Lean Six Sigma Quality Transformation Toolkit (LSSQTT

)*
LSSQTT Tool #26 Courseware Content
“Failure Mode And Effects Analysis (FMEA), Quality Function
Deployment (QFD), Base For Reliable Quality Communication”
1. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
2. The design process
3. Design, product and process FMEA
4. FMEA steps and procedures
5. Product liability, FMEA, reliability, finite element analysis (FEA)
6. General reliability issues, Kaizen and FMEA
7. Quality function deployment (QFD) for lean six sigma introduced

*Updated fall, 2007 by John W. Sinn.

Failure Mode And Effects Analysis important to identify them all, and then to rate them
(FMEA) in terms of severity and or likelihood of occurrence.
Most FMEA systems actually result in a systemic
The purpose of the current tool is to introduce identification of likely causes of failure, and a
and explain FMEA and QFD, and develop them numeric weighting related to its occurrence, called
within the context of other analysis and RPN or risk priority number. FMEA tools help flush
documentation tools. FMEA and QFD both can out likely effects of the cause, again providing
draw heavily upon several other tools and numeric rankings for effects. This is different from
applications, specifically all basic SPC information cause and effect analysis in that cause and effect is
as solid data, cause and effect, OPCP, SOP's and so more interested in identifying the root causes for
on. FMEA and QFD are powerful analytical tools action and follow through while FMEA documents
for systematically focusing our efforts for ongoing and delineates actions categorically as a follow
improvement. through mechanism. Follow through is also
FMEA is a formalized technique and process concerned with recommended actions and effects
whereby cross functional teams of technical persons over time.
can assess product and process systems to assure that FMEA information is generally fed back to
failure in components or elements have been engineering and quality groups or others for
addressed, and hopefully, prevented. This involves enhanced design work or for other
identification, analysis and prioritization for ongoing changes/improvements. It should be recognized that
improvement, consistent with all Kaizen and the design FMEA is likely aimed at engineering
documentation approaches for lean environments. design changes. The process FMEA results in
FMEA is used to analyze failures after they identification of root causes, based on noted or
have occurred or to prevent their occurrence. suspected effects in processing. Based on these
Frequently called potential failure mode and effects causes and effects being identified, changes and
analysis, the opportunity for identifying a problem improvements can and should be pursued through an
before it becomes a reality is advantageous to all applications engineering group or team in the
concerned. The extent to which FMEA tools can be traditional organization or through quality
used prior to a failure to enhance the design function, engineering groups or teams of various persons in the
the better. FMEA tends to be used either as a design less traditional organization. There is an obvious
tool, a process analysis tool, or a product relationship between failures or problems in
improvement tool. The earlier FMEA systems are processing and possible problems in the end product.
used, the better, raising applications opportunities for It is particularly important that the FMEA
new product introduction and launch. process and application view be presented within the
FMEA seeks out the root cause of a problem, context of the broader systems approach to quality
or potential problem, and rates or prioritizes the functions. Problem solving at the shop floor or job
likelihood of its occurrence. Since there are typically site level today (and more importantly in the future)
numerous roots involved in any problem, it is must be within the context of technological impacts

and implications throughout the organization--all 8. Documenting process. Simply to document the
aimed at enhanced competitiveness based on ongoing process, creating an important record and
improvements. This requires enhanced paper trail of our overall effort. This must
documentation based on data and people, as outlined include both the macro process as well as sub-
in other tools and sections of the toolkit, all targeted processes within the broader process.
at lean kaizen. 9. Ongoing improvement, measurement. To
A myopic view of the product and its identify ways to improve the product or
operations will simply not be satisfactory for process, prior to or after a problem has been
competitive problem solving. The FMEA process and realized. FMEA serves as a point of reference,
application must also include a hands-on orientation and context, to gage our improvement, with
with knowledge and experiences, as well as abilities everyone being on the same sheet of music.
in materials, processing and mechanical aspects of 10. Prevention. The interest in FMEA is
technological functions. If problems must be solved prevention wherever possible. When a failure
relative to design and process, these systems and or other problem occurs, we will want to
areas within production must be approached from the prevent future occurrences.
hands on operators' vantage point. Typical FMEA 11. Reaction and enhancement. Systematic
broader issues and relationships could include: immediate reaction and enhancement method
for upgrading products and processes, based
1. Root cause, effect. Analyzing quality problems on potential concerns which surface from
or concerns related to processing or design internal and external sources knowledgeable.
issues or circumstances. This is an obvious If the FMEA is being pursued in a disciplined
relationship to cause and effect roots, and and well managed manner we can anticipate
wanting to "know more". problems rather than merely "put out fires".
2. Value analysis. Conducting value and/or cost 12. Team process. The FMEA provides an
analysis on a new process being considered for excellent team "learning environment",
production. While it is not the intent of mentoring new or existing persons for growth
FMEA to conduct value or cost analysis, it is a in the broader organization. In fact, it should
logical by-product for good design and be recognized and underscored that the FMEA
planning. should be conducted from a team approach,
3. Innovation. Analyzing various materials or drawing upon various elements of expertise in
processes for a redesigned product. The suppliers and customers, internal and external.
FMEA process, if used systematically, can 13. Robust improvement. The FMEA is probably
assist us in "looking inside" our product and second only to the OPCP in its robustness as a
process for new and innovative ways. planning and improvement tool--just by
4. Layout improvement. Determining plant following the steps in the process it will likely
layout and materials handling in new or lead to enhanced product performance. In
existing processing facilities--looking for fact, this will likely require most organizations
implications in the final product--and at all to place the FMEA in the OPCP as a standard
stages of production. operating procedure, not simply being done by
5. Up front planning. New product or process chance or when customers are yelling loudly.
development--implications for quality. The 14. Regular review systems. Ideally,
FMEA makes an excellent analytical tool to systematically, and on a semi-regular basis, we
determine "up front" the impact of change. should exercise the discipline required to
6. Understanding the customer. Market analysis review each design, product or process for
as related to technical aspects of product or improvements--the FMEA may prove useful
process development--customer input--both for this. FMEA review process can "trigger"
internal and external. ongoing questioning for improvement.
7. Teaching and learning. Training or evaluation 15. Broad communication. The FMEA, like other
related to redesigned products or processes documentation tools and systems, provides an
can and should occur. As we improve, the excellent communication tool both internally
RPN numbers should be reduced over time. and externally, to keep all parties and
As we share information and knowledge in the individuals concerned apprised of the
process of conducting FMEA, we all have an situation, upstream and downstream, internal
opportunity and challenge to teach and learn. and external. And once again, this assumes

Working with one or more circumstances and relationships which can bring prototypes which were developed during the second about improvements in quality and productivity. Creativity is decisions. Part of doing improvements in lean Creativity. The better the communication in this problems are simply too complicated for a single phase. and which will lead to further understanding and possibly other final preparations made. In terms of preliminary design. It is quite likely at this point that changes in as well as others'. inputs. This is true for a group to ensure that the product can actually be variety of reasons. Also. leading to a fully Each of the above areas represent applications. As the to solve problems in new ways rather than only using problem is further focused. people may become offensive and defensive rather Following the preliminary design selection. traditional approaches. supervisors and others will be production. showing all Relating to the above points. as a team function. It is also important to supervisors). as a creative individual must be able to present ideas and synchronous activity. that a cross functional team is doing the feasible. destructive tests. Creative people often have design process. Also. is the design process. People should learn to prototypes developed. conducted at this point to gain actual data prior to full Knowledge about process or product is resident with production. processes. personnel hired and trained. It is the their ego interfere. both verbally and graphically. various plans are moving forward. the into production when the startup actually occurs. (3) basic drawings. As might be guessed. developed product. Teamwork for creativity is an art will be made. the and a science requiring give and take in order to easier it will be to incorporate the new product design successfully and creatively be productive. Engineers and often an essential part of industrial design and designers are working closely with the production creativity for product development. It is also completed on prototypes and pilot products. The prototypes will be disassembled. as well as for basic quality product development is creativity. The important that we structure our teams carefully at the product tests may be field tests. and (4) addressing productivity through creativity it is specification development. materials. gathering final production data prior to actual Operators. Design processes addressed here in terms of how it can be improved typically involve at least four major phases. and other relationships evaluate their ideas in objective terms without letting explored. but fundamentally most technical produced. creative about in this section and tool. phase. various technical groups will usually begin leading to overall enhanced competitiveness. teamwork is component details and relationships. the less likely that costly errors in judgment individual to tackle. or outset of a technical problem to fully and other appropriate methods for gaining final data appropriately use our internal and external expertise. A pilot run is usually the solution or completion for the FMEA. phase. once criticism is offered by others. the better the communication. since they time studies completed. Also during this final operators--it is incumbent upon the teams to listen design/development phase various testing will be carefully to what the operators have to say. as with any FMEA--at minimum representing quality. Specifications are developed at some point in a final phase of the design process. A critical part of design and competitiveness. than trying to take advice in a constructive fashion. Maintenance personnel will be realize that lead time is increasingly needing to be involved for obvious relationships to reduced through concurrent engineering systems. will often be collecting much of the original data machinery acquired. or other relationships may occur since final specifications are The Design Process often somewhat different than the original product ideas may have dictated. flow charts provided. that the product could be shelved due to engineering and production (operators and prohibitive cost estimates. in ways that conducted to provide further proof that the product is will effectively communicate to all concerned. Far too many people are good CAD operators but are . and phases are (l) identifying the problem. It is important to try the design process. dimensions. reliability. It is possible at this phase. as related to FMEA data and problems seeking opinions about their ideas. involved in teams in the FMEA process. These for purposes of providing better products. important to recognize that there are many different problem identification occurs in the early stages of ways to solve the same problem. renderings completed. working drawings are drawn up. (2) certainly higher levels of productivity. Worse documentation which we are primarily concerned yet. A serious cost analysis will be concepts. or market research.

design process. processes. and perhaps reasons. Much sweat and toil are necessary to bring Truly creative people are not afraid to admit ideas through creative development to fruition as that they may not know all the possibilities. people. during meals. competition's product. Sometimes we all hit low periods when we are Some of the best ideas to become products started out simply less creative (or productive) than at other on restaurant napkins. while ideas/solutions to technical problems. creative and definitive solution. particularly to "sell" their ideas. creative people will so the designer can adequately create from among all generally know when and where their best work is possibilities. and so on. the times. components. in the shop. since the truly creative mind will be they are most creative and then they capitalize on moving along into other areas and may likely forget this. Often a change in environment. While this does not mean problems which should have been solved in the we should be unrealistic about goals and timelines. It may be necessary to get some perspective. catalogues studied. on the plant important to keep a notebook handy at all times to floor. This may mean taking and it should be capitalized on. is clearly part of the key to corrosion . Product design considerations are: most of us can afford to push ourselves. and without effort. Perhaps one of the People must think positively about their ideas and best sources which must be studied is the themselves. But an appropriate balance is often otherwise excellent products fail due to production necessary in the real world. Technologists must keep a sketchpad handy. reasonable amount of discipline surely must be a part In order to be creative. People must take time with colleagues accomplished. Many hampered. Sketching is probably one of recognize this for what it is and attempt to deal with the single best tools the creative mind has access to. keeping an individual from moving ahead. All technical options.limited designers because they simply can not creativity. they be intimidated by others who may not want Colleagues should be consulted. The products. It may be necessary to obtain the only accomplish what we believe we can do. People should not trust themselves to environment. and at any time in the day or night. products. Many people create better at field. It is recognized that creativity cannot be exchange ideas and information with others in an mechanically produced in a machine-like fashion. We will competition. This could be in the shower. but also slows down the creative should be exhausted prior to expecting a truly mind. While there is no general materials and so on must be thoroughly understood rule to fit all individuals. determine the strengths and weaknesses. along with methodical and systematic pursuit of reliability solutions to problems. where for days on end. at church. will help. an idea that is not documented. and physically tear it apart to Although true creativity cannot be time. Creative people learn when and where remember. Part of this relates to confidence. noise The creative person will probably need to strength organize all resources in a logical manner and place. friends talked to. People reality is that we all can access more information must not be afraid to develop their ideas. nor should about any given technical subject or problem. It may be shopping with the spouse. many creative must be avoided or built into the creative version minds function better under the gun. or it may linger back of a bulletin in church. simply by practice and doing. certain times and places. people must know the of most creative acts. The "light list/design possible solutions for varieties of bulb" of an idea may come on at any time in any problems. People must learn to some time away from the project to get some fresh accomplish three-dimensional sketching efficiently air and start anew. and even by oneself to simply try to generate while jogging. perhaps improving both productivity and creativity. produce. This may come and go briefly. or both. it in a reasonable manner. with pressure to which is currently being addressed. The creative individual should doodling often occurs. at sporting events. Fear of failure often not only keeps us from other sources surveyed. A effective manner. These then clocked in an eight to five fashion. Putting the project in It is generally only through concentrated effort perspective can help the creative mind be even more over time that most ideas are actually turned into effective overall. the them to be successful for petty or unprofessional literature reviewed. shape/size This. notepads from meetings. If it is outside pressure (particularly inexpensive and efficient production often means the from within the organization) creativity may even be difference between success and failure. This may be particularly true if the pressure Skill exercised in creating products capable of is self imposed. All sources of information pursuing our ideas.

nature of the product and competition. due not only availability and cost. to perform several different functions related to It should always be a goal to use existing machinery concurrent design and production responsibilities. versatility transferring and so on. however. inventory and same parts. new personnel requirements. larger lot sizes wear lower the overall cost due to lower inventory. In all cases. that the organization should be driven by the production up to speed. analyzing the materials to be used. due primarily to competitive observed when developing products. orienting. this should not. although often at considerable cost. designers can move their information possible use pre-manufactured components and virtually with a key stroke to others in various standardized parts. production functions such as computer numerically components should be cross-referenced. quality standards which are as liberal as possible primarily the computer. These are not limited to production equipment available and needed. among others. vendors to be spectrum of areas to attend to for maximum pursued. process capability transport. as controlled. In addition to the have been complete prior to releasing information to above factors. but includes a broad required. It is also reorganizing to meet technological demands of the important to note that special processes can often be future. For purposes of maintenance technological organizations in general. there is a control elements desire to move the product from design phases to surface finish production more efficiently. Eliminate dimensional stability handling steps at every opportunity to help ease flexibility locating. materials and so on in as many products quality areas. and volume/lot size it is clearly related to all technologies. Now. Wherever design. and processes in an attempt to keep capital expansion obviously contingent upon size of the organization. This means developing the product the available opportunity to capture that market and for utmost simplicity in physical and functional develop consumers around their product base. The concept is to reduce lead time between weight project start-up in design phases and on the tail end. lubrication Concurrent Design. Plan for the largest volume of styling/aesthetics production possible since. with less impact and better quality attempts are made to determine the best process. only a small staff of persons will be required built or obtained. else they miss part of overall design. generally. it is overall. thermal considerations eliminated at every possible occasion. Regarding inventories. design changes can be more carefully performed and Focused more on production and design. formerly the design would General Design Rules. Wherever possible. it should be designed in. be done at the expense of efficiency. engineering as possible. But now. among others. Production steps should be future. using the controlled toolpath programming. It is also necessary to use to competition but also to changes in the technology. several general design rules should be production. organizations must be quicker to rules aim to help insure maximum simplicity in the respond to the market demand. Over the past several friction years there has been a trend in technological service life organizations to perform design and production cost/function activities in a more parallel manner. customer requirements in quality and so on. terms. training. however. If a This is all consistent with the overall theme of this new piece of automated equipment will get text. The design forces world-wide. it will be safety referred to as concurrent design and production. and so on. technological competitiveness. moving. at a minimum. when production is occurring. As organizations continue downsizing and well to attempt to use existing processes. . Regardless of quality what it is called the fundamental concept remains the utility value same. fixturing mechanical properties only. Increasingly. due to computer aided without diminishing product quality. consideration can be given to a product in the marketplace. selecting This also relates to downsizing and materials for suitability to the product as well as fundamental changes in organizations. set-up. As well. technological functions to meet the demands of the obtained and put on line. holding. By sharing design The extent to which the above factors are addressed information with production personnel in the early will certainly help determine the success or failure of phases of design.

engineer. The design FMEA do with the ability of a product to successfully sell would relate typically to the systems level where and perform at a required cost level. mechanism or system. This While the prints may capture important specifications material consideration pertains to processing from design and engineering. A brief review presented to help address this question. or other similar reasons. thermal and electrical generally to result in prints or drawings which considerations. and more fully explored elsewhere: concerns. This is a rather straight forward question FMEA becomes one of the critical tools needed as a of aligning the selection of materials with the mechanism to translate and move data and technological processing capability. fatigue factors. relationships established in the previous tools. leading to and listing of significant properties/characteristics is proper material selections. The current discussion and remain profitable. The basic question Properties/characteristics of materials. material and overall design. safety. When studying the It is important to understand the importance of material/product selection requirements relationship. formability. Fabrication or processing requirements. process time costs. thermal. those are dimensional stability. Other economic considerations faults are enhanced and improved based to a large in materials' selection relate to waste due to type of extent on what is disclosed in the FMEA process. Material considerations. Among process of bringing product to fruition in production. and volume weaknesses or faults are identified. This has been summarized in the previous section. Typical issues requiring decisions Thermal confronted in the design stage have to do with the Electrical/chemical conditions under which the material (in the product) must serve. documentation forward for communicating broadly General economic considerations. one of the key questions. to a great extent. But materials' selection relates. the design process in the overall quality system. relative to among others. . capture the important specifications for production. hardness. This becomes the role have to do with material machinability. about materials' consideration is. Energy costs for transforming and product or process FMEA which is more oriented to preparing a material prior to final processing should some specific element in the product or process also be considered. But the bottom line also relates to being Reader's are advised to refer to other tools on able to produce a product or service competitively materials and processes. all part of the broader quality ductility/toughness. Once analyzed. automation. of the quality manager. fabrication or processing requirements. environmental. Design FMEA. chemical. the weaknesses or production capability. services person. corrosion resistance. application"? Five categories of information are mechanical. Based on with suppliers and customers. environmental costs due Design FMEA tends to be more focused on a broad to a given material application. to be Design. this into workable information and value adding Typical technical fabrication and processing issues potential for the organization. finished product be analyzed and improved. general economic Physical considerations. knowledge in general and particular to the product Perhaps certain materials can not be used for being considered. and several technical points must be considered. Obviously. Sub-question components or devices in product or process which related considerations include material availability must interact with other devices or components must and cost. service requirements. joinability. "what material will Many properties and characteristics must be meet the specifications and criterion set forth for a considered in the material selection for a product. relates to processing capability and expertise. availability. technician or hardenability and thermal capabilities. Product And Process FMEA followed-up on below. These are design presented here. and properties and characteristics of Mechanical materials. given product's performance or technological Foremost are physical (gross and internal). electrical. depends. and weight (shipping/transport costs). general processing cost. internal and external. area of a product. Design FMEA is used general materials economic conditions can clearly primarily to enhance or modify engineering functions affect the success or failure of a product. The basic and designs by determining potential failure modes question pertaining to materials and economics has to and effects in product or systems. still we must translate techniques and was explored in a different tool. and. on understanding materials during the design stage in other pivotal ways. and professional team needed to do the work described.

to improved final quality. or beyond. Process FMEA seeks to product introduction. Throughout product life cycle FMEA is useful for The product FMEA also considers the impact preventing. before. training and other documentation for pursued by engineering personnel. key provides additional insights into relationships characteristics of the product may be evaluated inherent in product development and deployment. Dimensions and tolerances. While engineering must enhance specific dysfunction's in processing. Failure life cycle. subsystem or related to documentation outlined here.which is thought to be leading to failure. be done in the design FMEA early on in the product and/or the entire system. detecting or resolving failures. and at the process in terms of the critical or likely failures. There may be various overall system placing priorities on those most likely FMEA's in motion at different stages of the product to occur. Most knowledgeable know others will equally as frequently need to be involved. for ongoing improvement. be providing the more rigorous approach to our Product FMEA. includes system which has failed. Information Various FMEA's may relate to one another. or in Design FMEA would also be more typically the way we use the product may also be called for aggressively pursued in the new product introduction through the FMEA. with the where product is produced. also related to quality function deployment. this is mature processes where malfunctions or failure are commonly difficult enough to communicate and surfacing in end product or components. depending on failures presumed or actual. may surface as FMEA involves both product and process elements. in product as it matures. While this would traditionally be involve SOP's. This is not necessarily the OPCP. and likely should. Particularly where product in the field has causing a failure in product. but may also be a function of others. is design. FMEA seeks to address the question. affords many avenues for improvement--touching Other likely opportunities for design FMEA virtually all aspects of the product--from start to activity. Instructions for product use programs. done prior to starting production. This may also test. Design design deficiencies or malfunctions. leading likely remain the prime mover on design FMEA's. and can we reduce the likelihood of failure. or other important parts of product life cycle related to . mature product. Changes in materials. The product life activities. SOP's. Process FMEA may. in the product FMEA. The processing function be involved ultimately as related to the design. are at the point of finish. be done in collaboration with quality personnel. during and after the product is in production. be engineering design changes. component. seeking to eliminate or reduce the represent one additional area of concern which may likelihood of failures at the point of prototyping and contribute to the failure as well. determined through the FMEA process. Process terminology used where an existing. good time to evaluate the design for robustness and It is also for this reason that the disciplined integrity beyond simply "getting the job done". This is typically discussed life. particularly and improve the element. based on faulty been identified as having problems. "might there be has failed in service--or is suspected of potential a better way. among result of field failures. the likelihood is that we simply will not improvements. shown below as related to FMEA. as a function of regardless of reason for change. Product FMEA is the typical product--and the most competitive position. When changes are effective planning. the FMEA. Process FMEA is useful in performed in design and engineering. it will be processing?" Significant connections in broader necessary to pursue aggressive measures to correct "systemic" quality and productivity tools. or other similar areas. Product life cycle Additionally. If disciplined approach--FMEA--provides a ripe regular review and enhancement opportunities are opportunity for enhanced designs--and not pursued. system wearout or over-stress. via team depending on focus and intent. and/or upgraded or downgraded as a function of the Three stages are commonly identified as FMEA steps. at various provide to all needing the information--but it is also a phases in production. The and systematic approach. would be used to enhance the product cycle. This can of failure of the product or system upon the user. QFD and value analysis. and to prevent actual or future failures. and the impact which will be felt. needing to be changed. and depending on other customer needs and requests. is important. Process FMEA tends to be operators and others--those most knowledgeable with more oriented to processing systems relative to the design at the point of its origination in the new specific design functions. Process FMEA. that this opens the door for virtually unlimited Again this is true since both product and process will opportunities to improve. it may frequently field use. internal test and analysis programs done routinely Relationships among FMEA types. would typically be a function of component or sub.

This can be based on various products are being introduced. systematically or through our own internal communication used.potential failures. the next several pages. flow charting.. and the life cycle may be impacted 2. product and process opportunities for internal and external? If failure were to occur. parameters should be assigned and documented for these. FMEA's conducted on similar around the product in other technologies. and so on. Potential effects of failure. Another relational look at the FMEA approach Identifying potential failure modes will require and how the different types are functional is shown brainstorming and imagination. length of service life. This may also be noted as failure impacts or effects on components. broader organizational plan. improvement. Areas to presents the design. issues. down the line or calling back product. should not be confused with effects. Identify how by the use of FMEA at various points. FMEA should be mechanisms. and past experience with failures in the field. because we do not have all the bugs out. to enable all concerned . due to maintenance specification details related to characteristics. sub- FMEA Steps And Procedures systems. failure mode OPCP discussed elsewhere. gradually phased in and out. we effect in failure (1 is low and 10 is high). product life cycle and all products systematically. It 3. A information and activity. matured. For Typical steps used to perform FMEA generally go example. During useful life the failure rate goes communicate to all involved. failure of independently as well as together for the broader related parts or systems. These are early life. Identify key should be adjusted. based on the FMEA process. the failure rate is high relevant SOP information. element under study has more than one FMEA can be useful at any phase of the function. all are identified and described. changes occurring or others. Test data may also be relevant at used with other documentation tools--particularly the this point. are reminded that this information should all be This is a relative ranking which must be considered as part of the information for the broader defined within the culture of the organization OPCP and statistical process control and data tools. process or This is further pursued following design design should be involved in providing views FMEA. and the context of the issue under study. detailed descriptive information to help and so on. process 4. related to the failure (or have gotten the design and engineering side of the potential failures) under study. Severity. all collectively cause and effect tools may relate to this step aimed at improved quality. as well as production (process) under device or component it may be drawings or control. But some definitional steps of the process or function for analysis. product and process FMEA. a 10 ranking of something like the following. useful life and This would typically include referencing wear out. In all cases (design. In the wear out phase. we see an increase in failures. Yet. product life cycle. process FMEA and product FMEA on what the potential effects may be. both design. This is a numerical value from 1-10. (as well as others). and consider include where poor maintenance was provides insights into how they function used. and other products could also prove helpful. FMEA. incorrect use procedures. as a function of a complaints through existing or past customers. or product). all related to a two part severity for process would mean shutting form provided in the applications section. how the process down and levels off for a period of time because we or product works. If the factors. Similar to root causes. or devices. and other being trained. Individuals knowledgeable of the product. note the similarities and relationships to based on observations regarding cause and and with QFD and cause and effect tools. During early life. Potential failure mode. Process description/purpose. new processes are being introduced. What are the most should be noted that all systems involve distinct significant likely effects on customer. In the case of a product. presented next. there is a real relationship between effects noted? It should be observed that and among the three types of FMEA. in most cases. relational diagrams. Also. Assuming functional areas can fail. Or a 1 may mean that specifications or tolerances 1. at how would we know this in actual likely the same time. and in relational diagram could also prove helpful example forms using actual product information over again in this stage of the FMEA. This graphic flushing out pivotal information. as well as in the graphic on the next page. people are layout diagrams. will be pivotal for planning.

This is generally tasks. will use to reductions in failure. Typical values assignable to help define detection systems (1) Minor. to better understand what the numbers mean. Occurrence of failure. in place for a team correction and overall control. the nature of the failure. this value should be help evaluate our effectiveness with the assigned based on likelihood of repeated FMEA process. failure over time? This might include shifting 12. since it will tend to drive the RPN value up. Failure is inevitable. What is our plan of (1) Remote. Determine root or cannot detect. This provides a numeric rating (1. Repeat failure has or will occur. This is a numeric may help here. Current detection/control. Failure is unlikely. Detection program is not likely governmental regulations. and product is inoperable. and providing an enhanced value. chance to detect. (9--10) Very low. If we have a lot of faith in our systems opportunity for all involved to actually "rate" for detecting and controlling this failure. as Typical definitions of ranking values could be: shown in later steps. to detect. Slight customer annoyance. key characteristics in the process or 10) for our judgment of the current detection component under study in the FMEA. among others. Typical values for FMEA will also serve to "automatically" rank defining occurrence may be: order our areas of priority as well. This would likely be related to a project what our current systems are for detection. attack for how we will improve quality and (2--3) Low. time frames. plan which is. internal and external. Cause and effect tools 9. and systems. Relatively few failures. Detection. This is sometimes called a considered. 10. enhancements to the data suppliers. or in place. (5--6) Moderate. Depending from attribute to variable data and charting on the nature of our product and process. then or evaluate the characteristics as a function of a lower value is assigned. cause--being certain to flush out all variables-- but getting to the root. to communicate with others. Occasional failure may failure? This is consistent with our "8 D" occur. (3--4) High. "criticality" measure or statement. Each RPN value on the total failure probability. value identified by multiplying numbers 4. This is a numeric and 8 together. 11. involves non-compliance with standards or (7--8) Low. This is given to our systems we will assign a higher not necessarily a part of the RPN calculation. while if less faith is relationships identified in the FMEA. High degree of dissatisfaction. If failure has assessment value which customers and occurred. identifying 8. it is often necessary acquisition systems. this should identify 7. (1--2) Very high. (2--3) Low. Consistent with (9--10) Very High. and the recommended actions in # 10 above. (7--8) High. identifying probability of the failure value--the RPN. Detection program will not 5. Characteristics criticality rating. Risk priority number (RPN). Potential cause of failure. What systems or others as related to the FMEA or parts of are in place to help eliminate or control the related work. or other detection and to add a column/step and feature in the FMEA control activities being undertaken or process. 6 6. Detection program may (9-10) Very High. dissatisfaction. value. Failure affects safety or detect. providing the above. reliability--and reduce the likelihood of (4--6) Moderate. evaluation of characteristics and/or other variables relating to customers and specifications. approach to corrective action. and so some form of evaluative action relative to on. A and correction plan and system as listed in # 7 rating is typically added. Detection program will (4--6) Moderate. Recommended actions. Causes some customer almost certainly detect. Customer will probably not could be: notice. persons responsible. or may be . out of specification. This is accomplished in this manner . and we are analyzing for future suppliers. The RPN is a "quick" occurring--again 1 to 10. Area/individual responsible. Detection program has a high (7--8) High.

tie into all existing data and documentation 3. once identified. It is also true that generally the total relieved of the responsibility to provide safe and FMEA process would be redone or repeated over reliable product. This also typically relates preferred position relative to liability issues and to test/laboratory procedures and systems for circumstances. The overall quality system must be When product fails. and other variables identified and 7. The purpose of our responsibility. Ascertain the potential impact a failure may under analysis. This is why we must: This should identify tasks. gage R & R. FMEA. recalculation of the RPN over time. Reliability. allowing for a more robust approach to the asked to participate on teams involving FMEA. generally it is assumed geared to assisting in identifying potential failures that it is the producer who is at fault rather than through data collection and analysis. is not as the producer. While this is not in place to address failures if they do occur. and other 5. to better quality by understanding reliability that the FMEA. is the recalculation of the address concerns or problems identified as RPN based on the actions taken. reducing defects and defectives in production. Predict with reasonable assurances. meaning FMEA. issues in quality. reasonable assurances that we have done all that is It must be recognized that FMEA relates to broader possible to achieve a non-failure system or function. persons responsible. we should be in a address the FMEA process. Adequately test all components. This also explains why we try Product Liability. and so on. Explore all reasonable design alternates and and so on. shown on the form provided in the toolkit. Reasonable and responsible warranty policies acted on in the FMEA process. likelihood of failures in product or process. This is why suppliers are often time. avoiding failures which may or may not be our fault reliability and its failure relationship in quality. looking at the user. Actions taken. to locate and utilize the process which will hold the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) best capability. like FMEA. This prevailing attitude suggests well trained people. and select from among the best. documentation. process and design. Capability information. if we have substantial the following discussion is to summarize and present "paper trail" indicating we have tried to do the a few key areas related to failure and reliability for "prudent" thing in analyzing our product for potential purposes of helping us all be better equipped to failures and improvements. broader quality system. through This is at the core of the FMEA process. the as related to characteristics evaluation. Perhaps most important. Reliability in quality addresses quality of It would also be safe to say that the producer. system. can assist us in in product. and identified above 4. Kaizen and FMEA. but almost always will appear to be a simple or easily understood area. the product should have overall safety and reliability considerations from concept through completion of . us all in reducing or eliminating the failure 2. it should be given careful consideration since it does recognize Even where proper instructions or directions for use and allow for ongoing improvement as a function of or operation are provided. devices. We anticipate helping assure that all supplied components are held that this value would come down over time. the producer is not the process. What is the reassessment identify and prevent failures through the use of action plan for demonstrating improvement? FMEA. characteristics. including process involved. This is part of the purpose and analyzing product under rather controlled conditions. time frames. 6. in the form of quality systems. have systems in An additional measure or step which is sometimes place. Given adequate given their knowledge of the design. But. also cause to the broader system. and attribute and variable data information should sub-systems in the broader product. product and written instructions and general support. function of the FMEA. to added to the FMEA system. product service life over time. to assist solutions. accountability systems 1. changes in key failures. Understand broader issues which may surface which should be available as a function of the if failures occur in a sub-system or component. and that the door is opened. process or be relevant to actions taken. to the same high standards as the original producer expects of themselves. all of an evaluative nature. however. This should. if used properly. that technologists must work ever harder to achieve General reliability issues.13. is generally in the best position to sufficient long term maintenance and service. Recognize.

Nature of failure behavior which is predicted. experiences both of occurrence increases with time. and through defined in terms of cycles of operation. Mean time to first failure. the basic issue being how long can the in a non-repairable product or component is the point product function the way it was designed to be used? at which it will likely fail. is where the on this without adding substantially to the product product is being "broken in" or just getting started. This definition provides several general products divided by total number of failures. just after completion of the product when failures 2. This is usually used to define the reliability of quality is also a fundamental concern for the length non-repairable products. we may time of a single product divided by the total number likely fall woefully short as a technological of failures of the product during the measured time organization. It is usually used to define the life of maintenance ratio is the number of maintenance man- component products (products which are frequently hours of downtime required to support each hour of not repairable). interval. It should also be clear that use of data collected while wearout failures are due to age or number of in production. The ratio reflects the frequency of failures are generally expressed in the following ways: of the system. design margins. Reliability through tested. This conditions required to determine reliability in measurement is usually made during the period of products. inadequate manufacturing procedures. and in other ways. Related to this. Wearout failures are We know that our product is going to wear out and those failures which occur as a result of deterioration deteriorate over time. 2. The maintenance ratio provides a figure of merit for 3. or the point where the product is others. overall efficiency of the maintenance organization. Defined environment where product performs. but can be replacement and maintenance policy. Mean time to failure. The measurement is usually made during the Reliability can be defined as the ability to period of time between early life and wearout perform without failure in a specified function under failures. Mean time to failure (MTTF) is the operating as the product is used by the consumer. the key variable of service life. products being life tested. This stage is 4. But through various tests and processes or mechanical wear and whose probability analysis. . Obviously. Mean time and failure relationships operation. addresses Mean time to first failure (MTTFF) is the building the product so that it will withstand much average time to first failure of the products being greater stress than it would ordinarily be subjected to. we project often occur near the end of life of a product and are that our product can be expected to perform in certain usually characterized by chemical or mechanical ways over time. Mean time between failure (MTBF) is the given service conditions for a specified period of total operating time of a population of repairable time. The task then becomes to improve changes.service/use by the customer. The failure rate is not Failures can often be prevented by a always specified in terms of hours. specification. explained. sometimes referred to as the equipment "debugging" or component "burn-in" period. Mean time between failure. Early life failures are those failures that occur 1. among in actual operation. must take into this may be most frequently used with non-repairable account overall reliability in a product's service life. data collected over time. While begins to be used by the consumer. etc. This also begins to relate to Failure rate is the ratio of the number of maintenance functions and other aspects of the products that fail to the total time of all of the broader applications environment or system. Stated successful product performance/service. market and cycles in operation. Several techniques are used to increase Each of these will be briefly addressed and reliability of products. One technique. and based on further analysis and study over time. Specified operating time and conditions. Quality of a product when it leaves production. briefly presented below. it may also be a useful piece of data for If our only concern in the quality system is the repairable product or components. occur at higher than normal due to defective parts or 3. then over time. These failures internal and external. or other variables relating to life customer use information and documentation. the traveled. as related to quality: time between early life and wearout failures. various engineering data. can be very important in improving our no longer functioning as it should according to quality over time. immediate quality at shipping time. or "burn in" period. and then why it failed. product. distance careful planning by users. cost. the amount of time required to locate and replace the faulty part and to some extent the 1. Early life. use in estimating maintenance manpower requirements.

Usually the sampling plan will be in of failure rate. no repairs or of how the sampling occurs. Routine procedures facilitate both in-house and independent lab tests on the λ = f / nt product to determine exactly what should be where documented and certifiable. this will be done by Next. repair and replacement. improved . λ = fph = failures per hour Service/use instructions must be written from f = total number of failures the perspective of helping consumers use products t = testing period/unit test time correctly. strength of materials used. training. where the product is used to perform a task as part of the basis for determining and better less severe than it was designed for. bridges have been designed with safety documentation methods. thus extending the life of the product. both in production. and installing. reliability. robust manufacturing process. Several key measures are generally accepted derating. a formula is used which is as follows: accuracy and security. Failure analysis includes failure will occur under proper conditions. break in this. In the documentation must be carefully handled to assure scenario where failures are repaired and replaced. Three conditions usually dictate the nature properly met. all test Failures repaired and replaced. Human scenario does not specify length of time for repairs. the error in maintenance can also be diminished with exponential failure law. It is also true that reliability then has much to do with determining the the maintenance is automatically performed or is point and nature of failure. where failures of product of 1000 hours. This may appear similar to the SOP approaches identified and explained elsewhere. This is also referred to as design. At the end of the test period. Moreover. This are attempted to be circumvented by people. certainly. Thus. The failure rate would be included. n = sample size Technological producers are responsible for providing clear. and wear out failure analysis.For example. placed back in service.02 fph. communication. and perhaps in other ways. understanding reliability. and proper diagrams and procedures should be there had been 20 failures. one major relatively easy to perform. inverse reliability. etc. A more specific calculation and test simplification. it is immediately repaired and of their product. λ = 20/5(200) = 20/1000 = 0. motivation. Human failure rate. system would be required to gain additional detail. variation in the Synchronized reliability measures. and third. second. factors as high as four. or how/if the repair time would impact on the overall reliability techniques take the position that failure rate. mean life. by team problem solving techniques. and concise instructions for For example. and in all other facets expected stresses. Among other things. This safety factor is meant to cover of the product. a sample period of 5 hours. carefully designed plans. variability in the failure. This is further defined as the contract a sampling plan has to be devised so that the number of failures per some unit of time. When a reliability requirement is written into a Failure rate. reliability must be replacements occur. the scenario where failures are not repaired and improving engineering design change procedures replaced and a log of actual test times is kept of through improved communications. servicing and. No details should be overlooked. computer networking. the person. accurate. and other human factors can assist in improving Failures not repaired/replaced. log is kept. as it may relate to reliability and unknown stresses that might occur. As was indicated in the Another technique is termed reduced design previous introductory section. 200 parts are tested for 5 hours. reliability has to do margins. based on a total test time and as well in production. nor is test data or failure times underscored in tests and inspection based on logged. use and operation when a failure occurs. This includes instructions on how to determined by: operate the product where the environment is kept λ = f / nt relatively constant. First. This is where products are designed so that with performance over time. percentage of failures. For example. which means that the bridge is But it is important to recognize the significance of four times stronger than necessary to meet normal. use of oil analytical area associated with reliability is what is impregnated bushings can ease the likelihood that called failure analysis. generally buyer has assurance that the requirements are one hour.02 fph Human reliability techniques attempt to apply effective communication from producers to users. The failure rate is . Regardless conditions is kept. the form of multiple sampling where multiple units no repairs or replacements but a log of actual test are studied rather than only a single unit.

2.015 fph sample. Thus. under conditions given.5 + 4.015 fph the time out of prototyping. Note that fph values where were equal to three places. minimum material requirements for a design are before generating the physical model takes much of λ = 2 (8)/5 (108 + 100) = . a method must be used to f =4 factor in the average. what will be the actual number of failures projected as defined above? Using the formula The total test time was calculated to be 527 when all presented earlier. The 8 failures were identified as follows: 2. f = total number of failures Personal computer (PC) and mainframe FEA systems t = testing period/unit test time are discussed in terms of cost and performance. based on the values provided from the example: r f = ratio of failures. Avoiding disasters in the development and s 1 = number of good units at start of test production of a product is a major reason for using.5 hours. potentially eliminating the embarrassment of releasing a poor design and . is illustrated. 3. but useful. In this example. Calculated by dividing the number of parts in the sample (n) into the number of failures (f). we know the baseline value to work forward number of good units at the end of testing and a from for improvement. 4. and no log is kept of time to failure for . with values for our example: parts tested were included in the scenario. 100 other parts also ran where for the full 5 hour test without failure. it is simply the number of failures per ∑ t g = sum of test times for good parts part. Another simple.5 and 4. 4. Failures not repaired/replaced. demonstrating another useful measure of calculating reliability values. with introduced and explained in general ways which are applicable to most technological circumstances. 4. This is done by using the number of good units at the start of testing and the Thus. A brief practical example of the concepts introduced is and applied to further demonstrate the usefulness of FEA. Failure rate for this process modified formula: would be projected at 4. Given a production run of 40. The formula used for determining this It should be remembered that the previous example failure rate is mathematically described as: had 8 units which were failed using a test time of 5 λ = f / (∑ t f + ∑ tg ) hours. λ = fph = failures per hour Percentage of failure. and f and t are the same as before. and no log rf = f / n kept. Mathematically this is shown as the formula: An example is provided where failures were not repaired and replaced but a log is kept of failure rf = f / n times. failure analysis technique is termed the ∑ t f = sum of the failures percentage of failure. This section is designed to introduce technologists to finite element analysis (FEA) in where the value 2 is used to provide the averaging practical terms. The scenario where failures are not repaired and replaced. 108 units were good at the start of the test and 100 were good after 8 failures. By modeling and discovering what the Based on values used in the previous example.failures.5 = 27 f = number of failures in the sample n = sample size ∑ t g = 5 (100) = 500 An example could be cited where a certain process λ = f / (∑ t f + ∑ tg ) typically produces parts having a failure rate of 10%. failures per part ∑ t f = 2 + 4 + 4 + 3 + 3 + 2 + 4. Terms that correspond to FEA are effect. used here as the λ = 8/ (27 + 500) = 8/527 = . 3.10(40) to failure is not known. s2 = number of good units at end of test FEA can "drastically speed up" the prototyping of products.10 = f / 40 tested units. since time f =. λ = 2 f / t(s1 + s2 ) Introduction to finite element analysis (FEA). Sometimes called the ratio failure rate.

Some color capability. employing the FEA technique that will assure that the It should be noted that usually nodes are materials used can support the related loadings while placed at each change of cross section in the structure not wasting excessive amounts of material. With costs Development Of PC-Based FEA. the first choice. approach in an IGES. often nearly impossible to do specific loading conditions. and lines crossing designers can optimize mechanical structures by through nodes make up a finite element mesh. the more nodes and and cost requirements in traditional prototype elements needed. solid. extended hard possible choices for abstracting the continuous shape disk capacity. which was as much as Each of these is discussed briefly. expense of building and testing prototypes that are high density meshes may also take longer to analyze doomed to fail. However. may be machined in many instances. This typically. see how the product will react under loads and High density meshes may result in a more accurate predict any errors before going through all the analysis relative to low density meshes. and lower prices were some of the into elements include the following: thin shell. form each element's shape. The procedure for stress and dynamic package sold for about $5. is becoming increasingly apparent. facilitated the PC-based FEA to become a feasible A solid model would be a possible construction alternative to mainframe-based FEA software. simpler. Speed of terms). The price of PC-based FEA become a part of a rapid prototyping scenario. coming down and the utilization of the PC (as was Traditionally. entire structure of the component. The points. After packages had been slashed from around $15. including the three translations along the x. early optimization and refinement by freedom. called For the sake of both safety and economic issues. However. FEA world application provided also assists in packages can now also successfully run on PC demonstrating usefulness of the tool for aiding in the computers. the use of FEA is tool for mainframe and minicomputer users because going from being a high technology toy to an of its large memory requirements. z axes and the three rotations about each of stages of product development. Next. Why is FEA used? FEA. found that their PC-based additional specialized element types that apply to . nodes. element types are chosen which break processors. increased memory. Preprocessing starts with building a model. thick changes in PC's that allowed for PC-based FEA shell. and the results are related back to the usually overweight and waste expensive materials.000 for a yearly lease--$5. with essential tool in the technologist's toolkit. FEA can greatly reduce time and cost in various y. The uncertain analysis mathematically for continuous forms by dividing the for complex components requires designers to use shapes into smaller. DXF.000 to a design is analyzed. the data that was used to model $5. Infusing the CAD mainframe-based FEA. and as meshing is increased the number of Another benefit of FEA is that it allows us to corresponding nodes is also increased respectively. performing FEA typically includes three steps: and when compared to the cost of leasing the preprocessing.000-20. finite elements. The high safety factors for the mechanical loads within elements are then analyzed for their stress and strain the products they design so that the components are characteristics.000 for a PC. Initially. the more computer resources which development. and membrane. $15. Traditional analysis techniques can only be FEA is a method that allows the designer to analyze satisfactorily used with a range of typical shapes and complex components.then the added expenses of redesign and damage FEA product was more than an alternative to the control from the resulting disaster. in many data as a source or database makes the process cases. In the mid 1980’s.000 and it appears to be dropping further as time it in FEA can be converted to CAM data and the part goes on. removing lead time these axes. processing. based FEA system was a very attractive price. or similar file form that Technological improvements for PC's were could be used as the basis for FEA (in geometrical continually being introduced in the 1980s. as a leading FEA is a technique that is used to solve a approach to test designs against laws of nature. plate. and. and post-processing. FEA has been an exclusive engineering discussed with the PC-based FEA). mainframe FEA package. Due to high cost in later stages of because each node has six equations to be solved product development and (often concurrent) resulting from their respective six degrees of production. It had become. Correspondingly. By the mid 1980’s the producers of noted that software packages generally have PC-based FEA software. the General FEA procedures. packages for the PC were introduced. The real developments in microprocessor technology. higher resolution graphics boards with up the geometry involved in the model.000. are required to calculate the stresses and strains at the The value of FEA as a tool for technologists’ nodes. plain. has broad range of industrial problems including been well accepted and widely used in industry. mechanical loadings and thermal characteristics. early full-feature FEA overall design process. in a computer aided design (CAD) format. It should be developments.

can better produce to be competitive. larger problems 7. because it lets the user display and where features in design may not actually study the results of the analysis. selection of element types One tool used to enhance competitiveness is varies according to software. By having the computer create the mesh all product features add value to the product in automatically the time to produce an FEA model and solution goes down drastically. Some softwares are automated to the point 3. 6. Quality versus function. Reducing costs in product the three steps. Post-processing is the most exciting process of 8. it may take hours. function are best produced? What production and/or accelerations applied at nodes and elements of systems will best achieve quality functions? the model. Prioritization. in product occur as QFD flushes out potential After mesh has been created. or 10. and others. This takes production phases of technology. QFD is a systematic tool for data file with node numbers and stress and strain comparing value versus cost. Understanding may take overnight or a weekend due to the extensive the competition and our position in the number crunching that must be performed by the marketplace relative to competition. Fostering innovation and creative addition to the tabular form. Teaching and learning. thus reducing the costs process in bringing ideas to production. Cost reductions. Understanding competition. The displays may address functional requirements or other needs include contour plots.specific applications and. and lengthy mathematical calculations required within the deployment. engineers and placing substantial and focused information technologists in knowing where to focus their together with various technical and non- energies for additional work. Often. 11. Bringing enhanced Processing is the FEA procedure where communication to all. Since emphasis is on bringing together divergent views such as . At various stages in calculations for the stresses and strains are performed. displayed in color-coded plots as alternatives or in 9. and and helping the organization producing the product improved product in production. For a small problem. really is? preprocessing phase of FEA. Speeding up design and technical in other material related ways. the data found in tables are general terms. termed quality function deployment (QFD). pressures. and it is documented for others to learn from. Product function. What must product do? Do computer. Using large meshes ways which the customer is truly interested in? in areas that are less critical and smaller mesh sizes in 2. Internal and external knowledge transfer is enhanced through QFD Quality Function Deployment (QFD) For since all go eye-ball to eye-ball to address Lean Introduced product improvement issues. and focus on: place when elements are projected onto the CAD geometry and a 3-D mesh is generated by the 1. in terms of geometry. Efficiency. The 4. By better computer. Cross functional teams. is Originating with the Japanese. In these colored plottings failure areas can easily be identified thinking is encouraged through QFD by graphically. are applied to geometry being analyzed. etc. How quality can be derived areas that are critical also helps speed up the solution within product functions? How is value added time while not affecting the relative accuracy of the to overall product quality via each function? solution. aiding designers. "over done" it could be reduced in wall thickness. and the output may also be a analysis tool. Processing is a computer solution of the product development. it takes minutes. Although not a value plot. structural loads areas for improvement in order of importance (or enforced displacements) and boundary conditions based on multi-inputs from various sources. Communication. What customers are really geometric model is connected with its environment. this improvement used to construct a mesh that corresponds to the technique is an attempt to simplify the design and component being modeled in the FEA. QFD helps all better "listen" and FEA. remain increasingly competitive. saying? How do we know what the voice of This model represents the final output from the the customer. medium problem. If an area in a design is technical talent for improvement. criterion of the customer. This is also a function of the capacity of understanding ourselves and our product we the computing power as well. 12. Voice of customer. "hot spots". CAD information. for a "hear"--to better serve customers. deformed geometry. temperatures. at least in values on it. Innovation. Prioritization for improvements where they can do some of this mesh selection. Deriving quality.. How quality and structural loads are forces. Boundary conditions describe how the 5. production.

Analysis. And like most Kaizen documentation gathered relative to each alternative. functional requirements of the product or system are. analysis. and overall cost projections current solution analysis/impact cause related to achieving quality. This 1. Detailed in-depth analysis and Problem solving and brainstorming for testing is pursued including engineering quality Improvements. techniques. Future planning. this stage will also include determining and preparing control systems for production. It is less effective to solve ups for implementation conducted. designing to meet those needs. . feasibility studies. QFD is a holistic way of thinking about on parts of the problem and sub components. incremental 6. Additional detailed study is allow quality to be built in around these conducted on preliminary ideas and other requirements. and implementation. The theme or problem is related to objectives to be accomplished or Note that “ongoing improvement” provides obvious specific problems which have arisen. customer needs. If not produce-able under existing is known how can we attack it? conditions. Prevention. Decision. As organizations reflection on how to approach future continue shifting toward concurrent engineering problems. systems. affecting proper long term decision making. A clear and concise part of the QFD process requires that the product as definition of the problem is determined. This problems which enable "putting out fires" rather than includes final planning for full production. Preliminary ideas. general standardization of procedures and training. data-based value terms to the organization. What are reasons for the environments. Decision identification. Early solutions are involved in making changes to attain or maintain identified based on preliminary reviews of quality? The bottom line is to determine what the available information. This is analysis via focus Thus. time process. field testing. long-term. This identifies design. Analyze decision. the question becomes what will costs be 2. This may mean of performance standards and requirements. decision. Problem identification. and produce the product using proper available but increasing information. preliminary ideas. 1. A decision is made. Analyze the problem. tracked and logged per customer demands and input. explained as QFD helps build quality into the product by follows: verification through component and product testing under simulated operations/service conditions. This as design processes move forward. Refinement. Systematic methods for analysis. meeting them through production methods as well as 4. we are not only encouraged to problem selection? What is the problem and grow cross functionally. expected results? What is not the focus? 3. prototyping and so on. This designed must be determined to be produce-able in cannot be underscored since until the problem existing facilities. Solution is selected and final work- effective problem solving. 3. methods. Remaining problems. connections to Kaizen and QFD techniques. Various inputs and information are use. refinement. Preliminary ideas selection. but that it is an ongoing iterative putting the best alternative into action. The system or device is Technical problems are solved in disciplined ways: implemented. Comparison between and disciplined improvements in product and original plan (or targets) and actual results in process. pre-market studies of quality 8. improving through QFD and related methods use 5. QFD and design stages for quality will 7. Set parameters. 4. and desired and needed. But this is all quality focused and driven in possible plans for action and alternative all phases and stages of design and deployment for solutions. Implementation. facilitating Another approach to problem solving is often a reduction in lead time to go to production. it must be realized that QFD is not a one 5. we must problem solving/decision making process commonly determine and define quality standards and has six major steps consisting of problem characteristics which translate into production. process which can result in systematic. Finally. to be identification. 6. This step provides action to generally include prototype development and study prevent recurrence. described as the classic "design process". Evaluation provides feedback into the system for improvements. and sometimes called cause and effect. engineering and marketing in team 2. experience and so on. Identify the problem. but it is inevitable.

this must be repeated over that brainstorming and problem solving are highly time to assist in getting to the root of the useful methods to understand and employ. Reduce. there would be fewer When the process is actually being conducted problems to solve. The fundamental problem with all members in the group should be encouraged to getting to the root is that effects often seem to be participate. This occurs when no necessary to have someone or some method for further sources of potential or real cause can be documenting ideas generated. Reverse. referred to as fishbone diagramming. have a relatively comfortable atmosphere and This relates directly to failure and reliability in agreement on the topic or problem. form. As QFD is presented. strength or size be increased? 5. relative to avoid anyone dominating the process). odor. providing only one idea per turn (to help more significant than they are in actuality. forward. The process of upside down. blend. until the a group leader to help focus group efforts. cause and effect Brainstorming is an idea generating activity. components? Opposites? Turn it backwards. To assist in generating analytical tool known as cause and effect can help "free wheeling" and creative ideas. This is a basis for brainstorming is that groups typically can be problem solving type tool which assists in isolating more creative and productive relative to an individual actual causes rather than symptoms of the cause--but based on synergy. Can the unit be adapted? What else is or main effect as it is sometimes called. 2. turn around. are: frequency. Combine. evolving multiple 8. and over to determine its applicability to the the above points should aid in moving the process actual root cause or problem to be solved. Five why's. Repeat identification process. After each sub-cause is 7. Identify as many causes of Smaller? Lighter? Slower? Split? Frequency? one part of the root main effect as possible 6. may at first appear. The processes. sound. Can we add? What? Where? Should tools. As the process proceeds. Human imagination applied to tying in the symptoms as part of the analytical problems via reflection and freewheeling assists in process. Rearrange sequence. and no else the problem would likely not be a problem. Substitute. color. Problem focus process and product. Can we substitute? What else prior to proceeding to any of these instead? What other plans? individually. Adapt. each While there may be other questions which can assist cause and effect should be questioned over in enriching and guiding the brainstorming process. Can we change meaning. and it is actual root cause is presented. This is generally not readily apparent. Each new branch of discovered cause. At some point in the process. Can we minify? Subtract? Eliminate? 1. It is also necessary to identified. treat each of these as the effect and layout? Other sequence? Change place? identify root causes. usually tools help sort out root causes of effects in products. assortment? identified. Modify. People should true cause. Getting to the root of the actual provided through previous steps identified in problem for improved reliability is not as easy as it problem solving should be used wherever possible. shape? elements involved in the use of cause and effect 4. it is likely like this? What other ideas does this suggest? that these will become additional drivers in the 3. Other uses. Also addressing QFD as related to robust problem solving. reviewed here in summary form. As additional other uses if modified? Or if not? points of view are brought to bear on the main driver. the following build part of the information base required for QFD "idea spurring" questions should be asked: in the broader Kaizen documentation process. Can we rearrange? Other identified. problem. Can we reverse parts or branches. List causes. or inside out? identifying causes and effects is repeated until 9. It is necessary to have provides additional roots to be sought. be sequenced regularly to help provide ideas. effects. we may Combine purposes? Combine ideas? identify new areas for pursuit. the success of brainstorming. taste. Can the unit be put to other uses? represents what is thought to be the main driver of Are there new ways to use it as is? Are there the problem at a given point in time. and related circumstances. . Other important motion. Brainstorming is another useful tool for Cause and effect relationships for QFD. The main root of the cause and effect diagram 1. Can components or parts be virtually no additional causes or effects can be combined? How about a blend. If it were. The criticism should be allowed. it should be apparent Called "five why's". 3. 2. conducted in groups of 3-12 people (this varies). More. discovery of the actual root cause.

organization. Long term systemic brainstorming for root requires a fairly mature organizational infrastructure. underscoring QFD as the QFD process. it 6. leading to ongoing mature experiences of your group. QFD requires that This speaks to having systematic rules and we sit in "eye ball to eye ball" ways to grow approaches for use of the tool in disciplined ways. The effect type tools and processes. flexible and mature to work our way through Even though it may require several novel situations without "flaking out" on one brainstorming sessions to flush out the important another. since it can be a misguided to enhance quality functions. but we must that it encourages free-thinking. The QFD is used because it 5. Brainstorm. If the group is unaccustomed to listings. But this can also be individuals may need to be involved in order a potential weakness. It is also quite likely that some type provides a powerful process for bringing of weighting system must be applied to the together technical and non-technical groups effects to determine what knowledgeable and perspectives. but started with the QFD approach. and certainly brainstorming growing and learning. team functions should not be This can be done formally or informally. enhanced cause and effect analysis over time. actually assemble a team for QFD purposes. this simply cannot happen. tools must not be overlooked. iterations. The beauty of the tool is have disciplined team in place. When it is necessary to causes and effects on the diagrams. But this also recognizes persons perceive to be the main effects--and that there has been some degree of experience possibly the actual problem. and with all parties providing their views relative build further. are designed to be used on an iterative basis for several "back and forth" approaches. let alone the actual cause of the problem. in this manner. This also relates to having a tool to use. if we not represent the first attempts at team in the wish to achieve maximum potential. Based on the purpose of the with individuals familiar with the problem. causes. It should be following attitudinal issues or circumstances should realized that this could be repeated and be in place or underway for QFD to be successful: continued in an iterative process approach . QFD should should involve the broader team process. QFD process. checklists and other perspectives. pre-existing infrastructural tools. and teaching together. Prioritize. and without trust.4. These weighted and knowledge in the team building approach values can actually be placed next to the already undertaken. This is referred to as "stretching". These drivers and effects must be flushed out through iterative brainstorming 1. part effects. "five why's". of the necessity for creativity and innovation. Several basic decisions and issues internal customer and supplier groups in must be made or wrestled with prior to undertaking improvement processes. 2. Additionally. This 1. several "macro mechanical" Even with the following. A broad and ongoing brainstorming and people with a true commitment to ongoing and problem solving approach is entered into improvement. QFD should be used to enhance. "black hole" of effort directed in the wrong direction. it must be realized that infrastructural issues or circumstances should be in QFD. necessary and sufficient infrastructural components in place for enabling the successful QFD experience. Growth and maturity. knowledge from various views and the relationship to Pareto. Trust and relationship. and repeated. much can be learned--and solved--about a given 3. and innovative truly trust one another as customers and solutions or partial solutions to emerge in a rather suppliers. These are Several "attitudinal" and "mechanical" issues provided as inputs into the total matrix and or circumstances must be addressed and in place may also be arrived at through root cause and prior to trying to move forward with QFD. Issues and infrastructure prior to Increasingly we must involve external and undertaking QFD. Used either they will likely struggle with QFD. Not only must we problem. product and process relationships. like most Kaizen documentation methods or place or underway for QFD to be successful: systems. to the problem or issue identified. The information should virtually be "in place" based on the should be "recycled". Disciplined team. Internal and external groups and/or rational and systematic manner. Repeat process. The QFD process requires a fair amount of maturity and As was more thoroughly addressed in previous tools. This individually or collectively these represent very process assumes that we are sufficiently powerful analytical tools.

and so on. Documentation and systems for discussion. or others knowledgeable. issue under earlier tools. charting and other data-based customers. QFD provides a which help systematically and logically identify and mechanism for inputs from the producer. and so on. process. QFD processes per inputs from suppliers and OPCP. we must have ways to Generally from two to four matrices are brainstorm root causes aimed at the QFD identified and developed in the QFD system. up information provided. and how well it works. It is possible to have two information and rankings from various or more different but related parties who are perspectives have been provided. Symbols and numbers. similar to the generic start mature and growing organization and group. The elements previously identified. Persons from quality. affording the for previously documented material to pursue opportunity for all to eventually become and develop further with the QFD. products in the market. information brings more than simple opinion to the table. Each party and matrix that documentation is (a) shared widely in the will place symbols on the matrix. But familiar with this prioritized information. SOP. with each being provided various symbols for 2. new agreement) system to assist in determining product development. this concerned with the same quality function information can be summarized either doing QFD. manufacturing and sales or matrices development to determine areas of common . which quality. and thus 1 to 10 is a good place to exists in several forms but is best identified begin. Typical symbols identified with numerically or in text forms. called. The important point is 2. This is designed Documentation and record keeping may also only as a start and should be modified and be a function of ISO registration or various built on. including FMEA. underway for QFD to be successful. The and maintaining a QFD process which actually extent to which we have been successful in contributes toward the broader quality and supplier evaluation and building our own productivity systems being addressed in Kaizen and evaluative systems internal will be reflected in documentation. The mature organization would The QFD process also places inputs according also draw upon FMEA and OPCP information to most to least important. again reflecting a matrix identified. improve on potential or real weaknesses in product customer. and robust documentation purposes. The emphasis in QFD tends to be on could then be placed in matrix formats for customer input or demands as they are generally constructive analysis. Evaluative systems. as well as the broader problem solving approach. This section should provide some indications 4. systematically. This could include evaluation. This systems. useful evaluative guide for determining where we are as an organization toward the journey of Several “start up” elements should be in place or improvement. or both for solid each parties' input and matrix are boxes. but others could be used. This is relative per the organization. These are Quality function deployment procedures. Problem solving and suggestion systems. Attitudes and systems for regarding essential components for getting started evaluation are part of the QFD approach. The section should also serve as a our QFD process. exhausted. and also Quality function deployment (QFD) is built around are provided in the form in the applications section: and upon the cause and effect logic and system. all 1. Documentation and records. Organizations develop solving problems. and then use organization. This should QFD process works best where systems are in likely be consistent with FMEA and other place to solve problems (previous tools). Much of the QFD logic also relies on engineering. importance of identified functions or design 3. Matrices and format. until all inputs from various parties are marketing are the typical targets of this tool. pivotal to mature improvement. and (b) used as record keeping a weighting value from some internal or for future needs and issues with suppliers and external (or most likely a combination-- customers. forms of certification. When sufficient rapid identification. related to QFD documentation processes. It should circles. with the 8-D and suggestion systems shown in nature of the QFD group. and so on. through the process. be realized that several levels and phases of The organization or group wishing to conduct the same matrix could be produced at this or participate in QFD must have a format and point. and triangles.

where all gain by where we wish to move forward. or external suppliers. All participants will be cause and effect. is that it is a communication tool to have broad technical and business for reducing lead time from concept to market--in knowledge about product and process studied. It is also a good way to This could be internal customers and suppliers determine and document external customer demands. leadership better understanding and articulating information or will be required. the way the more agreed up front that there is a specific purpose. One approach used for QFD Specific steps used to conduct the actual process follows. both internal and external. procedures: depending on maturity of the product. As with any of the tools. or product focus. as a stand alone activity. and perspectives. Part consensus to be built around what we really "expect" of the reason QFD is used is it provides a our product to be. functional interests or relationships. . develop its own approach for working with customers and others. powerful process for bringing together but also in engineering terms. The QFD system. and sometimes nearly product development and design functions for adversarial groups as the process kicks off. necessity. and methods for required. or the entire product. If weaknesses or faults in This is where a "special" leader may be current design are identified. communication and detailing of the product or issue 4. The special blend of technical and improvement are developed. organization. Based on purposes of the QFD use internally to help all persons understand what we process. somewhat unique since it can represent The QFD focus is also heavily oriented toward multiple. but not limited to these. particularly from the quality side. the typical ground rules that should be decided The example approach illustrated is one before progressing. The team should evaluative tool for their own performance. products being introduced. Will all persons in itself be considered a useful form of documentation the process place all information on one sheet? and prioritizing for deployment of resources. robust and less prone to failure design can result. ultimately become customer demands and Various groups may use the QFD process as an technical requirements. It is important to remember micro or macro view. The QFD process is knowledge between and among groups. This may be a positive system for directly placing customer inputs specific element or mechanism in a product. Identify a leader. conjunction with much other information such as 2. are trying to accomplish. QFD can be used similarly consensus format at the conclusion? Will we to value engineering since the process force us to publish a summary interpretation and analysis consider each component function. of the entire process? These are but some of contribution to quality. The extent a team is comfortable recording all the inputs. It is important that all parties This includes functions broadly considered.concern and/or areas of weakness needing to be pursued. analysis and other brainstorming techniques. Determine ground rules. These Or will all members keep their own sheet with could include any number of elements in the product their interpretation on it? Will we complete a but are typically oriented toward specific functions. helpful. this is in essence. By putting technical and non-technical groups and all parties in a "eye ball to eye ball" meeting. we virtually force final outcome of their work in a QFD process. more productive in the process if we have In all cases. Several iterations will be that the customer and supplier relationship applies required for optimum results. rather than agree on broad functions based on root cause waiting for customers to review them. Build team. this information can be people skills for blended leadership will be systematically built into a broader product program. cost. and so on. determine who should participate. QFD is a useful tool to 3. and may be primarily The QFD process forces. Brainstorm quality functions for root causes. to enable all to fully interpretation--a specific organization may wish to understand where we are headed at the outset. and then by working together will be directly related to the repeating this process. It will also be important for the leader The key. over time. to agree that this is our objective in the process. first iteration and then summarize all in a as the name would imply. under consideration. however. and generally how this is The advantage of QFD is that it provides a going to be approached. safety. divergent. first outlining general start up and planning could easily take several hours to one or more days. Matrix development helps identify cross 1. design FMEA and process FMEA. Agree on the purpose. a into the mix of information considered for product component. a technical groups. either from a improvements. can 5. changes. or encourages. and so on.

After all technical requirement. the relationship is deemed to be questionable These are specific requirements or demands or not well understood. larger or smaller should be placed. For example. It is also possible that identified as being significant or important. Where the two views cross over (equal and adding unnecessarily to costs. indicating idea of how we view the relative rankings for an enhanced technical requirement. These are placed. typically from one to five points. The technical All values are summed and placed in the requirements are actual engineering and horizontal "strength values" line on the form. sections on the form provide a place for Customers and others are involved in this plotting various views on performance in the conversation. we can requirement. if the technical evaluate the combined values of demands and requirement is generally agreed to be requirements. or up or down arrow. individual views. versa. or other customer inputs. then no multiplication would occur. If. or similar technical higher the value. medium or low level of strength. indicating we wish to and correlation in thinking. usually related to customer demands. pursuit. Customer previously identified priority values to the demands do not need to be listed in any order right of customer demands. we them. Brainstorming and problem solving. If no symbol was 8. technical requirements. they are 12. listed across the top of the form. When completed. we will one another) will represent areas of agreement point the arrow down. Just below place a nominal. Strength relationship values. Strength relationships. functional issues which must be built into the These values provide the basis from which to product. While technical requirements are the area. Just below each 13. the greater the strength deliverables. we may wish to 9. 10. at the point in the inputs are gained from all parties. consensus for reduce this technical requirement's role. depending on our view. under either bad or good. pursue areas for improvement. 3 or 1 intended to specific demanded quality characteristics. a are entered into with all parties providing their symbol should be placed to indicate the views relative to the problem or issue . and so on.level of iteration we are in. understand the prevailing view on each Across the lower horizontal area. Explain technical requirements. customer 11. Identify customer demands. multiplication of importance since our rankings will come must occur for each matrix intersection point from the 1-5 values placed on them in the where a symbol was placed under the column just to the right of each demand. additional matrix where the requirement column aligns rounds of brainstorming and problem solving with the demand information for customers. is placed It is possible that no symbol will be placed if on the vertical (left) category of the matrix. relate a high. primarily from suppliers' relationship and more likely we should pursue perspective. the customer view. The symbols on the 6. The processes strength of the relationship between how should be conducted in efficient ways but not rushed. gaining a better understanding demanded and required areas. and each matrix point is rated and then would agree to use the bulls eye symbol. Identification of form are weighted at 9. Generally the characteristics. each technical requirement. Identify technical requirements. based on technical requirement should be more robust. we should have a fairly good the arrow will point up in the box. as in over produced value. it is determined that the directions. Using a scale. Evaluating demands and requirements. "O's" are for us and "X's" are for reasonable. On the far of requirements produce the product. and various perspectives represented. functions. They represent specifications. The not necessarily organized or directly correlated areas at the far right and lowest horizontal in an organized manner at this point. technical requirements meet perceived demands of customers. Based on demands are rated or prioritized according to symbols placed on matrix intersections. right. plotted out to show overall trends and based on conversation. a symbol for showing our agreement or disagreement with nominal. multiple customer requirements and vice 7. a technical requirement will align with based on the voice of the customer. useful and accepted by all. If the each combined demand and requirement requirement is too strong. This is designed to help all participants as our reference on the customer demands. Prioritize customer demands.

It should be recognized that support documentation in various forms would generally accompany this system--and that it all should relate to broader components of the system. Several levels and phases of the same matrix could be produced at this point. it is important to have representatives from all parties involved. presented earlier. This may take several iterations and sessions. . 15. 16. One basic QFD approach is shown in matrices form on a nearby page. is not intended to be done only once. Documentation. The QFD. of necessity. ongoing improvements. Values and points of view may be changed or discussed. Negotiation and stretch. through the process. When all parties have provided their individual matrix inputs. identified. Analysis. in the current iteration or later based on further study and information. Blending and explaining. or both for solid and robust documentation purposes. since much negotiation and "stretching" of various points of view will occur. these are collected from individuals and blended into one form for all to build on and analyze. many which relate to FMEA. and eventually re-conduct the process. reporting. This is essentially an educational and communication process to a great extent. At or near the point of blending. like most Kaizen-related documentation processes. 17. 14. and communication and creativity will run quite high. When sufficient information and rankings from various perspectives have been provided. this information can be summarized either numerically or in text forms. since various parties are giving their point of view. Based on findings from QFD. or quickly. various groups could evaluate further on their own. repeated and continued in an iterative process approach until all inputs from various parties are exhausted and final points on the matrix reached as consensus. These are listed as changed inputs in the matrix.