Exocrine Glands

V Functional changes and Iactation.

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l. LMs ol a lactating mammary gland. Top, Ducts (Du) and inegular,
closely packed secretory alveoli (Al) are prominent. 60x. HdE Bottom. ln a section
Pregnancy Lacta:ion of gland treated to detect lipid in milk, alveolar contents are black. g}x. asmium.

A LMs of a lactating mammary gland. Simple cuboidal.epith-el:um lines well-developed alveoli and the ducts (Du). Myoepithelial cells, although present,
are not easily seen in routine sections. An alveolus is filled wilh milk secretion (Left) (*); others appear emptv
F) &ighg. n nrgh cg,teni 0tiorfigi, makes the
conneclive tissue skoma eosinophilic. 240x. H&E.

2.18 HISTOLOGY AND FUNCTION OF like pattern. At the end of pregnancy, alveoli are large, irregular
LACTATTNG (ACTIVE) MAMMARY GLANDS in shape, and liled by cuboidal to low columnar epitheliu:1.
During pregnancy, mammary glands complete development and Lobules vary greatly in functional activity. Alveolar cells in an
cliflerentiation to prepare for lactation. Alveoli get larger, and actively secreting 1obule contaia large fat droplets, and lumina of
alveolar epithelial cells undergo ltypertrophy and lryperplasia. ln many alveoli may contain heterogeneous secretions, plus desqua-
addition, the number and size of ducts increase, and the amount mated cells and cell debris. Prolacfir, rvhich is released from the
of connective and adipose tissue decreases. The secretory unit of anterior pituitary, stimulates cells to secrete milk components into
eachlobe-thelobule-consi:sts of several clusters of alveoli around alveoli lumina. During lactation, oxytocin from the posterior pitu-
a small duct. Several lobules corstitute a lobe. Simple cuboidal itary stimulates myoepitheiial cells to contract to help expel secre-
epithelial cells surrounded by a delicate basement membrane line tions into ducts. Late in pregaancy, plasma cells in stroma around
alveoli. Basally located myoepithelial cells share a basement alveoli increase in number and add secretory IgA to marnmary
membrane with the epithelium and embrace alveoli in a basket- gland secretions to confer passive immunity to an infant.