Nervous

System
The nervous system consists of the
brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all
of the nerves that connect these organs
with the rest of the body. Together, these
organs are responsible for the control of
the body and communication among its
parts. The brain and spinal cord form the
control center known as the Central
Nervous System (CNS), where information
is evaluated and decisions are made. The
sensory nerves and sense organs of the
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) monitor
conditions inside and outside of the body
and send this information to the CNS.
Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals
from the control center to the muscles,
glands, and organs to regulate their
functions.

1

Cell bodies of neurons and neuroglia are in the grey matter. It consists of the nerve fibers (axons). The Brain The brain lies within the skull and is shaped like a mushroom. There are two types of matter in the brain: grey matter and white matter. The hemispheres are further divided into four lobes:  Frontal lobe  Temporal lobes  Parietal lobe 2 .The Central nervous system The central nervous system is divided into two major parts: the brain and the spinal cord. It is located between the pons and the spinal cord and is only about one inch long. Grey matter receives and stores impulses. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres.3 to 1. The cerebrum The cerebrum forms the bulk of the brain and is supported on the brain stem. The brain consists of four principal parts:  the brain stem  the cerebrum  the cerebellum  the diencephalon The brain weighs approximately 1. It has nerve cells called the neurons and supporting cells called the glia. The brain stem The brain stem is also known as the Medulla oblongata.4 kg. White matter in the brain carries impulses to and from grey matter. Each hemisphere controls the activities of the side of the body opposite that hemisphere.

and the innermost layer is the pia mater. It protects and nourishes the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is composed of a series of 31 segments. The meninges offer protection to the brain and the spinal cord by acting as a barrier against bacteria and other microorganisms. Other parts of the central nervous system The meninges are three layers or membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. The middle layer is the arachnoid. the collection of bones (back bone). The Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) circulates around the brain and spinal cord. The region of the spinal cord from which a pair of spinal nerves originates is called the spinal segment. It includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. it contains conduction pathways between the medulla and higher brain centers The spinal cord The spinal cord is along tube like structure which extends from the brain. Both motor and sensory nerves are located in the spinal cord. The outermost layer is the dura mater. It lies within the vertebral column. The thalamus is where sensory and other impulses go and coalesce. A pair of spinal nerves comes out of each segment. The spinal cord is about 43 cm long in adult women and 45 cm long in adult men and weighs about 35-40 grams.  Occipital lobe The Cerebellum This is located behind and below the cerebrum. Other parts of the brain Other parts of the brain include the midbrain and the pons: The Midbrain provides conduction pathways to and from higher and lower centers The Pons acts as a pathway to higher structures. Neurons 3 . The hypothalamus is a smaller part of the diencephalon. The diencephalon The diencephalon is also known as the fore brain stem.

thick extensions that appear like cables and are called dendrites. Myelin Sheath The neuron is covered with the Myelin Sheath or Schwann Cells. long dendrite instead of many dendrites. Its function is to allow damaged nerves to regenerate. The dendrite's function is to carry a nerve impulse into the cell body. The neuron is the basic unit in the nervous system. Motor neurons have multiple thick dendrites. The neurilemma is the layer of Schwann cells with a nucleus. Types of neuron 4 . There is usually only one axon per neuron. There are three different parts of the neuron:  the cell body  dendrites  axon Cell body of a neuron The cell body is like any other cell with a nucleus or control center. Nerves in the brain and spinal cord do not have a neurilemma and. therefore cannot recover when damaged. These are white segmented covering around axons and dendrites of many peripheral neurons. thin process that carries impulses away from the cell body to another neuron or tissue. A typical neuron has a cell body and long arms that conduct impulses from one body part to another body part. The exception is a sensory neuron that has a single. The covering is continuous along the axons or dendrites except at the point of termination and at the nodes of Ranvier. It is a specialized conductor cell that receives and transmits electrochemical nerve impulses. Axon An axon is a long. Dendrites The cell body has several highly branched.

on touching a hot object the sensory nerves carry information about the heat to the brain. The whole process takes less than a second to happen. which in turn. These also consist of motor nerve fibers that come out of the brain and take the messages for movement and necessary action to the skeletal muscles. These are seen in the retina of the eye. The one process divides with one part acting as an axon and the other part functioning as dendrite. According to structure neurons may be multipolar neurons. bipolar neurons. These are seen in the spinal cord. Autonomic Nervous System Another part of the nervous system is the Autonomic Nervous System. and unipolar neurons: Multipolar neurons have one axon and several dendrites. the inner ear. The Peripheral nervous system The Peripheral nervous system is made up of two parts:  Somatic nervous system  Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that pick up sensory information or sensations from the peripheral or distant organs (those away from the brain like limbs) and carry them to the central nervous system. tells the muscles of the hand to withdraw it immediately.Neurons in the body can be classified according to structure and function. These are common in the brain and spinal cord Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite. Unipolar neurons have one process extending from the cell body. It has three parts:  the sympathetic nervous system  the parasympathetic nervous system 5 . The cell body of the neuron that carries the information often lies within the brain or spinal cord and projects directly to a skeletal muscle. For example. via the motor nerves. and the olfactory (smell) area.

 the enteric nervous system This nervous system controls the nerves of the inner organs of the body on which humans have no conscious control. sensory disturbances or blindness. Nervous System Diseases Multiple Sclerosis – Literally. The Enteric nervous system is the third part of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system is a complex network of nerve fibers that innervate the organs within the abdomen like the gastrointestinal tract. Depending upon where the degeneration occurs. gall bladder etc. or one before the cell body or ganglion. “many hardenings. The preganglionic neuron is located in either the brain or the spinal cord. The postganglionic neuron then projects to the target organ. The loss of insulation allows “short circuiting” of nerve impulses. It contains nearly 100 million nerves. In the somatic nervous system there is only one neuron between the central nervous system and the target organ while the autonomic nervous system uses two neurons. Neurons in the peripheral nervous system The smallest worker in the nervous system is the neuron. This includes the heartbeat. In the autonomic nervous system this preganglionic neuron projects to an autonomic ganglion. pancreas. breathing (except conscious breathing) etc. The nerves of the autonomic nervous system enervate the smooth involuntary muscles of the (internal organs) and glands and cause them to function and secrete their enzymes etc. patients may suffer paralysis.” MS is a disease of unknown cause that manifests as multiple hard plaques of degeneration of the insulating layer of nerve fibers in the central nervous system. For each of the chain of impulses there is one preganglionic neuron. that is like a central controlling body for numerous neurons going out peripherally. digestion. 6 .

they may suffer speech impediments that vary over a spectrum of problems from difficulty in finding the right word. If someone suffers a “stroke” (cerebrovascular accident-CVA). Depending upon the area of the brain involved. easily controlled and. and it involves the left side of the brain. The speech centers are located on the left side of the brain in a majority of people. the area of the brain that produces language by integrating thoughts of speech with the movements of the larynx. speaking slowly and with difficulty. the patient may suffer paralysis. or complete loss of speech. Or. a partial loss of vision. but the problem lasts less than 24 hours.Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) – the fancy name for a “stroke”. typically. that enables us to understand speech. and recur with some frequency. Epilepsy is a specific condition which may occur at any age.” Convulsions is another term used. but the individual does not understand what they are hearing. 7 . Actually. Epilepsy – a Greek word for “seizure. or if unresponsive to drugs. Injury to the latter results in still fluent speech. Seizures may have many causes and not all seizures are epilepsy. may require surgery. loss of speech or loss of vision. People who get TIA’s are at increased risk of having a stroke in the future. Aphasia – loss of speech. A blood vessel in the brain may burst causing internal bleeding. there are two speech centers. longer lasting in duration. or traumatic brain injury. seizures are more intense. The condition may be controlled with medication. Injury described above involves the motor speech area. There is a second speech area. or arise elsewhere (embolus) and travel to get stuck in a brain vessel which then deprives brain tissue of oxygen. have no permanent aftereffects. It literally means “not quite enough blood”. a clot may arise in a brain blood vessel (a thrombus). the receptive or sensory area. lips and tongue. High fevers in young children may trigger seizures which are short in duration. A short period of insufficient blood supply to the brain can have the same signs and symptoms as a stroke such as weakness in an arm. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) – “Ischemia” was introduced previously in the circulatory diseases module referring to the heart.

brain tumors. special proteins in multiple sclerosis. very sensitive instruments that are much more sophisticated than the old Geiger counters. The resolution is much better than standard X-rays and there is better differentiation of types of tissue (bone. no X-rays are involved.Nervous System Procedures Brain Neurologist – a physician specializing in diseases of the brain. air. Starting at the end of the word: an image (in this case a written recording) of the brain’s electrical activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) – Wow. A computer analyzes this information to show subtle differences in tissue molecular structure producing very high resolution and better differentiation of soft tissue. Lab tests on the fluid are used for diagnostic purposes such as presence of bacteria in meningitis. and are used in sleep research to identify stages of sleep. He/she may refer a patient to a neurosurgeon. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brain scan – introducing a radioactive element into the blood can image possible tumors in the brain. or blood cells. Radio pulses affect the resonance or “spin” of atoms in the tissues. solid organ). Lumbar (spinal) puncture or tap (LP) – introducing a needle between the lower bony vertebrae of our spinal column allows a physician to sample the fluid. The patient’s body is placed in a strong magnetic field. but take it apart. 8 . EEGs are used to diagnose different types of seizure disorders such as epilepsy. what a mouthful. The radioactive dose is very low and detectable only with special. spinal cord and nerves. surrounding the brain and spinal cord. such as a tumor within the liver. Computed tomography (CT) – a specialized X-ray machine that takes multiple images of a body area from different angles and has a computer that integrates the multiple images into “slices” of the body. Neurologists do not do surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Although the image produces the “slices” through the body seen by CT (see above).

Projec t in Science Submitted by: Renz Aaron Dela Cruz – Leader Members: Vann Aaron Mariano Andrei Fernando Tanya Joy De Guzman Aira Liz Alcantara Ellie Mendoza Fiel Kyla Ricohermoso Janella Francisco 9 .

Sunshine Santos Grade 7 Green Submitted to: Mrs. Rosemarie Marcos 10 .