3.

11 Examples of gravity and magnetic data from mineralised terrains 175

(B in Fig. 3.71c). It was not considered justifiable to model performed better, but this is partly due to being con-
this part of the profile using the model representing the strained by a forward modelling result which accurately
Wallaby alteration pipe, but a simple and geologically predicted the susceptibility distribution of the subsurface.
plausible interpretation is that the northern margin is
parallel to the southern margin. 3.11.2.3 Discussion
The top of the prism model, shown in Fig. 3.71b, agrees The modelling of the Wallaby anomaly demonstrates that
quite well with the Euler solutions except on the northern it is good practice to begin by forward modelling the data,
margin, which is to be expected since this part of the data incorporating all available information in order to under-
were not modelled. The modelling was undertaken without stand the range of possible source geometries, and then use
reference to the known susceptibility distribution, but 3D inversion to refine the model. Proceeding directly with
these data from beneath the modelled profile are in excel- inverse modelling is a very high-risk strategy, especially
lent agreement with the depth to the top of the source and when it is unconstrained. In common with all magnetic
its dip. The absolute and relative susceptibilities are also modelling, the results are more likely to be correct in terms
correctly represented, notably the lower-susceptibility core of source depth and extent for shallow regions of the
of the alteration zone. The depth to the base of the anom- subsurface, but information about deeper regions is likely
aly source was poorly predicted; but the geometry of the to be less accurate. This also applies to source dip, which is
deeper parts of an anomaly source is usually not well a critical parameter in designing a drilling programme to
constrained because the observed response is dominated test the source of an anomaly (see Section 2.11.4). This
by the response of the shallower parts of the source (see example also shows that although the Wallaby anomaly is a
Sections 3.10.1.1). relatively isolated feature in the aeromagnetic data, even
here modelling was hindered by interference from other
3.11.2.2 Inverse modelling anomalies.
Inverse modelling was also applied to the Wallaby mag-
netic anomaly using a 3D voxel-based algorithm (see
3.11.3 Magnetic responses from an
Section 2.11.1.2) to explore the range of possible source
Archaean granitoid–greenstone terrain:
geometries. Firstly, a half-space model was used and the
Kirkland Lake area.
inversion applied unconstrained. It was then reapplied but
constrained by the results of the 2.5D modelling, with the Archaean granitoid–greenstone terrains contain a wide
inversion adjusting the body parameters only as necessary variety of lithotypes ranging from very weakly magnetised
to fit the data. The computed responses are shown as sedimentary and felsic igneous rocks through to ultra-
contours in Fig. 3.71d; note the excellent match between magnetic iron formations. Moreover, metamorphic grade
these and the actual data. The subsurface susceptibility is generally quite low and, although brittle and ductile
distributions produced by the modelling are shown in deformation is ubiquitous, the overall structure is normally
Figs. 3.71e and f for the principal profile and two depth not too complicated at the scale of hundreds of metres to
slices, along with equivalent displays of the downhole kilometres. Aeromagnetics is a useful aid to geological
(observed) susceptibility data. mapping in these environments at both the regional and
The inversion results from the shallower parts of the prospect scale.
subsurface, i.e. the 200 m depth slice and the upper part of The most magnetic lithotypes found in greenstone belts,
the cross-section, agree quite well and are a good repre- in addition to iron formations, are ultramafic rocks such as
sentation of the observed susceptibility distribution. The komatiites and some types of granitoids. Metamorphic
spatial extent of the anomalous susceptibility is correctly grade is normally greenschist to amphibolite facies, so
defined, including the lower-susceptibility core, although mafic rocks tend to be weakly magnetic (see Fig. 3.48).
the absolute value of susceptibility was less well predicted Other usually weakly magnetised lithotypes include felsic
by the unconstrained inversion. At greater depths, the and intermediate igneous rocks, and clastic sedimentary
correspondence between the modelled and observed distri- rocks. Structures such as faults and shear zones are import-
butions deteriorates, especially for the unconstrained ant targets because of their association with mineral
inversion which has incorrectly predicted a steep northerly deposits. They are often recognised as offsets and trunca-
dip for the source. The constrained inversion has tions to stratigraphic anomalies, and may appear as zones

the surrounding rocks. The aeromagnetic data west-central area and this is visible in the magnetics (G). Exploration for these types of deposits using Virtually the entire spectrum of greenstone lithotypes can magnetics is often focused toward locating and mapping be found in the Kirkland Lake area. (2008). Ispolatov et al. responses of thin. The rocks with values in responses. An increased distance between them and the magnetometer).73. so that they exhibit linear positive in most cases between 1 and 10. Canada. The Otto stock (C) contains a large The geomagnetic field in the survey area has an inclination roof pendant of basic rocks. the Archaean rocks are survey lines oriented north–south and spaced 200 m apart unconformably overlain by Proterozoic and Phanerozoic (Ontario Geological Survey.3. the north–south trending dolerite dykes of the . but many felsic.55). magnetite may be concentrated very high Königsberger ratios. as their responses are usually weak compared with the responses of their host 3. to felsic igneous rocks of the Watabeag Assemblage occur bility and strength of remanent magnetism for selected within the batholith (J) but. In addition. neau. Occasionally.g. allowing the types have contrasting rheological properties. the contact between mafic and greenschist or lower. The Long Lake Fault bisects it. metamorphic grade is favourable stratigraphy. In the south of the area. strata (H). These data show that remanent magnetism is significant in ite by hydrothermal processes and weathering (see the area.2 Responses from different lithotypes stratigraphy. but further north it strikes dominantly east–west.176 Gravity and magnetic methods of reduced magnetism owing to the destruction of magnet. There is also sig. also being poorly magnetic. excess of 10 may be affected by lightning strikes (see The magnetic responses from nickel and base-metal Section 3. but The survey has been very effective in defining the major their presence can be inferred from the subdued responses geological entities in the region.4). A concise summary resulting from southward flow of magma which ascended of the geology is provided by Jackson and Fyon (1991). the aeromagnetic signatures of an Archaean granitoid. and it may tonalite–granodiorite intrusion with dimensions of tens of also occur at stratigraphic contacts where adjacent rock kilometres. to illustrate stratigraphy extends around the margins of the batholith. greenstone terrain. part of the to be seen clearly. mapping a wide variety of of the underlying Archaean rocks (subdued because of the lithotypes. close to 100. survey extends over the southeastern portion of the Wata- ation of the aeromagnetic data and help in understanding beag Batholith (I). These cover units are fairly non-magnetic.9. 1994).11. e. at amphibolite facies. were acquired at a nominal terrain clearance of 70 m along In the east and south of the area. Also. 3.8. northwest-trending lamproite dykes (B) We have chosen the Kirkland Lake area. Referring to Figures 3. Lebel (D) and McElroy (E) stocks. nificant iron-ore mineralisation in the area. a gneissic tially magnetic. Frequency histograms of magnetic suscepti. The western part of the (Ontario Geological Survey. 3. 3.74).1 Magnetic data magnetic anomaly (F). More obvious are remanent and induced magnetism compared in Fig. in its of +74° and a declination of –12°. logical entity is the Round Lake batholith (A). 3. The deposits such as the giant Kirkland Lake and world-class magnetic expression of these intrusions is generally sub- Kerr Addison and Chesterfield deposits. sulphides can rarely be defined. gold mineralisation may be strati. the Lebel stock (D) is significant literature about the geology of the Kirkland thought to be comparatively thin. there exists a Based on magnetic fabric studies. but may be higher adjacent to intru- ultramafic units. because it has a diversity of lithotypes The Kirkland Lake area has several large syenitic intru- and several major structures which are associated with gold sions: the Otto (C). sions.72 and the strength of not well resolved in the magnetic data.11. Its magnetic response is subdued. the greenstone Abitibi Subprovince in Ontario.g. along faults near its northern margin (Cruden and Lau- whose stratigraphic terminology has been adopted here. Algoman-type iron formation. the largest geo- graphically controlled with iron-rich. and delineating major structures (Fig. Lake area. and therefore poten. are lithotypes are shown in Fig.74a and b. Intermediate of the geology. dued. extensive database of petrophysical data has been compiled Similar effects are caused by lakes. As expected some of the iron formations have Fig. 2003). which is weakly magnetic. with the The stocks are surrounded by narrow contact aureoles Adams Mine producing magnetite iron ore from where metamorphic grade reaches amphibolite facies.3. more in structures such as faults and shear zones than in mafic and ultramafic rocks also have ratios greater than 1. 2001) to assist the interpret. having a disc-like form. e. the fault being clearly visible in the magnetic data as a decrease in the 3. which is consistent with the magnetic property data. units being favourable hosts.

11 Examples of gravity and magnetic data from mineralised terrains 177 Clastic sediments Rhyolite n = 47 n=3 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Argillites Andesite n = 12 n=5 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Iron formation Diorite n=6 n = 15 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Tonalite. sive and extrusives. The variable magnetic ole associated with the intrusion. Immediately east making their widths appear bigger. Matachewan swarm (K).72 Frequency histograms of magnetic susceptibility and intensity (strength) of remanent magnetism for various lithotypes in the Kirkland Lake area. Good examples of stratigraphically controlled linear Interpolation between survey lines to create the gridded magnetic responses occur in the greenstone succession to data (see Section 2. granodiorite granodiorite Granite Granitoids Mafic volcanics n = 42 Granite n = 131 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Syenite & trachyte Ultramafics n = 25 n=9 Peridotite Peridotite 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Dolerite & gabbro Intermediate volcanics Dolerite n=6 Dolerite n=8 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 10–6 10–4 10–2 100 102 10–4 10–2 100 102 104 Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Susceptibility (SI) Intensity (A/m) Figure 3. intermediate and basaltic intru- (I). occurring at the southern end of the Watabeag Batholith which includes komatiites. exhibits the rugose texture often associated with gran. Note that the dyke anomalies responses of the local granitoids are reflected in the multi- probably appear wider in the image than their true width modal distribution of their magnetic properties.7. and close to the batholith a sulphide- itoids. of the batholith is the Catharine–Pacaud assemblage (M).2) tends to ‘smear’ the anomalies the east of the Round Lake batholith (A). so primary lithologies are . Another intrusion (L). owing to their strike being parallel to the survey lines. Based on data in Ontario Geological Survey (2001). Tonalite. but it is significantly more magnetic than the large facies iron formation. There is no significant contact aure- granitoids in the survey area. 3.

01 which is associated with a northwest–southeast trending 0. Litho- 10–3 types include volcanics and sedimentary rocks. These are Remanent magnetism (A/m) 101 too small to be resolved in the aeromagnetic data. = Q metasedimentary rocks (S). consistent facing does not consistently young southwards types. Within this = Q 102 unit is the Adams magnetite deposit. but the igneous components give physical data. . Serpentinisation ensures that it is 1 0. 102 Non-igneous and as expected producing more variable and stronger 10 = responses than the Skead Assemblage. Based on data in Ontario Geological Survey (2001). Although these rocks are apparently easily mapped from = Q 10–2 their subdued magnetic responses. weakly magnetised (T). Associated with the sedimentary rocks are alkalic flows and pyroclastics. However. = Q linear zone of weaker magnetic response. 1 Very low magnetic responses are associated with clastic 0. the more mafic rocks being associated with the because of strike faults and folds. whose stratigraphic affinity is 10–1 disputed (Hearse Assemblage of Jackson and Fyon. = Q area are associated with the Boston Assemblage (R).73 Plots comparing the strength of the induced and remanent magnetisms of various lithotypes in the Kirkland Lake ary rocks. 10–2 The strongest magnetic anomalies in the Kirkland Lake 1 00 0. with the cut by numerous faults and shear zones. = strongly magnetic. which is to be expected. The succession faces mainly south and has a moderate southerly dip. 01 0. which is roughly 20 km in = Q length and occurs at. The petrophysical data show that the iron b) 103 Iron formation Other sediments formations are significantly more magnetic than any other 0 10 Non-sedimentary rock type in the area. It is the principal control on the magnetic responses.178 Gravity and magnetic methods a) 103 Alkali to intermediate volcanics. the dom- Q Remanent magnetism (A/m) 101 inant magnetic feature here is the Lincoln–Nipissing peri- 1 dotite–gabbro intrusion (P). Q 10–3 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 The Timiskaming Assemblage (T and U) is the youngest Induced magnetism (A/m) rock formation in the area and has an unconformity at its base. Overlying the Skead Assemblage is the McElroy 0 10 Intermediate = Q Mafic Ultramafic Assemblage (O). = responses of underlying magnetic units. It is the truncation Assemblage (N) is a sheared primary contact. The contact with the overlying Skead rise to moderate positive anomalies (U). At the northern margin of the McElroy Q 10–1 Assemblage is the Lincoln–Nipissing shear zone (Q). 1991). but the 1 = Q general trend of the stratigraphy is clear from its strong 100 response. the metasedimentary components being mostly properties of these lithotypes are confirmed by the petro. and despite the linear anomaly pattern reflecting the interbedded litho. the northern margin of 100 the McElroy Assemblage. The stratigraphy 10 extends around the margin of the Lebel stock (D) with = Q the local succession forming tight isoclinal folds. plus area. or close to. The magnetic response is stronger magnetic responses. The Skead and displacement of anomalies related to the igneous rocks Assemblage is composed predominantly of calc-alkali felsic that allow faults to be delineated. consisting mainly of conglomerate. The contrasts in the magnetic variable. sandstones and argillites. so its magnetic response is sub- Felsic dued. It comprises alluvial–fluvial and turbidite sediment- Figure 3. it is easy to underesti- 1 mate their actual extent owing to the stronger magnetic 00 0. comprising mafic and ultramafic rocks. with the 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 Induced magnetism (A/m) main magnetic units being serpentinised ultramafics and iron formations.

The deformation zone 3.30). metasomatism and sive igneous rocks.4 Discussion Figs. and the of 80 m along survey lines oriented east–west and spaced truncation of discordant anomaly trends across it (W).3.11. The geomagnetic field in the area has an inclination of –63° The Kirkland Lake main break is a system of several and declination of +11°.4. The aeromagnetic and ground magnetic responses of kimberlites of the Kirkland Lake swarm are described in more detail by Brummer et al.11. trending structural domains separated by major fault structures (which can be seen in the magnetic images in 3. but no significant lateral component. A wealth of stratigraphic and local stratigraphy. 1999). (E) and the Gilmore (A). It trends east-northeast and has vertical to steep variety of lithotypes. different senses of movement in different areas. Since its 3. 3. tectonics is that of Glen (1992).75a and b) along which deformation has been Although the Kirkland Lake area dataset would not be concentrated.g. Figures 3. 3. provide the most recent synthesis.4 Magnetic responses in a Phanerozoic (1992). Gray and Foster (2004) The Larder–Cadillac deformation zone is a major struc. occur in the Fig.4.3 Responses from major fault zones margin environment experiencing oblique-compression.2 Regional geology strike direction is parallel to the local stratigraphic trend. These structures often have similar trend to the can be as a mapping tool. We have chosen a the local kimberlites (see Fig. southerly dip with southerly movement of a few hundred metres. and is generally accepted to mark a suture zone between major crustal blocks.. it is only mod- movement component. some diamondiferous.1 Magnetic data is easily recognised in the magnetic data from the associ. In addition. e. (1986) describe one perspective on its tec- the Larder–Cadillac deformation (fault) zone and the Kirk. Note the significantly section of it from central New South Wales to illustrate different anomaly shapes. The two major fault structures in Kirkland Lake area are Degeling et al. in magnetically inactive areas.3. including its implications for metallogeny.11. the stratigraphy (X). Tullamore considered of particularly high resolution by modern (B) and Coodalc–Narromine (D) sutures and the Parkes standards. There are also major fault structures veining. However.g. tonic history. 3.g. geological environments which north of the survey area. probably owing to variations in the magnetic signatures of a Palaeozoic orogenic belt. tectonic history of the region is generally held to involve the interaction of suspect terranes in an arc/convergent 3. it does show just how effective aeromagnetics Thrust (C). This major deform. 3. The remanent magnetism carried by the kimberlites. and important porphyry style Cu–Au deposits. Both are associated with A more recent interpretation emphasising thin-skinned important gold deposits.8 are illustrated using magnetic data The Palaeozoic Lachlan Foldbelt extends along much of from the Kirkland Lake area which include responses from the eastern seaboard of Australia. It is characterised by variety of sedimentary rocks and both intrusive and extru- intense hydrothermal alteration. so truncated anomalies are not always structural information is evident in the images making up obvious. Scheibner and Basden. It dips to the south and has a major reverse.11. and is one of several high-strain erately deformed and metamorphosed.74. The survey has been very effective closely spaced faults within the Timiskaming Assemblage in defining the major geological entities.11. 1998).11 Examples of gravity and magnetic data from mineralised terrains 179 Kimberlites (Y). These are associated with subtle exploration models predict to be prospective can be iden- magnetic anomalies which are only likely to be recognised tified relatively easily. land Lake main break (fault). ture extending for hundreds of kilometres (Wilkinson The region was chosen because its geology is well docu- et al. Cadia– ation zone has a complex history of reactivation with Ridgeway and Goonumbla–North Parkes. mented (e. depending on their strike. e. The various ways of presenting geophysical data Orogenic terrain: Lachlan Foldbelt described in Section 2.75a and b show images of Mapping its exact position can be difficult when it parallels the TMI and its first vertical derivative for the study area. mainly 250 m apart. mapping a wide (T and U). The Lachlan Foldbelt comprises a series of north–south- it is not especially well defined in the magnetic data. they can be recognised as either a linear . which is 500 m wide in places. and delineating major structures. 2. The aeromagnetic data were acquired at a terrain clearance ated linear zones of lower magnetic responses (V). and it contains a zones in the Abitibi Subprovince.

74 Aeromagnetic data and selected geology from the Kirkland Lake area. Both images are illuminated from the northeast.Adams 0 1 B Kilometres MB KL M Lake C Kerr Addison LL-CDZ B A Inset A Kirkland Lake H Syenite 80°W 0 1 Mafic igneous Kilometres Shafts/pits Meta-sedimentary Cover/lakes Iron formation/chert Faults Felsic–intermediate igneous Figure 3. Data source: Ontario Geological Survey © Queen’s Printer for Ontario 2014. with permission. . a) 80°W Y B 0 10 Kilometres I X K T Inset A W Inset C W U F V H J D V X W R S E H Inset B C G S P 48°N A 48°N Q L H A O A P 0 1 Kilometres N H Inset B . from Dubuc (1966) and from Robert and Poulsen (1997). The various labelled features are discussed in the text. and LL-CDZ – Larder Lake-Cadillac Deformation Zone. Geological maps redrawn. (a) Pseudocolour TMI. and (b) grey-scale first vertical derivative. KLMB – Kirkland Lake Main Break.

Adams 0 1 B Kilometres MB KL M Inset C–Kerr Addison LL-CDZ B A Inset A–Kirkland Lake H Syenite 80°W Mafic igneous 0 1 Shafts/pits Meta-sedimentary Kilometres Cover/lakes Iron formation/chert Faults Felsic–intermediate igneous Figure 3.) . b) 80°W Y B 0 10 Kilometres I X K T Inset A W Inset C W U F V H J D V X W R S E H C Inset B G S 48°N P 48°N A Q L H A O A P 0 1 Kilometres N H Inset B .74 (cont.

Both images are illuminated from the northeast. CR – Cadia-Ridgeway Cu–Au deposit.182 Gravity and magnetic methods a) 148°E F C E 0 25 Kilometres B Di Ov C E L Dv K I Dv Di B F F F Ov G G-NP C 33°S Dv E 33°S Ov Ov Di F B LV Ov L F F C Ov D F E CR B Di Ov Cow D A Ov G P O Ov F J K F A H C E N Ov P M A H Dv E G C D 148°E A Figure 3.76 and the various labelled features are discussed in the text. Data provided courtesy of the Geological Survey of NSW. and Cow – Cowal Au deposit. G-NP – Goonumbla-North Parkes Cu–Au deposit. . NSW Trade & Investment. and (b) grey-scale first vertical derivative. Highlighted area displayed in Figure 3. (a) Pseudocolour TMI. LV – London Victoria Au deposit.75 Aeromagnetic data from the central Lachlan Foldbelt.

11 Examples of gravity and magnetic data from mineralised terrains 183 b) 148°E F C E 0 25 Kilometres B Di Ov C E L Dv K I Dv Di B F F F Ov G G-NP C 33°S Dv E 33°S Ov Ov Di F B LV Ov L F F C Ov D F E CR B Di Ov Cow D A Ov G P O Ov F J K F A H C E N Ov P M A H Dv E G C D 148°E A Figure 3.) .75 (cont. 3.

This is partly due to their lack of with northeast and northwest trends. highly textured magnetic response typical of igneous rocks. Compare these with different magnetic textures. There are also good examples the Devonian there was also significant magmatism of of anomalies truncated by minor faults (O). Magnetic surveys have proven to be an effect- that seen in Fig. the Gilmore Suture (A). There is a dominant north–south trend from folds non-magnetic and create a characteristic subdued response and thrust faults. exhibit the (F). Small intrusive bodies magnetic anomalies in these areas allow some folds to be have a characteristic textured appearance similar to the recognised (L). plus some conjugate strike-slip faulting in the magnetic data.8d would be expected. the Hill End and Cowra– Ordovician volcanics they intrude. a ‘low’ to the ive means of mapping the bedrock geology in the district. shallow-water sedimentation. 3. 3.. the Tumult weak magnetism (M) and there is evidence for a magnetic Trough was inverted resulting in a zone of folding. This interpret. Without remanent magnetism. gravity data from the North Parkes area are shown in netic vectors with shallow inclinations directed northwest Fig. A geological map and images of the magnetic and Bouguer ation is supported by petrophysical data which show mag. deposition continued uninterrupted. Cowra–Yass and dendritic anomaly shapes (G).11. halo (N). Endeavour 26 North.3 Magnetic responses from lithotypes clear. From the Ordovician to Deformation in the Middle Devonian was followed by the early Devonian there was a series of tectonic and molasse sedimentation.g. often of comparatively localised areal Hervey Group (F) in the study area. 1990). ponents due to the comparatively high inclination. a response like 80 m depth. or maybe remanently magnetised zon- Gilmore (A) and Coolac–Narromine sutures (D). and to the east of. Outcropping volcanic rocks have a highly textured and structures response with many short-wavelength variations. the responses coalesce creating a smoother appearance. e. Their magnetic responses are similar to the 3. Cratonisation in the Early Carboniferous was followed by In the Silurian at. These rocks have a subdued magnetic The magnetic images show several other features of signature although. Intrusion of gabbro–peridotite or North Parkes area Alaskan-type intrusions occurred in the west. These sequences are extent. black shales and chert.e. they are dipolar anomalies with is subdued and outcrop sparse. It is probably related to an intru- tend to exhibit lower magnetic intensity. The regions between the troughs were sites of revealed by the truncation of stratigraphical anomalies (H).76. the change in magnetic character with source depth is quite 3. 1979). mainly clastics.11. and Hill End troughs. the same rocks underlie sediments of the Hervey Group plus mainly shoshonitic igneous rocks (Ov). Goonumbla–North Parkes porphyry deposits (G-NP). linear anomalies delineate general interest. mentary and volcanic sequences. e. for example The North Parkes porphyry copper district (NP) contains the Fifield Complex (I). Further east.. The cross-cutting nature of intrusions is structures. Magnetic anomalies associated several Cu–Au deposits. Linear ation related to cooling of the mass. e.4. responses with those from intrusions with dominantly Belts of deformed volcanic. the Tumult.4 Gravity and magnetic responses in the Ordovician volcanics. Linear positive anomal- Yass Zones. Endeav- with these rocks show evidence for dominance of our 22 and Endeavour 27 (Heithersay et al. which have minor negative com- igneous rocks are separated by ‘troughs’ containing sedi. Most granitoids have comparatively In the Late Silurian to Early Devonian. above detachments in the being at great depth. possibly due to magnetite created by contact ing and metamorphism mainly in the region between the metamorphism. I-type granitoids and volcanics. volcaniclastic and intrusive induced magnetism (K). but also due to underlying magnetic sources predominantly thin-skinned. . i. south of the source with a ‘high’ north of it. e. Terrain remanent magnetism. i. but also some Anomaly (J) has long wavelength and does not correlate carbonates. In the area to the east of the upper and middle crust.e.g. During ies are caused by dykes (P). comprising the clastic rocks of the magmatic episodes. erosion which transported magnetic detritus into the thick sequences of turbidites accumulated in mainly narrow drainage network. The base of oxidation varies from zero to component. These rocks are very weakly magnetised and so with the surface geology. Dv). Where Ordovician quartz-rich turbidites.g. with cover material tens of the negative component to the southwest of the positive metres thick. sive mass at depth. mafic to felsic composition (Di.184 Gravity and magnetic methods zone of lower magnetism or as the contact between areas to northeast (Emerson et al. Deformation was magnetism. thrust. delineated by its prominent sinuous graben or graben-like troughs. in places.g.4.

chert. 3. Redrawn.76 (a) TMI data from the Goonumbla–Parkes subarea of Figs. conglomerate (Hervey Group) Kilometres Dulladerry ryholite Sandstone. The various labelled features are discussed in the text. Data provided courtesy of the Geological Survey of NSW. There is a distinct gravity gradient and and volcanics to the east have been metamorphosed to change in magnetic character across the structure because lower greenschist facies and tightly folded. with permission. from Heithersay and Walshe (1995). FA – Forbes anticline. Although .76. The sediments magnetic data. Referring to Fig. the Parkes Thrust (C) is the major it marks the boundary between a volcanic area to the west structure in the area and is defined in both the gravity and and a sedimentary/volcanic area to the east. NSW Trade & Investment. conglomerate. LV – London Victoria Au deposit and MS – Milpose syncline. and from Heithersay et al. (1990) with the permission of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. conglomerate. conglomerate (Wallingalair Beds) Felsic igneous (Milpose Volcanics) Silurian Clastic sediments (Forbes group) Siltstone.11 Examples of gravity and magnetic data from mineralised terrains 185 a) b) F F F F L L C C LV LV L F L F Cover sediments Fold axes Fault c) Granite Caldera Endeavour Devonian lineament 0 10 Sandstone. chert (Cotton Fm & equiv’) Ordovician Intermediate volcanics (Goonumbla Volcanics equiv’) MS Trachyte hyaloclastite Wombin Volcanics Trachyte lavas Latite lavas Volcanic sediment Goonumbla Volcanics Limestone Siltstones t hrus Andesitic flows (Nelungaloo Volcanics) FA t kes Volc’ sediments. limestone Par Diorite-monzonite intrusions Deposits Figure 3.75a and b. (c) Geological map of the subarea. 3. 3. (b) Bouguer gravity.

deposit.e.10.e. the iron-formation hosted iron ore in Fig. Volcanic lithologies are mineralised environments predominantly andesitic. i. Together these examples lapsed caldera.76a USA.11. In Section 2.11. California. The our lineament.4. from an associated alteration zone and from the prospect- ated with it. allowing the broad structure plex at Cripple Creek. Seville. The data are Waitekauri (see Fig. of the porphyry centres.3.77.12 and diameter are interpreted as high-level stocks.25) are examples of responses characterised by responses of very different character: the from the alteration zone produced by the hydrothermal ‘busy’ response of the volcanics versus the smooth system that gave rise to mineralisation. The epithermal (see Section 3. gold-bearing to be delineated from the magnetic data. The ability of magnetics to causes a decrease in density at Cripple Creek and is map different aspects of the geology is demonstrated by the magnetism destructive at Waihi-Waitekauri. depth is illustrated clearly in the western third of the image and in Section 2. a structural corridor containing most. but tend towards basaltic in places. 3. Also presented are alteration- produces a spurious north–south ‘fabric’ in the image. Canada. northeasterly.4 the response from the Marmora mag- where the non-magnetic cover is present. tively wide survey line spacing of the data in Fig. 3. 3. palaeochannel deposits in the Port Wine area.5 Discussion sulphide mineralisation in the Thompson nickel belt Although a very different geological environment to the (Fig. responses from mineralisation. netite skarn in Ontario. ore minerals and gangue. The tion of mineral deposits. 3. Canada. The succession is unmetamorphosed with dips of Data presented elsewhere in this chapter show gravity 30–50°. Spain. which is thought to be due to an underlying ive host lithology. Yukon.77a. Completely different explor- rocks in the extreme east of the image give rise to subdued ation models could be applied to these data. The smoothing of responses with volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in eastern Australia. The alteration response from the sediments. the entire body of mineralisation. but gravity anomaly from Las Cruces (Fig. The magnetic anomaly associated with the nickel 3. 2. i. The compara.2 we present the (F). examples are shown in Fig. in Section magnetometer. 4. Western Australia. Finland. Colorado. so the response of these rocks is attenuated 2. the aeromagnetic data are again deposits at Cripple Creek (Fig.1). especially where magnetite-bearing monzonites and potential field responses that can be used for direct detec- diorites form a ring dyke along the northern margin. we Porphyry copper–gold mineralisation occurs at a showed the gravity response from massive nickel sulphide number of sites.3.11. the Forbes anticline (FA) and responses associated with: the Las Cruces Cu–Au massive Milpose syncline (MS). Further approximately 22 km in diameter. non-ore minerals.10.5 Magnetic and gravity responses from of variably magnetic igneous rocks.6. Felsic and modern-day drainage.18) and Waihi- extremely effective at mapping the geology.64 several linears. The sediments are non-magnetic.2 we showed the response from the Elura Zn–Pb–Ag (see Section 3. all located within a circular structure. often as data containing responses from Palaeozoic volcanic centres linear anomalies forming elongated closed loops (L). responses. The Wallaby . mineralisation at Pyhäsalmi. USA.27) is due to not all.7. interpreted as a col. China.1.77c) is due to magnetite and pyrrhotite in the granitoid-greenstone terrain of the Kirkland Lake example mineralisation. The feature is prominent in the magnetic have been chosen to illustrate the three basic types of data. Two major folds. and the cumulate chromite deposits in Fig. Within The mineralisation itself gives rise to the magnetic the caldera. the most important of which is the Endeav. and coal-bearing sequences in the Bonnet Plume causes aliasing of the short-wavelength responses which Basin.e. Oulu. but their presence magnetic responses associated with Au–Ag mineralisation places the underlying magnetic rocks further from the in the Waihi-Waitekauri region in New Zealand. 3. and an iron-ore deposit in ciated with subdued magnetic responses and lower gravity Qian’an District.77b. The sedimentary units are significantly less epithermal Au–Ag–Te mineralisation in an igneous com- magnetic than the volcanics. low-density intrusion at relatively shallow depth. There are 3. 3.3).2. i.186 Gravity and magnetic methods subtle. 3. caldera also has a distinct negative gravity anomaly associ.6. associated magnetic responses from the Wallaby Au The clastic sediments of the Hervey Group are again asso. In Section 4. The volcanic terrain to the west of the Parkes thrust has the textured appearance typical of a succession 3. have curvilinear traces trending sulphide deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. the folds are defined by the magnetic data.1. circular magnetic features a few kilometres in response from the magnetite skarn in Figs.

Ontario. with permission. Manitoba. India. Redrawn.77 Gravity and magnetic responses associated with various types of mineralisation. Canada. southeastern Elaziğ. (d) gravity response of the sedimentary basin hosting the Jharia Coalfield. Jharkhand. from Yüngül (1956). (b) the positive gravity anomaly associated with the Gölalan Cr deposit. Redrawn. Redrawn. from Verma et al. Turkey. a) 00 18 8000 TMI (nT) 6000 4000 1800 1600 2000 1500 A B B A 4000 2000 1800 Limestone Syenite 0 100 Trachyte 0 500 Garnet-epidote skarn Metres Metres Ore zone b) 0 50 Bouguer gravity Metres (gu) B 70 50 50 60 50 A Discovery outcrop B 60 60 50 50 A Chromite Serpentinite & peridotite c) B TMI (nT) 2000 3000 2000 EM conductor Shaft A B 3000 2600 Overburden Iron formation 0 200 Peridotite 2000 Drillholes Metres Granite gneiss A Sedimentary rocks Ore zone Residual gravity d) (gu) 0 0 5 Kilometres –150 A A B –40 0 –80 –120 Raniganj Series 0 2 Barren Measures Kilometres Barakar Series Talchir Series Basement (gneisses) B Coal seam Figure 3. . (c) magnetic response of the Thompson Ni deposit. with permission. with permission. (1979). with permission. from Wahl and Lake (1957). (a) Aeromagnetic response of the Marmora magnetite skarn. from Dowsett (1967). Canada. Redrawn.