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"Integumentary" redirects here; in botany, an integument refers to an outer
membrane of an ovule, which develops into the testa, the seed coat.
Integumentary system

Cross-section of all skin layers
Identifiers
Code TH H3.12.00.0.00001
TA A16.0.00.001
FMA 72979
Anatomical terminology
[edit on Wikidata]
The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from
various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. [1] The
system comprises the skin and its appendages[2]
[3]
(including hair, scales, feathers,hooves, and nails). The integumentary system has
a variety of functions; it may serve to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper
tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate temperature, and is the attachment site
for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. In most
terrestrial vertebrates with significant exposure to sunlight, the integumentary
system also provides for vitamin D synthesis.
The skin is the largest organ in the body. In humans, it accounts for about 12 to 15
percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m 2 of surface area.[4] It distinguishes,
separates, and protects the organism from its surroundings. Small-bodied
invertebrates of aquatic or continually moist habitats respire using the outer layer
(integument). This gas exchange system, where gases simply diffuse into and out of
the interstitial fluid, is called integumentary exchange.
The human skin (integument) is composed of a minimum of two major layers of
tissue: the epidermis and dermis. (The hypodermis or subcutaneous layer is not part
of the skin.) The epidermis forms the outermost layer, providing the initial barrier to
the external environment. Beneath this, the dermis comprises two sections, the
papillary and reticular layers, and contains connective tissues, vessels, glands,
follicles, hair roots, sensory nerve endings, and muscular tissue. [5] The deepest layer
is the hypodermis, which is primarily made up of adipose tissue. Substantial

[5] The dermal layer provides a site for the endings of blood vessels and nerves. The dermis has two layers. When we speak of "burning up calories". wrinkling. via the venous route. while also resisting distortions. Many chromatophores are also stored in this layer. The major cell of the epidermis is the keratinocyte. The hypodermis participates. Millions of dead keratinocytes rub off daily. The protein keratin stiffens epidermal tissue to form fingernails. during intense effort or when there is a lack of energy providing substances. and Langerhans' cells. The fats contained in the adipocytes can be put back into circulation. which produces keratin. In structure. allowing stretching and conferring flexibility. The other is the reticular layer which is the deep layer of the dermis and consists of the dense irregular connective tissue. Merkel cells. it consists of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium comprising four types of cells: keratinocytes. . by collagen and elastin fibres. [6] Epidermis[edit] Main article: Epidermis (skin) Epidermis and dermis of human skin This is the top layer of skin made up of epithelial cells. absorption of nutrients. Non- keratinized cells allow water to "stay" atop the structure. we are burning up fats in particular. The lunula is the crescent-shape area at the base of the nail. Dermis[edit] Main article: Dermis The dermis is the middle layer of skin. and are then transformed into energy. These cells are grouped together in lobules separated by connective tissue. The only skin on the body that is non-keratinized is the lining of skin on the inside of the mouth. this is a lighter color as it mixes with the matrix cells. as are the bases of integumental structures such as hair. It does not contain blood vessels. Keratin is a fibrous protein that aids in protection. One is the papillary layer which is the superficial layer and consists of the areolar connective tissue. composed of dense irregular connective tissue and areolar connective tissue such as collagen with elastin arranged in a diffusely bundled and woven pattern. feathers. These layers serve to give elasticity to the integument. Nails grow from a thin area called the nail matrix. in thermoregulation since fat is a heat insulator. and glands. Hypodermis[edit] Main article: Hypodermis The hypodermis. melanocytes. and sagging. and homeostasis. The majority of the skin on the body is keratinized. is a layer beneath the skin. passively at least. 2 collagen bundles anchor the dermis to the hypodermis in a way that permits most areas of the skin to move freely over the deeper tissue layers. growth of nails is 1 mm per week on average. Keratin is also a waterproofing protein. otherwise known as the subcutaneous layer. meaning waterproofed. immediately above it. It invaginates into the dermis and is attached to the latter. The hypodermis acts as an energy reserve. It is essentially composed of a type of cell known as adipocytes specialised in accumulating and storing fats. Its main function is protection.

and cold (see Somatosensory system) Protect the body against sunburns by secreting melanin Generate vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light Store water. pain. maintain homeostasis Help excrete waste materials through perspiration Act as a receptor for touch. Clinical significance[edit] Possible diseases and injuries to the human integumentary system include: Rash Blister Athlete's foot Infection Sunburn Skin cancer Albinism Acne Herpes Herpes labialis. vitamin d Maintenance of the body form Formation of new cells from stratum germanium to repair minor injuries Protect from UV rays. 3 Functions[edit] The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis. commonly called cold sores Impetigo Rubella Cancer Psoriasis Rabies . The skin has an important job of protecting the body and acts as the body’s first line of defense against infection. pressure. temperature change. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body. Functions include: Protect the body’s internal living tissues and organs Protect against invasion by infectious organisms Protect the body from dehydration Protect the body against abrupt changes in temperature. fat. glucose. and other challenges to homeostasis. heat.