CE 416

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 2:

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

LABORATORY REPORT NO. 1

CONSOLIDATION TEST

Laboratory Date: February 15, 2017

Report Date: February 22, 2017

T.A: Engr. Crisrina Amor M. Rosales

Laboratory Group: Group 8, CE 4201

Laboratory Partners: Alay, Tristan M. 13-48109

Ausa, Pamela Adelee H. 13-47288

Navarra, Rajshida Aira B. 11-68977

Rances, Angela Ysabel P. 13-12828

1

After it was subjected into a load of 1129.8 g. Therefore. clay dough was used as a substitute for soil. The 4 mm settlement within 15 minutes is significant when it comes into real soil layer. The cube’s side is 33 mm. making 29 mm as the shortest side (4 mm settlement). For this experiment. . respectively. It refers to the compression or settlement that soils undergo as a response of placing loads onto the ground. ABSTRACT Consolidation is the process at which volume is decreasing. It was molded into cube and subjected it into a specific weight (load) for 15 minutes. The amount of soil volume or settlement that will occur is often one of the governing design criteria of a project. the smaller and softer a specimen is and the larger and longer the subjected loadings and the duration of tests are. The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the settlement or the volumetric changes when subjected to pressure. the larger the settlement that may possibly occur within a specimen. half of the cube deformed. 2 .

. Objectives………………………………………………………………………. References…………………………………………………. Theoretical Background………………………………………………………...... Experimental Procedure……………………………………………. Materials and Equipment………………………………………….………………………. 9 VIII.. 6 V.. 7 VII.………………. 5 III...…….……………….. Conclusion and Recommendations………………………………………………….. 10 3 .………………… 6 IV.…… 5 II. Discussion of Results……………………………………………….. Analysis of Data……………………………………………………………………… 6 VI. TABLE OF CONTENTS I.

. APPENDICES Figures Figure 1: Molded clay cube before the experiment. 8 Figure 3: Molded clay cube after the experiment. . 8 Figure 4: Mass used as a vertical pressure into the cube ………………………….……….……………… 6 4 .…………. 8 Figure 2: The cube is subjected into vertical loading during the experiment ……….. ……………………………..8 Table Table 1: Data Before and After Experiment.………….. …………………………….………….. ……………………………..

The compression of soil can occur due to  Compression of solid particles and water in the voids  Compression and expulsion of air in the voids  Expulsion of water in the voids Rate of consolidation depends on soil’s permeability. a cube of clay was used as the specimen over which an object with a specific weight was placed. its volume decreases.OBJECTIVES The objective of the consolidation test is to determine the settlement or the decrease in volume that a laterally confined specimen undergoes when subjected to vertical pressures. Measured data for a standard consolidation test can be plotted into a consolidation curve upon knowing the pressure-void ratio relationships. sustained load. These data will be useful in determining the compression index. compression index (Cc) and coefficient of volume compressibility (mv) can be measured.e. Here. From the changes in thickness at the end of the load stage. the compressibility of the soil can be observed and the parameters i. It can be very slow in fine-grained soils thus it takes many years to achieve final settlement. The property of the soil due to which a decrease in volume occurs under compressive force is known as the compressibility of soil. the recompression index. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Consolidation of a saturated soil occurs due to expulsion of water under static. coefficients of consolidation and secondary compression of the specimen. In this experiment. 5 . the settlement of clay due to primary consolidation during the specified time was recorded. When a soil mass is subjected to a compressive force. preconsolidation pressure (or maximum past pressure) of the specimen. The consolidation characteristics of specimens are required to predict the magnitude and the rate of settlement.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT  Clay dough  Weights  Stop Clock  Ruler EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. Record the initial height of the side of the cube. Mold the clay dough into cube. 6. Lay the molded cube clay in a flat surface. 4. Put the preferred weight on top of the cube. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 6 . Record the final height of the side that is affected the most. ANALYSIS OF DATA BEFORE THE AFTER THE EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT @ t=0 @ t=15 min Side’s measurement= 33 mm Side’s measurement= 29 mm Settlement=0 Settlement= 4mm TABLE 1: Data Before and After Experiment The molded clay was suffered to the stress caused by the weight. 2. (Settlement= Initial side measurement . The settlement we obtained was 4mm. In order to obtain the settlement cause by the weight in the top of clay in a cube shape.After consolidation measurement). we get the difference from the original height of the cube to the height where settlement occurs. Let the weight be on top of the cube for 15 minutes. 3. 5.

It is the result of volume change in saturated cohesive soil because of expulsion of water that occupies the void spaces. The weight was place for 15 minutes. we used clay as an alternative for a soil. FIGURES 7 . After this. And the settlement cause by the weight was measured after. In the experiment we've done. Consolidation settlement is time dependent. we put weights on top of it. The clay was formed into a cube shape with specific measurement.

FIGURE 4: Mass used as a vertical pressure into the cube CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 8 . subjected into vertical loading during the experiment FIGURE 3: Molded clay cube after the experiment. FIGURE 1: Molded clay cube FIGURE 2: The cube is before the experiment.

care should be taken in handling the specimen. During trimming of the specimen to form a cube. REFERENCES 9 . the smaller and softer a specimen is and the larger and longer the subjected loadings and the duration of tests are. In choosing the clay. Therefore. Only small or adequate loadings should be placed over specimens of small volume just like the need for smaller increments of loading to be adopted in soft soil specimens for a standard consolidation test. only a small weight was placed on top of it since the volume occupied by the specimen is also small and clay is a soft. Since the group used a small cube made up of clay. the test was performed for only a short span of time. the load placed over the specimen and the duration. The group also had the following recommendations: 1. it is better to use a new one so that its properties are not too much altered. In the experiment conducted. 2. Also. loose earthy material. the group have concluded that the amount of settlement or decrease in the volume of a specimen (clay for this experiment) depends on the size and properties of the specimen.8 grams which lasted for 15 minutes. respectively. 3. having the least pressure as possible. From the experiment performed. the initial side measurement of 33m had a settlement of only 4mm after the consolidation test due to a placed weight of 1129. the larger the settlement that may possibly occur within a specimen.

 https://www.slideshare.net/hronaldo10/class-7-consolidation-test-geotechnical- engineering 10 .my/labmanagementunitkl/files/2013/06/DDPA-3092-SOILS- CONSOLIDATION_2013.org/geotechnical/consolidation-test-of-soil/3054/  http://theconstructor.org/geotechnical/compressibility-and-consolidation-of- soils/1083/  http://www.utm.pdf  http://theconstructor.