KL 4220

PIPA BAWAH LAUT
KULIAH #3 MATERIAL GRADE AND WALL THICKNESS SELECTION

Prof. Ricky Lukman Tawekal
MATERIAL GRADE
SELECTION
Material Selection
Generally, pipe material is based on the following criteria:

• Operating & design condition
• Type of pipe content
• Installation method
• Material availability
• Codes requirement
• Weight requirement
• Economics, cost
• Resistance to corrosion effects
• weldability

The type of material grade of pipeline can be selected based on API
5L and DNV OS-F101
Pipeline Component
Pipeline Material Component Selection
Standard fittings:
• Flanges
• Valves
• Bends
• Tees
• Bolts&Nuts
• Tie-In
• Reducer
Pipeline Component
Valves

Gate valve
Ball Valve

Globe Valve
Pipeline Component
 Tie in

 Flange

Swivel Flange
Missalignment flange
Missalignment flange
Smart Flange
Pipeline Component
Typical Flange
Facings
Pipeline Component
Flanges:
• Subsea use high integrity ring type joints (RTJ)
• Pipelines usually use standard ASME/ANSI B16.5 or API
• For subsea use swivel ring and possibly misalignment flanges

Tees:
Standard Tee
Inspection pigging of run only possible if branch size is less than 60% of run (No Inspection
pigging from branch)

Barred Tee
Inspection pigging of run possible for all branch sizes (No Inspection pigging from branch)

Normal flow
Normal flow

Normal flow Normal flow Normal flow
Material Grade Selection
As API 5-L:
The grades covered by this spec are:

1. Grades A25
2. A
3. B
4. X42
5. X46
6. X52
7. X56
8. X60
9. X65
10. X70
11. X80
Steel Material
Baja untuk struktur dengan tempa panas dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai:
 Baja karbon (carbon steel),

 Baja paduan rendah berkekuatan tinggi (high strength low alloy steel), dan

 Baja paduan (alloy steel).
Persyaratan umum untuk jenis-jenis baja sedemikian ini tercakup dalam spesifikasi ANSI / ASTM
A6.
Steel Material
Baja karbon (carbon steel)

Baja karbon struktural termasuk. dalam kategori karbon lunak. Suatu baja, misalnya
A36, memiliki karbon maksimum antara 0.25- sampai 0.29% tergantung dari
ketebalannya. Peningkatan persentase karbon akan meningkatkan kekerasannya
namun akan mengurangi kekenyalannya, hingga lebih sulit dilas.
Baja karbon dibagi menjadi empat kategori berdasarkan presentase karbonnya:
– Karbon rendah (kurang dari 0.15%);
– Karbon lunak (0.15-0.29%);
– Karbon sedang (0.30-0.59%); dan
– Karbon tinggi (0.60-1.70%).
Steel Material
Baja paduan rendah berkekuatan tinggi (high strength low alloy steel)

 Kategori ini meliputi baja-baja yang memiliki tegangan leleh dari 40 sampai dengan
70 ksi (275 sampai dengan 480 MPa).
 Penambahan sejumlah elemen paduan terhadap baja karbon seperti krom,
kolumbium, tembaga, mangan, molibden, nikel, fosfor, vanadium, atau zirkonim,
akan memperbaiki sifat-sifat mekanisnya.
 Bila baja karbon mendapatkan kekuatan dengan penambahan kandungan
karbonnya, elemenelemen paduan menciptakan tambahan kekuatan lebih dengan
mikrostruktur yang halus ketimbang mikrostruktur yang kasar yang diperoleh
selama proses pendinginan baja.
 Baja paduan rendah berkekuatan tinggi digunakan dalam kondisi seperti tempaan
atau kondisi normal; yakni kondisi di mana tidak digunakan perlakuan panas.
Steel Material
Baja paduan (alloy steel).

 Baja paduan rendah dapat didinginkan dan disepuh supaya dapat mencapai
kekuatan leleh sebesar 80 sampai dengan 110 ksi (550 sampai dengan 760 MPa).
 Kekuatan leleh biasanya didefinisikan sebagai tegangan pada regangan offset 0.2%,
karena baja ini tidak menunjukkan titik leleh yang jelas
 Baja paduan rendah ini pada umumnya memiliki kandungan karbon sekitar 0.20%
supaya dapat membatasi kekerasan mikrostruktur butilan kasar (martensit) yang
mungkin terbentuk selama perlakuan panas atau pengelasan, sehingga dapat
mengurangi bahaya retakan.
Steel Material
Steel Material
Steel Material
Steel Material
Steel Material
PIPE DIAMETER
SELECTION
Pipe Sizing
• Penentuan diameter pipa biasanya dilakukan oleh tim proses, dengan simulasi. Biasanya
dengan software pipesim, olga, hysis.
• Banyak pertimbangannya, salah satunya flow assurance
• Flow assurance is required to determine the optimum flowline pipe size based on reservoir
well fluid test results for the required flowrate and pressure. As the pipe size increases, the
arrival pressure and temperature decrease. Then, the fluid may not reach the destination
and hydrate, wax, and asphaltene may be formed in the flowline. If the pipe size is too
small, the arrival pressure and temperature may be too high and resultantly a thick wall
pipe may be required and a large thermal expansion is expected.
• It is important to determine the optimum pipe size to avoid erosional velocity and hydrate/
wax/asphaltene deposition. Based on the hydrate/wax/asphaltene appearance
temperature, the required OHTC is determined to choose a desired insulation system (type,
material, and thickness.) If the flowline is to transport a sour fluid containing H2S, CO2,
etc., the line should be chemically treated or a special corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) pipe
material should be used.
Pipe Sizing
The blue solid line represents inlet pressure at wellhead and the red dotted
line represents outlet fluid temperature. The 8” ID pipe may require a heavy
(thick) wall and the 12” ID pipe may require a thick insulation coating
depending on hydrate (wax or asphaltene) formation temperature.
Pipe Sizing
The blue solid line represents inlet pressure at wellhead and the red dotted
line represents outlet fluid temperature. The 8” ID pipe may require a heavy
(thick) wall and the 12” ID pipe may require a thick insulation coating
depending on hydrate (wax or asphaltene) formation temperature.
WALL THICKNESS
CALCULATION
Wall Thickness Calculation

Topics for Wall Thickness Study
• Introduction
 Design Codes & Standard
 Mechanical Perspective
• Internal Pressure Containment
• External Pressure Collapse
• Local Buckling
• Buckle Propagation
Codes & Standards
The following codes & standard will be used:
1. API 5L, Specification for Line Pipe, 2000
2. API RP 1111, “Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of
Offshore Hydrocarbons Pipelines”. (LRFD)
3. ASME B.31-4, Liquid Transportation System for Hydrocarbon, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohol. (ASD)
4. ASME B.31-8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. (ASD)
5. BS8010, Codes of Practices for Pipeline, 1993 (ASD)
6. DnV 1981, Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems, 1981 (ASD)
7. DnV 2000 (OS F-101), Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems, October 2007
(LRFD)
8. ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials)

References:
1. A.H. Mouselli, Introduction to Submarine Pipeline Design Installation, and
Construction, 1976
2. Andrew Palmer, Roger A King, Subsea Pipeline Engineering, Penwell 2004
3. Yong Bai, Pipeline and Riser, 2000
Mechanical Design
Subsea Pipeline:

 Design for code compliance
 Design to resist internal pressure (pressure containment – hoop
stress)
 Design for other stresses (longitudinal, bending & combined)
 Design to resist external pressure (collapse)
 Pipeline components (fittings, flanges, tees etc)
Hoop Stress
Perhatikan silinder bebas dengan jari-jari a ,
ketebalan dinding t , dan panjang L

sy : tekanan tangensial (hoop stress)

sy
Pi
Pe
sL sR
sL

Pe
sy
sL
Pi sR

L
Hoop Stress
Perhatikan silinder bebas dengan jari-jari a ,
ketebalan dinding t , dan panjang L

F  P A
 L

2 F  P  (  (a  t )  sin   d )(  dz ) 
 0 0  L
2 F    P(a  t )  sin   d  dz  0
0 0

y y  
sin      (a)  sin   d 
r a 0 

L 
  dz 
0 
L
2 F    P(a  t )  sin   d  dz
0 0
Hoop Stress
Perhatikan silinder bebas dengan jari-jari a ,
ketebalan dinding t , dan panjang L
Struktur silinder tersebut dikenai beban tekanan
P, P = Po – Pi
Po, tekanan luar; Pi, tekanan dalam
Dari free-body pada gambar tersebut,
keseimbangan gaya dalam arah vertikal adalah:

L
2 F    P(a  t )  sin   d  dz  0
0 0
t
L  1
2 F    P  a  sin   d  dz  0 a
0 0
L

2 F   P  a  cos   dz  0
0
0  Tekanan tangensial (hoop stress)
L
2 F   P  a  (1  1)dz  0 A  Lt
0 F PaL Pa PD
s    
2F  2PaL F  PaL A Lt t 2t
Hoop Stress
Perhatikan silinder bebas dengan jari-jari a ,
ketebalan dinding t , dan panjang L
Struktur silinder tersebut dikenai beban tekanan
P, P = Po – Pi
Po, tekanan luar; Pi, tekanan dalam
Dari free-body pada gambar tersebut,
keseimbangan gaya dalam arah vertikal adalah:

L
2 F    P(a  t )  sin   d  dz  0
0 0
t
L  1
2 F    P  a  sin   d  dz  0 a
0 0
L

2 F   P  a  cos   dz  0
0
0  Tekanan tangensial (hoop stress)
L
2 F   P  a  (1  1)dz  0 A  Lt
0 F PaL Pa PD
s    
2F  2PaL F  PaL A Lt t 2t
Longitudinal Stress
Silinder juga mengalami tegangan aksial yang disebabkan oleh beban tekanan
pada kedua ujungnya dimana gaya aksial yang terjadi adalah:

F  P A Fa  P    a 2

Luas penampang melintang silinder adalah 2at . Maka, tegangan aksial yang terjadi
adalah:
Fz P a 2 Pa PD
sz    
A 2 at 2t 4t
Longitudinal Stress

Longitudinal Stress:
 Pressure (two effects dependent
on pipeline restraint)
– Fully restrained pipeline gives
“Poisson’s Effect”
– Unrestrained pipeline gives
“End Cap Effect”
 Temperature/Thermal Stress

 Bending Stress (Span, lay radius
curvature, residual lay tension)
Longitudinal Stress
Longitudinal Stress due to Pressure
Poisson’s Effect:
- Hoop stress creates circumferential (lateral) strain
- Poisson’s ratio = lateral strain/longitudinal strain = 0.3 for steel
- Fully restrained pipeline cannot move - tensile stress developed
- Longitudinal stress (due to Poisson’s effect) = 0.3 x Hoop Stress

End Cap Effect:
- pressure differential acting over internal CSA pipe end (hence “End Cap”)
- unrestrained pipeline at ends (near expansion spool) force (due to End Cap)
= /4. (Di2.Pi-Do2.Po)

Long’l Stress (end-cap) = /4. (Di2.Pi-Do2.Po) / CSA
= 0.5 sh (for thin walled pipe)
Longitudinal Stress
Longitudinal Stress due to Temperature
- Stress dependent upon axial pipeline restraint
- stress developed when expansion or contraction (i.e. strain) is prevented
- 3 cases: unrestrained, partially restrained, fully restrained
- unrestrained - no stress due to temperature
- partially restrained - equilibrium between expansion and friction restraint (section of
pipe which expands)
- fully restrained when friction resistance = fully restrained force i.e. no movement

 Temperature stress is as follows : sL = - E (T2 - T1)

 e.g. 6-inch x 14.3mm wt 60 degrees above ambient results in a stress of 145 MPa
 full restraint force = 1017 kN or 100 tonnes
 to prevent expansion this restraining force would be required
 always avoid restraining pipe if possible
 typical anchor length = 1 to 5 km and expansion 0.5 to 1.5m
Longitudinal Stress
Longitudinal Stress due to Bending

 Spanning (resting on an irregular seabed)
 Lay radius curvature
 Bending within elastic range, formulae as follows :
 M=s=E
 I y R
 Bending is both tensile and compressive about neutral axis - important to
remember when calculating combined stress. i.e. 2 possible values of
longitudinal stress
Shear Stress

P
d txy


L

t = P/A
g = tan  = d/L
G =t/g
Combined Stress
Von Mises (maximum distortion energy theory)

Allowable design factor for combined equivalent pipeline stress is high, can be 0.96
Von Mises equivalent Stress, se , is given by:

s e s y s L (s ys L )3t
2 2 2 Von Mises Failure Envelope
600

Principal Stress - σl (LONGITUDINAL)

0
-600 0 600

-600
Principal Stress - σh (HOOP)
Stress – Strain Analysis
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength/Stress
SMTS = Specified Minimum Tensile Strength

 Tegangan yang berada di atas nilai SMYS merupakan jangkauan kapasitas
plastis dari material
 SMTS adalah tegangan pada saat material mulai mengalami “pengecilan luas
penampang” necking pada saat ditarik (titik M)
 Antara SMYS dan SMTS material tidak mengalami pengecilan luas
penampang
 Akan terjadi necking sebelum material putus
 Setelah SMTS material mulai mengecil luas penampangnya, tegangan masih
tetap diberikan namun menurun dari SMTS lalu akhirnya putus (titik F)
 Failure point (F)
 Perbandingan antara SMTS/SMYS disebut strength ratio (Y/T). Material yang
paling ideal untuk struktur dan komponen permesinan adalah yang strength
rationya paling besar.

The parameters, which are used to describe the stress-strain curve of a metal, are
the tensile strength, yield strength or yield point, percent elongation, and
reduction of area. The first two are strength parameters; the last two indicate
ductility.
Stress – Strain Analysis
Untuk material yg sangat getas/rapuh (brittle), seperti keramik, tidak mungkin mengalami
necking sama sekali  SMTS sama dengan tegangan pd saat putus

Pada umumnya baja merupakan material yg tangguh/dapat dibentuk (ductile), maka akan
terjadi necking sebelum material putus dimana titik tertinggi stress terjadi sesaat sebelum
necking  titik tersebut merupakan SMTS dari baja

Stress – Strain Curve
Stress – Strain Analysis
Pipe’s Coating
Line pipe
Corrosion coating
• FBE
• Adhesive
• Polypropelene
Concrete coating

p i ri a l
pa
e
at
M
ut
Cont lim
e Se rosi
(isi) nt ko

Selimut
beton

ID

Ds

Ds+2tcorr

Ds+2tcorr+2tcc = Dtot
Anti Corrosion Coating
Wall Thickness Calculation

The required wall thickness Pipeline Section Allowable
is determined in order to Stress
satisfied pressure
containment as well as local Zone 1 0.72
and global buckling criteria. (Pipeline)
Zone 2 0.5
(Riser & Tie-in Spool)

Note :
Zone 2, is the region within 500m from either
platform or facility.

Zone 1, otherwise
 The required wall thickness is
determined in order to satisfied pressure ZONE
containment as well as local and global
buckling criteria.

Zone 1

500m

Zone 2

500m

Pipeline Section Remarks Allowable Stress

Zone 1 (Pipeline) >500m 0.72

Zone 2 (Riser & Tie-in Spool) the region within 500m from 0.5
either platform or facility
Wall Thickness Calculation
Allowable Stress Criteria
ALLOWABLE STRESS AS A
LOAD COMBINATION FACTOR SMYS
LOAD CONDITION
PIPELINE RISER
A B C D E F E F
1 OPERATING (Functional) X X X 0.72 0.72 0.5 0.5
2 OPERATING + 100 YR
ENVIRONMENTAL X X X X 0.72 0.96 0.5 0.67
3 HYDROTEST (Functional) X X X 0.90 1.00 0.90 1.00
4 HYDROTEST + 1 YR
ENVIRONMENTAL X X X 0.90 1.00 0.90 1.00
5 INSTALLATION (Functional) 0.72 0.72
– Note 1 X - 0.96 - 0.96
6 INSTALLATION + 1 YR
ENVIRONMENTAL X X - 0.96 - 0.96
7 ONSHORE PIPELINE X X X 0.6

A: Weight; B: Pressure; C: Temperature; D: Environment; E: Hoop Stress; F: Von Mises Equivalent Stress;
Note 1- Allowable stresses are : 0.72 at Sagbend and 0.96 at Stinger Overbend
Wall Thickness Calculation
Additional Considerations

 Negative mill tolerance (API 5L or DnV OSF 101)
 Corrosion allowance (CA)
 Temperature de-rating factors
– generally applicable to higher temperatures than encountered
in subsea pipelines
 Weld joint factors for relatively high cyclic loading i.e. for fatigue
implications
Wall Thickness Calculation
Langkah desain tebal pipa
• Data Pipa, Properti material, data operasi dan lingkungan pipa.
Input

• Internal Pressure Containment
Calc 1

• Collapse due to External Pressure
Calc 2

• Propagation Buckling
Calc 3

• Local Buckling
Calc 4

• Tebal Pipa sesuai API 5L
Pilih
Wall Thickness Calculation
No. Data Nilai
1 Pipe Properties
Outside Diameter 81.28 cm
Wall Thickness 1.59 cm
Yield Stress 483 Mpa
Contoh data pipa,
Average Joint Length 12.19 m property material,
Steel Weight Density 78500 N/m^3 dan lingkungan
Poisson's Ratio 0.3
2 Pipe Coating Properties
Corrosion Coating Thickness 0.25 cm
Corrosion Coating Density 12800 N/m^3
Concrete Coating Thickness 10 cm
Concrete Coating Density 30340 N/m^3
3 Field Joint Properties
Concrete Coating Cutback 35 cm
Field Joint Filler Density 18853 N/m^3
3. Water Depth Var
Wall Thickness Calculation
1. Internal Pressure Containment
Hoop Stress:
Pipeline is design to be strong enough to withstand the
maximum tangential (hoop) stress due to internal
pressure. This stress cannot exceed the allowable stress.
The hoop stress due to internal pressure is given by
(barlow formulae):
( Pi  Pe )
sy  Do
2t
 sy = hoop stress (tensile)
 Pi = internal pressure
 Pe = external pressure
 Do = outside diameter
 t = nominal pipe wall thickness
Wall Thickness Calculation
1. Internal Pressure Containment
ASME B31.8

Pe  .g.h ( Pi  Pe ) D
t
2St 2  S  F  E T
P  FET
D
Where,
D = Outside Diameter of Pipe
E = Longitudinal Joint Factor
F = Design Factor
P = Design Pressure (Pi), Pe = Ext Pressure
S = Specified Min. Yield Strength (SMYS)
T = Temperature Derating Factor
t = Nominal Wall Thickness
CR = Corrosion Rate (mmpy)
DL = Design Life (20-25years)
MT = Mill Tolerances (12.5%)
t selected > t req (Lihat Tabel Standard Pipa)
Wall Thickness Calculation
1. Internal Pressure Containment
ASME B31.4

Where,
D = Outside Diameter of Pipe
E = Longitudinal Joint Factor
F = Design Factor
P = Design Pressure (Pi), Pe = Ext Pressure
S = Specified Min. Yield Strength (SMYS)
T = Temperature Derating Factor
t = Nominal Wall Thickness
t A  CR .D L
CR = Corrosion Rate (mmpy)
t  tA
DL = Design Life (20-25years)
MT = Mill Tolerances (12.5%)
treq 
t selected > t req (Lihat Tabel Standard Pipa)
(1  MT )
Wall Thickness Calculation
1. Internal Pressure Containment
API RP 1111  The specified minimum burst pressure (Pb) is
determined by one of the following formulae:
The following equations must be satisfied:

a) Pt  f d f t f e Pb Pb  0.45( S  U ) ln
D
(1)
Di
b) Pd  0.80 Pt t
Pb  0.90( S  U ) (2)
D t
c) Pa  0.90 Pt
 Where
Where, D = outside diameter of pipe
fd = Internal Pressure Design Factor Di = D – 2t = inside diameter of pipe
fe = Weld Joint Factor Factor S = Specified minimum yield strength of pipe
ft = Internal Pressure Design Factor t = Nominal wall thickness of pipe
Pa = Incidental Overpressure U = Specified ultimate tensile strength of pipe
Pb = Specified Minimum Burst Pressure
Pd = Pipeline Design Pressure For low D/t pipe (D/t < 15),
formula (2) is recommended
Pt = Hydrostatic Test Pressure
Wall Thickness Calculation
1. Internal Pressure Containment
DnV OS-F101
The pressure containment shall fulfill the
following criteria: pb t 
pli  pe 
g SC  g m
Where
2t 2
Pb,s (t )   SMYS .
D t 3
pb,s(t) = Yielding Limit State
2t 2 pb,u(t) = Bursting Limit Limit State
Pb,u (t )   SMTS 
D t 3 pli = Local Incidental Pressure
gSC = Safety Class Resistance Factor
pb t   Min( pb,s t ; pb,u t  Gm = Material Resistance Factor
Wall Thickness Calculation
2. External Pressure Collapse
API RP 1111
 The following criteria must be satisfied:
Po  Pi   f o Pc
Where Where,
Py Pe
Pc 
fo = Collapse Factor
Py  Pe
2 2

Pc = Collapse Pressure of Pipe
 t  Pe = Elastic Collapse Pressure of Pipe
Py  2 S  
D P0 = External Hydrostatic Pressure
3 Py = Yield Pressure at Collapse
 t  v = Poisson’s Ratio (0.3 for steel)
 
Pe  2 E  D

1 v2 
Wall Thickness Calculation
2. External Pressure Collapse
DnV OS-F101
The following criteria must be met:

 pc  pe1  pc 2
 pp
2
  pc pe1 p p f o
D
t
Where 3
t 
2E 
pe1   D

1 v2 
t
p p  2  S   fab 
D
Dmax  Dmin
fo 
D
Wall Thickness Calculation
2. External Pressure Collapse
DnV OS-F101

pc
pe 
1.1 g m  g SC

Where,
pc = Characteristic Collapse Pressure
pe1 = Elastic Collapse Pressure
pp = Plastic Collapse Pressure
fo = Ovality
αfab = Fabrication Factor
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
Pipeline buckling and collapse may occur from :
• Hydrostatic (external) pressure
• Axial compression
• Applied bending
• Combination of all of the above

More likely during installation :
• External pressure - no internal pressure
• High bending stress in sag bend (near seafloor)
• High bending stress in over bend region
• Dynamic considerations, complex behaviour prediction
Installation Analysis
As Input to
Buckle Analysis
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling

 The allowable stress for pipeline subjected to both functional and environmental loads during
installation, in accordance with DNV 1981, is 96%. However, for a conservative design margin,
the following stress criteria are adopted in line with standard industry practice:

 Allowable Overbend Stress: 85% of SMYS
 Allowable Sagbend Stress : 72% of SMYS
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
Three buckling scenarios to consider :
collapse - water depth where collapse can occur with negligible longitudinal stress
initiation - water depth where a buckle may be initiated due to a combination of
effects
propagation - water depth where a previously initiated buckle would propagate to.

• Always size wall for collapse, initiation checked during lay analysis
• Propagation can be limited by use of buckle arrestors (thicker section of pipe), see
A.H. Mouselli Book

DnV OS-F101, 2007:
Collapse Pressure - the pressure required to buckle a pipeline.
Initiation pressure - the pressure required to start a propagating buckle from a given
buckle. This pressure will depend on the size of the initial buckle
Propagating pressure - the pressure required to continue a propagating buckle. A
propagating buckle will stop when the pressure is less than the propagating pressure.

The relationship between the different pressures are:
Pc>Pinit>Ppr
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling

Buckle during laying Buckle during laying

Collapsed pipe Propagating Buckling
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
Based on DnV 1981


 sx  sy
   1
  xps xcr   yps ycr
Dimana :
s x = Longitudinal Stress (MPa)
s y = Hoop Stress (MPa)
sxcr = Critical Longitudinal Stress (MPa)
sycr = Critical Hoop Stress (MPa)
nxp = Permissible Usage Factor for Longitudinal Stress
nyp = Permissible Usage Factor for Hoop Stress
300 s y
α = 1 D .
s ycr
t
DnV 1981 (combination between internal pressure and longitudinal pressure)
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
DNV 1981

 The following criteria must be satisfied:

a) s x  s x s xN M

FA
b) sx 
N

A
c) s x  0.72S
M
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
DNV 1981

 The following criteria must be satisfied:

sx N
sx M
d) s xcr  s xcr 
N
s xcr M

sx sx
 D 
e) s xcr N
 S 1  0.001  20 
  t 
 D
s xcr M
 S 1.35  0.0045  
f)
 t
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
DNV 1981
 The following criteria must be satisfied:

300 s y
g)   1 
D / t s ycr

s y   pe  pi  
D
h)
2t
2
 t 
s ycr  E 
i)
 D t 


 sx   sy 
j)     1
 s   s 
 xp xcr   yp ycr 
Wall Thickness Calculation
3. Local Buckling
DNV 1981

Where,
σx = Longitudinal Stress
σxN = Longitudinal Stress (Axial)
σxM = Longitudinal Stress (Bending)
σxcr = Critical Longitudinal Stress
σxcrN = Critical Longitudinal Stress (Axial)
σxcrM = Critical Longitudinal Stress (Bending)
σycr = Critical Hoop Stress (Pressure)
Wall Thickness Calculation
4. Buckle Propagation
Propagating pressure based on DnV 1981
2
 t 
p pr  1,15 SMYS  
 D t 
Ppr > Pe  OK

Pe_max
k 
1.15   SMY S

k D
t nom 
1k
Wall Thickness Calculation
4. Buckle Propagation
• Initiation & Propagation Buckle based on API RP 1111
Buckle cannot be initiated or
propagated within a portion of pipe
where the maximum external
overpressure is less than the
propagation of the pipe:

Initiation buckling (Battele formula):
2.064
 t 
Pbi  0.02  E   
D
Propagation buckling:
Po  Pi  f p Pp
2.4 Pp = Buckle Propagation Pressure
t 
Pp  24S   fp = Propagating Buckle Design Factor
D Po = External Hydrostatic Pressure
Wall Thickness Calculation
4. Buckle Propagation
DnV OS F101

The following equations have to be
satisfied:

2.5
t 
a) p pr  35S fab  
D
p pr
b) pe 
g mg SC
Wall Thickness Calculation
Comparison Table
OD = 914.4 mm; P = 15 MPa; WD = 50 – 100m;
Content density = 200 kg/m3 ; Wave Ht = 3.8 m

ASME B31.8 API RP 1111 DNV 1981 DNV OS-F101

Internal Pressure 20.6 mm 20.46 mm 21.93 mm 19.90 mm
Containment

External Pressure 13.80 mm 13.61 mm - 14.25 mm
Collapse

Local Buckling - - 22.0 mm -

Buckle Propagation 21.68 mm 21.35 mm 23.42 mm 21.15 mm

The most conservative  DnV 81
Least conservative  DnV OS-F101
Summary and Conclusion
• Material Selection is based on the following:
– Operating and design condition
– Type of content
– Installation method
– Material availability
– Weight requirement
– Codes requirement
– Economics, cost
– Resistance to corrosion effects
– Weldability

• Things that have to be check in Wall Thickness Design:
– Hoop stress criteria
– Local Buckling check
– Propagation Check