- chapter5failuretheoriesfinal-140824082849-phpapp02
- 2-Theories of Failure (MOS-2)
- Handbook Damage Models for Concrete
- R H C Wong Et Al 2001 - Analysis of Crack Coalescence in Rock-like Materials I - Printed
- MR21
- A New Formula to Calculate Crack Spacingfor Concrete Plates
- A Crack Along the Interface of a Circular Inclusion Embedded in an Infinite Solid
- Casing burst strength after casing wear.pdf
- MEDIÇÃO DA RESISTÊNCIA À TRAÇÃO por compressão diametral dos discos e anéis.pdf
- Guide to Container Defects
- 10 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY PRACTICAL EXERCISES SOLVED BY USING VINDIO 1.1.pdf
- 18.pdf
- Bao and Widerzbicki 2005
- Failure Theories
- SandStat 4
- Caving Propagation Paper
- AIAA-1999-1249-909
- wu2005.pdf
- (Duerr,D.,2006)-Pinned Connection Strength and Behavior
- Progress Welded Mesh Sdn. Bhd.
- Modelling of Behaviour of Metals at High Strain Rates
- 2007 Doc
- Map3D Help
- Unit 2 Exam Paper
- Lecture 2 - Strain Concepts
- StressAnalysisReportfromInventor2009.pdf
- L01 Introduction
- Assignment BMFB 2413 _2017.pdf
- chap1
- OIKONOMOPOULOU Apostolia Paper Revised Layouted
- Chapter 29
- Chapter 38
- Chapter 41
- Chapter 30
- Chapter 28
- Chapter 31
- Chapter 39
- Chapter 37
- Chapter 40
- Chapter 27
- Chapter 42
- Chapter 32
- Problem on Stresses and TWPV
- Chapter 01
- Chapter 14a
- Chapter 06
- Chapter 13
- Chapter 21
- Chapter 07
- Chapter 26
- Chapter 03
- Chapter 05
- Chapter 19
- Engg Lettering Guidelines 133

Physics – science that relates the properties of matter and energy, excluding biological and chemical effects. It

includes study of mechanic, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, and nuclear physics.

Engineering – application of the mathematical and physical science (physics, chemistry and biology) to the design and

manufacture of items that benefit humanity.

Engineering Design – the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs.

Mechanics – the branch of physics that considers the action of forces on bodies or fluids that are at rest or in motion.

Engineering Mechanics – branch of engineering that applies the principles of mechanics to mechanical design.

Statics and Dynamics – devoted primarily to the study of external effects upon rigid bodies – that is bodies for which

deformation can be neglected.

Mechanics of Materials – deals with internal effects and deformations that are caused by the applied loads.

I. Stresses

Deformations produced by components of internal forces

**P: The component of the resultant force that is perpendicular to the cross- section, tending to elongate or
**

shorten the bar, is called the normal force.

V: The component of the resultant force lying in the plane of the cross section, tending to shear (slide)

one segment of the bar relative to the other segment, is called the shear force.

T: The component of the resultant couple that tends to twist (rotate) the bar is called the twisting moment

or torque.

M: The component of the resultant couple that tends to bend the bar is called the bending moment.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

a. Axial Stresses

Centroidal Loading (Axial)

In statics, when the loading is uniform, its resultant passes through the centroid of the loaded

area.

Normal Stress Distribution

Saint Venant’s Principle

**The difference between the effects of two different but statically equivalent loads becomes very
**

small at sufficiently large distances from the load.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

**Many of the simplifications are not only justified but necessary. Without simplifying
**

assumptions, analysis would be exceedingly difficult. However, we must always keep in mind the

approximations that were made, and make allowances for them in the final design.

Stresses on Inclined Planes

Complementary Stresses

The shear stresses that act on complementary planes have the same magnitude but opposite sense.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

b. Shear Stress

Definition:

Shear stress is tangent to the plane on which it acts. Shear stress arises whenever the applied loads cause

one section of a body to slide past its adjacent section.

c. Bearing Stress

Definition:

If two bodies are pressed against each other, compressive forces are developed on the area of contact. The

pressure caused by these surface loads is called bearing stress. One example of bearing stress is soil

bearing pressure below the foundation of the structure.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

II. Strain

Definition:

Strain is a geometric quantity that measures the deformation of a body. There are two types of strain: normal

strain, which characterizes dimensional changes, and shear strain, which describes distortion (changes in

angles). Stress and strain are two fundamental concepts of mechanics of materials. Their relationship to each

other defines the mechanical properties of a material, the knowledge of which is of the utmost importance in

design.

**a. Stress-Strain Diagram
**

Typical stress-strain diagram of a tensile test of reinforcing steel bars

b. Normal Axial Strain

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

c. Tension Test

**Hooke’s Law and Proportional Limit
**

States that stress is directly proportional with strain (deformation)

Elastic Limit

A material is said to be elastic if, after being loaded, the material returns to its original shape when the

load is removed. The elastic limit is, as its name implies, the stress beyond which the material is no longer

elastic.

Yield Point

The point where the stress-strain diagram becomes almost horizontal is called the yield point, and the

corresponding stress is known as the yield stress or yield strength. Beyond the yield point there is an

appreciable elongation, or yielding, of the material without a corresponding increase in load.

Ultimate Stress

The ultimate stress or ultimate strength, as it is often called, is the highest stress on the stress-strain curve.

Rupture Stress

The rupture stress or rupture strength is the stress at which failure occurs. For structural steel, the

nominal rupture strength is considerably lower than the ultimate strength because the nominal rupture

strength is computed by dividing the load at rupture by the original cross-sectional area. The true rupture

strength is calculated using the reduced area of the cross section where the fracture occurred. The

difference in the two values results from a phenomenon known as necking.

**d. Allowable Stress and Factor of Safety
**

The working stress , also called the allowable stress, is the maximum safe axial stress used in design.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

Many factors must be considered when selecting the working stress. This selection should not be made by

the novice; usually the working stress is set by a group of experienced engineers and is embodied in

building codes and specifications. A discussion of the factors governing the selection of a working stress

starts with the observation that in many materials the proportional limit is about one-half the ultimate

strength. To avoid accidental overloading, a working stress of one-half the proportional limit is usually

specified for dead loads that are gradually applied. (The term dead load refers to the weight of the

structure and other loads that, once applied, are not removed.) A working stress set in this way

corresponds to a factor of safety of 4 with respect to and is recommended for materials that are

known to be uniform and homogeneous. For other materials, such as wood, in which unpredictable non-

uniformities (such as knotholes) may occur, larger factors of safety are used. The dynamic effect of

suddenly applied loads also requires higher factors of safety.

e. Axially Loaded Bars

**f. Statically Indeterminate Problems
**

If the number of unknown forces exceeds the number of independent equilibrium equations, the problem

is said to be statically indeterminate.

**A statically indeterminate problem always has geometric restrictions imposed on its deformation. The
**

mathematical expressions of these restrictions, known as the compatibility equations, provide us with the

additional equations needed to solve the problem (the term compatibility refers to the geometric

compatibility between deformation and the imposed constraints).

g. Thermal Problems

It is well known that changes in temperature cause dimensional changes in a body: An increase in

temperature results in expansion, whereas a temperature decrease produces contraction. This deformation

is isotropic (the same in every direction) and proportional to the temperature change.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

Thermal Strain

**– Coefficient of thermal expansion
**

– Temperature change

Thermal Deformation

**If thermal deformation is permitted to occur freely (by using expansion joints or roller supports, for
**

example), no internal forces will be induced in the body—there will be strain, but no stress. In cases

where the deformation of a body is restricted, either totally or partially, internal forces will develop that

oppose the thermal expansion or contraction. The stresses caused by these internal forces are known as

thermal stresses.

III. Torsion

a. Circular Shafts

Make simplifying assumptions about the deformation based on experimental evidence.

Determine the strains that are geometrically compatible with the assumed deformations.

Use Hooke’s law to express the equations of compatibility in terms of stresses.

Derive the equations of equilibrium. (These equations provide the relationships between the

stresses and the applied loads.)

**b. Assumptions, Compatibility, and Equilibrium
**

Circular cross sections remain plane (do not warp) and perpendicular to the axis of the shaft.

Cross sections do not deform (there is no strain in the plane of the cross section).

The distances between cross sections do not change (the axial normal strain is zero).

Each cross section rotates as a rigid entity about the axis of the shaft.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

The shear stress varies linearly with radial distance from the axis of the shaft. The maximum shear

stress occurs at the surface of the shaft.

c. Power Transmission

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

**IV. Shear and Moment in Beams
**

Definition

The term beam refers to a slender bar that carries transverse loading; that is, the applied forces are

perpendicular to the bar. In a beam, the internal force system consists of a shear force and a bending moment

acting on the cross section of the bar.

**a. Supports and Loads
**

Statically Determinate Beams

Statically Indeterminate Beams

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

b. Sign Conventions

c. Area Method

Loadings, Shear and Bending Moment Relationship (Differential Equations of Equilibriums for Beams

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

The load intensity at any section of a beam is equal to the negative of the slope of the shear force

diagram at the section.

The shear force at any section is equal to the slope of the bending moment diagram at that

section.

The difference between the shear forces at two sections of a beam is equal to the negative of the

area under the load diagram between those two sections.

The difference between the bending moments at two sections of a beam is equal to the area of the

shear force diagram between these two sections.

If the load diagram is a polynomial of degree n, then the shear force diagram is a polynomial of

degree (n+1), and the bending moment diagram is a polynomial of degree (n+2).

V. Stresses in Beams

a. Bending Stress: Assumptions, Compatibility, and Equilibrium

Assumptions

The beam has an axial plane of symmetry, which we take to be the xy-plane

The applied loads (such as F1, F2, and F3) lie in the plane of symmetry and are perpendicular to

the axis of the beam (the x-axis).

The axis of the beam bends but does not stretch (the axis lies somewhere in the plane of

symmetry; its location will be determined later).

Plane sections of the beam remain plane (do not warp) and perpendicular to the deformed axis of

the beam.

Changes in the cross-sectional dimensions of the beam are negligible.

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

Each cross section of the beam rotates as a rigid entity about a line called the neutral axis of the

cross section. The neutral axis passes through the axis of the beam and is perpendicular to the

plane of symmetry.

Compatibility

Equilibrium

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

MEC32 - Mechanics of Materials

b. Flexure Formula

**c. Shear Stress: Horizontal and Vertical
**

Horizontal Shear Stress

Vertical Shear Stress

**Prepared by: Engr. Dioshua P. Sapla
**

“and before honour is humility”

- chapter5failuretheoriesfinal-140824082849-phpapp02Uploaded byR Ramesh
- 2-Theories of Failure (MOS-2)Uploaded bySohaib Zaib Khan
- Handbook Damage Models for ConcreteUploaded byMilmxmen
- R H C Wong Et Al 2001 - Analysis of Crack Coalescence in Rock-like Materials I - PrintedUploaded byVladimir Prados Rosa
- MR21Uploaded byCarmine Tranfa
- A New Formula to Calculate Crack Spacingfor Concrete PlatesUploaded byProfessor Dr. Nabeel Al-Bayati-Consultant Engineer
- A Crack Along the Interface of a Circular Inclusion Embedded in an Infinite SolidUploaded byRam Anji
- Casing burst strength after casing wear.pdfUploaded byBezawit Temesgen Belete
- MEDIÇÃO DA RESISTÊNCIA À TRAÇÃO por compressão diametral dos discos e anéis.pdfUploaded byHermeson Rodrigues
- Guide to Container DefectsUploaded bymktg1
- 10 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY PRACTICAL EXERCISES SOLVED BY USING VINDIO 1.1.pdfUploaded byRoberto Lacalle
- 18.pdfUploaded bysaeed6510
- Bao and Widerzbicki 2005Uploaded bymeriem nouira
- Failure TheoriesUploaded byNobleSharma
- SandStat 4Uploaded byNedžadDžoko
- Caving Propagation PaperUploaded byAlejandra Garay Cortesi
- AIAA-1999-1249-909Uploaded byJunghyun Ahn
- wu2005.pdfUploaded byYassine Chikh
- (Duerr,D.,2006)-Pinned Connection Strength and BehaviorUploaded bychristos032
- Progress Welded Mesh Sdn. Bhd.Uploaded byBiiK007
- Modelling of Behaviour of Metals at High Strain RatesUploaded byLalit Kumar Sahu
- 2007 DocUploaded byRizwan Patel
- Map3D HelpUploaded byJvrjee Ganbaa
- Unit 2 Exam PaperUploaded bySaurabh Khandelwal
- Lecture 2 - Strain ConceptsUploaded byJohn Kenneth Basas Musico
- StressAnalysisReportfromInventor2009.pdfUploaded byDelian Kurniawan
- L01 IntroductionUploaded bymusty3422
- Assignment BMFB 2413 _2017.pdfUploaded bySofwan Juewek
- chap1Uploaded bySeba Bayram
- OIKONOMOPOULOU Apostolia Paper Revised LayoutedUploaded byrigasch

- Chapter 29Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 38Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 41Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 30Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 28Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 31Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 39Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 37Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 40Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 27Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 42Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 32Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Problem on Stresses and TWPVUploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 01Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 14aUploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 06Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 13Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 21Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 07Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 26Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 03Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 05Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Chapter 19Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia
- Engg Lettering Guidelines 133Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia