Patient-centered design

concepts for cancer care
interactions & experiences
during chemotherapy

Joshua D. Nelson

A thesis submitted in
partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the
degree of

Master of Design

University of Washington

Axel Roesler
Sang-gyeun Ahn
Dominic Muren
Kathleen Shannon Dorcy

Program Authorized to
Offer Degree:
School of Art,
Industrial Design

NELSON MDES THESIS JUNE 2013 .Patient-centered design concepts for cancer care interactions & experiences during chemotherapy JOSHUA D.

Nelson ABSTRACT Chemotherapy is one epicenter of cancer care that brings people and technology together in and around the infusion center. This text explores how a patient-centered design process can address cancer care interactions with the aim of improving the patient’s experience during chemotherapy. The basis for this process was developed at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and the graduate design studio at the University of Washington. creative analysis that is informed by the perspectives of patients and conceptual design based outcomes. 1 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Abstract | 2 . Patient-centered design concepts for cancer care interactions & expe- riences during chemotherapy © 2013 Joshua D. Within this space patients interact with providers and medical devices and these interactions shape their experience with chemotherapy. This process includes design led research that is done in the field with pa- tients.

3 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Motivations & Background | 4 . Our hopes and. my father bolder meaning of ‘patient-centered care. of healthcare in America. 3 Siddhartha sumers at the far end of the industrial economy. Design work that attempts to address interaction. Mean: Confessions of An Extremist to abandon the brutal drain of chemotherapy. man dimension.D. recogni. By the proposes that healthcare providers consider the human following winter. and from countless blood tests that went hand-in-hand with relationships in health care. but should attempt to achieve a deeper level focused on improving the quality and indirectly with providers and technologies in this of insight and innovation within the space of health. 2009 self admits that his definition is “extreme”. Berwick was diagnosed with stage four colon cancer. 2010 The path of the cancer patient can be filled with suf. Whether we find thinking transforms organizations given me a glimpse of the path that so many of us walk. he writes that Change by design: how design cancer. The space and these interactions shape their experience. tient. 2007 motherapy. “In the United States. It. but institutions that practice healthcare must during their lifetime. individualization.’” 1 Dr. Unfortunately. and inspires innovation ourselves in the role of customer or client.” 3 also concern themselves with efficiency and safety. He defines patient-centered care as “the ex- Earlier that fall my family and I had rallied around him perience (to the extent the informed. my father’s numbers 1 Donald Berwick M. By the Take for example the observations of IDEO’s Tim end of that winter he was gone. providers and technologies converge all within their experience. committee explored various ideas care that the patient occupies. It is primarily focused on improving the patient’s Chemotherapy is one epicenter of cancer care where pa- path through healthcare. or the interactions that shape tients. In eight short months 2 Tim Brown. performed by designers done in the field with patients. significantly. frustration and uncertainty but it is also filled A Biography of Cancer Patient-centered design simply put. individual patient and my mother as he endured several cycles of che- desires it) of transparency. as my mother would later tion.. should not be limited In 1998 Donald M. The path of the patient of a committee assembled by the to the humanizing of surfaces with friendlier shapes or through chemotherapy sees them interacting directly Institute of Medicine (IOM) that designs. or the results exception. STEPHEN NELSON. had irreversibly touched my family and had “people’s expectations are evolving. A seasoned clinician and healthcare expert Donald Ber- wick has argued “for a radical transfer of power and a One summer some years ago. circumstances. 2009 Brown. regarding the role of the patient in to engage and involve patients in this space through healthcare. and choice in all matters.” 2 Mukherjee M. Berwick him- the chemotherapy. at the age of 59.. Its practice should be informed by research this dimension could be called patient-centered design. from his book Change by Design. should serve the pa- with people who are determined. passenger. one in CENTERED DESIGN? three women and one in two BACKGROUND The practice of healthcare inherently involves the men will develop cancer patient. a hu.” 1 While Dr. It seeks to find ways There is a quality attached to these interactions. and safety. “everything rode on the numbers”. it seems to left us with little hope and for the holidays he had opted What ‘Patient-Centered’ Should resonate well with the attitudes of a changing society. Berwick was part and around the infusion center. related to one’s person. dignity.D. MOTIVATIONS & WHAT IS PATIENT. hopeful and caring. I had watched my father’s cancer wear dimension at the same level they consider efficiency down his large and sturdy frame to almost nothing. respect. The Emperor of All Maladies: fering. we are no longer content to be passive con. patient or or one day may walk. without recall.

nurses. Thankfully the meeting ioral research. them. I was going in the institution’s system. improve the interactions and ultimately the SUMMER 2012 access to certain areas of the clinic and I was individuals. Near the end of the summer it was out of of patients and medical practitioners dinating the care teams. it would have been impossible without them. The training consisted of individuals. Since the nursing staff was ests were looking less like a dip and more like waiting period I completed training required conducted with eligible and willing The charge nurse would identify two-three potential pa- going to help coordinate the interviews and identify immersion. to do. I arranged these interviews on my own without all the other disciplines. they were willing to talk the SCCA belongs to. involved in cancer care. By this time the scope of my research inter. with similar research projects taking around three world through their emotions. observational interviews were start the official interviews. To coordinate my interview before facing me. what The SCCA was like a gateway that granted efforts with the nurses I started by meeting with a Tim Brown describes as.07. Responses from the study regarding its intentions. “designers rely on waters. to both staff and patients. From there I worked with each ments. in that everything ing of cancer care from the perspective of the my hands and was officially in front of the eyes in an analysis that in the future could I met with the Nurse Manager a few times to discuss potentially inform a patient. to dip my toes in the research protocol describing what I intended for nursing staff absences. who is the overall administrator for through empathy. Luckily I had experienced patients.12). the effort to see the world ing through that gate required a surprising ONCOLOGY PATIENTS all the nurses in a given area. prioritizing care and coor- environments with the perspectives to conduct practice interviews away from the infusion Bill Moggridge once wrote. 4 Bill Moggridge. Usually the nurse would clear the inter- While the practice interviews were useful. medical practitioners and do and then introduced me to the Charge Nurse. media recordings. 2009 all the nurses that worked in the infusion center had limited to individuals receiving chance as a researcher to test out the language and the Cancer patients are typically far from passive. This and became recognized as a “non-employee” of individuals who were 18 years or the nurses and their patients for that day. The Charge Nurse Seattle Cancer treatments and the interviews were held in familiar and sionals designers can gain better access to ends. human subjects biomedi. with oncologists and nurses. I met a lot of dead for chemotherapy treatment devices Nurse at least once per clinic visit. “bridges of insight METHODS access to patients and providers. The major objective of this study (10.” provider. <Rework> In addition to giving me limited at how helpful and supportive they were to my research. Care Alliance was primarily responsible for identifying potential comfortable settings for the subjects. 2007 card with my picture and name on the front of to an interview based on clinical the nurses must manage and be aware of I was amazed status. With the incredible amount of information that individuals were able to consent people whose perspectives would be slightly different an epicenter of cancer care. and understanding of chemotherapy clinical excellence and maintaining accreditation. built-environments and contacts I got connected to a senior researcher care of several other requirements. there. clinical scope of practice and is responsible for was to gain first hand experience ule. design in no way diminishes or displaces partners on my side to guide me through the the cancer treatment center. Returning to chemotherapy as to me.Methods | 6 . They were unique in that else has to work before design has a chance. I set them went well and getting the support of the SCCA approved and certified badge toting researcher. making coverage the design of treatment devices and Before the official start of the study interviews I decided healthcare.04. When I arrived at the longer than 60 minutes and were as potential subjects they needed to be educated about patients and healthcare providers during online courses that covered health information infusion center I would go straight to the charge nurse short as 25 minutes. Intervention type research tion I needed to get approval from an internal treatment at the intersection of Nurse Manager quickly grasped what I was trying to approval times are understandably much longer than It is important to note that patient-centered SPRING 2012 review board (IRB). patient’s infusion nurse to coordinate a time to attempt patient’s experience.a clinically the interview. If the patients consented. but pass- OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF DESIGN IMPLICATIONS FOR FALL 2012 Nurse Manager. The months to receive approval. After two months of looking. which is the larger organization that chemotherapy treatment for cancer Change by design: how design to have some idea about what I was going to be doing thinking transforms organizations experience of doing the interviews as designed.12). while I checked in with the Charge practice-centered design process ABOVE the subjects had recently finished their chemotherapy 4 Working with healthcare experts and profes. I applied for The study was to involve 20 subjects and coordinating interviews between me and logue of questions drove the dialogue as was desig- the professionals themselves. In order The Nurse Manager is responsible for hiring. The is a nurse that has responsibility for day-to-day sched- the significant and critical work of experts in Initially I just wanted to meet with the people process and with their skillful help I crafted a goal of the study was to connect uling of patient care assignments.” 2 conduct a research study at the SCCA’s institu. Additionally nated for the official study. staffing. content and require- chemotherapy and document the interactions privacy and security. 5 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Motivations & Background . that occurred so as to better understand the cal research and human subjects social behav. And that was done on an expedited sched- world through their experiences. This gave patients the opportunity to decline the be handled by the experts. They were all given a brief introduction to the Clinic staff initially determined which and inspires innovation tionally I collected excellent information from amazing centered design. The researcher then provided Designing Interactions than those of the official study enriching the informa- how a patient-centered design process could it. These practices gave me the researcher then introduced me to another set of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center older. researchers at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (FHCRC). Now I was ready . and feel the to work with patients (human subjects) and budgets. Basically to develop an understand. Potential study subjects were 2 Tim Brown. This in essence put me as well as medical professionals. Such research enables designers to build. The same cata- patients.and any regulation or supervision. This devices and environments within observation-only research. Addi- making cancer care an ideal place for patient. subjects were documented via audio and get this information. technologies. consent and assent forms to eligible tion collected. (SCCA). It took two months for the IRB to approve the research through the eyes of others. In the SCCA’s infusion center this would proved to be critical to the rest of this work. Each interview lasted no tients for every visit that I made. Instead it is dependent upon it. big picture things. I wanted the chance to observe by the FHCRC. understand the amount of planning and preparation. I wanted to explore to get a meeting. view with the patient before bringing me in to talk with up myself. Thankfully through a network of various While waiting to receive IRB approval I took and treatment center environments. Over the course of the study center. experiences of patients during cancer care and expected to wear it as a way to identify myself From August to February A few more things had to be put in place before I could chemotherapy. I received an access study. like an infusion center. Unfortunately instead of meeting of the IRB (08. Also during this With things in place I started interviewing patients. Unbelievably. at a local healthcare research institute.

What equipment or 17. and inspires innovation most patients knew the drill better than I did and were comfort. needs. or the therapy and covered topics that ranged from the patient’s daily users of our digital interfaces be better? 16.” 2 them? many nurses and patients and other things that occurred 19. with your time during experience with treatment to your current one? tual behaviors. Could you describe RIGHT who are consumers of our products. “find a way to understand the supporting you? most difficult aspect of perceptions. and desires of the treatment? ultimate users. 3. us. the ways in which nurses or Analysis artifacts of the patient’s mood and energy so as not to overwhelm them. How would you 7. 15. 2. how often is it 13. what is most important to you? “Rarely will the everyday people ing the 20 questions as a catalog that I pulled from depending from the time you wake-up until you go back to bed. How would you change describe your interactions Evolving methods were used to make sense of the information. During treatment what are your biggest concerns. you bring or do to make your treatment experience treatment experience better? occupants of our buildings. Please describe the would you like to be aware Designing Interactions specifics of your cancer of or monitor? sured patients that the study was not obligatory and I explained 2 Tim Brown. 2009 treatment. circumstances. one 5. These interviews resulted in 507 devices are used in your treatment? dislike about treatment? vide us with invaluable clues about minutes of audio recording and countless amounts of patient- centered information. me to. What about with your ing and made it more manageable. I also tried to be cognizant the customers for our services. I spent a good deal of time dodging nurses as they operates these devices? 20. step-by-step details of a typical treatment day. 2005 ANALYSIS consent from each subject prior to asking any questions. can pro- treatments? In the end I met with and formally interviewed 12 patients. Since the SCCA is a research center. that surfaced in the field interviews. I structured the interviews loosely. Why? What would you Change by design: how design administered? do with that information? thinking transforms organizations as they might have been. What do you do compare your first family and friends (see 20 Questions at left). Who interacts with or provided a frame for the information that helped give it mean- come and go. outside of my interviews. as Jane Fulton Suri writes. then the interview would begin. What is physically the nonprofessional people various patterns emerged as opportunities for design. how long will the potential risks associated with participation. What things do you nurse and one oncologist. To protect patient privacy I was required to obtain verbal 20 QUESTIONS 12. How do you feel about 18. As this analysis evolved bustled about their duties. 1. When receiving care able with participation. What are some of the questions you currently have or have had about your treatment? 7 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Methods . Their ac- 4. the 9. habits.Analysis | 8 . on how the conversation played out. Informally I interacted with and observed 6.” 4 10. watching patients during treatment? 8. which significantly all of them did. as minuscule it last. Ultimately just being present helped friends and family. How would you routines to medical equipment to clinical care to support from able to tell us what to do. Walk me through the 14. Is there anything that works well or is helpful? their range of unmet needs. I as. What special things do doctors have made your The questions explored the patient’s experience with chemo. Each method next interview in the patient’s waiting area. however. What aspect of your treatment or progress 4 Jane Fulton Suri. Often I found myself waiting for the them? with doctors and nurses or the clues. worries or fears? 11.

quotes. by hand. This This method was used to gather information generated was beneficial in that it created a base of reference for during interviews. PATIENT-CENTRIC Each piece of information was tethered to the patient STORY GATHERING that was associated with it. tion while the experience was still fresh in the memory. The information consisted of stories. This resulted in a patient- centric collection of the interview information. sketches space where the information could be viewed collec- and diagrams. It also established a single large piece of cardboard in the form of notes. tively. Which was stored. on a the information as a whole. ideas and inferences derived during and after the interviews. It was critical to capture this informa- ABOVE Cardboard start LEFT Cardboard process RIGHT Cardboard end 9 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Analysis | 10 .

processes and flows that structure the PATIENT-CARE PROCESS Model 2 patient’s experience during chemotherapy.The path of the patient. the procedures test sample terns and opportunities. arrive identity computer receptionist check-in pre-chemo nurse BP unit vitals chemo bay computer with each circle representing typical durations of time for each step wait within the hospital. the vocabulary. blood arrive identity computer receptionist check-in testing ABOVE Model 2 .This model looks at point perspective is to learn about their passage through of interaction between people and and their surroundings. Modeling LOWER LEFT MODELING the information in this way helped in discerning the Model 4 . blood results perscription center.This model builds on bad results good results chemo perscription models 1 and 2 but factors in time. wait blood sample Starting from when the patients steps into the hospital and ending port access when they leave.A linear view of a chemo blood wait results patient chair/bed patient nurse chemotherapy day. actualities of cancer care as well as in understanding sleep wake eat shower prepare commute wait wait wait wait wait commute eat sleep LOWER RIGHT An important part of understanding the patient’s the relationships that exist between patients. chemotherapy on a treatment day. This involves familiarizing oneself with the good write provided a clear way to the discovery of design pat.. the systems. providers Model 5 . includes goes (chemo bay) waits patient’s day away from the hospital. port blood transit pharmacy transit chemo port pump world of chemotherapy.. Creating these abstractions technology within the infusion the clinic. To gain this understanding vari- blood review chair/ chemo ous diagrams and visualizations were used to model check-in check-in check-in vitals draw results room infusion home transit hematology oncology infusion chemotherapy transit home FAR LEFT arrive identity computer receptionist check-in patient patient reception arrives Model 1 . bad results and processes that patients and providers use and ex- perience throughout. blood review wait chair/ vitals wait infusion check-in wait check-in wait check-in draw results room go paper doctor oncology chemo perscription pharmacy meet with check-in wait APRN/Oncologist results LEFT Model 3 . go chair/bed patient perscription pharmacy chemo waits chemo bay/pod wait check-in pharm- patient (room/chair) acy goes home wait wait wait Model 3 vitals BP unit nurse nurse infusion pump port port wait in-chemo access wait chemotherapy side infusion effects IV pole patient Model 1 chemotherapy chemotherapy infusion chemo access port nurse pump drugs Model 5 Model 4 11 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Analysis | 12 .The basic steps of arrives receptionist computer output? DB or something. Includes critical go access nurse hematology blood sample laboratory patient reception blood procedures that happen away from waits notification buzzer check-in wait blood draw test the patient.

To do this I transferred key stories and information ABOVE Early clustering LEFT Story clustering end 13 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Analysis | 14 . The information was then clustered around In order to make more sense of the interview informa- commonalities that were based on initial insights. This made the information sort- CLUSTERING able. in that each piece of information was isolated and mobile. from the patient and ordered it by information alone. This tion it needed to be framed in a way that separated it process helped to establish emergent themes. from the patient-centric story gathering method onto STORY unique post-it notes.

THEMATIC LEFT SORTING Thematic sorting process RIGHT Framing the information into clusters allowed for a new analy. Thematic sorting end Exploring these new relationships enabled the discovery of new patterns. 15 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Analysis | 16 . Reshuffling information sis of the information as a whole. The individual pieces of infor- BELOW mation were reshuffled. understood and related in new ways. which provided the foundations for the development of design ideas. Eventually these patterns formed into themes.

IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR DESIGN INTERVENTIONS Looking at the information through the frame of themes made the information more insightful and helped to identify the op- portunities that appeared most promising. LOWER LEFT By the end of this method the areas had been narrowed down and filled with design ideas. 17 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Analysis | 18 . UPPER LEFT This method started with blank sheets of paper that represented each area. RIGHT Design ideas were explored through notes. These opportunities initiated the exploration of design interventions and creative problem solving that resulted in five design seeds. sketches and pictures.

quantified.” 2 These five design seeds represent the design based outcomes of the research and analysis. 19 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Design Seeds | 20 . DESIGN SEEDS “That insight cannot yet be codi- fied. Each seed is conceptual and is rooted in the information gathered during research interviews. at any rate--makes it the most difficult but also the most ex- citing part of the design process. There is no algorithm that can tell us where it will come from and when it will hit. The problem and definition of each concept stems from the discov- eries generated in analysis. These seeds are not refined designs but are more like refined opportunities for design. or even defined- -not yet.

but benefits can be working system that helps providers do their gained by getting the patient involved in their jobs and connect to the people they serve. Patients valued instructions experience. was on their team. Instead it should create a superior solely handled by providers. It about finding the right doctor. They also talked medical professionals. research schedules LEFT Typically care is one-directional. Traditional delivery of care is providers. From oncologists to tion during chemotherapy and cancer care. CO-care important. The quality of communication patients alike. Patients felt encouraged that Finding the right team can make a big differ. taking control of their treatment History: Problem Description: This tool could build beneficial relationships between patients and providers through feedback Chemotherapy typically requires a team of involvement. progress meetings information 21 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Design Seeds | 22 . CANCER DESIGN BRIEF Problem Statement: What if there was a tool that helped patients SIDE EFFECTS research CO-CARE Co-Care: Improving che. tool cannot endanger the safety or privacy of the patient in any way. could be useful to both patients and providers. The own care. working together providers in any way or create additional burdens for on their behalf. someone who nurses to nutritionists and physical therapists. transparency and collabora- and saying no to procedures. get involved in their own care and encouraged a team-like relationship with their cancer care motherapy experiences through patient involve- providers? Questions answers & ment and collaboration. In interviews patients talked about owning their cancer. doctors who talked to them like they were between the patient and their team is equally equals or like they were working together. It could also provide a trustworthy means of their cancer teams had meetings about them - ence in a patient’s treatment and their overall communication that connects providers and even when they weren’t there. but what if patients were more involved in their own care? patient provider team RIGHT Co-Care concepts. The relationship between the pa- Constraints: patients tient and their team can be shaped by a sense The tool cannot hinder the delivery of care that the team is on their side.

23 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Design Seeds | 24 . while others were assured by a steady ance to admiration. imprinting Research helped reveal the relationships that patients form with the medical equipment they end up spend- ing a lot of time with. FRUSTRATION Constraints: These interactions and relationships cannot interfere device PATIENT in any way with treatment. Providers should maintain exclu- sive control and access to provider-level functions of medical equipment. LEFT Patient-device interaction concepts. interaction with quiet pumping sound and others found equipment awk- this equipment is typically one-directional from the ward or endearing. Some of these relationships were positive and some of them were negative. At the same time. For example History: Chemotherapy patients spend a great deal of time sur- rounded by equipment that is critical to their treatment. BELOW Like Co-Care. patient’s perspective. but what if patients could ing patient-device interactions interact with these objects? personalization and relationships. Each interaction and relationship could inform the patient’s countdown experience and help make that experience positive. These some patients hated the beeps that infusion pumps relationships can be based on anything from annoy- would make. or the critical functions of medical equipment. Problem Statement: In what ways could patients interact with medical devices that are based on existing or newly imagined relationships? PROVIDER Problem Description: These ways could invite patients to interact with devices that they don’t typically interact with. While they are exposed to this equipment they natu- rally develop relationships with the equipment. interaction with ALTERNATING DESIGN BRIEF INTERACTIONS Alternating Interactions: Invit- medical devices is usually limited to providers.

could be active while dealing with the inevi. tions between patients and providers? more interesting and fun it should be handled both good and bad. While competition can help to make the game an incredible amount of available information. It could also pro- Patients often experience anticipatory nausea. Problem Statement: table waiting time that occurs with chemo. What if there was a game that could be played Constraints: therapy. PROVIDER PATIENT SPECIALISTS PATIENT 25 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Design Seeds | 26 . The game could be played while patients are receiving their which can be alleviated through distraction. but it could also be played in other Patients find themselves wishing that they waiting areas experienced by the patient. Also patients and providers deal with during chemotherapy that allowed for interac. vide distraction for patients. traction and education. infusions. gaming as a form of dis. RIGHT In-Chemo play concepts. in a way that avoids conflict and protects the patients privacy and safety. trivia game PATIENT LEFT What if a game enabled interaction game between patients and providers. NURSES IN-CHEMO PATIENT DESIGN BRIEF Problem Description: The game could facilitate the distribution of PLAY In-chemo Play: Patient useful information from providers while mak- DOCTORS ing it fun for patients to learn.

Problem Statement: OBSERVATION This design could create a system that helps patients. This can also help patients develop a good learning working relationship with their providers prior to their experiences with chemotherapy. LEFT working closely with their nurses. culture “DRY RUN” CHEMO probe CO-OP DESIGN BRIEF Chemo Co-op: Overcoming concrete patient anxiety with an experiential learning process. Constraints: planning Pluses and minuses in efficiency and patient experi- ence should be taken into consideration and weighed against each other. This can be accomplished by engaging the patient in the process before they are ex- posed to it. experience workbook Patients usually spoke about being nervous and afraid History: REFLECTIVE before their first chemotherapy experience. Added workload for infusion nurses must also be considered. be a part of shaping observation Chemo co-op concepts. and potentially represent an opportunity for the patient. Problem Description: This design should create a system that enables patients and providers to proactively shape the che- experiential experience PROVIDER motherapy experience. ACTIVE ABSTRACT patient education testing concepts collaboration 27 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Design Seeds | 28 . their first and subsequent chemotherapy experiences. Most RIGHT How might patients and providers patients felt like they overcame this by learning the work together to overcome anxiety caused by inexperience? routine and becoming familiar with the experience.

patient LEFT How might rooms respond to patients to better serve them? RIGHT SUPPORT SENSOR Responsive rooms concepts. a bed. 29 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Design Seeds | 30 . Typi- DESIGN BRIEF Sleep mode dynamic surfaces cally this occurs within a single space. These responses could Device provider be incorporated into existing objects. a ROOMS chair or a room. RESPONSIVE Chemotherapy is a complex experience filled with physical and emotional challenges. Some pa. Addition. What inputs the room responds to might be as important as the mood/status messaging responses themselves. forming experiences tients talked about communication challenges between themselves and providers. waiting to get “unplugged” so they can get back to their lives. Problem Statement: What if the patient’s environment responded to their behavior or needs? Problem Description: These responses or adaptations could create a better experience. Constraints: The design should make the room serve the patient as well as providers who must do their work within this space too. through responsive envi- ally it is in this space that patients spend hours ronments. Patients often develop anxious Responsive Rooms: Trans- associations with their surroundings. or they indicators could be new features.

forms Organizations And Inspires Innovation.” 4 31 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy Reflection . 28. 3 Jane McGonigal ters thesis project. tunities. sight and the development of good things that will help Designing Interactions Comparison with Relaxation Only. the path of (2007) and No Treatment future patient-centered design work would benefit from the patient. Human Centered Design: Toolkit nects that research to design and concept development (2009) (2nd Edition) Working alone has its limits. “technology alone does 2 (1963) morial-sloan-kettering-cancer-center-brookl developed specifically for cancer patients. SUPPLEMENTAL Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy This project was an eye opener for me and through it I learned a good deal about working with people.” 5 Such a focus Health Affairs. Edwin Heathcote Chemotherapy tient relationship.4 (2009) The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medi. My father’s cancer was an intimate con- Siddhartha Mukherjee Intelligence Gaming The Emperor Of All Maladies: useful. observing them and Effect of the Cognitive Hierarchy in the System- 4 There is still much to be done and a lot of opportunity being present on their path I have realized that I still atic Desensitization Treatment of Anticipa- on the table. ArchitypeSource that might have lead to additional insights and oppor. These methods could come from the IDEO’s of the latest technological innovations. With more time I could Excellence. The design seeds generated by this project have a lot to learn.IDEO. Doing this work as one de. 2011) Change by design: how design but I do have some ideas on how design work might be University of Chicago to “create an institute devoted to for the Control of Side Effects Due to Cancer thinking transforms organizations done in healthcare. Heifer International.Summary . dimension is sometimes crowded out by discussions sions Of An Extremist Michel Foucault Memorial Sloan-Kettering: Cancer Center. In this same article the writer interestingly Donald M. and ICRW longer more difficult IRB approval process. and inspires innovation Charles or a completely new method lacking. “Medical education experts say the human What ‘Patient-Centered’ Should Mean: Confes. Morrow REFLECTION SUMMARY 4 Bill Moggridge.Bibliography | 32 . In 2011 the New York Times pub. Morrow through it. Change By Design: How Design Thinking Trans. The New York Times expert.” 5 the Bucksbaum Institute for Clinical 1 (1992) The Architecture of Hope Time was my biggest enemy. Jennifer Vasterling Manner. I hope to continue in the search of in. signer was mostly unavoidable. Brooklyn Infusion Center Method Cards or from the Royal College of Art’s website on technology certainly leaves the patient’s experience cal Perception http://architypesource. centered design work in healthcare. Counseling. 2007 Designing Interactions BIBLIO. I do believe that nection between me and this path. has them doing research directly with patients and con. improving medical students’ handling of the designingwithpeople. that experience. Bill Moggridge tory Nausea in Cancer Patients: A Component are only the beginnings of hopefully much more patient. (1986) an iterative prototyping model that keeps the patient central. “I believe that if we first think about people and then try. no. Using such not necessarily result in a better customer experience. and now at the end I am still far from an expert lished an article about a sizable donation given to the 2 Tim Brown. Berwick (2010) have employed a wider variety of research methods noted that. when in fact they were essential. is well suited to develop these improvements. 2011 A $42 Million Gift Aims at Improving GRAPHY 5 Dirk Johnson (2011) Bedside Manner A $42 Million Gift Aims at Improving Bedside research and empathic design. field The development of more advanced treatment technolo- gies is certainly a good thing for cancer patients. In the beginning I was no not the only thing. as Bill Moggridge once said. IDE. At the beginning of (2007) A Biography Of Cancer a team of mixed professionals would be better suited for this I thought that I had a pretty good understanding of (2010) the task that I pursued alone. I believe that any people that walk the path my father walked. but it is 5 Dirk Johnson. we stand a good chance of creating innovative solutions that people will value and enjoy. as this was part of a mas. This is not to say that I did not have Chemotherapy is just one of potentially many paths that Why I Love Bees: A Case Study in Collective help or that the partnerships that I developed were not patients walk. having had someone so close to me go Gary R.” 2 Tim Brown methods would require more planning and probably a Patient-centered design that puts designers in the field. Gary R. try. 2009 Cognitive Distraction and Relaxation Training (September 22. Or as Tim Brown puts it. and try again to prototype our designs. After talking to people.

THESIS COMMITTEE 33 | Patient-Centered Design Concepts For Cancer Care Interactions & Experiences During Chemotherapy .