# An-Najah National University

Engineering College
Civil Engineering Department
Construction Materials Lab

Exp. No. : 1
Exp. Name : Equilibrium of Forces
Prepared by: Rania Mohammed Sabbah , Ola Hinawi
Neveen Abu Al-Rob ,Aya
Submitted to : Lama Asmah
Section: Wednesday ( 10-12)

or moving with constant motion. . will remain at rest. One consequence of Newton's first law is that if an object is at rest. the third vector must be equal (in magnitude). or moving at constant motion unless acted upon by an external force. for equilibrium to exist. first law of equilibrium and vectors.) (figure (d)). i..this improved our understanding of equilibrium. Any two vectors (as shown in figure (a) below) may be added by the so-called "Parallelogram Law" to form one resultant vector (figure (b)). First Law of Equilibrium: A set of forces acting on a body will hold that body in equilibrium provided the vector sum of those forces adds to zero. The essential properties of force are summarized in Newton's three laws of motion . provided the vectors representing the forces form a closed polygon when placed head to tail. A force is the push or pull that one object exerts on another. Thus. And here a very short review of Newton's first law. and we will learn how to set a system of forces in equilibrium condition by simply changing the weights carried by strings and the angles between those strings experimentally. opposite (in direction) and collinear to this resultant (figure (c)). the total force on it must be zero. (a) ( b) (c) Three forces that add to zero must form a closed triangle. the triangle collapses to a straight line. This experiment is important for us .e. (When three forces are parallel.Introduction: In this experiment we will learn more about the equilibrium of forces in vertical plane. Newton’s first law states that an object at rest.because we learned theoretically the laws of equilibrium and when we did the experiment by our hands . and we will consider two equations of equilibrium.

pass over the pulleys To provide the forces in equilibrium. connected to a ring at the center of the board. The forces acting on the ring are the tensions in the strings. the vector sum of all forces acting on the body is zero ∑F = 0 (1) Because the forces are concurrent the sum of moments is by default zero so we end up with . When the ring is . The first condition is that the sum of all forces acting on the object must equal zero. each tension is equal to the weight.Strings.:Objectives For an object to be in equilibrium. this vector equation is equivalent to two scalar equations ∑Fx=0 ∑Fy=0 (2) Equation (1) may be verified graphically by adding all force vectors together by the polygon method. two conditions must be met. mg. standard masses are hung from the ends of the strings. of the masses hanging from the string .Pulleys may be clamped to the edge of the plane at any desired position .a single object :THEORY The purpose of this experiment is to verify Newton's First Law and to study the equilibrium of a set of forces acting in a vertical plane. a vertical plane . The objective of this lab is to test the first condition of equilibrium for the case of a set of concurrent.two equations of equilibrium in two dimentions :In a two-dimensional case. as applied to a stationary body acted upon by concurrent forces Newton's First Law states that when a body is in equilibrium. that is.the vector sum of all of the remaining forces The main piece of apparatus for this experiment is a force table. coplanar forces acting on .in equilibrium. In the absence of experimental error. The second condition is that the sum of all torques acting on the object must be zero. the polygon closes A further consequence of equation (1) is the fact that the magnitude of the vector sum of any combination of forces acting on the body in equilibrium is equal to the magnitude of .

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the ring or when the central ring is stationary and near the centre of the board) Use a pencil to transfer the line of action of forces(strings) to the sheet paper Carefully remove the paper and use the results to do the needed calculations :Here’s picture of how a typical setup looks . a ring. strings. hangers and different loads :see the picture below Put the clean sheet drawing paper its place at the center Attach the load cord assemblies Place the ring cord at the center (temporarily) Add the load hanger to each free end (if it wasn't already there) Add loads gently till you obtain the condition of equilibrium(when the nail is at the center of . : Procedure and Device .Examine the board with the pulleys The device is a vertical board consist of: pulleys.

θ2=-35. F4=0.6 N .4N . F2=2. Every 1cm one the sheet .θ4=215(experimental values).Data collection : In our experiment the forces (from the device) were F1=1.1N.and the angles θ1=90. θ3=145 . F3=1.5 N .

Knowing the directions will let you calculate the x.1cos35-. θ2=-35. F2=2.θ1=90.4cos35-1.6 N . F3=1.The pulleys redirect the forces so that four forces pull on the central ring in different directions.6cos35=? 0 not = 0 (because of the sources of errors we will discuss lately) 57. because the forces we have are concurrent forces we have just two equations of equilibrium instead of : three ∑Fx=0 ∑ Fy=0 In our experiment the forces were F1=1. F4=0.Analysis : In our experiment we used a device which is a force board consisting of a vertical board with a ring at the middle this ring is tied with a strings each string carry a tensile force that can be calculated easily by summing up the loads hanged at each hanger at the end of the strings .1N.12 and θ4=26.78% .4sin35-1.5sin90+. θ3=145 .5cos90+2. see the figure below We put different loads at each string until the ring was exactly at the middle and there we have the condition of equilibrium and the equations of equilibrium are satisfied.4N .and the angles .and the angles measured were correct except for θ4 by setting Σ Fx=0 and ΣFy=0 .56 hence the percent of error in magnitude =(|F4 from device-F4theo|\F4theo)*100%=46.θ4=215(experimental values) Σ Fx=1.2% and the percent of error in direction=(|θ4from device-θ4theo|\θ4theo)*100%=31.1sin35=?0 not=0(because of the sources of errors we will discuss lately) 163.6sin35-2.and the y-components of the : forces.= ΣFy=1.-= To get the theoretical value we assume that the forces obtained were correct except for F4 .5 N .we get the theoretical value of F4 =1.

and that is a bigger percent of error than the percent we obtained theoretically that was because of errors in drawing and measuring and other human errors the paper we got from the device is . and the value from device was . *100%.1% since F4 graphically was 1.179N.6 N and we know that the percent of error is equal to |exp-theo. we had a percent of error equal to 49.179 N for magnitude and 40% for direction .|\theo.896cm=1.:Graphically We draw the four forces and they should form a closed polygon look at the figure but because of the high percent of error we had in our experiment it wasn't closed . we measure the graphical value of F4 by closing the unclosed polygon and by using the scale of 0.2N→1cm we had a length of 5.also attached .

If % of error ≤ 5% then it's an acceptable error. now I'm going to discuss some of them :one reason for the high error . From the analysis we noticed that the percent of error was high (about46.2 N : Specification The specification for error in this experiment as follows: 1. The ring was certainly at rest – it really was at equilibrium. 3. 2. The tensile force each string exerts on the ring should be equal to the weight (mg)-the friction from the pulley .another source of error was that we assumed all our forces to be coplanar forces(acts at the same plane) but this wasn't satisfied 100% . was the sum of forces equal to zero? There are two . the sources are mentioned in the next head line .2% in magnitude and 31. . was that the pulleys do have a friction but in our calculations we didn't consider this friction. 1cm stands for 0. If 15% <%of error then the device is defected. Discussion: In this experiment we learned how to set a system of different weights into equilibrium by changing the angles and the weights in each string (experimentally) and by equations of equilibrium (theoretically) and by drawing a force polygon(graphically).78% in direction) that is because of the sources of errors were in this experiment. The question is.that means that there are z components for the forces and we didn't consider a third equation in our calculations . If 5%≤ % of error ≤ 15% Then the device of experiment needs a calibration.

.. How true is this?. 2. This means that there is a limit to how precise your calculations can be. The specifications say that if the percent of error was higher than 15% then the device is defected. Was the sum of forces in this experiment equal to zero? Please explain your answer ? scientifically ‫تم بحمد الله و فضله‬ . even if we did include all the forces. Mistakes in marking the string position(human errors). but it really is at the heart of laboratory work.1 we should have smaller weights. 4.issues here. Sources of errors : 1. :Question . 3. 5. what does “equal to zero” mean in this context? That sounds like a silly question. There is a limit as to how precise a measurement you can make. The wear and elongation happened in the strings used. One is whether or not we included every force in our calculations. The smallest weight available was 0. The forces weren't exactly(100%) coplanar(lines of action of the forces lie at the same plane). The friction in the pulleys. The other is.