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and replication are carried out. The flagella beat in a propeller-like motion to help the bacterium move toward nutrients. nutrients.protective covering. the cell wall. and rocks. • Flagella . It is not a membrane bound nucleus.The nucleoid is a region of cytoplasm where the chromosomal DNA is located. but the most important are to keep the bacterium from drying out and to protect it from phagocytosis (engulfing) by larger microorganisms • Cell Envelope . but simply an area of the cytoplasm where the strands of DNA are found. intestines. or. They can be found at either or both ends of a bacterium or all over its surface. and gases and contains cell structures such as ribosomes. regulating the flow of materials in and out of the cell. enzymes. small hairlike projections emerging from the outside cell surface.a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan.in some species of bacteria -.• Capsule . metabolism. wastes. a barrier that allows them to selectively interact with their environment. and -. These outgrowths assist the bacteria in attaching to other cells and surfaces. such as teeth. • Pili .hairlike structures that provide a means of locomotion for those bacteria that have them.The cell envelope is made up of two to three layers: the interior cytoplasmic membrane.Many species of bacteria have pili (singular. protecting it from the environment.A layer of phospholipids and proteins. a protein-sugar (polysaccharide) molecule. called the cytoplasmic membrane. away from toxic chemicals.The cytoplasm. of bacterial cells is where the functions for cell growth. • Cytoplasmic Membrane . • Nucleoid . The wall gives the cell its shape and surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane. made up of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates). • cell wall .an outer capsule. and plasmids. toward the light. in the case of the photosynthetic cyanobacteria. pilus). encloses the interior of the bacterium. • Cytoplasm . a chromosome. or protoplasm. This is a structural trait bacteria share with all other living cells. Capsules play a number of roles. It is a gel-like matrix composed of water. .

Bacillus subtilis is different from other facultative aerobes in that it undergoes fermentation without external acceptors of electrons . One is used for nitrate Order: Bacillales nitrogen assimilation and the other is used for nitrate respiration. Family: Bacillaceae there is only one nitrite reductase that serves both purposes. Bacillus subtilis bacteria have been considered strictly aerobic. Rod-shaped Bacteria Example: Bacillus Subtilis (rod-shaped. meaning that they require oxygen to grow and they cannot undergo fermentation. mesophilic. Nitrate Genus: Bacillus reductase reduces nitrate to nitrite in nitrate respiration. is the formation of stress-resistant endospores. therefore. Metabolism Scientific classification Bacillus Subtilis are chemoautotrophs. aerobic) Bacillus subtilis are naturally found in soil and vegetation. Stress and starvation are common in this environment. Bacillus Domain: Bacteria subtilis can use nitrite or nitrate as a terminal acceptor of electrons. However. for example. including bacteria.Ribosomes are microscopic "factories" found in all cells. The optimal temperature is 25-35 degrees Celsius (Entrez Genome Project). subtilis reduced to ammonia by nitrite reductase. They are nitrifiers. They translate the genetic code from the molecular language of nucleic acid to that of amino acids—the building blocks of proteins. One strategy. recent studies show that they can indeed grow in anaerobic conditions making them facultative aerobes. Bacillus subtilis has evolved a set of strategies that allow survival under these harsh conditions.During . non-pathogenic. gram positive. 1. Bacillus Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli subtilis contains two unique nitrate reductases. Bacillus subtilis grow in the mesophilic temperature range. which is then Species: B. • Ribosomes . However.

Genetics Bacteria lack nuclei and do not possess the complex chromosomes characteristic of eukaryotes. fermentation. the regeneration of NAD+ is chiefly mediated by lactate dehydrogenase. nonsporeforming coccus) Streptococcus pyogenes. which is a classification for the streptococci that are associated with pus formation. The bacteria can make ATP in anaerobic conditions via butanediol fermentation as well as nitrate ammonification. Instead. glomerulonephritis. 2. nonmotile.The name pyogenes comes from the word pyogenic. pathogenic. Also. also known as the flesh eating bacteria.5%. which is found in the cytoplasm. Genome Structure The genome is a circular chromosome with an average G+C content of 38. and 83% of the genes were transcribed in the clockwise direction . independently replicating circles of DNA called plasmids. usually not essential for the cell’s survival. their genes are encoded within a single double-stranded ring of DNA that is crammed into one region of the cell known as the nucleoid region. They are best thought of as an excised portion of the bacterial chromosome. and necrotizing fasciitis. The effects of this microbe range from mild illnesses such as strep throat and impetigo to more serious diseases such as scarlet fever. Spherical bacteria Example: streptococcus pyrogenes (spherical bacteria arranged in chains. Many bacterial cells also possess small. is the most pathogenic bacterium in the whole genus . Gram-positive. Plasmids contain only a few genes.

.752 predicted protein-encoding genes. and 76% of the genes were transcribed in the counterclockwise direction. which is a fibronectin binding protein that allows it to adhere Kingdom: Eubacteria to respiratory epithelial cells.This protein is an important virulence Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli factor because by binding to the epithelial cells. It has a protein called protein F. pyogenes medium containing blood in order to grow. and was found to contain 1.442 base pairs and about 1. Metabolism Scientific classification Streptococcus pyogenes is a chemoheterotroph. the organism is a catalase-negative Genus: Streptococcus aerotolerant anaerobe (facultative anaerobe). Family: Streptococcaceae pyogenes is fermentative. and not leave. and requires enriched Species: S.The genome of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes has been sequenced.852. the organism is able to Order: Lactobacillales stick to the cells of the host tightly.The metabolism of S.

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An example of a spirillum bacterium is Spirillum minus. They have a strictly respiratory type of Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria metabolism and are microaerophilic: they need an Class: Betaproteobacteria atmosphere of 1 to 9% oxygen for growth. In other words. is believed to be the first person to identify Spirillum species of bacteria in the 1670s.3. they can easily thrive in very low environmental oxygen levels. a Dutch scientist. at each end of the cell. which causes rat-bite fever. which are long protrusion used for movement. rigid cells. Spirilla bacteria are elongated. meaning the amount of oxygen needed for their survival and proliferation is significantly less. spiral shaped. Oxygen concentration of 1 to 9% is enough for their growth. For these bacteria. These cells may also have flagella. Curved bacteria Example: spirillium minus (spiral-shaped. gram negative. Although Order: Nitrosomonadales catalase activity is weak. Metabolism These bacteria use storage granules that act as storage areas for nutrients. minus . the Scientific classification granules are made up of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Genus: Spirillum Species: S. microaerophilic. aerobic chemoheterotroph Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. They are microaerophilic. positive reactions were found Family: Spirillaceae for the oxidase and phosphatase tests. known as the Father of Microbiology.

 Cil ia .Centrioles are self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found only in animal cells. Centrioles . They appear to help in organizing cell division. but aren't essential to the process.

 Lysosomes . which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials. .The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of sacs that manufactures.The main function of these microbodies is digestion.Endosomes are membrane-bound vesicles. cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells. providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.  Intermediate Filaments . intermediate filaments function as tension-bearing elements to help maintain cell shape and rigidity.  Microfilaments . The basic mechanism of endocytosis is the reverse of what occurs during exocytosis or cellular secretion.The Golgi apparatus is the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. and Flagella . formed via a complex family of processes collectively known as endocytosis. It involves the invagination (folding inward) of a cell's plasma membrane to surround macromolecules or other matter diffusing through the extracellular fluid. In multicellular organisms. and found in the cytoplasm of virtually every animal cell. Lysosomes break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell. processes.Intermediate filaments are a very broad class of fibrous proteins that play an important role as both structural and functional elements of the cytoskeleton. cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms. and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell.For single-celled eukaryotes. It is connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope. These filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin.  Golgi Apparatus . Ranging in size from 8 to 12 nanometers.  Endosomes and Endocytosis .  Endoplasmic Reticulum .

tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein. converting oxygen and nutrients into energy.These straight. they are the main power generators. which include growth.  Nucleus . and it coordinates the cell's activities. In eukaryotes. In prokaryotes.All living cells contain ribosomes.The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell.Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell.  Mitochondria . There are several types of microbodies but peroxisomes are the most common.  Peroxisomes . The nucleus . roughly spherical and bound by a single membrane. ranging from transport to structural support. they consist of three strands of RNA. hollow cylinders are found throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes don't have them) and carry out a variety of functions.  Plasma Membrane . ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA. These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells. intermediary metabolism.All living cells have a plasma membrane that encloses their contents. In the animal cell.Microbodies are a diverse group of organelles that are found in the cytoplasm. protein synthesis.  Microtubules . and reproduction (cell division). or DNA. Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and protect their contents. the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall. In prokaryotes.  Ribosomes . This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material.

Instead. . may affect the senescence of an organism. Packing all this material into a microscopic cell nucleus is an extraordinary feat of packaging. A nucleus may contain up to four nucleoli. a nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought together into nucleolar organizing regions. it can't be crammed into the nucleus like a ball of string. therefore. The Nucleolus . GEMS (Gemini of coiled bodies). the cell's protein-producing structures. and interchromatin granule clusters. the nuclear envelope. where protein synthesis occurs. The spherical nucleus typically occupies about 10 percent of a eukaryotic cell's volume. a dense string-like fiber called chromatin. such as Cajal bodies. most of the nuclear material consists of chromatin. It is also attached to a network of tubules and sacs. the nucleolus disappears.Packed inside the nucleus of every human cell is nearly 6 feet of DNA. which is divided into 46 individual molecules. and a variety of other smaller components. the less condensed form of the cell's DNA that organizes to form chromosomes during mitosis or cell division. compact structure. the nucleolus looks like a large dark spot within the nucleus. Through the microscope.5 inches long. After a cell divides. making it one of the cell's most prominent features. separates the contents of the nucleus from the cellular cytoplasm. Within the nucleoplasm. and is usually studded with ribosomes ( The semifluid matrix found inside the nucleus is called nucleoplasm.The nucleolus is a membrane- less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures ribosomes. organelles that synthesize protein-producing macromolecular assemblies called ribosomes. called the endoplasmic reticulum. The envelope is riddled with holes called nuclear pores that allow specific types and sizes of molecules to pass back and forth between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. During cell division. Chromatin and Chromosomes . one for each chromosome and each about 1. The nucleus also contains one or more nucleoli. but within each species the number of nucleoli is fixed. it is combined with proteins and organized into a precise. A double-layered membrane. For DNA to function. Some studies suggest that the nucleolus may be involved with cellular aging and.

The inner surface has a protein lining called the nuclear lamina. but not others.The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle. but reforms as the two cells complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse. permitting some to pass through the membrane. These pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm.The Nuclear Envelope . Building blocks for building DNA and RNA are allowed into the nucleus as well as molecules that provide the energy for constructing genetic material. The envelope is perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores. or cell division.The nuclear envelope is perforated with holes called nuclear pores. Nuclear Pores . These pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. but not others. . permitting some to pass through the membrane. the nuclear envelope disintegrates. The space between the layers is called the perinuclear space and appears to connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. During mitosis. which binds to chromatin and other nuclear components.

Characteristics  Eukaryotic .

& leaves  Cell walls are made of chitin (a complex polysaccharide)  Grow as microscopic tubes or filaments called hyphae that contain cytoplasm & nuclei  Hyphal networks are called mycelium  Reproduce by sexual & asexual spores  Classified by their sexual reproductive structures  Grow best in warm. a few are predators that capture prey  Nonmotile  Lack true roots. but some unicellular like yeast  Some are internal or external parasites. stems.digest food first & then absorb it into their bodies  Release digestive enzymes to break down organic material or their host  Store food energy as glycogen  Most are saprobes – live on other dead organisms  Important decomposers & recyclers of nutrients in the environment  Most are multicellular. Do not contain chlorophyll  Nonphotosynthetic  Absorptive heterotrophs . moist environments preferring shade .

release digestive enzymes. Characteristics :  sporangium fungi or common molds  Includes molds & blights  No septa in hyphae (coenocytic)  Asexual reproductive structure called sporangium & produces sporangiospores  Rhizoids anchor the mold. & absorb food  Asexual reproductive structure called sporangium & produces sporangiospores  Sexual spore produced by conjugation when (+) hyphae & (-) fuse is called zygospore  Zygospores can endure harsh environments until conditions improve & new sporangium Example: Rhizopus stolonifer (bread mold) .

sending its hyphae inward to absorb the nutrients. that contain enzymes. such as soil. It secretes digestive juices. causing the food to rot. Metabolism Rhizopus stolonifer is considered to be saprophytic because it feeds on dead. directly on the food. Scientific classification Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Zygomycota Class: Zygomycetes Order: Mucorales Family: Mucoraceae Genus: Rhizopus Species: Rhizopus Stolonifer Reproduction . Sugar and starch are favored by the mold. which it is then absorbed by the mold. and decaying matter. These enzymes cause the food to become soluble. It is a heterotrophic organism that obtains nutrients by absorption. so while growing on bread. The mold spreads over the surface of the substrate. Rhizopus stolonifer is also considered to be parasitic because it obtains nutrients from living organisms. damp. the mold takes up nutrition from the carbohydrate compounds of the bread.

Reproduction begins soon after bread mold finds a suitable substrate and sends out its feeding structures. Rhizopus stolonifer. or hyphae. The new spores now land on a new substrate. The nourished fungus forms upright structures that contain the fungal spores. to absorb nutrients. usually. and the fungal life cycle continues. most often reproduces asexually. the spores release when weather is warm and dry.Bread mold. These spores are the product of mitosis and remain with the fungus until conditions are appropriate for their release. .

rusts. toadstools. stinkhorns. puffballs. bracket fungi. shelf fungi. Characteristics:  Includes mushrooms. hyphae. & mycelia . & smuts  Some are used as food (mushroom) & others cause crop damage (rusts & smuts)  Seldom reproduce asexually  Basdiocarp made up of stalk called the stipe & a flattened cap  Stipe may have a skirt like ring below cap called the annulus  Gills are found on the underside of the cap & are lined with basidia  Basidium – sexual reproductive structure that make basidiospores  Basidiospores are released from the gills & germinate to form new hyphae & mycelia  Vegetative structures found below ground & include rhizoids (anchor & absorb nutrients).

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Basidiosphores Example: Collybia Mushroom Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Basidiomycota Class: Basidiomycetes Order: Agaricales Family: Tricholomataceae Genus: Collybia .

enzymatically controlled processes which are essential for the transport of certain materials across the cytoplasmic membrane 3. The breakdown of substrate materials yielding energy and producing smaller. more souble compounds 2. soluble compounds by enzymes secreted from the hyphae andthus referred to as extracellular enzymes. synthesis of cell materials. The soluble molecules may be taken from the hyphae by absorption. Mushrooms reproduce asexually by either budding or asexual spore formation. lipids. Budding occurs when an outgrowth of the parent cell is separated into a new cell. The septae of . those energy-requiring. In aerobic respiration th mycelium breaks down the carbohydrates of the substrate ultimately to CO2 and H2O. which is responsible for the term absorptive or osmotrophic nutrition – a distinguishing feature of fungi. Reproduction They can undergo both asexual and sexual production. metabolism is exemplified by: 1. All the proteins. This vegetative growth may be increased when the level of carbon dioxide is increased slightly. nucleic acids. Asexual spore formation.Metabolism: In mushroom biology. They are broken down to smaller. from the compounds that have entered the cell Mushroom species are aerobic organisms and adequate oxygen is necessary for mycelial running. including cell wall. however. the fungus breaks down by enzymatic means the carbon substrates and forms various intermediates for the synthesis of compounds needed for its life activities. By respiration. The main ingredients in the substrate which supports the growth and development of the mushroom are insoluble polysaccharide. most often takes place at the ends of specialized structures called conidiophores. as will occur normally in confined areas due to the respiratory activities of the mycelium. and cell wall polysaccharides are synthesized by anabolic processes within the hyphae or cells of mushroom species.

cup fungi. powdery mildew. hyphae with two types of nuclei. Plasmogamy results in binucleate hyphae. dividing a random number of nuclei into individual cells. Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota takes place in the fruiting body. truffles. The cell walls then thicken into a protective coat. The diploid phase is very brief. meiosis takes place. that is. These projections are then separated by cell walls to become spores. one from each parent. in specialized structures called basidia. The nuclei then migrate to the terminus of the basidium and form four individual projections. Soon after fusion. bud-like cells that break off & make more yeasts)  Asexual spores called conidia form on the tips of specialized hyphae called condiophores  Ascocarp – specialized hyphae formed by parent fungi during sexual reproduction  Ascus – sacs within the ascocarp that form spores called ascospores . These now diploid cells are the basidia. The basidia is itself formed by plasmogamy between mycelia from two different spores. The protected spores break off and are disbursed. some cells undergo fusion of these two nuclei. resulting in four haploid nuclei.terminal cells become fully defined. Characteristics:  Includes yeast. & morels  Sac Fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually  Yeast reproduce asexually by budding (form small. In the gills of the fruiting body.

Haploid spores can be one of two mating type. diploid cells can undergo a meiotic process called sporulation to produce four haploid spores. The diploid form is ellipsoid-shaped with a diameter of 5-6um. diploid cells can exhibit pseudohyphal growth if it is growing on a poor carbon source. newly developed cells remain attached to the parent cell through a septum. These spores can also undergo budding to produce more haploid cells. In addition to budding. Activated by cAMP. while the haploid form is more spherical with a diameter of 4um. in homothallic strains. where the daughter cell protrudes off a parent cell. the presence of a HO gene . a or α. producing a diploid cell. In heterothallic strains. a and α cells can also mate and fuse together. It is usually found in the diploid form. exposed to heat or high osmolarity. cerevisiae strains are further distinguished by differences in the haploid stage. and their mating type cannot be changed.Example: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cell structure and metabolism Saccharomyces cerevisiae can exist in two different forms: haploid or diploid. the spores resulting from sporulation cannot undergo budding. S. while the buds of diploid cells are located in opposite poles. The buds of haploid cells are adjacent to each other. haploid cells reproduce more than diploid cells. In exponential phase. Haploid and diploid cells can reproduce asexually in a process called budding. Additionally. However..

As a eukaryote. Sporulation can be induced if the yeast is exposed to either a poor carbon or nitrogen source or lack of a nitrogen source. yeast can also use other sugars as a carbon source. Sucrose can be converted into glucose and fructose by using an enzyme called invertase. In the Subphylum: Saccharomycotina presence of oxygen. Order: Saccharomycetales When oxygen is lacking. S. . and maltose can be converted into two molecules of glucose by using the enzyme mannase (2). allows the spores to change mating type as they grow . while the outer cell wall has a high concentration of mannoprotein. Spores also have a higher tolerance to conditions such as high temperature. Subkingdom: Dikarya Phylum: Ascomycota S cerevisiae can live in both aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. Its chromosomes are located in the nucleus. Chitin is Kingdom: Fungi usually located in the septum. The inner cell wall has a high concentration of β- Domain: Eukarya glucans. cerevisiae contains membrane-bound organelles. gene expression of enzumes used in respiration are repressed and fermentation takes over respiration (2). yeast only get their energy from glycolysis and the sugar is Family: Saccharomycetaceae Genus: Saccharomyces instead converted into ethanol. The cell wall protects the cell from its environment as well as from any Scientific classification changes in osmotic pressure. and when glucose concentrations are high enough. Like all other fungi. the cell's shape is based on its cell wall. a less efficient process than aerobic respiration. where glucose is broken Class: Saccharomycetes to CO2 and ATP is produced by protons falling down their gradient to an ATPase. The Species: Cerevisiae main source of carbon and energy is glucose. However. yeast can undergo aerobic respiration. and it uses mitochondria to conduct cellular respiration.

occuring mainly by production of asexual conidiospores . some species. with a few aquatic exceptions. They are classified as belonging to the form Phylum Deuteromycota. are now classified as ascomycetes. Since they do not possess the sexual structures that are used to classify other fungi. Genetic recombination is known to take place between the different nuclei. Molecular analysis shows that the closest group to the deuteromycetes is the ascomycetes. Deuteromycota is a polyphyletic group where many species are more closely related to organisms in other phyla than to each other. In fact. Reproduction of Deuteromycota is strictly asexual. . Some hyphae may recombine and form heterokaryotic hyphae. instead. such as Aspergillus. hence it cannot be called a true phylum and must. Most members live on land. budding yeast Imperfect fungi are those that do not display a sexual phase. they are less well described in comparison to other divisions. They form visible mycelia with a fuzzy appearance and are commonly known as mold. be given the name form phylum. which were once classified as imperfect fungi.

Conidiophores (asexually produced fungal spores) of A. Mycelial. Example: Aspergillus niger Cell structure and metabolism Characteristics A. hyphae are divided by a septum and transparent. niger usually range from 900-1600 µm in . or threadlike. niger produce colonies that are composed of white or yellow felt that is covered by dark asexually produced fungal spores.

Each globose vesicle is completely covered with biseriate phialides which are projections from the conidiophore of A. niger gains energy is through bioleaching. These phialides come out from brown metulae. alanine and glutamine Class: Eurotiomycetes prospered in this environment. Reproduction . Metabolism and Energy A. niger. Bioleaching is the process of extracting metals from ores via the use of bacteria. niger gains its energy by breaking down the minerals into its most basic element. length and contain globose (globular) vesicles ranging from 40-60 µm in diameter. The phialides go through a process of blastic basipetal conidiogenesis to create globose mitospores. Incorporated in this system are carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism which take place in both Scientific classification anabolic and catabolic reactions. which is the site where a conidiogenous cell is created. In addition to this. Linear programming was combined with 37 other metabolites in order to test for Kingdom: Fungi different flux distributions in those metabolites. A. gluconic acid. it is shown that the amino acids proline. For the most favorable growth rate. and with this energy is able to produce oxalic acid. mitochondria. nickel. which have a diameter that ranges from 3 to 5 µm. By using the technique of logarithmic Phylum: Ascomycota Subphylum: Pezizomycotina sensitivity analysis. aluminum. however it has the Order: Eurotiales possibility of helping with biomass manufacture. niger has a metabolic system which is composed of the cytoplasm. This fungi specifically is able to break down copper. and citric acid. linear programming Domain: Eukaryota was used. and peroxisome. and lead. The amino acid tyrosine had no effect. tin. One of the most common ways that A. four other amino acids Family: Trichocomaceae Genus: Aspergillus caused a 44% increase in biomass manufacture and a 41% increase in recombinant protein production.

for example. Different reactions and pathways are used whenever A. the metabolism of A. depending on the species and strain of the parasite and the resistance of the host. Most species are free living. Protozoa are one-celled animals found worldwide in most habitats. however the only enzymatic steps that are used to create chitin are those catalyzed by glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase as well as chitin synthase. Structure . Under optimal conditions. this value can be further increased with a doubling in enzyme concentration. Again. niger is slightly altered. but all higher animals are infected with one or more species of protozoa. niger consumes a substrate or forms a metabolic product. Chitin. In this linearly progressive state. however there is still an opportunity for changes which can lead to a five fold increase in basal rate synthesis. niger produces is citric acid. makes up the cell wall of A. production of citric acid is high. Doubling the concentration allows at least a 12 fold increase in citric acid production and a maximum of a 50 fold increase when enzyme concentration is 10 times its normal value. One of the most important products that A. at least 13 enzymes need to be altered in order to obtain a maximum in citric acid production. Under conditions of citric acid accumulation. Infections range from asymptomatic to life threatening. niger. In normal conditions metabolism of the fungi progresses at a linear rate.

Protozoa are microscopic unicellular eukaryotes that have a relatively complex internal structure and carry out complex metabolic activities. Two daughter cells form within the parent cell. other terms are used for these stages. Division is longitudinal in the flagellates and transverse in the ciliates. Example: Typanosoma evansi . Cysts are stages with a protective membrane or thickened wall. Endodyogeny is a form of asexual division seen in Toxoplasma and some related organisms. which then ruptures. Reproduction Binary fission. Life Cycle Stages The stages of parasitic protozoa that actively feed and multiply are frequently called trophozoites. is asexual. releasing the smaller progeny which grow to full size before repeating the process. Protozoan cysts that must survive outside the host usually have more resistant walls than cysts that form in tissues. amebas have no apparent anterior-posterior axis. in some protozoa. the most common form of reproduction. Some protozoa have structures for propulsion or other types of movement. multiple asexual division occurs in some forms.

The endosome lacks DNA in the parasitic amebas and trypanosomes. Organelle function Most parasitic protozoa in humans are less than 50 μm in size.encloses the cytoplasm also covers the projecting locomotory structures such as pseudopodia. with scattered chromatin giving a diffuse appearance to the nucleus. and other specialized structures. including the Golgi apparatus. transparent layer) and endoplasm (the inner layer containing organelles subpellicular microtubules – (for protozoa with no external organelles for locomotion) these provide a means for slow movement. As in all eukaryotes. food vacuoles. The organelles of protozoa have functions similar to the organs of higher animals. lysosomes. plasma membrane . One type of vesicular nucleus contains a more or less central body. Many other structures occur in parasitic protozoa. cilia. all nuclei in the individual organism appear alike.outer surface layer of some protozoa which is sufficiently rigid to maintain a distinctive shape cytoplasm . the nucleus is enclosed in a membrane.differentiated into ectoplasm (the outer. conoids in the Apicomplexa. called an endosome or karyosome. Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes. nucleus -vesicular. mitochondria. . and flagella pellicle .

It is differentiated into cytoplasm. two contractile vacuoles. Plasma lemma . Cell structure Cell wall. The ingested material becomes enclosed within a membrane to form a food vacuole. pectin and other substances like alginic acid. mucilage. silica etc. through which ingested food passes to become enclosed in food vacuoles. It also contains hemicellulose. fucoidin. fucin. Golgi bodies. .It is bounded by plasma lemma. Many protozoa have a permanent mouth.Cell wall of most algae is cellulosic. mitochondria. chloroplast with one or more pyrenoids. a red eye spot and two flagella. calcium carbonate. in different combinations in different groups of algae. the cytosome or micropore. temporary openings in the body wall. Pinocytosis is a method of ingesting nutrient materials whereby fluid is drawn through small.Nutrition The nutrition of all protozoa is holozoic.It is present just below the cell wall and consists of two opaque layers which remain separated by less opaque zone Protoplast . nucleus. they require organic materials. that is. which may be particulate or in solution.

are specialized organelles that regulate the water content of cells and are therefore not involved in the long-term storage of substances. two types of vacuolar apparatus are recognized. Pyrenoid – A pyrenoid is a differentiated region within the chloroplast that is denser than the surrounding stroma that may or may not be traversed by thylakoids. Golgi apparatus . that contain the photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments. Each chloroplast contains flattened. These lipid droplets serve as a pool of lipid reserve for the synthesis and growth of lipoprotein membranes within the chloroplast.5 biphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) the enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide.are the sites of photosynthesis. spherical lipid droplets between their thylakoids. (1) the simple vacuoles. sensation and signal transduction. it produces carbohydrates. Nucleus . Pyrenoids contains ribulose 1. performs four distinct functions: it sorts many molecules synthesized elsewhere in the cell. water. Mitochondrion – are the sites where food molecules are broken down and carbon dioxide.Chloroplasts commonly contain small (30-100nm). When too much water enters the cells. In motile algae. and it marks the vesicles so that they are routed to the proper destination. membranous sacs that are arranged in a stack. .used by cells and unicellular organisms for movement.Chloroplasts . it packages molecules in small vesicles. Contractile vacuoles .The mature cells of eukaryotic algae have one or more vacuoles bounded by distinct membranes. such as cellulose or sugars. called thylakoids. the complex set of biochemical reactions that use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars. Flagella . These vacuoles play an important role in osmotic relations and the absorption of solutes and water. contractile vacuoles serve to eject it. membranous sacs. namely. Pyrenoids occur within every class are considered to a primitive evolutionary characteristic. and chemical bond energy are released. called contractile vacuoles. and sometimes attaches the sugars to other molecules. a process called cellular respiration Stigma .a series of flattened. which contract periodically and expel their contents to the exterior as in the green alga Chlamydomonas. A pyrenoid is frequently associated with storage products. Thylakoid – Thylakoid membranes contain integral membrane proteins which play an important role in light harvesting and the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

 Chlamydomonas can adopt an anaerobic metabolism. reinhardtii .  Its photosynthetic apparatus is closely related to that of vascular plants. Chlamydomonas has a flagellum.  Like a plant cell. chloroplast Kingdom: Plantae and mitochondrial genomes can all be transformed. moving towards or away from light to maximize light perception for photosynthesis and minimizing photodamage. Scientific classification Domain: Eukaryota  Chlamydomonas is the only known eukaryote in which the nuclear. producing hydrogen gas and metabolites such as formate and ethanol. fresh water alga) Characteristics:  Chlamydomonas is haploid and has a controlled sexual cycle with the possibility of tetrad analysis. motile. Like animal sperm cells. the cell of Chlamydomonas has a cell wall. Division: Chlorophyta Class: Chlorophyceae Order: Chlamydomonadales Family: Chlamydomonadaceae Genus: Chlamydomonas Species: C. and it is also a eukaryote. with photosynthesis genes encoded by both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Example: Chlamydomonas Reindartii (simple. unicellular.  Chlamydomonas ability to grow heterotrophically allows the isolation of viable mutants that are unable to perform photosynthesis. which  enables it to carry out phototaxis.

Division as described above takes place but produces up to sixteen new individuals which do not develop cell walls. reproduce by cell division. with the aid of its chloroplast. which are released as new chlamydomonas individuals. or occasionally three times. In this form it may be resistant to extremes of temperature and survive even the drying up of the pond. Each of these units forms a new cell wall and a pair of flagella. when they usually make the water look green. It is surrounded by water containing dissolved carbon dioxide and salts so that in the light. The cytoplasm in the zygospore will divide. so that great numbers of Chlamydomonas may appear very rapidly. usually into four units. withdraws the flagella. The parent cell wall bursts open and releases the daughter individuals.The zygote eventually rounds off.This fission may occur once a day. four or eight separate units of cytoplasm each with a nucleus and chloroplast. occurs.In favourable conditions the chlamydomonas individuals will continue to grow and then. it may be distributed in dust or mud. From this carbohydrate. and so reach new situations. with additional elements. secretes a thick wall round the cytotoplasm so forming a zygospore which sinks to the bottom of the pond.Sexual reproduction. of a kind. As a zygospore. stem and leaves of the higher plants.Metabolism Nutrition . it can synthesize all the other materials necessary for its existence. . the cytoplasm shrinks slightly within the cell wall. the nucleus and then the cytoplasm divide once.Chlamydomonas makes its food in the same way as green plants. The flagella are withdrawn. it can build up starch by photosynthesis. too. Reproduction . at a certain size. On release from the parental cell they swim about and may meet other individuals and fuse in pairs to form a zygote. but without the elaborate system of roots. twice. to give two.