have been living in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Lebanon and Syria since the

middle Byzantine or the Ottoman era and in Constantinople (Istanbul), Smyrna (Izmir) and other
parts of Anatolia (such as the port towns
of Amasra, Sinop, Trabzon, Enez, Foça, Çeşme, Bodrum, Alanya, Mersin, Iskenderun, etc., where
the colonies of Genoese and Venetian merchants existed) in present-day Turkey.
The majority are either the descendants of traders from the maritime
republics of Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Ancona and Ragusa who had colonies in the East Mediterranean
coast; or the descendants of the French/Italian Levantines who lived in the Crusader states of the
Levant (in present-day Lebanon, Israel and Syria), especially in port towns such
as Beirut, Tripoli, Tyre, Byblos, Acre, Jaffa, Latakia, etc.; or in major cities near the coast, such
as Tarsus, Antioch, Jerusalem, etc. Others may be converts to Roman Catholicism, immigrants from
Anglo-French colonization, or Eastern Christians who had resided there for centuries.

Italian Levantines[edit]
The name Italo-colonization, or Eastern Christians who had residversions available is hummus
masabacha, made with lemon-spiked tahini garnished with whole chick peas, a sprinkling
of paprika and a drizzle of olive oil.[20] Hummus is sold in restaurants, supermarkets and hummus-
only shops (known in Hebrew as humusiot).[21]

For Palestinians and Jordanians, hummus has long been a staple food, often served warm, with
bread for breakfast, lunch or dinner.[22] All of the ingredients in hummus are easily found in
Palestinian gardens, farms and markets, thus adding to the availability and popularity of the dish.
In Palestinian areas, hummus is usually garnished, with olive oil, "nana" mint leaves, paprika,
parsley or cumin.[23] A related dish popular in the region of Palestine and Jordan is laban ma'
hummus ("yogurt and chickpeas"), which uses yogurt in the place of tahini and butter in the place of
olive oil and is topped with pieces of toasted breadcolonization, or Eastern Christians who had
residversions available is hummus masabacha, made with lemon-spiked tahini garnished with whole
chick peas, a sprinkling of paprika and a drizzle of olive oil.[20] Hummus is sold in restaurants,
supermarkets and hummus-only shops (known in Hebrew as humusiot).[21]

For Palestinians and Jordanians, hummus has long been a staple food, often served warm, with
bread for breakfast, lunch or dinner.[22] All of the ingredients in hummus are easily found in
Palestinian gardens, farms and markets, thus adding to the availability and popularity of the dish.
In Palestinian areas, hummus is usually garnished, with olive oil, "nana" mint leaves, paprika,
parsley or cumin.[23] A related dish popular in the region of Palestine and Jordan is laban ma'
hummus ("yogurt and chickpeas"), which uses yogurt in the place of tahini and butter in the place of
olive oil and is topped with pieces of toasted bread, Beyoğlu and Nişantaşı), and Izmir (mostly in the
districts of Karşıyaka, Bornova and Buca.)
Most Latin rite Catholics in Turkey are Levantines of mainly Italian background.[citation needed] The largest
Catholic church in Turkey is the Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue in
the Beyoğlu (Pera) district of Istanbul, which was constructed between 1906 and 1912 by the Italian
Levantine community.
They have been influential in creating and reviving a tradition of opera.[5] Famous people of the
present-day Levantine community in Turkey include Maria Rita Epik, Franco-Levantine Caroline
Giraud Koç and Italo-Levantine Giovanni Scognamillo. Most of Turkey's small Roman
Catholic community are Levantines.

Notable people[edit] Famous people of the present-day Italian Levantine community .