Benefits of using Excel spreadsheet

1. Manipulate data, develop & solve models that support
business data analysis
2. Provide means for visualizing data & increase accuracy

DATA: facts and figures without any real context/meaning
INFORMATION: meaningful data that helped someone understand
KNOWLEDGE: information that has been incorporated into
someone’s mind

INFORMATION SYSTEM: systems that use info to capture data and
transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate and display information
 TRANSACTION PROCESSING: capture and record info about the
business transactions that affect the organization
o Keep track of routine operations
o Record events in database
 ONLINE (immediate) BATCH (accumulated)
 MANAGEMENT INFO: supplies info for decision-making
o Analyze the collected data to produce useful reports
 DECISION SUPPORT: organized collection of people,
procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support
problem-specific decision making (textual / graphical
 EXPERT SYSTEM: simulation of decision-making ability of a
human expert

Components: an aggregation of parts referred as subsystems
Interrelated components: dependency of a subsystem on one or
more subsystems to achieve predetermined objectives within their
Input: whatever a system takes from its environment to fulfill its
Output: system’s output to its environment to fulfill its purpose
Environment: external to a system and interacts with the system
Boundary: marking inside and outside of a system
Interfaces: point of contact between a system and its
environment / subsystems
Constraint: a limit or condition set out for a system
Stakeholders: parties that have direct interest in the system

PROBLEM SYMPTOM: apparent evidence that a problem exists
PROBLEM CAUSE: underlying situation that is the source of the
Problem: Capacity
Symptom: Slow computer response times

Solution Design – take into account logical / physical components. determine internal/external causes 2. structural / procedural organizational constraints 5. Problem: Control/strategic planning Symptom: Reduced profit 1. Implementation – creation and execution of a planned strategy eBusiness – any business transaction or activity that uses networks eCommerce – a subset of ^ . Decision Making – selecting the best option 4. info. Problem Understanding – fact collection (interviews. and service from raw material suppliers through factories to the end customers.  SIMPLE LINEAR SUPPLY CHAIN Upstream: front tier suppliers & second tier suppliers Internal: internal activities transforming inputs to outputs Downstream: activities involved in developing products or services to the final customers MEASUREMENT OF USABILITY 1. observations…) 3. estimation of the dimension of the problem. Memorability – able to return to the system after a period of time without much relearning Measurement: users after a period of no use / memory test  How easy is it? Can you remember it well enough? 3. framework). includes all “electrically mediated info exchanges between an organization and its external stakeholders”  Intranet: facilitate communication within organizations – can support inventory control. most important and fundamental Measurement: the increased proficiency reached by users completing tasks after a specific period of training  How fast? How clear? How easy? 2. improvement of performance  Extranet: support business-to-business transactions  Internet: support both b2c. b2b relationships o B2C – deals directly without an intermediary o C2C – consumers selling directly to each other o B2B – largest & fastest growing o Supply Chain: flow of materials. Learnability – “easy to learn”. finance. Efficiency of Use – high level of productivity once the system is learned Measurement: how much faster the expert user can complete the task compared with the previous time . Problem Analysis – identification (rich pictures.

 Once the system is learned. disaster: fire. Errors – any action that inhibits the accomplishing of a desired goal Measurement: error rate . marketing information RISK ASSESSMENT – hardware failure. user-centered design. human errors  incorrect payment. tags. is it highly productive? 4. hacker. podcasts. blogs. product information. sales figures. data integrity. RSS o Social Network: online service that focuses on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share similar interests ASSET IDENTIFICATION – customer’s info.# of errors occurred while performing a task  How often? How serious are they? How easy is it to recover? 5. loss of payment details. flood  destroy hardware. payment information. theft  loss of service.0: web applications that facilitate participatory info sharing. interoperability. loss of stored data on hardware . entertainment value can be more important than the speed Measurement: asking users for their subjective opinions post-use  How much does the user like using the system? FORMS – a simple way to enter data held in tables QUERIES – means of questioning the database REPORTS – present data from tables/queries in a user-friendly format Forms + Queries + Reports = DATA  INFORMATION LAN – a network that connects computers within each store WAN – the type of network that could link up all computers among stores Authorization – a means of making sure users can only complete certain actions in the ordering system IP – the protocol that a computer needs to use so that its address can be recognized on the Internet Firewall – specialized hardware and software designed to prevent unauthorized access to information assets stored on a private network Authentication – the issue of confirming that a user is who he says he is Server – the type of computer service of the central computer WEB 2. virus. Subject Satisfaction – systems should be pleasant to use. collaboration on the worldwide web  Interact in social media as creators of user-generated info (prosumers)  Wikis.

RISK PREVENTION – hardware checkup. firewall and authentication. backup: protect availability . physical control to protect availability and integrity of data. antivirus.