Instruction is a basic operation that can be performed by the microprocessor by

design and is represented by an operation code.

The collection of such basic operation is known as instruction set of the
microprocessor

Instruction set is fixed by design and cannot be altered. Any other type of
operation, which is not a part of instruction set can be performed by the
combination of the instructions written and executed in sequence. Such
sequence of instruction is known as program.

8085 microprocessor has 74 basic instructions and 246 variations in these
instructions.

8085 is an enhancement of INTEL -8080 microprocessor.

8080 microprocessor has 72 basic instructions. All these 72 instructions are the
same and identical in mnemonic and operation code as in 8085.

Only two extra instruction exist in 8085 namely SIM and RIM.

Thus all programs are written for 8085 microprocessor both at assembly level
and at machine language level, however, the time of operation is different for
two microprocessors. Thus when changing, over from 8080 microprocessor to
8085 microprocessor care must be taken in program involving time delay.
Subsequently all programs written for 8085 at assembly level which excludes SIM
and RIM instruction can be run on 8080 microprocessor without modification.

All the instructions in 8085 will be either 1 byte or 2 byte or 3 bytes in length.

All the 74 instructions of 8085 are divided into 6 groups:

Gives the code used for register pair and registers in all instructions operation
code:

7INSTRUCTION SET:

 INSTRUCTION CYCLE: Time required to complete execution of one full
instruction.
 MACHINE CYCLE: Fetch cycle: Cycle during which the instruction is
received from memory.
 T-State subdivision of the operation to be performed by the
microprocessor.
 A machine cycle is defined as the timer required to complete the operation
of accessing either memory or I/O. whereas T-states is defined as one
subdivision of the operation performed in one clock period.

>> The language which a computer can understand is known as computer
language. Broadly, computer language can be divided into two parts as high
level language and low level language. Low level language is machine specific. It
is further divided as machine language and assembly language.

>> Debugging is another problem associated with machine language. To
overcome these problems, programmers develop another way in which
instructions are written in English alphabets. This new language is known as
assembly language. The instructions in this language are termed as mnemonics.

called the operation code (opcode). Three word or three byte instructions >> Although instruction may be as large as 3 bytes. and the second is the data to be operated on. which are broadly classified into the six groups. the opcodes can be from 00H to FFH.An instruction is a command to the microprocessor to perform a given task on a specified data. One word or one byte instructions 2. Two word or two byte instructions 3. called the operand. the opcode is always 1 byte in length. The operand (or data) can be various ways. The 8085 instruction set is classified into the following three groups according to word size: 1. 256 instructions are possible in the instruction set of 8085. Thus theoretically. or 8 bit or 16 bit address. In some instructions. Each instruction has two parts: one is task to performed. 2 8 = 256 distinct opcodes are possible. the operand is implicit. an internal register. They can be discussed under 66 types. a memory location. Each opcode corresponds to an instruction. . In hexadecimal. It may include 8- bit or 16 bit data. With 8 bits for the opcode. However only 246 opcodes are implemented in 8085.

. data transfer group. Generally. instructions are stored in the memory devices. There are various techniques to specify the operand of instructions. which is placed inside the microprocessor to perform a specific operation. arithmetic group. The instructions of the 8085 microprocessor are classified into five different groups. the microprocessor locates the memory location and fetches the operational code through a data bus. logical group . namely. branch control group. These techniques are known as addressing modes.An instruction is a specified binary pattern. I/O and machine control group. Before execution of any instruction of any instruction.

. The timing diagrams of read and write operation of the memory and other peripheral devices. The sequencing is done by the control unit of the microprocessor and synchronised with the clock. content of the accumulator to the output devices. Therefore. the address of the operand always exists within the instruction. the opcode fetch and its execution are performed in sequence.Then the decoder decodes the instruction and performs the specified function. In this addressing mode. This mode can be used to read data form output devices and store it in the accumulator or write the data.

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generally. The 8085 supports the following five addressing modes.An instruction is a command applied the microprocessor to perform a specific function. The instruction set of a microprocessor means the entire group of instructions. instructions have been classified into the following five functional groups. The method of specifying the data to be operated by the instruction is called addressing. The format of 8085 instructions: Addressing Modes: Every instruction of a program has to operate on a data. Immediate addressing Direct addressing Register addressing register indirect addressing implied addressing .

The 8085 instructions can be classified into the following five functional groups: .

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The data transfer instructions copy data from a source to a destination without modifying the contents of the source. . The data transfer can be possible between registers or between memory and registers or between I/O ports and the accumulator. The term data transfer has been used for copying data.