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**THE APPLICATION AND VALIDATION OF DIMENSIONLESS SEDIMENT RATING
**

CURVES

Dave Rosgen, Hydrologist, Wildland Hydrology, Fort Collins, Colorado, wildland@wildlandhydrology.com

**Abstract: A model using Dimensionless Sediment Rating Curves (DSRCs) for both bedload and suspended
**

sediment has been developed to predict dimensional Sediment Rating Curves (SRCs) for independent locations far

removed from the river reaches used to develop the DSRCs. The model input requires measured or extrapolated

bankfull stage bedload transport rate, suspended sediment concentration and stream discharge to convert the

dimensionless relations to dimensional Sediment Rating Curve (SRC) values. This paper 1) tests the use of

reference bedload and suspended DSRCs to predict bedload and suspended SRCs and compares them with observed

sediment rating curves for a wide range of river types, scale and geographic locations; 2) compares the diversity and

character of dimensional SRCs derived from their respective dimensionless equations for a wide range of stream

types and geographic areas; and 3) establishes the feasibility of developing regional bankfull sediment curves by

stability/stream type and geology in the absence of local bankfull data. Close agreement was found between the

predicted SRCs using the DSRC model and the observed SRCs. Also, the predicted SRCs for a variety of river

types do not appear to be the same when compared using the same model to generate each respective SRC. Last,

DSRCs are a key component of the FLOWSED and POWERSED models to predict total annual sediment yield and

riverbed stability and to evaluate restoration designs. The presented dimensionless model shows promise to aid in a

relatively simple, yet accurate and reasonable sediment estimate to direct appropriate interpretations and future

management recommendations.

INTRODUCTION

**River studies, bridge designs, flood level computations, fish habitat assessments, cumulative watershed
**

determinations and river restoration plans all require an understanding of sediment transport relations.

Unfortunately, many of these efforts do not include detailed and accurate sediment predictions or measured data.

The absence of sediment data and subsequent analysis is often attributed to the difficulty, expense, training

requirements and the timely opportunity to obtain sediment measurements. Due to the availability of numerous

sediment transport models and the advantage of various scenario simulations, sediment is often modeled rather than

measured. However, without measured sediment data, the models cannot be calibrated. Although many sediment

transport models exist, their performance to predict at less than an order of magnitude from observed data is

disconcerting as shown by Parker et al. (1982), Gomez and Church (1989), Lopes et al. (2001), Yang and Huang

(2001), Bravo-Espinosa et al. (2003) and Barry et al. (2004, 2007, 2008). The disparity between observed versus

predicted values often discourages model use and limits their interpretation.

The prediction of bedload and suspended Sediment Rating Curves (SRCs) for use in calculating total sediment yield

has been a long-term goal and application employed by most sediment transport models. For comparative purposes,

many models have a valuable application in predicting various channel response scenarios. The extended

applications beyond this use, however, often require detailed model calibration and comparisons of predicted to

observed values for application as shown in Barry et al. (2004). The challenge is then to understand the limits of the

empirical relation extrapolated to other stream types without measured sediment data. If the resultant predicted

sediment yield is required for specific studies and simulations that influence channel designs, water quality issues,

etc., then the model accuracy becomes of keen interest. In combination with flow-duration curves, bedload and

suspended rating curves are used to predict annual sediment yields or loads; thus errors in the SRCs are directly

transmitted into the computation and subsequent interpretations. It is especially critical when the sediment results

are used to influence management decisions or designs that directly relate to environmental and ecological

sensitivity, financial issues and human risk.

**One of the problems of sediment transport capacity models is the ability to adequately ascertain sediment supply. A
**

major assumption behind the development of bedload equations is that the channel has an unlimited sediment supply

(Lopes et al., 2001). Recent work by Barry et al. (2004), based on earlier work by Dietrich et al. (1989), developed

a dimensionless bedload transport ratio based on supply-related channel armoring relative to the local transport

capacity. The model proposed by Barry et al. (2004) also includes a power function coefficient of drainage area as a

surrogate for the magnitude of basin-specific sediment supply, which subsequently improved the model prediction

NV. three of which were stream types that represented Good and Fair stability ratings and three additional stream types with Poor stability. To determine sediment supply. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference. with values obtained up to twice the bankfull discharge for all rivers.38 for the Poor stability condition. The bedload DSRC exponent also increased from the Good/Fair stability stream types of 2. a “reference” set of DSRCs for bedload and suspended sediment were established for Good or Fair stability (based on a modified Pfankuch stability rating (1975) by stream type (Rosgen 1994. six rivers were selected in the San Juan River basin near Pagosa Springs in Southwestern Colorado. and measured suspended sediment. The use of DSRCs is a major departure from traditional sediment transport capacity models. The model input requires a measured or extrapolated bankfull stage bedload transport rate. Streams that are both sediment limited as well as unlimited are included in this test. Semi-dimensionless SRCs were first introduced by Emmett (1975) where the streamflows in the SRCs were normalized and scaled by their bankfull discharge value. Following the work by Troendle et al. which reflect the higher bedload sediment supply of the Poor stability stream types.19 to 2. whereas the exponent for the Poor stability rating is 3. (1982) models where a transport rate for various-sized material is predicted for all flow ranges. Subsequently.66 (Rosgen. The suspended sediment DSRC exponent for the Good/Fair stability is 2. (2001). however. as the coarser bedload is more hydraulically controlled. The form of the DSRCs for the three Good/Fair stability rivers and the three Poor stability rivers for both bedload and suspended sediment is non-linear. questions arose of repeatability when changing geologic type and the minimum number of rivers and range of data needed to establish a “reference” DSRC for a given stability condition. using a six-inch Helley-Smith bedload sampler as per Emmett (1980).41.July 1. Different exponents (slopes) resulted comparing the Good/Fair stability relations with the Poor stability relations. A model using Dimensionless Sediment Rating Curves (DSRCs) for both bedload and suspended sediment has been developed separately for various river stability conditions that influence sediment supply. 2008) added a dimensionless discharge term in their predictive equation using bankfull discharge as the normalization parameter. four sets of equations were established for Good/Fair stability streams and Poor or unstable channels for both bedload and suspended sediment (Equation 1 through Equation 4. 2006b). financial and physical constraints often limit extensive sediment data collection. Although separate equations were established for the Poor stability. Thus. Troendle et al. the sediment values were not normalized in the same manner. In this study. as per Edwards and Glysson (1999). however. The increase in slope for bedload for the Poor stability was not as high as the Poor suspended sediment. In addition. These particles represent a transport rate related to bed-material sizes and related sediment supply. although supply is somewhat influenced as well. time. (2007. (2001). June 27 . The exception to this is the Einstein (1950) and Parker et al. The basis for this approach lies in the application of dimensionless relations for both discharge and sediment with the bankfull stage condition selected as the normalization parameter. . types. 1996). The best solution is to obtain measured sediment data. These recent efforts at development and calibration have improved model prediction accuracy. they were not used in this test to be compared with the Good/Fair stability ratings due to the stability of the test streams. many traditional sediment transport models use some method of particle size entrainment or energy threshold to initiate particle movement for bedload transport computations. “Reference” dimensionless relations for both bedload and suspended sediment and their corresponding discharges were normalized using the bankfull conditions for both the dependent and independent variables in the SRC as presented in Troendle et al. 2010 accuracy. This added a scaling adjustment to also improve the model accuracy. Las Vegas. 2006b). The measured SRCs were made dimensionless and are shown in Rosgen (2006a. Dimensionless Sediment Relations Test The approach suggested here uses dimensionless functions for bedload and suspended sediment versus stream discharge at ungaged sites to provide a sediment supply function for a range of flows to predict dimensional SRCs and annual sediment yields. suspended sediment concentration and stream discharge to convert the dimensionless relations to dimensional Sediment Rating Curve (SRC) values. Barry et al. (2001) indicated that the use of a “reference” DSRC could be used to determine departure of river stability and to predict sediment supply as reflected in the SRC. This paper describes a method to accurately predict SRCs for a wide range of river sizes. where the independent x variable is dimensionless discharge and the dependant y variable is dimensionless sediment). Each river had extensive measured bedload. geology and stability. The described approach using Dimensionless Sediment Rating Curve (DSRC) relations is designed to potentially reduce the known documented error term of many of the sediment prediction models.

4085 (2) Bedload DSRC (Poor Stability): y = 0. If bankfull values for discharge. Canada (sediment- limited urban streams). sand-bed streams to cobble-bed stream types. 3) collect a range and calculate an average value of both suspended and bedload sediment measurements close to the bankfull stage. Because the majority of the sediment data was from USGS and measured streamflow gaged stations.07176 + 1. 2006b) and regional sediment curves stratified by geologic type and river stability/stream type (Rosgen. Las Vegas. Rosgen. North Carolina. Mississippi and Nebraska. 4) multiply the ratios of discharge by the bankfull discharge.3772 (3) Suspended DSRC (Poor Stability): y = 0. a supply-limited stream. an assumption of Good/Fair stability was applied as most sites selected are relatively stable sites to prevent large and frequent shifts in the stage or discharge rating curve. bedload and suspended sediment are not available. and are in a variety of physiographic settings.659 (4) The resultant DSRCs are used to develop dimensional SRCs using one “averaged” data point for bankfull bedload sediment.. Colorado. The apparent closeness of the predicted to observed relations over this very wide range of river sizes.02176x2. No other measured data were used to generate the predicted SRCs. high sediment supply braided channels in Alaska.0636 + 0.e. .1929 (1) Suspended DSRC (Good/Fair Stability): y = 0. diverse stream types from boulder-dominated to silt/clay streams. Validation of the Dimensionless Bedload and Suspended Sediment Rating Curve Model: A variety of 16 rivers with measured bedload and/or suspended sediment data were selected to be tested as an independent dataset. including the Niobrara River in Nebraska. 2) Compare the diversity and character of dimensional SRCs derived from their respective dimensionless equations for a wide range of stream types and geographic areas (i. an alternative method is to utilize regional bankfull discharge curves by hydro-physiographic province (Dunne and Leopold. The predicted SRCs are based on the average bankfull values for both bedload and suspended sediment versus bankfull discharge to convert the dimensionless relation to dimensional. and 6) multiply the ratios of bedload by the average bedload transport values at the bankfull stage. and 3) Establish the feasibility of developing regional bankfull sediment curves by stability/stream type and geology in the absence of available local data.July 1. Kentucky. Figure 2 shows the close agreement between the DSRC model for suspended sediment and the observed SRC of the Bell River (Frenette and Julien. 5) multiply the ratios of suspended sediment by the average concentration of the bankfull value. do they all appear similar using the same dimensionless equation or do they differ?). Colorado. 1987). The general procedure is as follows: 1) determine the stability of a given stream type. The procedures are simplified by computer-assisted computations to develop DSRCs and flow- duration curves as well as running the models as programmed in RIVERMorph™. and river data from Montana. 1960. 1998). 2006b). Julien. Indiana. West Goose Creek in Mississippi. Thus these tests use the Good/Fair stability relations of the DSRC model for both bedload and suspended sediment where available. 2010 Bedload DSRC (Good/Fair Stability): y = -0.0139x2. bankfull suspended sediment and bankfull discharge.9213x3. 2) measure the bankfull discharge..9326x2. scale and geographic locations using the smaller dataset of dimensionless relations from the Southern San Juan River basin near Pagosa Springs. 2006b). 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference. South Carolina. The overlays in Figure 3 of the DSRC model prediction for sand-bed rivers. NV.0113 + 1. Data was selected from highly urbanized streams in Southern Ontario. types and geographic locations gives considerable encouragement as to the applicability of the model. Additional predicted versus observed comparisons are shown in Rosgen (2006b) with similar results. Figure 1 depicts a few of the comparisons for this wide range of rivers for both bedload and suspended sediment. 1978. illustrate the DSRC model prediction to observed data compared with other prediction models previously evaluated (Vanoni et al. Figure 2 also compares predicted SRCs to observed values for numerous rivers indicating the close agreement between the predicted and observed values. June 27 . Colorado River at Taylor’s Ferry. Objectives: 1) Test the use of reference bedload and suspended DSRCs to predict bedload and suspended SRCs and compare them with observed SRCs for a wide range of river types. Further explanations of these procedures are described in the FLOWSED and POWERSED models in Rosgen (2006a.0989 + 0. and Mountain Creek in South Carolina. The sites selected represent a wide range of bankfull discharge values.

0 0. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Measured vs.0 1.7333 0. (mg/l) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Bedload Transport (kg/s) 2 0.7597 0.0091x 2 R = 0.0 0. 2010 Measured vs.0 0. North Carolina North Prong South Fork Mitchell River.0 0.0049 3000 50 2 R = 0.38x Suspended Sed.5 2.6896 1. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Measured vs. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Measured vs. .0 1.03 1500 0. Colorado (C4 stream type).0 2.0138x 100 y = 1.004 Power (Measured Data) 80 Power (Measured Data) 60 2.4493 0.8 cms bankfull discharge). 1.5 3. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Tanana River. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference.0011x 2 R = 0.09 4500 y = 569. Montana 100 Measured Data Measured Data Suspended Sed.5 300 2.02 1000 0. Alaska 90 5000 Measured Data Measured Data Suspended Sed.7232 20 1000 y = 0. North Carolina (C4 stream type).5 2. Alaska Tanana River. 1747 cms bankfull discharge). (mg/l) 80 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Bedload Transport (kg/s) 70 Power (Measured Data) 4000 Power (Measured Data) 60 y = 2E-05x 2.10 5000 Measured Data Measured Data 1. Conc. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Weminuche Creek.5 2.107x 2 R = 0.01 500 0. Las Vegas.812 50 0.7558 y = 0.5 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Measured Data Bedload Transport (kg/s) Power (Measured Data) 400 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) 3.002 40 2.955 10 0 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Measured vs. Conc (mg/l) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Bedload Transport (kg/s) 0.04 2000 0.07 3500 0.0 3.000 0 0.5 1. 2) Weminuche Creek.5 1.0 250 1.0 1.3918 3000 y = 0. NV.5 1. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Dick Creek. and 4) Dick Creek. Montana (C4 stream type.0 3. June 27 .5 2.0 1.0115x 0.0751 0.5 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Measured vs.0 2.0 500 Measured Data 450 Suspended Sed.9266 R = 0. (mg/l) 3.5 200 150 1.0 0. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: North Prong South Fork Mitchell River. Colorado (C4) 4.5 1. Conc.08 Power (Measured Data) 4000 Power (Measured Data) R = 0.06 1.5 3.05 2 2500 R = 0. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Measured vs.6792 0. Alaska (D4 stream type.0 1.5 R = 0. Conc.0 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Figure 1 Predicted bedload and suspended SRCs derived from the dimensionless model compared to observed values for four diverse river systems: 1) Tanana River. Colorado (C4) Weminuche Creek.July 1.0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Measured vs. Montana Dick Creek.0 Power (Measured Data) 350 2.207 20 y = 19. North Carolina 0.7923 40 2000 30 1.5265x 2 2 0.3769 y = 0.5 0.00 0 0. 3) North Prong South Fork Mitchell River.

599 15 2. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Measured vs. and 8) Stoney Creek. KY (Singh & Durgunoglu. 2) Senatobia Creek. Indiana (Singh & Durgunoglu. KY (Singh & Durgunoglu. 2004).7 25 0. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Measured vs.2 5 0. 4) Salamonie River. Conc.8 Power (Measured Data) Power (Measured Data) Bedload Transport (kg/s) Bedload Transport (kg/s) 0. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Elkhorn Creek near Frankfort... Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Measured vs.1509x 1.6 y = 0.0019x R = 0. 1987) Senatobia Creek near Senatobia.1 0. 2010 Measured vs. Las Vegas. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Measured vs.5612 0.6854 y = 0. NV.7189 1000 600 800 y = 6.0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Figure 2 Predicted bedload and suspended sediment rating curves derived from the dimensionless model compared to observed values for eight diverse river systems: 1) Bell River (Frenette & Julien. (mg/l) 1200 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Power (Measured Data) 1600 Power (Measured Data) 1000 1400 1. 1991).261x 400 2 R = 0. Canada Harmony Creek at Oshawa. 1991).4 y = 0. Canada Stoney Creek at Stoney Creek. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Redhill Creek at Hamilton. MS (Simon et al .0 35 Measured Data Measured Data 0.58 400 600 400 200 200 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Measured vs.7907 30 1. 5) Etobicoke Creek. 1991) 600 800 Measured Data Measured Data Suspended Sed. June 27 .1288x 2 R = 0. Canada 1. Predicted Bedload Rating Curves: Etobicoke Creek below QEW.July 1. MS (Simon et al. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference.8419 300 400 1. Conc. 2004) 1400 2000 Measured Data Measured Data 1800 Suspended Sed. Canada 20 80 Measured Data Measured Data 18 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) 70 16 Power (Measured Data) Power (Measured Data) Bedload Transport (kg/s) Bedload Transport (kg/s) 60 14 50 12 10 40 8 y = 0. . IN (Singh & Durgunoglu. 1991) Salamonie River.9401x 800 2 1200 R = 0.9 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) 30 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) 0. (mg/l) Suspended Sed. Canada. 1987).4907 y = 1.3777 0.5937 20 2 0. Canada.8714 200 100 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 50 100 150 200 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Measured vs. Conc. Canada.3 10 0. 3) Elkhorn Creek.93 2 6 y = 0. Conc. 6) Harmony Creek.7634 2 R = 0.83 20 4 10 2 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 Discharge (cms) Discharge (cms) Measured vs.0026x 1. (mg/l) Suspended Sed. Predicted Suspended Sediment Rating Curve: Bell River (Frenette & Julien.0131x 200 2 R = 0.5 R = 0. 7) Redhill Creek. (mg/l) 500 Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Dimensionless Model (Good/Fair) Power (Measured Data) Power (Measured Data) 600 1.2932 y = 0. Canada.93x 1.

2010 Figure 3 Bedload sediment rating curves derived from the dimensionless model for Good/Fair stability (represented by the red dashed lines) overlaid on observed data and numerous predicted curves from Vanoni et al. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference. 3) Mountain Creek near Greenville. . Nebraska. Mississippi. Las Vegas. June 27 . 2) Niobrara River near Cody. 1960: 1) Colorado River at Taylor’s Ferry. and 4) West Goose Creek near Oxford. South Carolina.July 1. NV..

Las Vegas. In other words. however. hazardous on medium to large rivers. For example. which are responsible for the majority of sediment transport over time (effective discharge). Development of Regional Bankfull Sediment Curves: A limitation of this model lies in the difficulty. then a localized DSRC can be established and tested following the same approach as in the development of the discussed DSRC model. Colorado dimensionless model tests. These relations span a range of drainage areas from 15 km2 to over 9. In the interim of available sediment data. existing bankfull sediment data can be used to potentially establish regional relations by drainage area and bankfull discharge (Rosgen. streams in the batholith geology will have a higher ratio of bedload to suspended sediment for the same drainage area compared to streams in shale-derived geology. The FLOWSED/POWERSED model allows for this variation in the procedure as programmed in RIVERMorph™ by providing the option to use the Pagosa Springs DSRCs or to insert differing regression constants for the dimensionless relations for both bedload and suspended sediment.July 1. In this manner one does not have to be corralled into a “fixed” relation that may not represent observed values.19 was compared with a power fit curve slope of 2. are shown in Figure 4. thus training is necessary if personnel are not familiar with such methods. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference. which “will lead to large errors in predicted transport rate” (Wilcock et al. Bedload sampling can be quite labor intensive.5. not the more frequent flow and sediment values up to the bankfull stage. however. Regional sediment curves were also developed for Northwestern Montana (Blackfoot and Clark Fork River basins) as influenced by both continental and alpine glaciation and metamorphic geology (Figure 5). 2009. p. the predicted SRC went through the measured data point at a flow 1. the predicted SRCs from the same dimensionless model for a variety of river types do not appear to be the same for all rivers when made dimensional.4 from the DSRC model for Good/Fair stability. and difficult in stormflow- dominated regions to capture the bankfull stage measurements. Stream types with corresponding Good/Fair stability ratings generally have a lower bankfull sediment concentration and bedload transport for the same drainage area in the same geologic setting compared to Poor stability stream types.19 are also plotted on the linear format in Figure 4. bedload and suspended sediment measurements follow USGS standards. However. the prediction fit the data points well and did not produce large errors (Figure 3). (2009) can be offset by this approach if the error term exceeds an acceptable level. Differences in sediment supply as reflected in the regional bankfull bedload and suspended sediment curves by stability ratings for the North-Central Colorado basin in alpine glaciation and volcanism-dominated geology are shown in Figure 5.. The linear plots of the predicted suspended SRCs for many of the same streams from Figure 1 and Figure 2. 20). these regional bankfull bedload and suspended sediment curves are useful to initially apply the dimensionless . expensive to purchase samplers and support equipment. the predicted bedload sediment rating curve of the Niobrara River using the bedload Good/Fair DSRC with a slope of 2. Even with flood data. 2010 The Diversity and Character of Predicted Sediment Rating Curves: A common misconception amongst critics of this approach relates to the use of the same DSRC (same slope of the regression) for a variety of river types. but the individual character or sediment signature of each river system is retained when compared to various rivers using the same model coefficients that generated each respective SRC. The regional sediment curves should additionally be stratified by stability ratings to reflect sediment supply by various stream types within a broad geologic type associated with channel materials and hillslope processes. The predicted bedload rating curves for these streams using the bedload DSRC for Good/Fair stability with an exponent value of 2. June 27 . To help offset these problems to use the dimensionless model. NV. 2006b). The prediction results as shown in Figures 1–3 indicate that this statement is not well-founded as each predicted SRC using the same regression constants of the respective reference DSRC relation is close to observed values. The protocols for streamflow. using the same exponent of 2. Streamflow measurements must also be obtained concurrently. For example.4 times the bankfull value (Figure 3). This variation in each river is due to the measured sediment supply as reflected in the bankfull values for a given bankfull discharge. the results in Troendle et al. which will often have the opposite ratio. cost and timing to obtain bankfull sediment and discharge data. If streams in a particular region have exponent slopes much less or much larger than those presented in the Pagosa Springs. The greatest departure for other rivers. (2001) and these subsequent tests indicate that it is unlikely to require the development of localized DSRC relations to predict dimensional SRCs once bankfull values are obtained as the DSRCs are more universal than initially perceived. Thus the concern expressed by Wilcock et al. will most likely be associated with the rare flood.000 km2. There exists a major separation of the predicted SRC for each individual river as depicted in Figure 4 even though they share the same exponent value of the SRC as predicted. It is apparent that not only does the dimensionless model predict closely to observed SRCs.

scale and geographic locations. . NV. 2010 Figure 4 Combination of predicted SRCs from Figure 1 and Figure 2 for bedload and suspended sediment on linear plots indicating the diversity and character for a wide range of river types. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference. Las Vegas. The predicted SRCs are generated from the same regression constants of their respective Good/Fair DSRC.July 1. June 27 .

stability ratings and geology. June 27 . NV. . 2010 Figure 5 Regional sediment curves for the North-Central Colorado basin (for both Good/Fair and Poor stability) and the Blackfoot and Clark Fork River basins in Northwestern Montana (for Good/Fair stability) that span a range of drainage areas. Las Vegas.July 1. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference.

J. This is due to the variation in the bankfull sediment and discharge values between streams when using the bankfull normalization parameter to convert from dimensionless to dimensional values. DSRCs when converted to dimensional values from measured bedload transport rates and suspended sediment concentration are an accurate reflection of the sediment supply. 2006a. Bill Annable. Rosgen. culverts and other crossings. the need to accurately predict sediment yield and river behavior response is essential as society continues to put constraints on the river system due to continued land use demands. Although the predicted dimensional SRCs are derived from the same regression constants of the DSRCs. 2010 model. potential improved stratification of equations and regional sediment curves may help in the availability and accuracy of prediction. and King. Buffington. J. ACKNOWLEGEMENTS The author is indebted to Darcie Frantila for her editing and assistance with data analysis.M. REFERENCES Barry. 5) evaluate sediment transport consequence of river structures. June 27 . Additionally. J.” Water Resources Research. Additional data comparisons and testing are recommended in the future to determine the accuracy in the Good/Fair versus Poor stability prediction values for their appropriate stream conditions. the potential use and required development of regional bankfull sediment curves show promise in obtaining bankfull bedload and suspended sediment values using drainage area and river stability of various stream types. 2006b). In addition. W10401. bankfull sediment and bankfull discharge values are used to convert the appropriate DSRC to a dimensional SRC. thereby reducing the previously documented large model prediction errors. 2) predict total annual sediment yield.J.July 1. 2006b). Vol. J. For field data collection and analysis. “Correction to ‘A general power equation for predicting bedload transport rates in gravel bed rivers. 3) evaluate restoration designs.’” Water Resources Research. 4) predict sediment disposition at bridges.. 43. This allows individuals to apply the model if they do not have a bedload or suspended sediment sampler. of Waterloo. SUMMARY The application of DSRCs for both bedload and suspended sediment by stream stability has shown to be a valid approach to predict dimensional SRCs using the appropriate value for each independent and dependent variable at the bankfull stage.G. Existing regional curves for bankfull discharge are also helpful at ungaged streams along with bankfull sediment values as a function of drainage area and stability ratings to run the model. and to Jim Nankervis for helpful suggestions and statistical inference. roads and other sources can be compared to total annual sediment yield. These models are used to: 1) predict riverbed stability. 2006b) where disproportionate sediment contributions from streambanks. Tracie Sylte and Robert Kasun. Brandon Rosgen. It is important to note that a change in drainage area that reflects the scale change in rivers is a key stratification to changes in sediment supply. .. In appreciation of the Canadian data from Dr. 6) evaluate flood levels due to change in sediment transport. or physically cannot access the river at high flows. Las Vegas. bankfull discharge can also be obtained from available regional bankfull discharge curves by drainage area for a specific hydro-physiographic province (Rosgen. W08702. NV. Buffington. Barry. 7) evaluate clean sediment TMDL’s. and 8) predict reservoir filling rates. 40. their individual character or sediment signature is retained as demonstrated when the predicted SRCs are plotted on a linear scale. (2004). The application of the regional bankfull sediment curves requires the drainage area and river stability for a given stream type. As additional test streams are added to this database. 22 pp. and King. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference.M.. The DSRC model appears to be a relatively simple and practical approach to accurately predict bedload and suspended SRCs to provide timely and appropriate interpretations for future management recommendations.. “A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel bed rivers. These models are being used in cumulative watershed assessments (WARSSS. (2007). Then. J. Univ.J. J. cannot wait for bankfull stage to occur.G. Regardless of the model. APPLICATIONS DSRCs are a key component of the FLOWSED and POWERSED models (Rosgen. River stability is required to eventually be integrated into the relation as more data points are obtained.

pp 335– 353. “Bedload transport in alluvial channels. Vol. M. 1026. Bull. Seventh Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference. Frenette.C.” W. (1960).. and Lopes. Fifth Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference. Rosgen. W. M. A. Goodwin. D. R1-75-002. Vol.. S. W. V.. L. Report No. 6. Vol. Res.S. King. 1. (1994). New York. “Greatly improving stream sediment yield estimates.A. DC. Rocky Mountain Research Station.July 1.H. 22. Idaho. Watershed Assessment of River Stability and Sediment Supply (WARSSS). Vol.. pp. (1998).. KH-R1. (1991). 340. and Espinosa. Yang. W. 129..” Nature. Res.. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the U. .” J.. and McLean. Rosgen. Vol. T. “Sediment transport primer estimating bed-material transport in gravel- bed rivers. “Computer modeling of soil erosion and sediment yield from large watersheds. F. L. pp 39–68.Y. NV.. Colorado. D. B. Virginia..L. and Kennedy. Freeman and Company.. “The bedload function for sediment transport in open channel flow. D. 16.. pp II-73–II-80.F.S.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering.M. “Lecture notes on sediment transportation and channel stability.M (2001).B. “FLOWSED-POWERSED: Prediction models for suspended and bedload transport. Emmett. (1987). M. Cambridge University Press.K. Washington D. Ikeda. and Emmett. (1996). G. (2008).5-year recurrence interval for ecoregions of the United States: transport conditions at the bankfull and effective discharge?” Geomorphology. Fort Collins. P. New York.” Proc.and supply-limited conditions.” Tech. W. Reston. pp 545–571. pp 601–615. and Church. “Sediment supply and the development of the coarse surface layer in gravel-bedded rivers. Ryan. Reston.” General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-226. A. H. Department of Agriculture. Seventh Interagency Sedimentation Conference. pp 761–769. C.” Int. California. Dunne. pp 215–217. (1980). “Bedload and size distribution in paved gravel-bed streams.A.G. J. C. (2006b). Gomez. H. “The channels and waters of the upper Salmon River area. Wilcock. No. Wildland Hydrology. Brooks. A. Sed.. J. (2001). (1975). Reno. “Stream reach inventory and channel stability evaluation. Reno.” USDAFS No. Nevada.D.L... J. Vol. D.H. 78 pp.. N.” Proc. (1989). 12-30–12-37 Troendle. Colorado. Kirchner. Vol. Hydraulic Engineering. Erosion and Sedimentation. D. 1. Rosgen. and Cui. Las Vegas. Rosgen. Bravo-Espinosa. 696-260/200. June 27 .P. Porth. P. and Julien. Applied River Morphology. G. Chapter C2. Pitlick. M.. Nevada.L. 134. J.W. Dickerson. Parker. Geological Survey. K. 25. Vol.L. Singh. Vol..” Catena. Reno. P.S. San Francisco. Y. pp 783–795. 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference. P. 1. (2004).. (2001). (1978). Fort Collins.J. Nevada. Pagosa Springs. 1. W. D. Virginia. Forest Service. Vol.L. pp 1161–1186.L. Department of Agriculture. (1999). Wildland Hydrology. and Durgunoglu.” Proc.. W. “Evaluation of selected bedload equations under transport. (1982). W. GPO No. and Iseya. V. U.Y. Julien.. C. Osterkamp.. J.C. American Society of Civil Engineers.” USGS Professional Paper 1139.B.. J. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources California Institute of Technology. J.T. Las Vegas. W.” Int. “A classification of natural rivers. “Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment. (1975).C. (2009). Book 3. J. Nevada. Vol. (1950). “Developing a ‘reference’ sediment transport relationship. Reston. Lopes.” Water Resources Research. pp I-192–I-198. pp 243–262. Virginia. and Leopold. T. Emmett.W. “Suspended-sediment transport rates at the 1. Sed..A... V.” Proc..L. 5.E. Einstein.” USGS. “An assessment of bedload sediment transport formulae for gravel bed rivers. P. No. Klingeman. 108. “Applicability of sediment transport formulas. and Heins. Pfankuch. Dietrich. U. Water in Environmental Planning. Edwards. Vanoni. Vol.” Journal of Hydraulics Division. (2006a). 2010 Barry. 58. Soil Conservation Service.R.” USGS Professional Paper 870A. (2003)..R. Rosgen.W. Washington. “Performance of bed-load transport equations relative to geomorphic significance: Predicting effective discharge and its transport rate. (1989). Buffington.. Eighth Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference. 2. 26 pp..J. J. Simon. Colorado. and Nankervis. “A field calibration of the sediment-trapping characteristics of the Helley-Smith Bedload Sampler. Osterkamp..M. and Huang. and Glysson. pp 169–199. D.

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