Chapter 5

Reasons and Features of Rotor
Vibration

By Dr. Danmei Xie

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie

The main purposes of this course
increase understanding of provide a means for controlling
rotor vibration phenomena or eliminating these vibrations

Basic theory of vibration

Reasons and features of vibration Methods of rotor balancing

① Vibration Signal Analysis
② Reasons and features of Rotor Vibration

2012/9/25

 Introduction and basic concepts
 Vibration theory
 Rigid rotor balance
 Flexible rotor balance
 Reasons and features of rotor vibration
 Fault diagnosis
 Case study
 Test//

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

1 Vibration Signal Analysis  Time domain waveform plot  bar plot  orbit (Axle center locus) plot  bode plot  Nyquist plot  spectrum domain (FFT) plot  waterfall plot// Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .  5.

Dr. Danmei Xie .键相 B A 1瓦 2瓦 3瓦 4瓦 5瓦 6瓦 7瓦 8瓦 3300型电涡流传感器 9200型速度传感器 Bently 3500 208P DAIU Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 Y . Time domain waveform No 1 BRG No 2 BRG No 3 BRG No 4BRG X No 5 BRG No 6 BRG No 7 BRG No 8 BRG Rotor vibration and its balance .

Bar
Bar Plot

X

Y

Alarm

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

Orbit (Axle center locus) Plot

No 1 BRG

No 2 BRG

No 3 BRG

No 4BRG

No 5 BRG

No 6 BRG
unbalance misalignment Oil whip
No 7 BRG

Orbit No 8 BRG

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

Bode plot speed

Speed(n/10rpm) X Time (s) X

speed
Speed(n/10rpm) Y Time (s) Y

No 1 BRG No 3 BRG No 5 BRG No 7 BRG

No 2 BRG Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr.
No 4BRG No 6Danmei
BRG Xie No 8 BRG
2012/9/25

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Nyquist plot speed phase No 1 BRG No 3 BRG No 5 BRG No 7 BRG No 2 BRG No 4BRG No 6 BRG No 8 BRG Rotor vibration and its balance .

Component Frequencies Of A Square Wave Form. its balance.Dr. Danmei 2012/9/25 Xie . Rotor vibration and its Rotor vibration andbalance . Danmei Xie Dr.

Spectrum domain (FFT) plot No 1 BRG No 2 BRG No 3 BRG No 4BRG X No 5 BRG No 6 BRG No 7 BRG No 8 BRG Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 Y .

its balance. Danmei Xie Dr. Danmei 2012/9/25 Y Xie .Dr. Waterfall plot No 1 BRG No 2 BRG No 3 BRG No 4BRG X No 5 BRG No 6 BRG No 7 BRG No 8 BRG Rotor vibration and its Rotor vibration andbalance .

Dr. Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie . Holographic Spectrum  Traditional on-site balancing methods are usually based on information from a single sensor with vertical and horizontal vibrations being regarded as two separate components  In fact. the motion of rotors is a kind of complicated spatial movement  It is impossible for measurements made by using only unidirectional sensors to objectively and reliably reflect the movement status of the rotors  The information from the sensors must be fused  The authors have presented an on-site dynamic balance method based on a fusion of information from a variety of sensors.Dr.

Dr. and the working principle of a shafting holographic dynamic balance method was described  In addition. The essence of the matter consists in fully integrating the information fusion technology with flexible rotor dynamic balance technology  In the meantime. advanced computer simulation and a genetic algorithm-based optimization are employed to simplify balanced operations. Danmei Xie . the effectiveness of the method in question has been verified by the on-site dynamic balance of several 300 MW turbogenerator units Rotor vibration and its balance . thus enhancing the balance accuracy and efficiency  The demerits of the balance method based on a single sensor were analyzed.

Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .Dr.

Danmei Xie .Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

what are their source// Rotor vibration and its balance .  What are the amplitudes of each peak  How do the peaks relate to each other  If there are significant peaks. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. Signature Analysis RBPF = RB * Fshaft FShaft = shaft frequency RB = # of Rotor Bars  Which frequencies exist and what are the relationships to the fundamental exciting frequencies.

load. history of mal operation. work done 3) Run machine until it reaches normal operating temperature 4) Take readings at designated points. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Analyse frequency of any high readings // Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.lubricating oil temperature.  Sequence of analysis 1) Assemble equipment 2) Record operational parameters of machine.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . during measurement period 7) If possible double check readings 8) Determine source of vibration using identification table 9) Remedy fault// Rotor vibration and its balance . load etc.Dr. 5) If possible measure vibration at different speeds 6) Note changes in temperature.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . transverse)// Rotor vibration and its balance .2 Reasons and features of Rotor Vibration  Forced vibration caused by mechanical exciting force  Forced vibration caused by electro-magnetic exciting force  Forced vibration caused by weakening of system stiffness  Low frequency vibration (Oil whirl or Oil whip.  5. Aerodynamic forces )  Axial oscillation of brgs  Vibration caused by rotor cracks (esp.Dr.

1 Forced vibration caused by mechanical exciting force 1) Rotor unbalance mass 2) Bent rotor (Hog And Sag) 3) Rotor misalignment 4) Rub between moving parts and static parts// Rotor vibration and its balance . 5.Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .2.

1) ROTOR UNBALANCE MASS  Mass unbalance is the most common cause of vibration problems  It occurs when the rotor mass centerline does not line up with the axis of rotation  The term mass centerline refers to the line that joints the centers of mass of imaginary thin slices into which the rotor may be divided  Figure 10. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .1 illustrates a simplified case of a rotor with mass unbalance  In reality.Dr. the mass centerline looks like a snake wrapped closely around the axis of rotation// Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .1 Mass unbalance Couple Unbalance Overhung Rotor Unbalance Rotor vibration and its balance . Rotating Shaft unbalanced centreof centrifugal gravity Unbalance Axisofrotation Shaft masscenterline Figure 10.

but sometimes the lost part is so small that only a small increase in vibration results  Corrosion deposits or wear.g. due to erosion. abrasion. This happens when one side of the shaft is warmer than the opposite side// Rotor vibration and its balance .. changes in mass unbalance are small and they develop slowly  The most typical cause of a temporary change in mass unbalance is transient thermal bowing of the rotor. scoring. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . A. In most cases.Causes of UNBALANCE MASS  Operating conditions that can increase rotor unbalance  Some of them change unbalance temporarily and others permanently (until maintenance is performed)  Examples of permanent changes are:  Loss of a rotor part in the most extreme cases.Dr. the resultant unbalance can be catastrophic. etc. e.

Examples of operating conditions  Fast load changes–cooling or heating of the rotor can be so fast that slight differences in the deposits on the shaft surface can interfere with heat transfer and produce a slightly uneven temperature in the rotor  Rubbing–the frictional heat produced at the site of rubbing makes one side of the shaft hotter  Hogging  Partial plugging of some cooling passages (e. by oil) in generators  Asymmetrical currents in individual rotor windings in electric motors and generators–the windings carrying larger currents get hotter than their counterparts// Rotor vibration and its balance .g. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr..

B. Features of unbalance I. Amp increases as square of speed before ωcr V. Stable amp + phase at a certain speed IV. while the axis curve is bent into a spacious curve under the dynamic condition and rotates around the static axis curve with the rotating speed of rotor. the orbit is elliptical/oval or circular VIII. Vibration phase shifts at ωcr VI. Vibration does not change with the oil temperature. Vibration predominantly RADIAL in direction III. Time domain waveform is sine wave VII.Dr. Vibration frequency equals rotor speed II. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . oil pressure and steam flow // Rotor vibration and its balance .

The spacious distribution of rotor centroid Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .Dr.

Dr. Danmei Xie . A Spectrum domain plot Fir Tree shape 1x 2x 3x 4x ⊥ μm ≒ Waterfall plot Orbit Plot Rotor vibration and its balance .

Danmei Xie 40 . while the warmer and hence lighter fluid is pushed to the top  This process takes place when the rotor is left stationary and the machine is cooling down or is being warmed up// 2012/9/25 Rotor vibration and its balance . They are most pronounced in long shafts like in steam turbine generators  Hog is an upward bending of the rotor and happens when the top of the shaft is hotter then the bottom  This temperature differential is produced by thermal stratification of the fluid around the rotor  That is.Dr. the colder and therefore heavier fluid collects at the bottom. 2) BENT ROTOR (Hog And Sag)  Mass unbalance and coupling misalignment can be affected by shaft deformations referred to as hog and sag.

g. Hogging is a fast process  It may take only several minutes to bow the shaft enough to close some radial clearances in the machine  An attempt to turn the rotor in this condition could damage the machine’s internals (e. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . turbine blades) and brgs through rubbing  Incidentally.Dr. which is heavier and therefore needs more heat transfer to change its temperature// Rotor vibration and its balance .. which does not affect the casing  rotor hogging is faster and larger than casing hogging  The reason for this is that the rotor changes its temperature faster than the casing. hogging also affects the machine’s casing  its bowing introduces a mass unbalance.

Dr. Sag is a downward bending of the rotor under its own weight  Some. while the bottom half is in tension  A similar process. very small. sagging is a slow process and it takes days rather than minutes to develop to a troublesome level// Rotor vibration and its balance . sag is present during normal operation because the rotor is not infinitely rigid  But when the rotor is stationary. sag increases because the same part of the rotor is subjected to a constant stress for an extended period. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . which we all have seen. affects a loaded bookcase shelf  Unlike hogging. the top half is in compression.

Dr. Ecc entric ity Shaftp osition tra nsdu c er a fera180tu rn E cce ntric ity S haft B ea rin g B ea rin g Figure 10.3 Hog and sag Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie .图8 N300型汽轮机的组合中压转子 Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

Danmei Xie . 10 11 15 15 12 21 11 12 12 1 1 10 19 10 2 14 13 20 16 17 10 8 1 2 4 13 8 8 7 9 18 9 4 2 4 6 4 3 4 4 4 14 9 5 3 3 9 Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

Vibration related with load or temp VI. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . B. High reproducibility or repeatability // Rotor vibration and its balance . 2X RPM dominant if bend is near shaft ends IV. 1X RPM dominant if bend is near shaft center III. Features of rotor bent I. Bent shaft problems cause high axial vibration II. Phase difference in the axial direction will tend towards 1800 difference V.Dr.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Eccentric Rotor  Shaft eccentricity is another term that is closely associated with hogging and sagging  Eccentricity is a measure of the rotor deflection from the perfectly straight line  Figure 10.  Eccentricity of these rotors can be caused by sagging or hogging  However.3 shows how rotor eccentricity is measured  The measurement is unavailable when the rotor is stationary  In plants.Dr. rubbing or excessively fast heating or cooling of the rotor can also produce it// 231 Rotor vibration and its balance . eccentricity is monitored only on HP turbine rotors  This allows us to avoid turbine run–up when the rotor is bowed.

 Regardless of its cause, shaft bowing has adverse
consequences, and they depend on rotor speed
 At high speeds, shaft bowing will result in high vibration
because the rotating unbalanced centrifugal force will be
excessive
 At low speeds, however, that force will be too small to
produce high vibration even when shaft bowing is sufficient to
cause mild rubbing
 If we monitored bearing vibrations only, we may be unaware
of rotor bowing, but it could wear/damage seals
 Monitoring rotor eccentricity, however, would warn us about
the danger//

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

3) Rotor misalignment

Parallel
Coupling Angular

不同心
Bearing Elevation
Angular
瓢偏

The left shaft and its brgs are
infinitely stiff
In practice, both shafts and its
brgs are somewhat flexible
Hence, reaction forces exerted
by the right shaft on the left
shaft cause it to vibrate
Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

Shafting of a turbo-generator unit with 1000MW

2012/9/25 Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
By Dr. Danmei Xie ----Wuhan University

Aligning the supports of a rotor to account for static deformation. (a) Inflected shape of the two spans when the joint is disconnected. (b) inflection of the rotor after the supports of the second span have been raised. Danmei Xie . Note that all deformations are grossly exaggerated.Dr. Rotor vibration and its balance .

or settle or crack due to aging III. or load changes// Rotor vibration and its balance .brgs can suffer an excessive local wear called wiping The first condition is the most frequent and it usually occurs during operational transients such as equipment startups and shutdowns. Concrete machine foundation can thermally expand. Machine casing with bearing pedestals can become deformed due to uneven thermal expansion or mechanical stresses II.A.Dr. Danmei Xie . Causes of misalignment(Coupling and bearing) Coupling(Shaft) misalignment can change during operation I.A bearing can become loose in its housing. the housing can crack or its connection to the casing or foundation can become loose IV.

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Other reasons of misalignment  Disagreement of the concentricity between the cylinder and the rotor of the turbine  Deviation of bearing pedestal in each directions  Coupling faults  Non-satisfied ellipticity or run-out roundness// Rotor vibration and its balance .

Different lub oil pressure // Rotor vibration and its balance . Features of misalignment I.Dr. Characterized by high axial vibration II. 2 or 3X RPM to dominate VI. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Orbit is of 8 shape IX. Sensitive to load change VIII. Not unusual for 1. Typically high 1 and 2 times axial vibration V. 1800 phase change across the coupling III. 2X RPM often larger than 1X RPM IV. Severe conditions give higher harmonics VII.

Features of misalignment Angular misalignment & Parallel Misalignment 1x 2x 4x Radial Rotor vibration and its balance . B. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr.

Dr. Danmei Xie . A G(f) f 1× 1xf 2× 2xf 3× 3x f 4× 4xf ⊥ μm ≒ Rotor vibration and its balance .

Will cause a twisting motion with approximately 1800 phase shift side to side or top to bottom// Rotor vibration and its balance . Misaligned Bearing I.Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Attempts to realign coupling or balance the rotor will not alleviate the problem. Vibration symptoms similar to angular misalignment II. III.

Danmei Xie .4) RUB (between moving parts and static parts)  Kinds of rub Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

Danmei Xie .  Position Between gland sealing strips and rotor Between blade tip and casing Between sealing strip of diaphragm and rotor 2012/9/25 Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. Rotor vibration and its balance .

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. Between blade tip and casing Between diaphragm and rotor Rotor vibration and its balance .

gland sealing strips

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

A. Causes of rub
I. Tight clearance
II. Vibration
III. Deformation//

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

 A common problem in newly rebuilt or modified rotors
is a slight rubbing condition as the rotor is initially
operated
 Rotor rubs are not a phenomenon which continues over
an extended period; they usually increase the clearances
until the rub has been cleared or, if not corrected, they
will wear away the internal clearances until the machine
cannot be operated
 The shape of the orbit display will differ depending
upon the relationship of the shaft speed to the first
natural frequency and the severity of the rub//

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

Dr. with the point of the tear drop coinciding with the impact spot As the rub gets heavier the orbit will flattened and may appear as an excessive preload// Rotor vibration and its balance . The severity of the rub will affect the shape of the orbit A light rub will produce a "tear drop" shaped orbit. B. Rub may be partial or through a complete revolution V. Features of Rotor Rub I. Usually generates a series of frequencies which may excite natural frequencies III. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Subharmonic(亚谐波) frequencies may be present IV. Spectra displays of rub conditions are characterized by distinct frequencies that occur at multiples of a fundamental frequency II.

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .5 Rub Rotor vibration and its balance . Truncated waveform 1x speed<2m light rub heavy rub 2x 3x 2x 1/2x rub 1/3x rub 3 1x 4 x 3 5x 3 2x 7x 3 Figure 10.

Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. Orbit Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr.  5. Causes I. rotor coil foreshortening III. blocked ventilation passages VII. electrical grounds IV.2. turn–to–turn short II. wedge stick–slip. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . coil stick–slip and bearing wipe// Rotor vibration and its balance .2 Forced vibration caused by electro-magnetic exciting force A. Overheating VI. mechanical imbalances V.

Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .Dr.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. FL=Line frequency Amplitude 2XFL 1X 2X Frequency 12kcpm (a) stator eccentricity shorted laminations and loose iron 1/3 FL sidebands Amplitude around 2X FL 1X Frequency (b) power supply phase problems (loose connector) Rotor vibration and its balance .

rotor SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR (Loose Stator Coils) stator Features of Electrical Problems (1) I.Dr. Loose stator coils in synchronous motors generate high amplitude at coil pass frequency II. The coil pass frequency will be surrounded by 1X RPM sidebands// Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Features of Electrical Problems (2) ROTOR PROBLEMS I. Often high levels at 2X & 3X rotor bar pass frequency and only low level at 1X rotor bar pass frequency// Rotor vibration and its balance . 1X. 3X. III. 2X. 2X line frequency sidebands on rotor bar pass frequency (通频) (RBPF) indicates loose rotor bars. II.Dr. RPM with pole pass frequency sidebands (边 带) indicates rotor bar problems.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Often requires zoom spectrum to separate 2FL and running speed harmonic III. Eccentric rotors produce a rotating variable air gap. this induces pulsating vibration II.Dr.120 CPM// Rotor vibration and its balance . Features of Electrical Problems (3) ECCENTRIC ROTOR (Variable Air Gap) I. Common values of FP range from 20 .

Dr. bearing pedestal. Causes of stiffness weaken I. and foundation frame etc II. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Gaps developed between the bearing pedestal and the foundation bedplate III. Cracks developed in the loading foundation elements// Rotor vibration and its balance .3 Forced vibration caused by weakening of system stiffness A.  5. Weakening of the system stiffness in such places as bearing bush.2.

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . vertical horizontal axial bearing bush bearing pedestal Rotor vibration and its balance .

tilting pad 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 68 —谢诞梅 .Dr.

Dr. 椭圆瓦 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 69 —谢诞梅 .

武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 70 —谢诞梅 .

Dr. Combined Thrust and Journal Bearing 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 71 —谢诞梅 .

Danmei Xie 武汉大学动力与机械学院——谢诞梅 72 .Dr. Opened shaft seal Rotor vibration and its balance .

Danmei Xie By Dr. Danmei Xie ----Wuhan University .Dr. Shafting of a turbo-generator unit with 1000MW 2012/9/25 Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr. 上汽前轴承箱纵销 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 75 —谢诞梅 .

Dr. Danmei Xie 76 —谢诞梅 . 上汽#1低压缸横销 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr. 东汽前台板 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 77 —谢诞梅 .

东汽中台板 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 78 —谢诞梅 .Dr.

Dr. Danmei Xie 79 —谢诞梅 . 东汽发电机励磁端台板 武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance .

Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie 81 —谢诞梅 .Dr.武汉大学动力与机械学院— Rotor vibration and its balance .

Stg 10T St10TS G-X 12CrMoNiWVNbN 10 11 X 10CrMoWVNbN 10 11 St 461 TS 20 Cr Mo Ni V 47 St 461 TS 20 Cr Mo Ni V 47 Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 武汉大学动力与机械学院——谢诞梅 82 .

Phase analysis will reveal aprox 1800 phase shift in the vertical direction between the baseplate components of the machine// Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. Features of Mechanical Looseness (1)  Caused by structural looseness of machine feet  Distortion of the base will cause “soft foot” problems I.

5. Can cause 0. 2 and 3X RPM II. Features of Mechanical Looseness (2)  Caused by loose pillow block (座架、轴台) bolts I. 1. Sometimes caused by cracked frame structure or bearing block// Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

excessive bearing clearance or a loose impeller on a shaft// Rotor vibration and its balance . Phase is often unstable II. Can be caused by a loose bearing liner.Dr. Will have many harmonics III. Features of Mechanical Looseness (3) I. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

2.Dr.4 Low frequency vibration Self-excitation vibration Oil film whirl/whip of bearings Caused by Working fluid (rotor clearance) Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . 5.

the motion becomes more severe and can rapidly degenerate in a very violent. Oil whirl or /and oil whip  Rotors running on journal bearings show particular dynamic problems linked intrinsically with the behavior of the fluid film within the bearings( oil whirl and oil whip)  The oil whirl (sometimes referred to as half-frequency whirl) is a whirling of the rotor. often destructive-oil whip Rotor vibration and its balance . which takes place at a frequency of about half the speed of rotation  Oil whirl is superimposed on the other whirling motions. Danmei Xie . particularly the synchronous whirling caused by unbalance  Its amplitude is usually not large and does not constitute an actual problem  At a speed that is usually not far from twice the first critical speed.Dr.

Rotor vibration and its balance . the threshold of instability occurs at twice the critical speed of the rotor. Danmei Xie . and the threshold of instability can be found easily by intersecting the lowest branch of the Campbell diagram (Figure)  If the lowest branch of the Campbell diagram is a horizontal straight line. as is the case of the Jeffcott rotor. providing a sort of rotating damping whose speed of rotation is about half the spin speed  In the region of the Campbell diagram.Dr. The oil in a plain journal bearing moves around at a speed that is about half of the peripheral velocity of the journal. which lies below the straight line. note that the behavior of the system is unstable.

Danmei Xie . A Campbell diagram plot represents a system's response spectrum as a function of its oscillation regime-vibration sources with natural resonances  The form of the diagram is like a spectral map.Dr. but the amplitude could be represented by a circular or rectangular plot. the larger the amplitude the larger the circle or rectangle. Rotor vibration and its balance .

5 避开区 Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 汽轮机强度10级研究生用——Dr.谢诞梅 .Dr. k=6 5 300 4 f (Hz) 3 250 2 200 150 f dmax f dmin 100 避开区 50 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 n(r/s) k=3 D f dmax C 安全区 A k=2 f dmin B n2 =49 n1 =50.

Danmei Xie . Multi-phase marks 2 phase marks Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

depending upon the machine/bearing design or construction  As the machine accelerates the whirl frequency will increase as machine speed increases// Rotor vibration and its balance . an oil whirl condition precedes an oil whip condition  Spectral and orbit analysis can be used to identify either condition  This phenomenon creates an individual sub synchronous frequency which can occur within a frequency range from 35% to 48% of rotor speed. Danmei Xie .Dr. This fault is caused by a condition which prevents the rotor from creating a stable oil wedge on which ride  An improperly designed bearing is the usual source for oil whirl conditions. but a change in the fluid viscosity or machine alignment state are other possibilities  Generally.

Dr. and when the phase angle is superimposed upon the display. Danmei Xie 123 . the orbit will appear to have two phase marks on it  This characteristic is due to filtering at shaft speed and the fault being generated at a subsynchronous frequency  The two phase marks will not be displayed symmetrically on the orbit because the whirl frequency is not at exactly machine speed// 2012/9/25 Rotor vibration and its balance . The orbit will be more or less round in shape with an amplitude that nearly approximates the bearing clearance.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .Dr. Mutiple phase marks Locked onto resonance/freq Entire clearance used Rotor vibration and its balance .

Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie .

Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .Dr.

Danmei Xie 600MW超临界机组汽轮机设备——武汉大学谢诞梅 2012/9/25 .7mm的小台阶,形成油袋;下瓦有顶轴 有可能失稳 油囊 Rotor vibration and its balance . 不同轴承特点 名 称 特 点 问 题 进油口在下瓦中分面附近 圆轴承 可能失稳 只有1个油楔 进油口设在下瓦偏垂直位置两侧和上瓦, 三油楔圆轴承 有3个油楔 进油口在下瓦中分面附近,只有1个油楔, 椭圆轴承 可能失稳 垂直方向直径略大于水平 由若干可绕其支点转动的轴瓦弧段组成, 可倾瓦轴承 无失稳现象 可形成若干油楔 轴瓦中间段与两端面之间形成深度为 袋式轴承 0.Dr.

Dr. Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie .Dr.Rotor vibration and its balance .

with the phase input superimposed on the display. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . and has "locked" onto this frequency  Oil whip is a dangerous condition because the rotor uses up the entire bearing clearance and is in direct metal–to–metal contact that will wear away the bearing rapidly and destroy the rotor if not corrected// Rotor vibration and its balance . Oil whip occurs during the later stages of an oil whirl condition and it has a distinctive orbital display  The display.Dr. appears to have several phase marks  This display will be round in shape and the amplitude will greater that the amplitude noted during oil whirl  The size of the orbit will be larger because the shaft uses up the entire bearing clearance as an oil wedge can no longer be established by the rotor and the shaft is in direct metal–to– metal contact with the bearing  The orbit display will no longer rotate because the oil whirl frequency has coincided with the first natural resonance. or critical speed.

 An improperly designed bearing is the usual source for oil whirl conditions  But a change in the fluid viscosity or machine alignment state are other possibilities  Generally.Dr.  Spectral and orbit analysis can be used to identify either condition. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . an oil whirl condition precedes an oil whip condition. depending upon the machine/bearing design or construction  As the machine accelerates the whirl frequency will increase as machine speed increases// Rotor vibration and its balance .  This phenomenon creates an individual sub synchronous frequency (within a frequency range from 35% to 48% of rotor speed).

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . since it increases centrifugal forces therefore increasing whirl forces  Whirl speed will lock onto rotor critical.  When oil whip occurs.Dr.  Usually occurs at 40 . If the speed is increased the whip frequency will not increase. the amplitude is usually not affected with rotor speed and load// Rotor vibration and its balance .48 % of running speed  Vibration amplitudes are sometimes severe  Whirl is inherently unstable.

2) self-excitation vibration caused by rotor
clearance
 When a fluid, either liquid or gas, occupies the space between
two concentric cylinders, one rotating and one stationary, the
fluid is set into motion in the gap
 This can happen in rotating machinery in fluid-lubricated brgs,
seals, around pump impellers, or in any fluid filled gap
between rotor and stator//

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

5.2.5 Cracked Shaft
 The presence of a crack causes an imbalance in the rotor
stiffness, resulting in changes in the dynamics of the rotor
 The presence of a crack is detected by changes in the
vibration characteristics as measured on the bearing housings.

Transverse
Longitudinal
Symmetric
Torsional
Tensile

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

Rotor vibration and its balance - Dr. Danmei Xie
2012/9/25

but observing filtered. Danmei Xie . A change in the vibration level  A change in the operating phase angle  And/or a change in the resonance frequency as the machine starts or stops  Spectral analysis can be used to identify this fault. synchronous orbits with the phase angle superimposed on the orbit allows rapid identification of this condition// Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

a damaged or loose bearing support..Dr. a change in this frequency may indicate the "possibility" of a crack existing  The "possibility" must be emphasized and carefully analyzed because many other causes can produce these changes.. foundation problems.basically anything that can influence the "system" mass. damping. loose rotating parts. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . and/or stiffness// Rotor vibration and its balance . Changes in the filtered amplitude can be determined using orbits analysis  By superimposing the phase angle input signal onto the orbit a shift in this parameter can be easily determined  By noting the operating speed at which the resonance frequencies occur. such as.

Amplitude Change PhaseChange 2X Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

5. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .3 Torsional vibration  5.1 Damage Caused By Excessive Torsional Vibrations  Speedup rotor fatigue life loss  Cause moving parts damage  Cause LP blade fatigue damage Rotor vibration and its balance .3.Dr.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . partial admission )  Caused by electrical reasons  Caused by electrical reasons  Short circuit of electric system  High speed reclock(HSR)  Subsynchronous resonance(SSR)  Aperiodic (非周期)synchronize  Uneven load in three phases Rotor vibration and its balance .  5.Dr.3.2 reasons of torsional vibration  Caused by mechanical reasons  Load rejection  Quick Closing Valve(QCV)  Others (fast action of ST DEH system.

Dr. Valve vibration B. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .2. Sub. Worn thrust brgs F. Grid disturb // Rotor vibration and its balance .resonance(亚谐、次同步) E. Axial vibration of brgs D. Torsional vibration of rotor C. 5.6 Other Sources of High Axial Vibration A.

Dr.Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .

Dr.Brg Trbn rotor Couplings Gen rotor •Eccentricity of brg •Unbalance •Misalignment •Unbalance •Insufficient of tightness •Bent (thermal bending) •Bolt insufficient •Bent (thermal bending) •Rub between sft and brg •Rip off tightness •Asymmetric EM force •Insufficient of oil supply •Rub •Disturbance of EM •Oil whirl •Steam whirl •Asymmetric stiffness •Oil whip •Transverse cracks Brg pedestal& bed plate •insufficient stiffness Foundation •Loosen of bed plate •Uneven settlement •Deformation brg pedestal or casing Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie .Dr. Chapter 6 Fault Diagnostic Systems Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Rotor vibration and its balance .

Danmei Xie .Dr. proper corrective action can be planned or taken to maintain or return the machine to reliable operation. action can be taken to identify the failure mode • When the failure mode is properly identified.• Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines  What is today’s definition? • We want an early warning so that when the operating condition of the turbine is changing. Rotor vibration and its balance .

and flow conditions.Dr. Danmei Xie . Rotor vibration and its balance . and goes out under another set of pressure temperature and flow conditions. temperature. • The change in steam conditions occurs because we are using some of the energy in the steam to rotate the turbine rotor.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines  To develop effective condition monitoring we need to understand a little about the machine. • What does a turbine actually do? • Steam comes in and goes out right? • The steam comes in under a certain set of pressure.

Just for a quick view. here is a decent description of a steam flow path in a multi-stage turbine: Courtesy of Power Magazine Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .Dr.

Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Here is one small mechanical drive turbine. Danmei Xie . This one was actually used to drive a positive displacement oil pump.

Danmei Xie . Note the mechanical layout of this machine Rotor vibration and its balance .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Here is a small industrial power generation turbine.Dr.

Danmei Xie .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Here is a big multi-casing utility class machine Courtesy of Power Magazine Note that a lot of the mechanical details from the smallest to the largest machines are very similar Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

Rotor vibration and its balance . • Rotor speed/load or power. • Auxiliary system operation. • Vibration. • Noise/Sound levels. Danmei Xie .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines What kind of monitoring can we do on a turbine? • Steam conditions and flow rate.Dr. • Lubricant/bearing conditions.

Dr.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines What kind of failures typically occur to turbines? • Bearing failures from: • Blade failures: • Loss of lubrication • Foreign object damage • Lubrication contamination • Erosion • Excessive load • Fatigue • Valve failures: • Steam seal failures: • Solid particle damage • Wear • Erosion • Erosion • Fatigue • Corrosion • Overspeed protection • Insulation failure • Governor/Regulation failure • Coupling failures • Hydraulic system failure • Alignment Changes Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Lets look a little closer at some of the failure modes. • Bearing failures can occur from: • Loss of lubrication • Lubrication contamination • Excessive load • Electrolysis • Fatigue • Faulty assembly • Wear/wiping • Corrosion • Cavitation/erosion Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie .

etc. • Blade failures: • Foreign object damage • Can cause damage to leading edge. trailing edge. shroud. • Fatigue • Will more typically affect the rotating components and typically be a catastrophic event if the condition is not identified during an inspection. Rotor vibration and its balance .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Lets look a little closer at some of the failure modes. • Can damage the stationary and/or rotating blades. • Can affect the stationary and rotating blades. Danmei Xie . • Erosion • Can be caused by moisture in the steam or solid particulates in the steam.Dr.

• Steam discharge conditions were at saturated steam conditions. Xie . • Site management knew that routine maintenance had been deferred for a significant amount of time.7 mils) using proximity probes.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Machine Condition Discussion: • Called in to evaluate condition of machine. causing constant moisture contamination in the lube oil system. My recommendation was and Rotor vibration notitstobalance defer. • Power output was down. • Could they defer further or were there indications of developing problems? • What were the results of the condition assessment? • Vibration levels were good (below 0.Dr. • Steam leakage at shaft seals was excessive. theDanmei overhaul.

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Blade failure/damage: Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .Dr.

Danmei Xie .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Blade failure/damage: Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Blade failure/damage: Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie .

• Wear of the guide bushings or brgs • Wear of the linkage components The steam admission valve or stop valve or emergency stop valve is part of the equipment protection! Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Valve failures: What happens to valves? • Erosion of the plug • Erosion of the seat • Corrosion of the spindle or stem • Galling of the spindle or stem in the guide bushings or brgs. Danmei Xie .

Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie . • Corrosion and failure of segment springs Smaller machines with carbon seal rings • Wear of the carbon rings • Wear of the shaft surface • Corrosion and wear of the housing faces.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Steam Seal failures: What happens to steam seals? Larger machines with actual seal strips (labyrinth seals) • Wear of the seal tip height • Corrosion of the mating surfaces • Corrosion of the segments and housing.Dr.

Dr. Danmei Xie .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Steam Seal failures: What happens to steam seals? Rotor vibration and its balance .

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Steam Seal failures: What happens to steam seals? Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie .

Danmei Xie . then the shafts through the coupling try to force themselves together. Depending on the coupling type. If the shaft centerlines are not concentric to each other. What can cause misalignment? Rotor vibration and its balance . or if severe enough bearing temperatures or conditions may be affected. this ‘aligning’ force may show Itself as various ‘vibration signature changes or indications’.Dr.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Alignment Definition – What does alignment mean to ‘coupled’ rotating machines? • Misalignment at installation or refurbishment • Thermal growth changes • Piping strain • Sleeve bearing damage In short – we are looking for the two (or more) shaft centerlines to be concentric to each other.

Dr. Some machines behave better with the rotor centered. What can cause misalignment? Basically the same conditions apply to internal and external misalignment. Some machines behave better with the rotor not centered in the casing. Danmei Xie .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • Alignment Definition – What does alignment internal to a single machine mean? In short – We want to have the shaft/rotor within a certain position relative to the casing. • Misalignment at installation or refurbishment • Thermal growth changes • Piping strain • Sleeve bearing damage Rotor vibration and its balance . A very typical indication is a ‘rub’ condition in the vibration data.

Danmei Xie .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Remaining failure modes: • Overspeed protection • Insulation failure • Sticking bolt • Air gaps • Worn linkage • It has become wet • Incorrect electronic settings • Pieces are missing • Incorrect installation • Governor/Regulation failure • Coupling failures • Worn parts • Lubrication failure • Contaminated system • Wear • Fatigue • Hydraulic system failure • Worn components • Contaminated system Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

• Determine what we cannot measure or monitor. • Determine the realistic limits of the monitoring tools. Danmei Xie . • Determine what is appropriate per piece of equipment.Dr.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Failure modes and monitoring methods: We have to perform the following: • Realistically determine the most appropriate uses of the available tools. Rotor vibration and its balance .

Rotor vibration and its balance . • Auxiliary system operation. • Rotor speed/load or power. • Vibration.Dr. • Lubricant/lubrication conditions.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines What kind of monitoring can we do on a turbine? • Steam conditions and flow rate. • Noise/Sound levels. Danmei Xie .

get a copy of some steam tables) Rotor vibration and its balance .e. power. inlet chamber pressure you will know a considerable amount about the ‘power’ characteristics of the turbine. Danmei Xie . what kind of readings do we have available or can we take? • Is it a small machine with little instrumentation or is it a large machine with a considerable amount of instrumentation? • Minimal measurements would be temperature and pressure upstream and downstream of the turbine. • Look for: • A change in downstream conditions from what is normal. • It could be an increase in downstream pressure • Also understand what the ‘design conditions’ may mean (i. • If you can include flow.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Steam Conditions – What kind of readings do we want to take? Depends on the machine.Dr.

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Steam Tables Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual – Michael R.Dr. Lindeburg Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie .

If it is a small machine • Is it a sleeve bearing. or combination machine? • Mag-based accelerometers are going to be severely limited with sleeve bearing machines. But smaller horsepower machines are not going to typically have proximity probes installed unless the machine is very critical to the process. anti-friction bearing. • What kind of data are we going to see on sleeve bearing machines using mag-based accelerometers? Rotor vibration and its balance .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Vibration – What kind of readings do we want to take? Depends on the machine.Dr. Danmei Xie .

What are we looking for? • Vibration • Changes Has the speed changed? • Running speed multiples • Increase in 1X • Increase in noise floor Rotor vibration and its balance . Also include a speed reading if at all possible. • Locate the thrust bearing and take an axial reading.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines • PdM Routes What data do I want? For vibration: • Horizontal and vertical on each bearing.Dr. Danmei Xie .

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines For larger machines with installed shaft vibration monitors: Compare the shaft data to casing data.Dr. How do those data sets compare? • Are they at different amplitude levels. Danmei Xie . but similar characteristics? • Are they different characteristics? • Multiples on the casing. not on the shaft data? • Different noise floor levels? • Different phase indications? • Does the orbit shape generally agree with where you see higher vibration levels on the casing? Remember. we are looking for changes. it is hard to have an absolute anything. but all the monitoring instruments calculate vibration levels slightly differently. Rotor vibration and its balance . Having absolute limits for operation and equipment protection is one thing. In the field.

• Inspect the housing cavity for typical indications of contamination or condition during routine overhauls. • Oil color in the oiler. Rotor vibration and its balance . then we can perform typical oil analysis testing. and spectrographic for routine Monitoring. • Oil level in the bearing housing. • Viscosity.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Lubrication /lubricant conditions Again. particulates. Danmei Xie . what kind of machine do we have? Large or small? • If it is big enough to have a sump. water. • Oil level in the oiler.Dr. • If it is not big enough for sump but uses ‘oilers’ to ensure an oil supply for the bearing housing there are still things that need to be correct for a machine to achieve a reasonable time between repairs.

Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Lubrication /lubricant conditions What are we looking for in an oil analysis? There are three major condition groups that oil analysis can monitor: Oil Condition • Viscosity • Additive packages Oil Contamination • Moisture • Particulates Equipment Condition • Wear particles • Material or source • Ferrography Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie .

is there anything else you can use to verify operating load? • Is a place on the shaft available for an optical or laser tachometer? • Is the process controlled by inlet or discharge valves? • Are there any flow indications? These items become even more critical for a variable load process! Rotor vibration and its balance .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Rotor speed/load or power.Dr. Danmei Xie . • Is there any permanent monitoring available? • Load • Speed • If no permanent monitoring is available.

there are considerable auxiliary systems that may also indicate development of a significant issue. Danmei Xie . On larger machines.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Auxiliary System Operation. • Gland steam or Seal steam systems • Shaft leakage increased • More use of steam • Changing pressure conditions • Hydrogen seal oil systems • Higher flow rates from increased shaft leakage • Hydrogen purity issues • Changing pressure conditions • Cooling water conditions • Conductivity • Flow or pressure changes Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

On larger machines.Dr. Danmei Xie . there are considerable auxiliary systems that may also indicate development of a significant issue. Condenser conditions • Vacuum pressure changes • Condensate temperature changes • Air in-leakage changes Feedwater Heater conditions • Steam inlet/outlet condition changes • Condensate inlet/outlet condition changes Rotor vibration and its balance .Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Auxiliary System Operation.

Dr.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Noise/Sound levels. With modern ultrasound technologies. it should be possible to monitor and trend changing conditions within these machines. especially when closed • Turbine noise levels at known conditions • Bearing noise levels at known conditions Rotor vibration and its balance . We should be able to monitor the following: • Valve conditions at known positions. Danmei Xie .

Preventive. Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie . and Proactive or Reliability Centered components are all necessary to improve reliability and minimize overall operational cost. the better we can diagnose a changing condition. the more we know about the machine. Predictive.Dr. the tools we have discussed today are only several pieces of an overall reliability program.Part I – Condition Monitoring for Steam Turbines Summary There are considerable technologies that are available for use However. Basically.

Russia and Great Britain.1 Background  It’s said that almost half of the efficient machine diagnostic methods were born in the laboratories of shipbuilding industry worked from the later sixties  It is well known that practically all the diagnostics has appeared in the Navy of USA.Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . that means where this problem was very actual and where there were no problem with financing the investigations and where the best scientists and engineers were working Rotor vibration and its balance . 6.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Data Data Fault Object Acquiring Analysis Diagnosis Fault Recovery Processing Fig. 6.Dr.1 Process of Machine Fault Diagnosis Rotor vibration and its balance .

Dr. Rotor vibration and its balance . But the measuring means were not so common that time to make the vibrational diagnostics so popular as it is nowadays  In practice these means became real in the beginning of nineties when the instruments became to be designed on the basis of microcomputers  Only then the complicated methods of vibration analysis became accessible to a wide class of users  Now each 2-3 years there appears a new generation of measuring and analyzing techniques  One can say that modern instrument comprises of a transducer and microcomputer  Nowadays the so called virtual instruments when the instrument is a combination of a transducer and a personal computer are wide spread. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .  But detailed machine diagnostics by vibration means not only the methods of diagnostics and measuring and process analyzing instruments  There are two more mandatory (强迫)components  A data base of the results of measurements during long period of time of a large number of equipment with the possibility to receive any data and to make its analysis  The methods of making the diagnostic decision Rotor vibration and its balance .

 One method is to develop the learning artificial intellect system where on the first stage the teaching of the system is conducted by the software architect and then the user supplements the system by the rules that he needs. But there are two more methods to solve the problems of this second component .Dr.  The second method is to design a self learning (adaptive) system with strict learning algorithms written by the designers Rotor vibration and its balance .the development of artificial intellect. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Dr.  Nowadays in the world practice three main types of machine condition monitoring and diagnostic systems by vibration are used:  Portable systems  Stand systems  On-line (stationary) systems Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

wavelet)  Means to save the data and to display them. to display the results of analysis. drawing the trends) Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Machine condition monitoring system of any type must have four main subsystems:  Measurement transducers and communication means. usually a personal computer  Machine condition monitoring application software (subsystems to work with the data bases. comparison with the alarm levels.  Means to analyze the signals(FFT.

It can be:  an expert  an operator that uses the expert subsystem-based on fuzzy set theory (fuzzy math)  a subsystem with artificial intellect that functions as an expert Rotor vibration and its balance .  If machine condition monitoring system must fulfill also the diagnostic functions then it should include a subsystem that generates the diagnostic decisions.Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

51~ 3~5 Odd High Grid No Sorts of fault ~ 0.99f1 f1 Fre f1 Fre f1 Fre f1 0.block Rotor vibration and its balance . The first fuzzy matrix 0. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .40~ 0.49f1 0.5f1 1f1 2f1 0.Dr.39f1 1 Unbalance 90 5 5 2 Parts ripped off 90 5 5 3 Thermal bend 90 5 5 Gland impact and 4 10 10 10 20 10 20 10 10 rubbing Rubbing of axis 5 10 10 10 20 10 20 10 10 direction Bearing 6 40 50 10 misalignment Eccentricity between 7 bearing & steam 80 20 turbine 8 Axis crack 40 20 20 20 Insufficient of ‘shrunk 9 40 40 10 10 fit’ Loose of 10 40 40 10 10 bearing .01 0.

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .5f1 1f1 2f1 0.resonance 10 10 80 15 Oil film whirl 100 16 Oil film oscillation 100 17 Steam turbulence 50 50 18 Electromagnetic 50 50 excitation 19 Valve vibration 100 20 Grid disturb 100 Rotor vibration and its balance . 0. pedestals 30 20 50 12 Inaccurate coupling 10 20 10 20 20 10 10 10 13 Self-excited of rotor 20 20 20 40 clearance 14 Sub.40~ 0.99f1 f1 Fre f1 Fre f1 Fre f1 0.39f1 11 Loose of b.01 0.51~ 3~5 Odd High Grid No Sorts of fault ~ 0.Dr.49f1 0.

Dr. not Amp. Shaft N vary incr. In Shaft Amp. in oper. direction change at ncr with in run-up incr. Danmei Xie 10 100 bearing .block 2012/9/25 . * Vib**. Amp Amp Amp*. Vary o Sorts of fault Saltation with axis track Saltation vary with Saltation swing with. load speed Fem ** load 1 Unbalance 50 50 2 Parts ripped off 100 3 Thermal bend 60 40 Gland impact and 4 100 rubbing Rubbing of axis 5 100 direction Bearing 6 60 40 misalignment Eccentricity 7 between bearing 100 & steam turbine 8 Axis crack 100 Insufficient of 9 100 ‘shrunk fit’ Loose of Rotor vibration and its balance . The Second fuzzy matrix Amp Vib.

Saltati Vary o Sorts of fault Saltation with directi track on at vary with with speed on in swing with. Amp*. Amp. change load incr. load on ncr run-up Fem ** Loose of b.Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .resonance 100 15 Oil film whirl 100 16 Oil film oscillation 50 50 17 Steam turbulence 50 50 Electromagnetic 18 50 50 excitation 19 Valve vibration 100 20 Grid disturb 100 Rotor vibration and its balance . * Shaft Amp not Shaft N vary In axis Saltati Amp incr. 11 100 pedestals Inaccurate 12 100 coupling Self-excited of 13 100 rotor clearance 14 Sub. Amp. Vib. in oper. Amp Vib**.

Dr. 频率、时变、负荷、转速 频率特征 时变特征 转速 序号 故障类型 负荷 f1 ncr 次谐波 2f1 缓慢 急剧 启动 停机 1 初始不平衡 ★★ 2 转子部件脱落 ★★ ★★ ★ ★ 3 转子弹性热变形 ★★ ★★ ★ 4 汽封碰磨 ★★ ★ ★ ★ ★★ ★ 5 轴向碰磨 ★★ 6 轴线不对中 ★★ ★ ★ 7 轴承对轴颈偏心 8 轴裂纹 ★ ★★ ★ ★★ 9 联轴器齿轮磨损 ★★ ★ ★ ★★ ★ 10 转子间隙自激 ★★ ★★ 11 轴承供油不足 ★ ★ 12 油膜涡动 ★★ ★ ★ 13 油膜振荡 ★★ ★ 14 基础松动 ★★ Rotor vibration and its balance . Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Dr. ★ ★ Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 14 基础松动 ★ ★ . 运行状态 发 蒸 蒸 阀 排 轴 轴 稳 电 变负 序 汽 汽 门 真 汽 承 承 轴瓦 膨胀 励磁 电网 定 故障类型 转速 负荷 空 温度 胀差 电流 机 扰动 荷运 号 压 温 开 温 油 油 温 运 行 力 度 度 度 压 温 行 度 1 初始不平衡 ★★ 2 转子部件脱落 ★★ ★ ★ ★ 3 转子弹性热变形 ★ ★★ ★★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 4 汽封碰磨 ★ ★ ★ ★★ ★ ★★ ★ 5 轴向碰磨 ★ ★★ 6 轴线不对中 ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 7 轴承对轴颈偏心 8 裂纹 ★ ★ ★★ 9 联轴器齿轮磨损 ★ ★★ ★ 10 转子间隙自激 ★ ★ ★ 11 轴承供油不足 ★ ★ ★★ ★ ★ ★ 12 油膜涡动 ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 13 油膜振荡 ★ Rotor vibration★and its balance .

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . Rotor vibration and its balance .3 Trends  New methods of vibration analysis (wavelet.Dr. gray theory)  New methods of faults diagnosis  Condition monitoring and predictive maintenance  Coupled vibration between lateral and torsional vibration of the rotor  Coupled vibration between long moving blade and the rotor  Modeling of the mechanical system has been recognized as very important in the prediction and analysis of vibration  Stability of rotor-dynamic system  Sensitivity analysis of rotor rigidity and damping etc. 6.

Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 . once-add method Holospectrum 全息(谱) 国家自然科学基金项目(2001-2011)节选 气动/结构耦合动力学系统目标敏感性分析的快速准确计算方法及优化设计研究 杨旭东 西北工业大学 多支承、弹性转子系统弯扭耦合振动及控制模拟研究 张俊红 天津大学 多自由度柔性转子-柔性静子系统的非线性全周碰摩研究 张 文 复旦大学 柔性转子模糊动平衡原理 屈梁生 西安交通大学 基于模型确认的复杂机械结构动态仿真精确建模方法 郭勤涛 南京航空航天 转子结构动力学行为与疲劳裂纹扩展耦合分析 荆建平 上海交通大学 微型超高速旋转机械转子系统动力学建模与分析 祝长生 浙江大学 柔性多体系统刚柔耦合动力学若干问题研究 洪嘉振 上海交通大学 非线性挠性转子系统不平衡量在线识别方法的研究 郑水英 浙江大学 基于时间序列图像的MEMS结构试验模态分析与动力学特征参数识别 何小元 东南大学 多重故障非线性转子系统关键理论及远程诊断的研究 闻邦椿 东北大学 大规模电力系统多运行方式下低频振荡的协调控制 杜正春 西安交通大学 高速水轮机转子系统与减振问题 徐 华 西安交通大学 大型水轮机组水力振动机理探讨 曹树良 清华大学 Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr.

超高速主轴系统非平衡振动的主动抑制机理研究 张东升 西安交通大学 核电管线基于振动的损伤识别与监测方法研究 周邵萍 华东理工大学 复杂激励下飞机载流管道系统振动疲劳分析技术研究 郑 敏 南京航空航天大学 高速列车高频激扰振动机理及传递规律研究 任尊松 北方交通大学 高速铁路高架桥引起的环境振动的预测方法研究 曹艳梅 北方交通大学 潜艇机械非线性混沌振动快速识别技术研究 刘树勇 海军工程大学 振动系统同步可靠性研究 李 鹤 东北大学 旋转叶片-机匣碰磨的精细化建模与振动局部化研究 李朝辉 东北大学 非线性振动系统谐振同步机理及稳定性控制关键问题 李小号 东北大学 研究 透平机械复杂机电系统动力学行为与振动、噪声靶向 高金吉 北京化工大学 抑制原理及方法研究 Rotor vibration and its balance .Dr. Danmei Xie 2012/9/25 .

Danmei Xie . Thanks Dr. Danmei Xie dmxie@ whu.Dr.edu.cn 13387551357 QQ:398837028 Rotor vibration and its balance .