 shows a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the facts-devices. voltage or impedance controllers. Fig 3. Fig 3. Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different facts devices. The devices work electrically as fast current.1 shows the basic idea of facts for transmission systems. For the facts side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation. The influence of facts-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt compensation. The term 'dynamic' 19 . series compensation or phase shift control. It can be seen that with growing line length. the opportunity for facts devices gets more and more important. The overall starting points are network elements influencing the reactive power or the impedance of a part of the power system. Fig 3.

1. Table 3.1 Overview of Major FACTS-Devices: 20 . Therefore most of the facts-devices can equally be static and dynamic. The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices.is used to express the fast controllability of facts-devices provided by the power electronics.

21 . The facts-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current. In this case the shunt active power filter operates as a current source injecting the harmonic components generated by the load but phase-shifted by 180°. Voltage source converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBT’s or IGCTS. 3.1 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance. series type.1. They have low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a cycle in the converters or the usage of the thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves. inductance o r capacitance together with transformers. The left column in table 3. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency. Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this. with a self-controlled dc bus. Shunt active power filters compensate load current harmonics by injecting equal-but opposite harmonic compensating current. High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network. The right column of facts-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) or insulated gate commutated thyristors (IGCT). The left column of facts-devices uses thyristor valves or converters. These valves or converters are well known since several years. The shunt-connected active power filter. has a topology similar to that of a static compensator (STATCOM) used for reactive power compensation in power transmission systems.2 POWER FILTER TOPOLOGIES: Depending on the particular application or electrical problem to be solved. or a combination of shunt and series active filters (shunt-series type). the losses are increasing as well. These filters can also be combined with passive filters to create hybrid power filters. active power filters can be implemented as shunt type.

which acts as an active filter in series with the passive filter. However. This topology has been called the Unified Power Quality conditioner. 22 . In many cases. In addition. series active filters work as hybrid topologies with passive LC filters. The series-connected filter protects the consumer from an inadequa te supply. the series active power filter operates as a harmonic isolator. The main advantage of this scheme is that the rated power of the series active filter is a small fraction of the load kVA rating. increasing their bandwidth operation and improving their performance. Series active power filters were introduced by the end of the 1980s and operate mainly as a voltage regulator and as a harmonic isolator between the nonlinear load and the utility system. the series portion is at the source side and can act as a harmonic blocking filter. The series portion compensates for supply voltage harmonics and voltage unbalances. The shunt active filter is located at the load side and can be used to compensate for the load harmonics. This behavior is reached with only a small power rating PWM inverter. since no energy storage (battery) is necessary and the overall rating of the components is smaller. The series active filter injects a voltage component in series with the supply voltage and therefore can be regarded as a controlled voltage source. The series-shunt active filter is a combination of the series active filter and the shunt active filter. and load current unbalances. reactive power. compensating voltage sags and swells on the load side. The power supplied or absorbed by the shunt portion is the power required by the series compensator and the power required to cover losses. This type of approach is especially recommended for compensation of voltage unbalances and voltage sags from the ac supply and for low-power applications and represents an economically attractive alternative to UPS. the apparent power rating of the series active power filter may increase in case of voltage compensation. typically 5%. Hybrid power filters are a combination of active and passive filters. and damps power system oscillations. The shunt portion compensates load current harmonics. If passive LC filters are connected in parallel to the load. With this topology the passive filters have dynamic low impedance for current harmonics at the load side. it regulates the dc link capacitor voltage. On the other hand. forcing the load curre nt harmonics to circulate mainly through the passive filter rather than the power distribution system. acts as a harmonic blocking filter.

An active filter based on the instantaneous active and react ive current component in which current harmonics of positive and negative sequence including the fundamental current of negative sequence can be compensated. An instantaneous reactive volt-ampere compensator and harmonic suppressor system is proposed without the use of voltage sensors but require complex hardware for current reference generator. The generated reference current is not a pure sine wave but stepped sine wave. both phase voltages and load currents are transformed into the α-β orthogonal quantities. In some active filters. Current control is achieved with constant switching frequency producing a better switching pattern. This scheme is further modified by sensing line currents only.3 CONTROL STRATAGIES: Most of the active filters developed are based on sensing harmonics and reactive volt- ampere requirements of the non. without the use of voltage sensors. This feature helps to reduce the harmonics generated by the filter itself. The system therefore acts as a harmonic and unbalanced current compensator. the scheme generates balanced sine wave reference currents but do not compensate reactive power 23 . Also. from which the instantaneous real and reactive power. Multilevel inverters are being investigated and recently used for active filter topologies. A new scheme has been proposed in which the required compensating current is generated using simple synthetic sinusoid generation technique by sensing the load current. A comparison between the instantaneous active and reactive current component . such as machine drives and power factor compensators. Three. The advantage of multilevel converters is that they can reduce the harmonic content generated by the active filter because they can produce more levels of voltage than conventional converters (more than two levels). The control circuit of the dc capacitor voltage regulates the average value of the voltage to the reference value. The compensating currents are calculated from load currents and instantaneous powers.linear load and require complex control.level inverters are becoming very popular today for most inverter applications. The harmonic co mponents of power are calculated using high pass filters in the calculation circuit.method and the instantaneous active and reactive power method is realized. thus simplifying the control circuit. Reactive power compensation is achieved without sensing and computing the reactive current component of the load. 3.

Conventional solutions for controller requirements were based on classical control theory or modern control theory.completely (if source voltage is unbalanced/distorted) due to waveform difference between voltage and current). It does not need accurate mathematical model. The 3-phase currents/voltages are detected using only two current/voltage sensors compared to three used in DC capacitor voltage is regulated to estimate the reference current template. and 4. fuzzy control has e merged as one of the most active and fruitful areas for research in the applications of fuzzy set theory. non linear ity. which do not lend themselves to control by conventional methods because of a lack of quantitative data regarding the input-output relations. It can work with imprecise inputs. Fuzzy control is based on fuzzy logic-a logical system that is much closer in spirit to human thinking and natural language than traditional logical systems. Recently. Widely used classical co ntrol theory based design of PI family controllers requires precise linear mathematical mode ls. The advantages of FLC’s over the conventional controllers are: 1. fuzzy logic controllers (FLC’s) have generated a good deal of interest in certain applications. During the past several years. It is more robust than conventional nonlinear controllers. Control scheme based on sensing line currents. 3.4 TYPES OF FACTS CONTROLLERS: In general. especially in the realm of industrial processes. 3. FACTS Controllers can be divided into four categories: 1. load disturbance. It can handle nonlinearity. Combined series-shunt controllers 24 . Combined series-series controllers 4. Series controllers 2. 2. The fuzzy logic controller (FLC) based on fuzzy logic provides a means of converting a linguistic control strategy based on expert knowledge into an automatic control strategy. etc. The PI family of controllers failed to perform satisfactorily under parameter variation. Shunt controllers 3.

3.4.  Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC).3 COMBINED SERIES-SERIES CONTROLLERS: This could be a combination of separate series controllers.  Static VAR Compensator (SVC). Different types available are as follows:  Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)  Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)  Thyristor. In principle.4. Different types available are listed below.  Static Synchronous Generator (SSG). makes it possible to 25 .1 SERIES CONTROLLERS: A series controller could be variable impedance such as capacitor reactor or power electronics based variable source of main frequency. sub synchronous and harmonic frequencies (or a combination) to serve the desired need. Even variable shunt impedance connected to the line voltage causes a variable current flow and hence represents injection of current into the line.  Static Var Generator (SVG).  Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM).Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR)  Thyristor-Switched Series Reactor (TSSR)  Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)  Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) 3. Even variable impedance multiplied by the current flow through it.  Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR). referred to as interline power flow controller. all series controllers inject voltage in series with the line. which are controlled in a coordinated manner in a multiline transmission system.4. The real power transfer ability of the unified series-series controller . represents an injected series voltage in the line. 3.  Thyristor Switched Reactor (TSR).2 SHUNT CONTROLLERS: In principle all shunt Controllers inject current into the system at the point of connection.

Different types are listed below.5: General symbols of FACTS controllers 26 . combined shunt and series controllers inject current into the system with the shunt part of the controller and voltage in series in the line with the series part of the controller. there can be a real power exchange between the series and shunt controllers via the power link.5 SYMBOLS FOR FACTS CONTROLLERS: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Fig.3.  Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). In principle. When series and shunt controllers are unified.4 COMBINED SHUNT-SERIES CONTROLLER: This could be a combination of separate series and shunt controllers.  Interline Power Flow Controller(IPFC) 3. 3.4.  Thyristor-Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST). which are controlled in a coordinated manner or UPFC with the series and shunt elements.balance both the real and reactive power flow in the lines thereby maximize the utilization of the transmission system.

27 . TCPST (Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer).6 TYPICAL FACTS DEVICES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS: In these four typical FACTS devices are considered in detail: TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor). (a) General symbol for a FACTS Controller (b) Series controller (c) Shunt controller (d) Combined series-series controller (e) Combined shunt-series controller 3. SVC (Static Var Compensator). UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller).

SVC is a shunt FACTS device that can be used to control the reactive compensation. TCPST is also a typical combined series-shunt FACTS device. and the voltage angles can be controlled by it as well. Fig.3. The UPFC is the most powerful and versatile FACTS device due to the facts that the line impedance. terminal voltages. Since TCSC works through the transmission system directly. 28 . which can be used to regulate the phase angle difference between the two terminal voltages.6: Functional diagrams of FACTS devices TCSC is a typical series FACTS device that is used to vary the reactance of the transmission line. Similar to the UPFC. it is much more effective than the shunt FACTS devices in the application of power flow control and power system oscillation damping control.

Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power 2. a dc energy storage device. consists of a two. Such configuration allows the device to absorb or generate controllable active and reactive power. Being a shunt connected device. Elimination of current harmonics Here. The VSC connected in shunt with the ac system provides a multifunctional topology which can be used for up to three quite distinct purposes: 1. such device is employed to provide continuous voltage regulation using an indirectly controlled converter. a coupling transformer connected in shunt to the distribution network through a coupling transformer. The role of DSTATCOM is specifically appreciated in case of a weak AC system. In addition. the device needs to be installed as close to the sensitive load as possible to maximize the compensating capability. DISTRIBUTION STATIC COMPENSATOR (DSTATCOM) A D-STATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator). Correction of power factor 3. the DSTATCOM mainly injects reactive power to the system. The structure of DSTATCOM along with its operating modes is shown in Figure 4. The VSC converts the dc voltage across the storage device into a set of three-phase ac output voltages. In general. a coupling transformer is installed between the distribution system and the DSTATCOM for isolating the DSTATCOM from the d istribution system. Suitable adjustment of the phase and magnitude of the D- STATCOM output voltages allows effective control of active and reactive power exchanges between the D-STATCOM and the ac system. 29 . 4. which is schematically depicted in Figure.level Voltage Source Converter (VSC). These voltages are in phase and coupled with the ac sys tem through the reactance of the coupling transformer. DSTATCOM is a voltage source converter (VSC) that is connected in shunt with the distribution system by means of a tie reactance connected to compensate the load current.

this temporarily replaces the supply voltage or generates the part of the supply voltage which is absent and injects the compensating current into the distribution network depending upon the amount of unbalance or distortion. It serves as the real power requirements of the system when DSTATCOM is used for compensation.1 CONSTRUCTION: The main components of DSTATCOM are – a VSC (voltage source converter). In the DSTATCOM application. keep the harmonic level within the permissible limit. Fig4: Block diagram of D-STATCOM 4. Voltage source converter: A voltage source converter consists of a storage device and switching devices. These are briefly described as follows: Isolation transformer: It connects the DSTATCOM to the distribution network and its main purpose is to maintain isolation between the DSTATCOM circuit and the distribution network. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage at any required frequency. magnitude and phase angle. filter. reactors. then the average power exchanged by the DSTATCOM is zero assuming the switches. no energy source is connected to the DC bus. controller. In case. The system scheme of DSTATCOM is shown in Figure 4.1. and energy storage device. DC charging unit: This unit charges the energy source after a compensation event and also maintains the dc link voltage at the nominal value. and capacitors to 30 . Harmonic filters: The main function of harmonic filter is to filter out the unwanted harmonics generated by the VSC and hence.

1 represents the schematic scheme of DSTATCOM in which the shunt injected current corrects the voltage sag by adjusting the voltage drop across the system impedance. Figure 4. the same voltage correction can be achieved with minimum apparent power injection into the syste m. The switching frequency is set at 475 Hz. The value of can be controlled by adjusting the output voltage of the converter. (3) It may be mentioned that the effectiveness of the D-STATCOM in correcting voltage sag depends on the value of or fault level of the load bus. when the value of is minimized. Fig 4. (1) (2) The complex power injection of the D-STATCOM can be expressed as. When the shunt injected current is kept in quadrature with VL. the desired voltage correction can be achieved without injecting any active power into the system. 31 .be ideal. The control scheme for the D-STATCOM follows the same principle as for DVR.1a: Schematic diagram of DSTATCOM The shunt injected current can be written as. On the other hand.

The topology of the DSTATCOM connected at distribution level. The ability of the DSTATCOM to compensate the voltage dip is limited by this available parallel impedance. the application of DSTATCOM to improve the power quality in a distribution network with induction furnace load is investigated. the same voltage correction can be achieved with minimum apparent power injection into the system. The contribution of the DSTATCOM to the load bus voltage equals the injected current times the impedance seen from the device. which is based on a shunt connected voltage source converter. PI controller is used for gate signal generating and to reduce the harmonic distortion due to the induction furnace. The SIMULINK model representing the compensation using DSTATCOM of a distribution network with induction furnace load is investigated in this work. In the proposed model. 32 . DSTATCOM is utilized to eliminate the harmonics from the source currents and also balance them in addition to providing reactive power compensation. It helps to reduce the voltage fluctuations at the PCC (point of common coupling). Output from the controller block is in the form of an angle  that is used to introduce an additional phase-lag/ lead in the three-phase voltages. which is the source impedance in para llel with the load impedance. the desired voltage correction can be achieved without injecting any active power into the system. Voltage dips can be mitigated by DSTATCOM. It may be mentioned that the effectiveness of the DSTATCOM in correcting voltage sag depends on the value of or fault level of the load bus. when the value of is minimized. VSC with pulse-width modulation (PWM) offers fast and reliable control for voltage dips mitigation. On the other hand. When the shunt injected current is kept in quadrature with VL.

1b: Control algorithm of DSTATCOM with PI controller The sinusoidal signal is phase. The controller used in the proposed test model is PI controller. 33 .2/3) (5) VC = Sin (t +  + /3) (6) The modulating angle is applied to the Gate pulse in phase A. respectively. i. Load current is sensed and passed through a sequence analyzer. The angles for phases B and C are shifted by 240º and 120º. Fig 4.modulated by means of the angle . VA = Sin (t + ) (4) VB = Sin (t +  ..e.

The converter is normally based on the some kind of energy storage. which will supply the converter with a dc voltage.1 TEST SYSTEM: Figure shows the test system used to carry out the various D-STATCOM simulations. The 'missing voltage' is the difference between the nominal voltage and the actual voltage.2 Voltage Source Converter (VSC): A voltage source converter (VSC) is a power electronic device. These voltages are injected into the ac distribution system in order to maintain the load voltage at the desired voltage reference.1: Single line diagram of the test system for D-STATCOM 4.1.1. 34 . The VSC is used to either completely replacing the voltage or to inject the 'missing voltage'. Fig 4.4. which can generate a three-phase ac output voltage is controllable in phase and magnitude. VSCs are widely used in adjustable speed drives. but can also be used to mitigate the voltage sags and swells.

the PCC voltage drop caused by the load current. as ΔV IS=IL+ IR (7) Where IR is the compensating current Fig 4.1 Voltage Regulation without Compensator: Voltage E and V mean source voltage and PCC voltage respectively. IL is as shown in Fig.3.1Phasor of uncompensated line 35 .3. 3 DSTATCOM OF VOLTAGE REGULATION: 4.1 PHASOR DIAGRAMS: Fig. Without a voltage compensator.3.4.1: The Equivalent Circuit of Load and Supply System 4.1.3.

4.Phasor of the compensated line ΔV = E -V = ZSIL (8) S = VI*.2. are the functions magnitude and phase of load current. in quadrature with V.3.3.4. relative to the supply voltage E. which are illustrated in Fig. It is clear that both magnitude and phase of V . S*=VI (9) From above equation I L = (PL-jQL/V) (10) So that ∆V= (Rs+jXs)((PL-jQL)/V) (11) =∆Vr+∆Vx (12) The voltage change has a component ΔVR in phase with V and a component ΔVx. The component ΔV can be written as ∆V=Is*Rs-jIs*Xs (13) 36 .1.1.2. Fig. na mely voltage drop depends on the both the real and reactive power of the load.

u or to make the capacitor voltage constant.3. 4. Hence the exchange of real power and reactive power of the voltage source converter with AC system is the major required phenomenon for the regulation in the transmission as well 37 . IS=IL+ IR (14) Where IR is compensator current.e.2 shows the vector diagram with voltage compensation.4. 4. provide lagging current to the system). DSTATCOM can generate and absorb reactive power similar to that of synchronous machine and it can also exchange real power if provided with an external device DC source.1 Exchange of Reactive Power: If the output voltage of the voltage source converter is greater than the system voltage then the DSATCOM will act as capacitor and generate reactive power (i.4. it is possible to make |E| =|V| by controlling the current of the compensator.2 Exchange of Real Power: As the switching devices are not loss less there is a need for the DC capacitor to provide the required real power to the switches. There is also a real power exchange with the AC system if DSTATCOM id provided with an external DC source to regulate the voltage incase of very low voltage in the distribution system or in case of faults. The synchronous machine will provide lagging current when under excited and leading current when over excited. And if the VSC output voltage leads the system voltage then the real power from the capacitor or the DC source will be supplied to the AC system to regulate the system voltage to the =1p.4. Hence there is a need for real power exchange with an AC system to make the capacitor voltage constant in case of direct voltage control.3.2 Voltage Regulation Using the DSTATCOM: Fig. 4. By adding a compensator in parallel with the load.4 BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLE: Basic operating principle of a DSATCOM is similar to that of synchronous machine.1.4.

Since only real power is being supplied by the source.as in the distribution system. The control algorithms of a DSTATCOM are mainly implemented in the following steps:  Measurements of system voltages and current and  Signal conditioning  Calculation of compensating signals  Generation of firing angles of switching devices 4. Additionally.5 ADVANTAGES: 1) It occupies small areas. Since a DSTATCOM is such a multifunctional device. to eliminate unbalance or distortions in the source current or the supply voltage as per the IEEE-519 standard limits. a DSTATCOM can also behave as a shunt active filter. flexible and easy to implement. A STATCOM at the transmission level handles only fundamental reactive power and provides voltage support while as a DSTATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for power factor improvement and voltage regulation. The reference source current used to decide the switching of the DSTATCOM has real fundamental frequency component of the load current which is being extracted by these techniques. 3) Reduces site work and time. 2) It replaces the large passive banks and circuit elements by compact converters. For reactive power compensation. the main objective of any control algorithm should be to make it flexible and easy to implement in addition to exploiting its multi functionality to the maximum. DSTATCOM provides reactive power as needed by the load and therefore the source current remains at unity power factor (UPF). load balancing is achieved by making the source reference current balanced. The main objective of any compensation scheme is that it should have a fast response. 4) Its response is very fast. 38 . DSTATCOM can be one of the viable alternatives to SVC in a distribution network.

horizontal--axis turbines and the eggbeater. These growth trends can be linked to the multi-dimensional benefits. 1. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. school or business applications on small (residential). The more common. which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. vertical-axis wind turbines require airfoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of the cycle in a less efficient manner. traditional styled horizontal--axis wind turbines offer some advantages. 4. 4. Blade Adjustment . Most have a gearbox. 1.6.4. 39 . which spin a shaft.Horizontal-axis wind turbines have blades that are designed perpendicular to the direction of wind. or large (utility) scales. Efficiency of Operation . In contrast. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of new electricity generation in the world today. Blade Adjustment o Horizontal-axis turbines offer the ability to adjust the pitch of the blades to catch the wind at just the right angle to collect the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season.style vertical turbines.1 HORIZONTAL AXIS: Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower. The wind turns the blades. and must be pointed into the wind. As of 2010.Horizontal-axis turbines offer the ability to adjust the pitch of the blades to catch the wind at just the right angle to collect the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane. This efficient design increases wind power throughout the entire rotation. farm.6 WIND TURBINES: Wind energy is a source of renewable power which comes from air current flowing across the earth's surface.6. the two basic types of wind turbines are used in wind energy systems are the traditional farm styled.1 The Advantages of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines: Wind turbines harvest the power of the wind to create electricity.1. Wind turbines harvest this kinetic energy and convert it into usable power which can provide electricity for home. which connects to a generator that supplies an electric current. medium (community). 2.

6. Structurally less stable as wind speeds increase do to eccentric loading. The key disadvantages include the low rotational speed with the consequential higher torque and hence higher cost of the drive train. Tend to be visual distraction to the human eye. using a direct drive from the rotor assembly to the ground-based gearbox. With a vertical axis. hence improving accessibility for maintenance. the inherently lower power coefficient. 11. 4. for example when integrated into buildings.6. 9. Blades are too thin to promote graphics or signage for advertising. The propellers on the HAWT design make more noise as the wind speeds increase. the 360 degree rotation of the aerofoil within the wind flow during each cycle and hence the highly dynamic loading on the blade. 8. 7. the 40 .4. The gearboxes and excessive yawing reduce the lifespan of these HAW turbines. and the difficulty of modeling the wind flow accurately and hence the challenges of analyzing and designing the rotor prior to fabricating a prototype. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable. Birds are injured or killed by the propellers since they are not solid objects so the birds fly into the blades. Produces 50% less electricity on an annual basis than vertical axis wind turbine with the same swept area. They cannot withstand extreme weather conditions due to frost. 2. More moving parts lead to more service and constant maintenance. 10.6. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. Needs higher wind speeds to start generating electricity and less become less efficient at producing power in very hign winds over 90 MPH. the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground. the pulsating torque generated by some rotor designs on the drive train.2 VERTICAL AXIS: Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically.2 The Disadvantages of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines: 1. Cannot be installed in turbulent wind conditions because the flow of wind must be "smooth" to make the HAWT efficient. 5. freezing rain or heavy snow plus heavy winds in excess of 110 MPH. When a turbine is mounted on a rooftop.1. 3. 4.

the electricity is produced by using the power of wind to rotate the induction generator. Does not harm wildlife as birds can detect a solid object and can be seen on aircraft radar. it does not require a separate field circuit. 5. alleys.7 Wind Energy Generating System: The wind energy is not a constant energy source. this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence. sand. If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% o f the building height. humidity. It should be borne in mind that wind speeds within the built environment are generally much lower than at exposed rural sites. Non-polluting through its sealed generator design. 4. 7.1 The Advantages of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines : 1. 2. Its output is varies according to variation of wind.2. 4.6. 6. salt. ice.5 mph and continues to generate power in wind speeds up to 150 mph based on the model. it can accept constant and variable loads. building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. 3. or even downtown urban rooftops with adjacent buildings. Can be installed in turbulent wind conditions such as between buildings. and has natural protection against short circuit. Withstands extreme weather such as frost. and very high wind conditions in excess of 140 mph. Generates electricity in winds as low as 4. Easy on the eyes with non-reflecting surfaces to eliminate shadow strobing effect. The induction generator is used in the proposed scheme because of its simp licity. Produces up to 50% more electricity on an annual basis versus conventional turbines with the same swept area. 4. The wind turbine generation system is depending upon the constant speed with variable pitch angle. noise may be a concern and a n existing structure may not adequately resist the additional stress. The available power of wind energy system is presented as under in below equation 41 .

called power coefficient Cp of the wind turbine. But the self-excitation of wind turbine generating system arises a risk equipped with commutating capacitor. It provides the reactive power compensation to the induction generator. It is not possible to extract all kinetic energy of wind.7: Grid connected system for power quality improvement Wind Turbine is located where the power quality is highly influenced. Its operation and its influence on the power system depend on the structure of the network. thus it extract a fraction of power in wind. Fig 4. The self-excitation are the safety aspect and balance between real and reactive power. Vwind is the wind speed in mtr/s. (15) Where ρ (kg/m ) is the air density and A (m ) is the area swept out by turbine blade. 42 .

2 Control Scheme: The Control scheme approach is based on injecting the currents in to the grid.magnet synchronous generators can be designed with multiple poles which imply that there is no need for a gearbox.4. Since this "fullpower" converter/generator system is commonly used for other applications.7.1 consists of a wind turbine equipped with a converter connected to the stator of the generator. DC voltage. The control algorithm needs the measurements of several variables such as three phase source current.1 Variable-Speed Wind Turbine: Fig 4.7. Synchronous generators or permanent. The gearbox is designed so that maximum rotor speed corresponds to rated speed of the generator. the controller keeps the control system variable between boundaries of hysteresis area and gives correct switching signal for STATCOM operation.1: Variable-Speed Wind Turbine The system presented in Figure. receives an input of reference current actual current are subtracted so as to activate the operation of STATCOM in current control mode. Using such control technique. inverter current with the help of sensor. one advantage with this system is its well-developed and robust control. The current control block. The controller used in this is hysteresis current controlled technique. The generator could either be a cage bar induction generator or a synchronous generator.7. 43 . 4.7. 4.

44 . This method is simple.(15. The unit vectors implement the important function in the grid connection for the synchronization for STATCOM.)(16) (17) (18) (19) The in-phase generated reference currents are derived using in-phase unit voltage template as in (17).(19) (20) (21) (22) Where I is proportional to magnitude of filtered source voltage for respective phases. as in (13). robust and favorable as compared with other methods.7. the RMS voltage source amplitude is calculated at the sampling frequency from the source phase voltage (Vsa.1 Grid Synchronization: In three-phase balance system.Vsb.(18). as sample template Vsm. This ensures that the source current is controlled to be sinusoidal.2.4. Usb. sampled peak voltage. Usc as shown in (14). (16) The in-phase unit vectors are obtained from AC source—phase voltage and the RMS value of unit vector Usa.Vsc) and is expressed.

7. to the induction generator and to the nonlinear load in the grid system.3: System Operational Scheme in grid system 45 .3 System Operation: The shunt connected STATCOM with battery energy storage is connected wit h the interface of the induction generator and non-linear load at the PCC in the grid system.7. The STATCOM compensator output is varied according to the controlled strategy.3.7. Fig 4. The current control strategy is included in the control scheme that defines the functional operation of the STATCOM compensator in the power system.4. The main block diagram of the system operational scheme is shown in Fig.4. A single STATCOM using insulated gate bipolar transistor is proposed to have a reactive power support. so as to maintain the power quality norms in the grid system.

a process known as wind power. SIMULINK MODEL AND RESULTS 5. A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind. also called wind energy.1. 5. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity.1: Circuit Diagram The system having one conventional source.1: Circuit Diagram: Fig 5.linear load. The power factor correction capacitor is connected with wind generation s ystem shown in Figure 5. wind turbine generating system. IGBT pulse control subsystem and Non. 46 . the device may be called wind turbine or wind power plant. STATCOM with Battery Energy Storage System. into mechanical energy.

in the circuit.1: Single Phase 47 .04% at 50 Hz fundamental frequency. Moreover.2. the FFT analysis of the load current wave indicates the presence of current harmonics and its THD level observed is 0. The simulations are performed for the cases: (i) without DSTATCOM and (ii) with DSTATCOM .2 Simulation Results: The simulation is performed on the test system with non-linear load using MATLAB SIMULINK. the current wave takes no time to attain its steady value and the distortion in the wave is negligible. These cases are summarized below: Case I: In the distribution network with non-linear load. the current initially takes time to have a steady value and is distorted.2. In this case.5. 5. The system performance is analyzed. the system is compensated using DSTATCOM. Case II: In the second feeder of the distribution network.35% at 50 Hz fundamental frequency which is relatively high.1 Single Phase: Fig 5. the FFT analysis of the load current wave indicates that the current harmonics are almost compensated and its THD level observed is only 3. Moreover.

2: Three Phase 5.2.3: Power Factor 48 .5.2 Three Phase: Fig Powe r Factor: Fig 5.

5.2.5: Variable Wind Speed 49 .2.2.4: Source Current THD 5.5 Variable Wind Speed: Fig 5.4 Source Current THD: Fig 5.2.

1: With Filter 5.3.2 With STATCOM: Fig FFT Analysis: 5.3.1 With Filter: Fig 5.2: With STATCOM 50 .

3.3.3 Without STATCOM: Fig 5.5.3: Without STATCOM 51 .

Further interconnecting the motor speed with a feedback system can improve the characteristics of non. 52 . So we can further develop a Simulink model for Electrical Arc furnace as a load. 6. In this work both PI controller based and DSTATCOM controller. Now obtaining a real-time example for a non-linear load in Simulink model helps us to control the issues.linear loads. Further the controller technique can be improvised for upgrading the current controlling technique with the compensation process based on sensing line currents only. an approach different from conventional methods which require sensing of harmonics or reactive power components of the load. Active power filters have been developed over the years to solve these problems to improve power quality. the three-phase shunt active power filter is used to compensate reactive power and harmonics at nonlinear load which improves power quality for three-phase. three wire systems. Among all this issues we can further develop interconnection of grid with available renewable energy source and can generate a quality power to the customer. FUTURE SCOPE Most of the power quality issues created in power systems are due to the non-linear characteristics and fast switching of power electronic equipment.

linear load. where working output is shown with working of STATCOM and without STATCOM. With this support of STATCOM unity power factor is achieved. It has a capability to cancel out the harmonic parts of the load current. CONCLUSION This project represents the STATCOM-based control scheme for power quality improvement in grid connected wind generating system and non. It maintains the source voltage and current in-phase and support the reactive power demand for the wind generator and load. we get the output in the form of time functioning and variable speed ie. 7. So. Output is presented with a particular time limit. During the change in speed also the disturbances are cleared with the help of control technique. 53 . such that current and power are in phase during the working of STATCOM.

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