CATALOGUE OF COINS

IN THE

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
LUCKNOW
r

BY
C. J.
BROWN
PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH, CANNING COLLEGE, LUCKNOW

COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS
IN TWO VOLUMES

VOL. I

PREFACES AND PLATES

PUBLISHED FOR THE UNITED PROVINCES
GOVERNMENT

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1920
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON * EDINBUKGH GLASGOW NEW YOKK
TOEONTO MELBOUEXE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY
HUMPHREY MIL FORD
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY
5126^75

CONTEXTS OF VOLUME I

MAP OF INDIA ILLUSTKATING THE MI^^TS . . tofiicep.l
PEEFACE y
LI8T OF ABBREVIATIONS xii

LIST OF THE MUGHAL EMPEEOES OF INDIA . . . xiii

GENEALOGICAL TABLE xiv

NUMEEICAL SUMMARY xv
LrST OF PEESIAN COUPLETS USED ON MT'GHAL COINS . 17

LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES USED ON THE COINS . 35
LIST OF DENOMINATIONAL AND OTHER SPECIAL TERMS
USED IN CONNEXION WITH MUGHAL NUMISMATICS 38

....
.

DETAILED LIST OF MINTS REPRESENTED 42
A NOTE ON ORNAMENTS 80
INDEX TO PLATES OF ORNAMENTS 82
PLATES OF ORNAMENTS FOUND ON MUGHAL COINS . . 86
LIST OF PLATES 89
PLATES . . . . at end
PREFACE
Some seems needed for the publication of
justification
this Catalogue so soon after the appearance of Mr. E. B.
Whitehead's Catalogue of the Coins of the Mtighal Emperors
in the l\mjah Museum (1914) and Mr. H. Nelson Wright's

CataJof/ue of the Mughal Coins in the Indian Museum (1908).
As it was represented to me that, with these two works
available, and with little fresh matter to record, there could
be little general demand for this Catalogue, I consulted the
leading numismatists in India with regard to their views in
the matter. They cordially responded to my application,
and their opinions may be generally stated as follows : that
the Catalogue should be published as soon as possible, for
the value of such a work and not
lay in its being a Catalogue,
in the amount of fresh original matter it contained and ;

that among specialists there would be a certain and continuous
demand for it. At the same time they gave some valuable
suggestions as to the form the Catalogue should take, most
of which have been adopted. For example, it was obviously
unnecessary to increase the bulk of the volumes by reprinting
the Mint notes which appear both in Mr. Nelson Wright's and
Mr. Whitehead's Catalogues. I have, therefore, merely given
a list of mints, indicating the coins of the several emperors
to be found in this collection, and in short notes marked as
exactly as possible the periods during which the various
honorific titles were used. Fresh matter of numismatic or
historical interest has been incorporated in foot-notes.
Volume I has been devoted to introductory matter and
plates, and contains a list of all known Mughal couplets with
reference to this and other collections. It also contains
a list of words and phrases used on the coins, with their
meanings, and also a list of denominational epithets and terms
vi PREFACE
used in connexion with Muglial numismatics. In addition
to the plates of coins at the end of the volume there are four
plates of ornaments, and an index has been added giving
references to the coins on which they appear.
In compiling this Catalogue, which comprises Volume II,
I have attempted throughout to further the object which

students of the Mughal series have now chiefly in view
a complete corpus of Muglial coins based on the Mint system.
It did occur to me that, in cataloguing this collection, an
arrangement by mints instead of by reigns might be adopted :

but valuable as, in my oj^inion, this would have been, it would
have detracted seriously from its usefulness as a work of
reference. It was also suggested that changes in type might

be marked more definitely by printing the number of the
hrst coin, exhibiting each such change in thicker characters :

but it seemed to me
would be premature before
that this
numismatists have agreed upon what constitutes a type.
An attempt has, however, been made to furnish data as tar
as possible towards this end by marking alterations in style
and ornament perhaps more minutely than has been done
hitherto. The determination of what constitutes a type, and
the determination of the different t3q3es of the several
emperors, is, as Mr. E. Burn has pointed most neces-
out, a
sary preliminary to the compilation of a corpus. But the
determination mint marks and
of ornaments, and the
allotting of fixed numbers to these, as well as to the couplets,
are equall^'^ necessar}^ and in all these directions I trust that
;

this Catalogue shows some advance.
In one respect the collection of Mughal coins in the
Lucknow Museum stands apart from all similar collections
^ :

the bulk of the coins which it comprises have been, as will
l)e seen later, derived from treasure trove. The United
Provinces, situated as they are in the ver}^ centre of the
Mughal dominions, and including within their territory some
of the most important centres of Mughal government, have

1 The collection in Uie Nagpur Museum has been derived in the same way, but
as no printed Catalogue exists it is impossible to determine how it compares with
other collections.
PREFACE vii

been far more prolific in finds of the coins of that dynasty
'
'

than any other province in India. Not only have most of
the rare coins been acquired in this way in the past, but the
collection is being yearly augmented from the same source.
The collection of coins in the Provincial Museum,.
Lucknow, originated in 1868 l^ut coins were amassed in
;

a more or less haphazard fashion until in Deceml^er, 1898,
the Coin Committee, consisting of the late Mr. Vincent
first

A. Smith, Mr. H. N. Wright, the late Mr. J. Hooper, the late
Dr. W. Hoey, Capt. (now Lt.-Col.) W. Vost, and Mr. K. Burn
(Secretary) was constituted. The functions of this Committee
are to advise Government on the acquisition and distribution
of treasure trove in the United Provinces, and on the acquisi-
tion of other coins for the Museum. The Secretary compiles
a complete list and places these on
of coins in each find,
record. A mass of information is thus accumulating which
in time will be of the greatest value. For ancient and
mediaeval coins it will give a clue to the strikers. In the
case of Pathan and Mughal coins it will help us to estimate
the volume of coinage at different dates and places. Statistics

of the total number of finds and lists of rarities included in
them are published in the annual reports of the Museum.
At the time of the constitution of the first Committee the
Pathan, Suri, and Mughal coins together numbered 1890.
From this time, owing to the enthusiasm of the Committee
and particularly of its Secretary, the collection, especially the
Mugh al section, rapidly enlarged. The figures for Mughal
coins alone examined and distributed among various Indian
Museums for the next five years gives an idea of the wealth
of the treasure trove of the United Provinces for 1900, :

1,055 coins; 1901,566; 1902,622; 1903,1,475; 1904,502.
It may be of interest to mention in a little more detail three
of the richest finds. In 1899 at Kilshipur in the Naini Tal
district was discovered a hoard of 491 silver coins of Akbar
and Jahanglr in perfect condition among these was an
:

Alimadnagar Ilahi rupee of Akbar (No. 262). and most of the
fine coins of Jahangn* which the Museum possesses, including
the two fine couplet rupees of Ajmer (1198, 1199), and the
viii PREFACE
unique rupee of Urdu dar rah-i-Dakkan (1280). In 1905
a find at Durgapur (Bara Banki district) of 859 copper coins of
the Surls and the Emperor Akbar contained most of the
early Akl^ar coj^per coins in the collection, including the
dams of Akbarpur Tanda (850-853), Khita Awadli (876 880),
Bahraich (881-884), Khairabad (918 917), Lakhnau (1068-
1073), the rare dam of Jaunpiu", with the geometrical device
(905), and many others. The richest hoard ^ from which the
Museum has benefited was the magnificent find of 1388
silver coins from Jhfinsi in September, 1907.
These were
largely of Akbar's early years, and among them were coins
of the following mints: Akbarpur Tanda (No. 271), Anahr-
wala Pattan (319), Elichpur (321), Balapur (323), Bangnla
(862), Bhakkar (865 a), Hisar Firoza (475), Gadraula (547),
Lakhnau (704), besides some undeciphered coins.
In 1904, largely through the exertions of Mr. Burn, the
collection of Mughals of the late Mr. W. Ellis, of Jubbul- R
pore, was secured for the Lucknow Museum. It consisted of
84 gold, 1670 silver, and 533 copper coins. It was strong in
the silver and copper issues of Akbar, and contained parti-
cularly fine silver and copper coins of Shah 'Alam II thence ;

came also the muhr of Bedar Baklit (5300) and one of the
rupees of Bahadur Shfdi.
In 1899 Mr. Burn undertook to arrange and catalogue
the Mughal coins with a view to publication. A large
number and catalogued by him, but
of coins were arranged
as the coins increased and his official duties became more
onerous he was reluctantly compelled to abandon the idea,
and the task in 1914 devolved upon me.
The total number of coins included in this Catalogue is
5,802 —
224 gold, 4,895 silver, and 683 copper. The silver
alone exceed the total number of coins (3,283) in the Lahore
Mughal collection, but a large number are duplicates. Out of
the 206 known mints 182 are represented here. Except for
the pretenders Dawar Bakhsh and *Azimu-sh-Shan, all the
Mughal emperors are represented. The collection is very
weak in rare gold coins it possesses but three of Jahanglr's
:

> For this find see J.A.S.B., Num. Suppl. XI, p. 323, an article by Col. Vest.
PREFACE ix

zodiacal mohars, and no specimen of his Bacchanalian coins.
Nisars and small pieces are poorly represented, and several
fairly common mints such as Dera and Derajat are unrepre-
sented. On the other hand, it is particularly strong in

Akbar's silver and copper series, and in the silver issues of
the later Mughals but the 018 silver coins of Jahanglr are
:

the glory of the collection. Again, it is specially strong in
series of coins, which are to be found in every reign I may ;

instance the Ahmadabad silver of Akbar and Jahanglr, the
Dehli rupees of Jahanglr, and the 'Alamglrpur silver of
Aurangzeb. In Mr. Whitehead's Mint Toivns of tlv
Mughal Emperors of India,^ and in his supplement to the
same in N.S. xxv, § 147, there occur nineteen entries of
coins from this collection as being either unique or known
time to exist in this collection three of these,
for the first :

however, are wrongly so entered. In addition there are
seven other entries under the figures XI - and XXII, which
refer to coins in the Museum.
have made use of the transliteration adopted by the
I

Council of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and published in
their Journal for 18.95, except that for ^ I write ch. To
take two examples, j^^Alic is transliterated 'Azimabad.
^^t^^sx^q^j Chhachrauli.

I have already indicated how much I owe in the
compilation of this Catalogue to Burn, who, in Mr. K.
addition to the work that he had already done on the
Lucknow Collection, has been continually helpful in giving
advice.
I am in a special measure indebted to Messrs. H. Nelson
Wright, I.C.S., and Mr. R. B. Whitehead, I.C.S., who have
allowed me
use certain features of their Catalogues of
to
the Mughal coins in the Indian Museum and the Panjab
Museum, with the consent of the Trustees of the Indian
Museum and the Government.
Panjab The present
Catalogue is indeed based upon those admirable works. In

'
J.A S.B. N. S. ,
vol. VIII 1912 , No. 11, § U, p. 425.
* XI and XXII refer to articles in those numbers of the Numismatic Supplement.
J. A. S.B.
X PREFACE
addition have constantly consulted them on numerous
I
points. Dr. Geo. P. Taylor, of Ahmadfibad, very generously
put at my disposal a manuscript list of Persian couplets
which he had prepared, and thereby considerably curtailed
my labour.
I cannot conclude without mentioning the work of
Lt.-Col. W. Vest, Messrs. W. E. M. Campbell, I.C.S., and
H. Nevill, I.C.S., who have acted as secretaries to the
Luck now Coin Committee their reports on coins derived
:

from treasure trove have been of the greatest assistance.
I am also much indebted to Babu Rayag Dayal, Assistant
Curator of the Lucknow Museum, for continual help in
arranging the Collection, and in many other ways.
In a work of this kind in spite of ever}' precaution there
must be a number of defects, but certain blemishes
I fear
in this Catalogue need an explanation. The work was
complete and ready for the press early in 1917, when the
special conditions imposed by the war stopped its publica-
tion. When in February of this year, with the advent of
happier times, the project of printing was revived it was
found that during the last two years about five hundred fresh
Mughal coins, mostly from treasure trove, had been added
to the Collection. To re-write the Catalogue entirely would
have caused undue delay, and so the 408 additional coins
have been inserted in the work as it then stood this ;

explains a number of rather unsightly entries such as
No. 1924 a, 5086 k, &c.
For a similar reason two numbers, 5191 and 5192, have
dropped out of the Catalogue, in consequence of the mint
name Piina being settled subsequently to 1917, and the two
coins removed to their correct position lastly, it has been
:

impossible to assign coins Nos. 4851 a-4855 their right
position, as the coins with the readings giving the clue to
their correct place turned up too late to enable this to be
done without serious disfigurement. Every attempt has
nevertheless been made to bring the Catalogue into line
with the most recent information on Mughal numismatics,
in which connexion one cannot help expressing gratitude
PREFACE xi

for the admirable series of articles which have appeared
during the past two years in the Numimmtic Siipphmeuts to
the Journal of the Asiatic Society of BemfaJ from the pen of
Mr. S. H. Hodivala.
I must, in conclusion, make acknowledgement, the
a last
greatest of all, to Messrs. W. E. M. Campljell and John Allan,
who have taken upon themselves the arduous duty of seeing
these volumes through the press and the Clarendon Press
;

I must thank for the accuracy and excellence of their work.

C. J. BROWN.
LuCKNOw, March, 1920.
xu

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

A. D. .
Xlll

THE LIST OF
MUGHAL EMPEROES OF INDIA
A.H.
I. Baljur, Zahliii-d-dln .

II. Humayun, NasTru-d-dIn
III. Akbar, Jalalu-d-dln .

IV. Jabanglr, Nuru-d-din
Dawar Bakhsh .

V. Shah Jahan, Shihabu-d-din
Murad Bakhsh (in Gujaiat)
Shah Shuja' Bengal)
(in .

VI. Auraiigzeb 'Alaraglr, MuhayyTu-d-d n (Mublu
d-dm)
A'zam Shah
Kam Bakhsh
VII. Shah 'Alam Bahadur
'Azimu-sb-Shan
VIII. Jabandar Shah .

IX. Farrukhsiyar
X. Rafi'u-d-darjat .

XI. Rafi'u-d-daula, Shah Jaban II
Muhammad Ibrahim .

XII. Muhammad Shab
XIII. Ahmad Shah Bahadur
XIV. 'Alamgir II, 'Azizu-d-dln
Shah Jaban III
XV. Shah 'Alam II .

Bedar Bakbt .

XVI. Mubammiid Akbar II
XVII. Bahadur Shah .

Deposed by the British Government
XIV

-^1
XV

NUMERICAL SUMMARY OF COINS
CATALOGUED
LIST OF PEK8IAN COUPLETS USED ON
MUGHAL COINS
Note, Figures standing alone in round brackets refer to the numbers of coins in
this Collection,

AKBAR
Agia.

(1) '^-^^ y, ^^ <S}r} r^"^ il^^*^.^.

''^^^ ^•*^' i ^
;jO jy'^
j'c* b u^j
The sun of the stamp of Shah Akbar is the glory of this gold
Whilst earth and sky are illuminated by the shining sun,

A^. 49 Azar (B. M, No. 169). Dl (P. M. No. 136), Isfandrumuz (P. M.
No. 137 and B. M.).
50 Khurdad (B. M. No. 174). Amardad (79).

(2) J^U.^b^ oiU u^ol*-

The '
dluiir-i-jalall ' won felicity

Fiom the stamp of the name of the exalted 8hah Akbar.
N. 50 Mihr. (White King Sale Catalogue, No. 3499).

(3) .j-i iuJou .ol 1^ jl o— jj

By the stamp of the Emperor Akbar gold becomes bright ;

On this gold the Shah's name is light upon light
'
',

N. 50(B.M..). 51 (B.M. No. 175).

Ilahabad.

jU sL 5«**
(4) oL)
J j^ y. ^»...»a

Like the gold of the sun and moon, may ever be current
In the world's east and west, the coin of Ilaliabad.

M. 45-49 E. (307-316).
18 PERSIAN COUPLETS
Eandhu.

(5) j^\ AJjl iiC^ -1^^

May the current coin of Akbar, the Divine
Be equal to (the name of) the fort of Handhu.

M. Cf. Whiteliead, Mint Toions, p. 434.

Bangala.

S^ 5uL .»>l i—^f-o ij-«')i irJ'J

The coin of Bangala became pleasing from this fact

That its honour lay in being struck by Akbar Shah.

M. (sq.). 39r(362)-1011 (364).

JAHANGlR
General Application.

(7) »U j^^ eiO^) ^l,y o^l- \j j) ^ij

Made the face of money to shine with the hues of the sun and moon
Shah Nuru-d-din Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badsbah.
N.Agra (B.M. No. 290). Dehll (P.M. No. 911). Labor (1196).
JR.Akbarnagar (P. M. No. 950). Agra (1305). Jalnapur (1482). Dehll
Qandahar (1547). Kashmir (1602). Labor (1630).
On Qandahar and Kashmir coins this couplet appears in the years 1019-
1021: 7r. On the rest of the mints from 1015: 1E.-1017: 3 R. The
Jalnapur coin is dateless. Coins of the Labor mint are both square and
round. For silver coins of Dehli, see 1. 31. C, p. xlii (Introduction).

Ajmer.

(8) &Xw c>-iJ li*^^. jij-^
j'j tj t^
^1 sLi slw hJoL-^ j»U %»i \

The gold coin became the light of the world at Ajmer
By the light of the name of Jahanglr Shah, Shah Akbar['s son].

/R. 1023: 9r. (1197).
1025: 1 1 R. with ^,*»».l y instead of ^^^.^a-U. (1199).

Except for the mint name identical with the Kashmir couplet, No. 41.
PERSIAN COUPLETS 19

(9) )) y\ ^ j5C- Jj ^^^1 ^J

At Ajmer struck on gold the coin of victory
Jahanglr Shah, Shalianshah Akbar['6 son J.

M. 1024: IOe. (1198).
This coin is supposed to have been struck to commemorate tlie conquest of
Udaii:)ur. Cf. King and Vost, Some Xovelties, Num. Chroa., 189G, p. 164.

(10) jy)j ^ ^jij ^^vJJ.:* jU^; ^jC e5;y-
Obverse

Reverse

On the face of coin of gold, resplendent beauty and grace gave
The picture of Shrdi Nuru-d-din Jahanglr, son of Shah Akbar.
The Shah, refuge of the fidth, struck this coin of gold at Ajmer,
Shah Nuru-d-dlu Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badshrdi.
N. 1023 : 8 k. (B. M. No. 318), a Bacchanalian coin.

(10 a) The couplet on the reverse of No. 10 appears alone on A'. 1023 :

9 (B.M.) and PJ. 1025 He. (P. M. No. 890).
:

^ ' ^vJ ^j; ^-
Obverse

^ ^^ r- ^J-
ijeverse
jV^^ St. oxi ^j Jjl j^^ J J

Destiny on coin of gold has drawn
The portrait of His Ifajesty Shah Jahanglr.
The letters of Jahanglr and Allahu Akbar
Are equal in value* from the beginning of time.

M. 1023 : 9 R. (B. M. 319-321), a Bacchanalian coin.

Ahmadabad.
In the name Sallm.

The lord of the realm struck money of gold
Shah Sultan Salim, Akbar Shrdif's son].

iH. 50 b. Aban-2 K. Araardad (1200).

By the Abjad system of i-eckoning the letters of^^J^^sj« and^l 4)1 both
^

make up 288. For the origin of this cf. 3Iemoirs of Jahanglr, Rogers and Beveridgtv
vol. i, p. 253.
B 2
20 PERSIAN COUPLETS
(13) ^jljj^ jb i.i.-^^A j^jl ^^^ vl*Y}
^j

111 the seven climes may this money be ever current
'l'l)rouq:h the impress of the name of JaliangTr, Emperor of the World.

Al. 1027: 12 (1249).

(14) ,b ^1^^ x^U ^l^ U ^,^1

God, while earth shall last may current be
In east and west the muhr of Ahmadabad.
N. 1028: He. (B.M. No. 306)-1033 : 18 r. (P.M. No. 891).

(15) jJl eijljl-c jl .iblj^a-l .J &.5L->i
.>J

Struck money at Ahmadabad by the blessings of God
Shah Nuru-d-din Jahanglr, son of Ahbar Badshah.

(15 a)
^V. Aquarius 10 — 1 (B. M. No. 357) with ei;liU=^ for u:;bU jl.

Non-zodiacal iil. 1017 (P.M. No. 929)-1018 (1211); 1019 (P.M.
No. 931); 1027: 13 R.-1033 (1251).
M Cancer 1027 (B.M).

(16) .^jj .sb 1. .iblj^a-l
jj

To tlie money of Ahmadabad gave ornament
Jahanglr SJiah, Shahanshali Akbar['s son].

M. 1027:13. Cancer (1260). Leo (1262). Scorpio (B. M.|.

(17) The following legend thougli not a '
bait ' may be given here :

May it be beautified by the name of Shah Nurii-d-dln Jahanglr.

AL 1022-1027 (1228).

A hniadraiii gar."
(18) JJ o-:..J
jb !kSw ^_\ Jkj\j)^^\ j:>

At Ahmadanagar this coin gave beauty to gold
From the impression of tlie name of Jahanglr, Shrdi Akbar['S son].

Al. 12 E,? (1279).
^ Probably a forgery.
^ For this spelling of the name cf. P. M. C. Introduction, p. xxxvii.
PERSIAN COUPLETS 21

Urdu.

jU
(19) J ji^ :>^, lolJ ^JlJ^ jl)

Current be, so long- as the sun and moon exist.

The coin of the camp (Urdu) of Jahanglr Shall.

K. 1036 : 22 Aries (Mr. Nelson Wiight's Cabinet, also Berlin Museum).
For this coin cf. N.S. I, pp. 3-5.

Urdu dar rah-i-Dakkan.

(20) ji,
J
js?- sUl (^u i\j j:i ^:)^ jj siL-

Struck coin in the camjJ on the road to the Dakkan, the king of sea and land.
The Emperor of the Age, Shah Jahanglr, son of Shah Akbar.

M. 1025: 11 (1280).

Akbarnagar.

(21) »^-^^ UjV "^-^
"L)
f-^^-Vt-^' j-^ s-X^

slioU ^;-Ol ^^.1 ^ViL-s. ^^J jJl ^_jj sli*

Struck coin in Akbarnagar, the king of Heaven's court,
Shah Nuru-d-din Jahangli-, son of Akbar Badshah.

M. 1019 (1281).

Agra.

(22) xl:j
kS^ ^J^"^ > J^C^ J^ ^j '^'

Struck coin in the city of Agra, the Chosroes, the refuge of the world,
Shah Nuru-d-dln Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badshah.

N. 1017: 3r. (1182)-1018: 5 k. (B.M. No. 426).
M. 1017: 3E.-1018: 5 k. (P. M. No. 962).

With the exception of the mint name this is the same as the Krdnil

couplet. No. 38.

(23) iU y^ jJ ^jJ 15*^ "-^ V ^j

Struck at Agra royal coin on gold in the month Mihr
Shah Nuru-d-dIn Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badshah.
N. 1019-5, Mihr (B.M. and Cabinet of the late Mr. F. J. Thanawala).
For this coin see N.S. XXV, § 150, and Rodgers, Lahore Jhiseiim Cat , p \i.
22 PERSIAN COUPLETS
(24) Jl Jt yj ^^ i/b ^jIjT jU ^j

lu the month of Abau aL A"ra the sliadow of God struck coin
Shah Nuru-d-dln Jahaiiglr, son of Akbar BadKhiih.

a;", (sq.) 1019 : 5 Ahjin (P. M. Xo. 894).

(25) Jl J.U ^;j :>) S^ s^-Mj
,j^. ;0

In the month of Baliman at Agra, the shadow of God struck coin,
Shah Niiru-d-dTn Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badshrdi.

M. 1019: 5 Bahman (Cabinet of Mr. W. S. Talbot).

For tliis coin see N. S. XIIT, p. 232.

(26) j)
ji, :>j '^/^ j^ \ "^ e^J >,^«^-' ^-i

•Oi sli) ^\ ^XjL.». siii ijl^ 5Ui-i^

In Isfandarmuz this coin at Agra struck in gold
The Emperor of the Age, Shrdi Jahanglr, son of Shah Akbar.
^. (sq.) 1019: 5 Isfand&rmuz (I. M. No. 564).
M. (sq.). (P. M. No. 963).

(27) y.J>l ^y^ c:^r^lj5^J s/T^j cr2-»;j>.

In Farwardln the gold of Agra became resplendent like a star,
By the light of the coin of Shah Jahanglr, son of Shah Akbar.

R. 1020: 6 Farwardln (P.M. No. 895).

(28) (jUj .^.i .ijj yv^iL^.a. slw j
• Obverse

*
C / '[- Keverse

To Shah Jahanglr belongs tlie whirligig of Time
In Agra by his name gold scatters light
So long as the bannei- of the Five Guards lasts in the world
May this stamp of his Five Muhrs be current.
N. 1028:14 k. A five-muhr piece. (B. M. No. 305).

(29) Zodiacal.

jS\ iuj sLii y^\jL.». y
The face of gold received ornaments at Agra
From Jahanglr Shah, Shah Akbar['s son]
PERSIAN COUPLETS 23
N. 1028: H-1031 : 17. (All twelve signs except Libra, B. .M.
No. 322, &c,.V Gemini (1191).
M. Taurus (B. :\r. No. 366). Cancer, Gemini (T. M. Nos. 604, 005).
Imitation half-iupees (1334-1338).
Non-zodiacal^. 1031: 17r. (1328)-1036: 21 r.

(30) ^ cu^jj :>b ij\ iSCj

The money of Agra gave ornament to gold
By .Jahanglr Shah, Shah Akhar['s son].
N. 1028: 14 R. Taurus (1190)
JR. 1030 : 16 Taurus (I. .Al. Xo. 603) probably struck from a gold die.

Ilahabad.

(31) .ibU! &X_-o . • .o.i ^.Ju..^^^^

For ever may the light of the gold and" coin of Ilahabad
Abide from the name of Shah Jahanglr, Shah Akbar['s son].
jR. 1033: 19-1037: 22(1339).

Burhanpui'.

(32) sUj ^_:> sl^i. ^^JUy.^^w .J :>j iX.^

The Shall, refuge of the faith, struck coin in the city of Burhanpur
Shah Nuru-d-din Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badshrdi.
M. 1017 (1349).

Patna.

(33) sLij Jlc ^/~^ ^'~^. j-/~^ j-^ ^j i^^-x

Struck coin in the city of Patna, the Chosroes, the refuge of the Tniverse
Shah Nuru-d-dln .Jahfinglr, son of Akbar Badghah.

A<. (Cabinet of Mr. H. Nelson AVright.)
Cf. also Coins of the Mogul Emperors, jnirchased hij the Pavjnh Govern-
ment from C. J. Rodgers, Preface, p. x.

DehJ I.

(34) ^\ ^Ji! ^9 ;1
.5J
^Ujj

In Dehlr struck l)y favour of the grace of God
The coin of victory and triumph Jahiinglr Shall.

N. 1035: 21 R. (P.M. No. 912).
24 PERSIAN COUPLETS
Fat h pur.

(35) j) iXw o~J sjj jj .9 .^*s?^'.

The gold coin I)eeanie lustrous at Fathpur
By the light of the name of Jahaiiglr Shall, Shfih Akbar['s son].

A\. 1028: 14 Capricornus, cf. llodgers, '
Couplets or Baits ',./. -4. <S'. 5,
1888, p. 2G, and Whitehead, Mint I'oiuns, p. 436. (This coin is wrongly
quoted as N in B. M. C, p. li.)

Qandahar.

(36) »l^i.> SJ^ ^Uj^ S..5C-.

sli. jS\ sli j.^yj[^ j\

The coin of Qandahfir hecame the heart's desire
Through Jahanglr Slud), Akbar 8hab['s son].

M. 1025: 11-1031: 17(1577-1596).

In the name Sallm.

(37) VJ^ ^ ^^\ J^'i j ^\ »-i^;*A

^JuM sLi. Ai.\ J.jo vK-j —I),

May the coin of Kabul fiom the abode of the servants of the
Living Eternal (one) be ever current in the name of Shah Salim.

M. 1014-(LM. No. 686).

Kabul.

(38) jb jJ^j^» JjlS^ ^.^i. y .Jj s^

Struck coin in the city of Kabul, the Chosroes, the refuge of the world.
Shah Nuru-d-din Jahanglr, son of Akbar Badshrdi.

A\. 1020: 6e. (P.M. No. 1072) and 1024: 9e. (LM. No. 689).
Cf. Couplets No. 22 (Agra)and 33 (Patna).

'
(39) '
sli j^fi\^ j»li jl Ai; U .
_

So long as coin shall be struck in the name of Jahiluglr Shah
May it give light to silver and gold.

Al. 19 K. (Editor's Cabinet and B. M.).

^ A tentative reading.
PERSIAN COUPLETS 25

(40) i^\ ^k^^ j^ J-'.'^ j'r' j^ ^j ^
Struck coin in the city of Kabul through the blessings of God
Nuru-d-din Jahanglr son of Akljar Shah.

M. 23 K. (Cabinet of Mr. 15. B. AVhitehead).

Cf, Couplet No. 15 (Ahmadabad).

Kaslnnlr.

(41) i^- jt*^. "^^^ }ij^ uV'J"
f)

J)l jlw JW v^Kjl_^-a. j«lj j«j J

The coin of Kashmir became world-conquering
By the light of the name of Jalianglr Shall, Shah Akbar['s son].

M. 15 k. Gemini (I.M. No. 6'JG and cf. King and Yost. Some Xovelties,

Num. Chron., 1896, pp. 164, 165).
Cf. Couplet No. 8 (Ajmer).

Lrdior.

(42) j^^ j:> J.) dls u J\^j jb jtSi

In the world so long as the heavens revolve, may current be
In the name of Shah Jahanglr, the money of Lrdior.
M. 1017: 3 (1632)-1019: 5 (P.M. No. 1097).

(43) ^jil !u
ujrc^-'f'- ''^y ^ jy^'^ J)

The money of Labor in the month Bahman became like the shining moon
In the reign of Shah Nuru-d-dIn Jahaugir, son of Shah Akbar.

M. 1019: 5 Bahman (1636).

(44) j^
ji, :>j .^*il .0 S^ ^j^\ y.j\j.:Ji^ :>

S\ sli. ^jl jS^\,^ sui ^1 5Li..;^.w

In Isfandarmuz the coin at Lfdior struck in gold
The Emperor of nations, Shah Jahaugir, son of Akbar Shfdi.

M. 1019: 5 Isfandarmuz (sq.) (1637).

(45) jy\ 5.- d.-^ j^^^A^^j o^-^ji/-^.

S\ sli» |j>l ^xjL.a. sli. &A.WJ .y ^

In Farwardin the money of Labor became an object of envy to the shining moon,
Through the light of the coin of Shah Jahanglr, son of Shrdi Akbar.
M. 1020 : 6 Farwardin (P. M. No. 1102).
26 PERSIAN COUPLETS
(46) jj
ji jj ^^A^ ^j -S^ ^;1 ^:>-i-'f^. L?-i,l JiU

.-.SI sli 1^)' ^Kil,^ sLii
ij^-«j
sLiJL/,^

Month ArdlbihiKht this coin s^truck in gold at
: Lalior
The Emperor of the world, 8hrdi JaliangTr, son of Slifdi Akhar.

M. 1020: 6 Ardlbihisht(sq.) (1639).

(47) * J 1. s-x-., i^jI jj j^*^ j-^ >'-^^ '^
jS\ ^\:J ^^ .*^Ia.-:j. sli. s^. ^^j dJl*

In the month of Tir at Lrdior struck this coin in gold
The King, refuge of the faith, 8hah Jahfinglr, son of 8hrdi Akhar.
^

.11. 1020: 6 Trr(sq.) (1640).

(48) )')
J-
jy^"^ *^ \j-^^ ^'j "^^
^^^jf^ j^

In the month Kliurdad struck in gold the coin of Lrdior
Sliah Nuru-d-din Jahanglr, son of Badshah Akbar.

M. 1020 : 6 Khurdad (Cabinet of .Mr. H. Nelson Wright).
Cf. also Coins of the Mogul Emperors of India jmrcJtased hi/ the Punjab
Government from Mr. C. J. liodgers, Preface, p. x.

(49) j>*^ 5.X-*j L^ji^.^ ^\ j^J^^ib

Ever may be on the face of the coin of Labor
Light by the name of 8hah .Jahanglr, Shah Akbar['s son]
N. 1028 14 (P. ^[. No. 917)-1036: 22 (B.M. No. 310).
:

M. '1025: 11-1037: 22(1706-1733).

MANDU (MANDU)
(oO) slw ^-^KjL_3. ^LS : jXJL* s._A.->

The stamp on the coin of Mandu gives through the name of Jahanglr Shah
Lustre like the sun and moon to the Nur .Tahanl (i. e. the gold coin of one
tola weight).

A^. 1026: 12 (P. ]\r. No. 918). Cf. N. S. XXXI, § 194.

(51) ji ^js^. ill ^j -ii jj js>^.w ^XiU)

«5l sli ^1 .^vjl.^ sLi, i^\m\ sL*. :.^w

Coin of victory in the south struck at Mandu by the lord of the sea and land,
King of kings of the age, Sliah Jahaugl.-, son of Shah Akbar.
M. 1026 : 12 (Cabinet of Mr. R. P,. Whitehead).
^ Except the years 1034 : 19-1035 : 20 when the N .r Jahani coins were issued.
PERSIAN COUPLETS 27

With the name of NUR J AH AN
General ajiplication.

(52) .»jj s^ c:>jl) ,^L^ ilw ,,Xj>.
J

j) r -
*^'^'^^.
u'^-t^ ^y (•'-^•

By order 8hah Jahanglr gained a hundred beauties
of
Gold by the name of Nur Jalian Bad shah Begam.
There are three variants of tliis coui)let, No. 1, as above; No. 2, with S^.
and JJij ; No. 3 with jCs.-^ and Aii_.

N. 1035: 21 (B.M.) and 1037 Ahraadabad (P.M. No. 919); 1034: •

20 Cancer Ajmer^; 1036 Sunit (B. M. No. 513)'; 1035: 20 Sagittarius
Labor ^ (Paris).
M. 1034: 19-1037 Ahmadabad- (1734); 1037: 22 Akbarnagar- (1739);
1034: 20, 1037: 22, Agra^ (1740); 1037: 22 Ilahabad (Editor's Cabinet)^
(Mr. R. B. Whitehead's Cabinet)^ 1037: 22 Patna^ (1743); 1033: 19-
1036: 21 Surat' (1747); 1034: 19-1035: 20 Lahor^ (1757).
For the gold zodiacal coins of Ajmer and Labor, cf. Whitehead, Mint
Towns, p. 433.

Lrdior.

(53) .y j> -iXl^ Ij ^^KjL.a. 5l:L ^li
j

Prom the name of Shah .Jahanglr tlie face of the coin of Labor has become
full of light,
It has been increased by (the addition of) the name of Nur Jahan.
M. 1035 : 21 (Cabinet of the late Mr. F. J. Thanawala).
For this couplet see N. S. V, § 34, p. 125.

By order of Shah Jahanglr the coin of Labor
From the name of Nur Jahan Badsbah became full of light.

.PI. 1036 : 21 R. Capricornus (Editor's Cabinet and Berlin Museum).
Note. In the Tuzuk-i Jahcing'tr'i we are told that Asaf Khan was ordered to make
the following couple of baits on large gold coins, one on the obverse, and one on the
reverse

^ y Obverse

In letters of light on gold the pen of destiny
Engr.aved the entry Siifih Nfuu-d-din Jahanglr.

u^T^ Jhf »^ c^; ;^ J)^ -^'-l
Reverse.
^ ^ r

By this coin the world became bright like the sun
Aftab-i-niamlakat is the date.

[vo5Cl»^ (_)l::.9l = Sun of the Kingdom.]
28 PERSIAN COUPLETS
'Between the lines of the obverse inscription the Kalima was written, while
between the lines of the reverse were to come the name of the mint and the year of
julus and the hijrl year. These gold coins were of 100, 50, 20, and 10 tolas. I have
never seen and never heard of one being in existence. The words Aftab-i-mamlakat
give the date 1014 a. h., the date of Jahanglr's first year,' Rodgers, J.A.S.B. vol. Ivii,

Part I, No. 1, 1888, pp. 19-20.

SHAH J AH AN
Shahjahanubad.

(55) uW J"* ^^J "*^-^
U^t^ *^^ ''•^

May the coin of Shahjabanabad be current in the world
For ever in the name of the second Lord of the Conjunctions;
A^. 1060: 24(n.M.): 1068: 32 (B.M.).
M. 1058: 22-1066: 30 E. (2231).

(56) sJl fc__iAal \ jj ijjj^ j-o j:>
jY' y*. *^

On this two hundred muhr piece by the grace of God the impress was put
Of Shah Jahiln, the second Lord of the Conjunction, the refuge of the Faith
By the engraving of his impress may the face of the coin give light to the world,
As long as the face of the moon is illumined by the sun's reflection.

N. Shahjabanabad 1064: 28 E.

For this rubai and coin, cf. B.M.C., Introduction, p. Ixxxvii.

Note. On the coins of Surat of the 1st year appears the legend

May the coin of Sliuh Jahan be current.

MUEAD BAKHSH
Surat.

(57)
^^'c^
"'^ ^\jsu^\^ j Cjj\ oi/

Took the heritage of the 'Lord of the Conjunctions' Shah Jahan
Murad Bakh^li Muhammad Shah, the second Sikandar.
M. 1038 : ahd (B. M. Xo. 699).
PERSIAN COUPLETS 29

AURANGZEB 'ALAMGlR
(58) j^» j,^ ^s. jjl^ jj) yj S^
jS Jlc t^j ^jl s'j;,

Struck money tl)roufi:li the world like the shiiiiiiw sun
8hah AuniDgzcb 'Alauiglr.

(58 a) For the silver coinage .jj. (moon) was substituted for^-* (sun).

N. (2458). A\. (2491).

These couplets came into use at different dates hut they may be said to
have come into general use for all mints after tlie 4th regnal year. The coins of
Akbarabad are, however, an exception. The couplet (58 a) is sometimes found
on gold coins, cf. P.M.C. No. 1486, probably owing to error.
The coujilet (58), for gold, on the other hand, seems to Jiave been regularly
used for silver during the earlier years of the reign, for examples
cf. Nos. 2756

(Bhilsa), 2768 (Patna), 2849 (.Tahrmglrnagar), 3009 (Shahjahruiabad), .3111
('Alamglrpur), 3138 (Katak), 3215 (Labor), 3343 (llultan). But examjiles of
its use late in the reign are the result of an error on tlie jiart of the die-
striker — No. 3135 (Kfibul) may be one of these. On the coins of Akbarnagar
the gold couplet is used on rupees up to the 41st regnal year.

NofjE. Henceforward unless otherwise stated, the couplets are used for all mints
and during the whole reign.

A'ZAM SHAH
(59) sla. 5 oJjJi U^"^ j-^ -^3 *"^*'

Struck coin in the world with might and majesty,
Lord of the nalms, A'zam Shah.

A^. (B. M. No. 847). M. (3432).

KAM BAKHSH
(60) slo ^
y^^jf>- j>.
^J>^
s:> y Sji-

Struck coin in the Dakkau on the sun and moon
The Emperor Kara Bakhsh, refuge of the faith.

A^. (B.M. No. 852). M. (3434).
30 PERSIAN COUPLETS
SHAH ALAM BAHADUR
Alvbarabad.

Struck coin like the Sahib-i Qiran
The second Alamglr, Bahadur Shah.
PJ. 1119: ahd (P. M. No. 1 996). M. 1119: ahd (P. M. No. 20 1 5).

(62) sU • ./~o
j\ j^jS ofiji ,.i
^ iii)^W'» "^^

Struck auspicious coin in the seven climes on the sun and moon
The second Shah Jahan, Sultan Mu'azzam.
A\. — : ahd (P.M. No. 2037).

Murshidabad (in the name of Mu'azzam).

(63) ^j\/ i.jA»-l-«
j^ jj j\ ^j &^

Struck coin on gold like the Sahib-i Qiran
Mn'azzam Shah, the second 'Alamglr.
M. ahd (P.M. No. 2091).

Multan.

(64) uU y yr^ j>, jy^ oia ji yj 5>-»

Struck coin in the seven climes on the sun and moon
Defender of the faith of IMuhammad Shah 'Alam Biidshah.

M. 1119 : ahd (Cabinet of Mr. H. Nelson Wright).
For this coin cf. Whitehead, Mint Towns, p. 437.

'A^IMU-SH-SHAN

(65) >li
J
J^^. e; V^ j^ y; ^
Struck coin in the world with victory and success
.

The emperor AzTm succourer of the faith.

JR. 1 124 : ahd (B. M. No. 903).
For this coin see N. S. XVII, § 103, p. 124.

I
For this provisional reading cf. P. M. C. note to coin 2015, p. 276. Apparently
there was a rupee of Itawa with this or a similar couplet in the White King Collection,
cf. Sale Catalogue, coin No. 3P60,
PERSIAN COUPLETS 31

JAHANDAR SHAH
(66) isu ji^'^
u?^ L?"^' )* -^j i^^^^^
J

Struck coin in the horizons like tlie sun and moon
The victorious Jahrmdar 81iah, Defender of the Faith.

N. (3539). M. (3545).

(67) ^
ul/ '^r'^^'* )rr ^"^
j\ '^^ ^y.

Struck coin on the moon (silver) like the Sahib-i Qiran
Jahandar Shah, monarch of the world.
A variant has ,^ for sj>

K. (3544). M. (3547).
Both the above couplets appear on the coins of most mints.

FARRUJCHSIYAR
jl J) sX-*
(68) jj J ^-. j\ (Ja. J^9

Struck coin on silver and gold by grace of the Truth
Monarch of the sea and land, Farrukhsiyar.

H. (3567). M. (3580).

(68 a) ^f t_*a»^ '^^* (the third Lord of the Conjunctions) instead of

M. 1125 : ahd Tatta (Cabinet of Mr. F. J. Thanawala).
For this coin of. N. S. XIY. § 86, p. 579.

RAFrU-D-DARJAT
(69) ^^^/. ij1;1/*
''•
'^H •^j "^^

Struck in India with thousands of blessings
King of kings on sea and land, Rafi'u-d-darjat.
M. (3736). M. (3739).

(69 a) ^jUI 8-tJLftli. instead of j . js?. t.:\:>l;..

A^. Khujista Bunyad (B.M. cf. X. S. XIII, § 81).
M. Khujista Bunyad (P. M. Xo. 2280).

^ Sometimes instead of ^jy^
J>,
appears.
» ^ Sometimes instead of s-« ,j appears.
32 PERSIAN COUPLETS
(69 6) ^^b jJUali. instead oi
j ^
js^. •tji,^:^.

M. .Aluishidabad (3751).
There is another variant of this couplet on a gold coin of Mu'azzamabad
(7i. J/. C. No. 937 «) which has not yet heen elucidated.

SHAH JAHAN II

(70) ijU ^^l \ u^^ j^ ^) *-^**'

Struck coin in the world with tranquillity and security
The second 'Lord of the Conjunctions' Shah Jahan.

M. l^itta (Cabinet of Mr. 11. B. AVlritehead).
Peshawar ( „ „ ).

The second line of this couplet could also read '
The " Lord of the Con-
junctions " the second Shall Jahan '.

MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM
(71) ^_,^ J-iiJ ej^^y ^) S^
^*aLj1 Jlvs:* sli. ^JLJill

Struck coin in the world through the grace of the Bountiful One
King of kings, Muhammad Ibrahim.

N. Shahjahanabad (B. M. No. 954). M. (3764).

MUHAMMAD SHAH
(72) »J1 e_fikl) ^jl^ j.i i>-j &l-i

Struck coin in the world by the favour of God
Muhammad Shrdi, Emperor of the Age.
M. 6r. A'zamnagar Gokak (P. l\r. No. 2363 and cabinet of the late
Mr. F. J. Thanawala). 1131-1132 : ahd Surat (3956).

Bhakhar.

(73) sJl
J-^ j JiJ \ 1S..X—

\^ J*^ (jW is^^-i^.

Struck coin of silver thi-ough the grace of God
The Emperor of the ^^'urld, Muhammad Shah.
^il. 1152-1153: 21 n. (P.M. No. 2407 «).
A conjectural reading.
PERSIAN COUPLETS ^ 33

AHMAJ) SHAM P.AHADT'R
'
(74) &J1 J-^fij
^3 j.\ y^ sJv.-.

^li j>.»»-l sLij ^!l.c iLi
'
I

Struck coin on gold Ijy the grace of God
King Ahmad Shah, refuge of the world.

Ai. 11G2 : 5 Kashmir (P. M. No. 270G).
--: ahd Iratiyazgarh (4236).

'ALAMGIR II

(75) ^\ji v_..^U ^^-^^ yj jy\ X-

Struck coin on gold like the Sahih-i Qiran
'Azizu-d-din, the second 'Alamglr.
N.
M. — : ahd Imtij^azgarh (4374).
5 R. Ujjain (4363). Aurangnagar —
(4376); 1167: ahd-1172: 6 Balwantnagar (4389); 1167: ahd-1171: 5 R.
Banaras .(4393) 1172: 6 Jodhpur (4408); 1068: ahd Gwaliar (Editor's
;

cabinet); — 6 Xagor (P.M. No. 2839).
:

Shahjahanril)afl

(76) &L J y^ ^\j li' j-s.** jyS oii j\ yj iX-j

Struck coin in the seven climes like the shining sun and moon
King 'AzTzu-d-dln Alamglr, defender of the Faith. Emperor.
A. 1170:4-1173:6(4356). AX. 1170:4-1173:6(4421).

(77) j^a, ji^^ ^>. j.>j^ ^^^-^3 ^^*'

.*rjic sijjjij
ij^-^ 's^'^ ("^ j^

Coin of gold obtained glory like the shining sun
From the name of the lord of the world, the emperor 'Alamglr.

N. 1170:4 (B.M.). A\. — : 4' (P. M. No. 2797).

SHAH 'ALAM II

(78) 4.!!
J..^ soLo ^^j-S loi^ /. J; i-^-

Struck coin in the seven climes the shadow of the divine favour.
The defender of the faith of Muhammad, the emperor Shah 'Alam.

N. (4488). A\. (4516).
'
See note on the coin in the P. M. C.
34 PERSIAN COUPLETS
This couplet starts from the first year of the reign (4667), and in the case
of the following mints runs all through the regnal years Arkat, Balwantnagar,
Banaras, Eavishnagar Sfigar, Saharanpur.
On coins of Shahjalianabad and Akbarabad it is replaced by No. 76 in.

1218: 46 11.

On coins of Barell and Farrukdjidml it is replaced by No. 76 in 1208 : 31 R.
in case of the former and 1204 :31k. in case of the latter. The couplet occurs
on all but a small numbei- of mints, such as Itavva, Jaipur, Deogarh, Nagor.

(79) ».ll XoU J ^j\Ji c_*a.U ^ S^

Struck coin like the Srdub-i Qiran 1)y God
the help of
Defender of the faith of Muhammad, the Emperor Shah 'Alam.

N. Akbarabad, Shahjahanabad (4495), Farrulihabad (4497).
M. Akbanibad (4560), Orchha (4593), Barell (4621), ShahjahanSbad
(4967), Farrukhabad (5022), Muzaffargarh (5110).

Note. Tlie series of Orchha coins begins in 1211 and of Muzaffargarh in 1209.

BEDAR BAKHT.
(80) os-^ J^'i Cj,'^ jjo :>j &-X--
J
e^s:^ ^X-^,\ A-».s.* ijl-^s. T>\^

Struck coin on gold the heir of crown and throne
Lord of the world, Muhammad Bedar Bakht.

A^. (5300). A\. (I.M. No. 2499, B.M. 1209).

AKBAR ir
The following is given by the author of the Mnlchtcmr sn- Gulshdn-i-Hind as ji

couplet of Akbar II.

sli j^S\ J.*2£* ^J.1 1^-^^
Struck coin in the world by the divine favour
The defender of the faith Muhammad Akbar Sbah.
This couplet seems to appear on a coin, No. 3277, in the Lahore Museum, but the
date 1203 makes it difficult to assign. Cf. note in P. M. C. p. 430.
LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES USED ON
THE COINS

Jax!1 ijI Father of justice.

Father of victory.
yyi y\
^la.11 yl Father of the victorious one.

jUifi (Jj;^^ y*^ liV.J^^ J^. ^0 )
Ahu Bakr, the fiuthful witness ;
'Umr, the
... \i 1 . 1 1 discriminator between right and wrong:
(J, ^ L5 u-^J Jf^
'Usraan, the father of two liglits ; 'All, the
pleasing to God. The names of the four
orthodox khalifas and their epithets, used as
a foi-mula on the coins of Babur, Humayfiu
and the early coins of Akbai'.

^^\ ^^lslil ^e.'3\ ^jlkl--!l The most great Sultan, the illustrious

emperor.

bJ^a. Js. ^1 <c]l God is most great, glorified be his glory.
The formula employed by Akbar on his IlahT
coins ; it also has the secondai-y meaning
'
Akbar is X4od '.

^-vi»jll j^\ Commander of the faithful.

sli<^l) Suzerain king. Indian form of the Persian

,
,jli .»c Jj.c J JC) ^1 J-V--aJ. By the truth of Abu Bakr, and the justice
'Umr; by the modesty of Usmun and the
^ C^ 5 u'
of
wisdom of 'All. A variant of the formula
cited above; and used on the coins of Sliali
Jahan, Murad Bakhsh and Shrdi Shuja'.
Akbar also uses this fornnila, but substitutes
(^jLs.-^. 'by the modesty' for -.J^.-

iAb Town {2'1 i%).

ip.U ijl> The sumptuous town. Ei)ithet of Burhiiniiur.
c .2
36 LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES
ciJ^l^ ^Ai( Blessed port. Epithet of Suiat.

5-Jv^) Sluiiie. Epithet of Hardwar.

->^-=" l\rajesty. Epithet of Delili.

jLd 6::^s=^ Of fortunate foundation. Epithet of Aurangabad.

Ja.^ I )i8trict.

d.L:-* ^^ IJlesscd district. Epithet of Jaunpur.

:laU ^ i,\L ll«J <ijjl aL* ^fay God Most High perpetuate the kingdom and
sovereignty.

^^U^l .Ij The seat of safety. Epithet of Agra and Multan.

:>^AS .b The seat of the lioly wax*. Epithet of Haidarahad.

i.s!^il
5.9- ^b The seat of the khalifate. The capital. Applied
to Slifdijahanabad and many other places.

jM. ,b The seat of welfare. E]>ithet of Ajmer.

The seat of delight. Epithet of Burhrmpur and
jv-'^ y
Sahai*anj)ur.

^\J\ .b The seat of peace. Epithet of Dogaon.

iU-laluJl ,lji The seat of sovereignty. Epithet of Labor, &c.

L_j..aJl .b The seat of the mint. Ejiithet of KrdpT, &c.

joiaW .b The seat of victory. E^Dithet of Bljapur.

JaJI .b The seat of justice. Epithet of Agra.

•;A11 b The seat of conquest. Epithet of Ujjain.

,_^»UJ1 ,b The seat of the fulus. Epithet of Muhanimadabad.

dllil jb The .'^eat of the kingdom. The cajjital. Epithet
of Dehll and Kabul.

.^^iX\ ,b The seat of the victorious one. Ej)ithet of .Jodli-
pur.

j!il.JI oJ^Jj The beauty of towns. Epithet of Ahmadabad.

j^Sj^ Government.

d)l^ ii.x-j Auspicious coin.

(_;jj>U c>JV;* u^j^ ^^-^ The year of the accession associated with pros-
perity.

{j\j^ Lit. = li, so 'better than most'. Epithet of
Jaipur.

O .k!!^-Jl s^-^ Lord of Sultans.
LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES 37

cij/ >_*rvLj 'Lord of tlie (fortunate) planetary conjunctions',
i.e. of the conjunction of Venus and Jupiter. A title
assumed by Taimilr. 8hah Jaban called himself
(JU ^j u_o.U ' the f^econd lord of the conjunctions
oil his coins. Tlie title Sahib-i Qiran in its alterna-
tive forms Sfihib-i Qiran, Sahib-i Qiran SanI, SanI
Sabib-i Qiran and Srdiib-i QiranT is found on the
coins of Shrdi Jaban, Shrdi Shuja', Murad Bakligli,
Shrdi 'Alam Bahadur, Jabandar Shah, Shah Jaban 11,
Muhammad Shrdi, 'AlamgTr II, Sh"ih 'Alam II,
Akbar II. On a Tatta rupee of the 1st year
Farrukhsiyar calls liimself ^\js ,_.,^La i^'J '
the
third lord of the conjunctions '. For this formula
cf. P.M.C. Appendix C, pp. 436, 437, and
Dr. Taylor's paper in ./.J., 9. /i. Num. Suppl. XIV,
§8G.

v^ Province.

Ljy-i Struck.

(j?;lc Fighter of infidels, cp. '
defender of the f.iitb '.

.sl-jj sjj:i»^9 Of fortunate foundation. Epithet of Haidarabad.
5...^'9 Town.

&
^Ij
District.

Fort.

tS^ j.b::.^ The abode of the kbalifate. Epithet of Akbarabad
and Ajmer.

i^[\ J.r:j^j> The abode of the kingdom. The capital. Epithet
of Akbarrd^ad and AzTmabad.

^jjjl
J
L-jaJI ^Ij Defender of the world and of the faith.
LIST OF DENOMINATIONAL AND OTHER SPECIAL
TERMS USED IN CONNEXION WITH
MUGHAL NUMISMATICS
Aban, see Months.
Amardad, see Months.
Ardibihisht,see Months.

Azar, Months.
see
Bahman, see Months.
Bait = couplet. Persiau couplets are employed by nearly all the Mui^li al
emperors on their coins. Cf. List of Persian Couplets.

Dam. A large thick copper coin first employed by Sher Shah Sur, and
continued by Akbar. Jahangli-, and in some instances by later emperors,
cf. N.S. XXVIII, § 175, esp. Note on p. 65. The A'ln-i Akburl gives
the weight of the dam as 1 tolah 8 mashas 7 ratis, and this, taking the
masha = 15'5 grains, gives the standard weight as 323-5 grains. The
same work gives the ratio of 40 danjs = 1 rupee. Mr. S. H. Hodivrda
in the article quoted above has shown that during the early years of
Aurangzeb's reign, owing to a rise in the price of copper, the weight
of the dam was reduced to 14 mashas = 217 grains in certain mints,
but this reduction was not uniformally observed. The name '
dam
occurs only once on a IMughal coin, Akbar's nlm dam of .Srlnagar.
Cf. P.3LC., No. 706.
Damra. Occurs only on certain mintless copper coins of Akbar of the regnal
year 33 = |: dam : so it is e(|ual to the '
Paulah ' of Abu-1-Fazl.

Damri = So given by Abu-1-Fazl, and the name occurs on mintless
^th dam.
coins of that value of the 33rd year.
Darb =
half a jalrda (q.v.). The term occurs on some Sitpur Ilahi rupees
of Akbar its meaning
; there is obscure.
Di. See Months.
Dinar. (Derived from denarius aureus.) The general term for the gold coins

of Arabian and JVIuhammadan Asiatic currencies : weight 67 grains. The
term '
dinar-i jalali ' occurs on a gold coin of Agra of Akbar's 50tli year.
Cf. Couplet No. 2 in List of Couplets.
Dirham. The thin silver pieces of the Arabian
(From Greek drachma.)
and Central Asian Muhammadan dynasties this standard was employed :

by Eabur, Humayun, and veiy rarely by Akbar in his earliest years.
Weight of dirham 47 grains.
Dirham In the light of Mr. 8. H. Hodivalrrs article in the
Shar'i.
N. XXVIII, § 171, p. 45, Mr. Whitehead's explanation of this coin in
8.

P. M. C. Appendix C, p. 437, must, I think, now be rejected. Mr. Hodivala
SPECIAL TERMS •
39

has sliowu fairly conclusively that these coins were issued by Aurangzeh
and Farrukhslyur for use in payment of the Jizya or Poll Tax.
Weight about 44 grains.
These coins are usually square, bearing the name Cyl ^.j on one side

and the name of the mint on the other. One is known of Fiirrukhsiyar'.s
reign [P.M.C, No. 2271). Tlie lullowing mints are kn(jwn to have
struck these coins — Agra, llahfibrul, Patna, Shahjahanriljail, Katak, Lfilior,

Multan.
Farwardin. See Months.
Fulus = copper money
'
',
pluial of Arabic '
fals ' : occurs often in the
combination ^wjli y^^ on the copper coins of most emperors. After
the reign of Jahanglr there is great variation in the weight of copper
coins, probably in accordance with local conditions and demand.
Hijri. The Muhammadan era, dating fiom the migration of the Prophet irom
Mecca in A. D. 622. This era is used on the majority of Mughal coins.
Ilahl =
The Divine, an era invented by Akbar, and starting from 27th
Rabi'u-s-sani in the first year of his reign. It was rtgularly employeil

on his coins after the 36th year, and coins are known dated 30 R. It
was computed according to solar reckoning, and along with it were
used the names of the old Persian months. JahangTr, Slifdi Jalian, and
Muiad Bakhsh also sometimes employ the Ilahl era for their regnal years,
often along with the hijrl date; cf. I.M.C.. Apjtendix D, p. 355, and
N. S. XVI, § 100, p. 705.
Imam. The four Imams were the four orthodox khalifas, Abu Bakr, 'Umr,
'Usman, and All. Their names with their epithets occur on the obverse
of coins of Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Shah Jahan I, Murad Bakhsh, Shah
Shuja , and on one of Alamglr II.
Jalala. The Ilahl square rupee of Akbar, so called from the formula
inscribed upon it.

Kaliiaa. The Muhammadan profession of iaith :

'
There is no god but God : Muhammad is the prophet of God.'
The Kalima is used on the coins of Babur, Humayun, Shah Jahan I,

Murad Bakhsh, Shah Shuja', and on some of Akbar, Jahangir, and
Alamglr II.

Khair qabul. Lit. = '
may these alms be accepted.' A small silver coin
minted only by JahangTr, generally mintless, but one or two pieces of
Labor mint are known, and one of Ahmadabad. It is mentioned in the
Tuzuk-i Jahdngirl (Rogers and Beveridge Trans., vol. I, p. 11) among the
silver coins.

Khalifa. See Imam.
Khurdad. See Months.
Laqab. A '
surname ' or '
title ', such as those adopted by the Mughal
emperors, i.e. Jalalu-d-dln = 'Glory of the faith', by Akbar.
Mihr. See Months.
40 SPECIAL TERMS
Months. For bis IlaliT era Akbar employed the names of the months used
hy the old Persians in their solar ytar, i.e.

1. Farwaidin 5. Aiuardad 9. Azar
2. ArdThihisht G. Sliahiewar 10. Dl
3. Khurdrid 7. ?ilihr 11. Bahman
4 Tlr 8. Al)rin 12. Isfandarmuz

These nanies appear on the coins of Akhar, Jahfinglr, Mnrad Eakhsh, and
some of Shrdi Jahan 1.
Muhr or Ashrafi'. The ordinary term for the yold eoin introduced by
Akbar, and weighing- ordinarily 170 grains. 8onie of Akbar's square
issues rise to 187 grains, and Jahanglr's muhrs during the first five years

of his reign vary between 202-211 grains. All other emperors conform

to the 170-grain standard. The word ..^.* occurs in many of the couplets.
Cf. List of Couplets.

Nini ra'ij = half a ra'ij, q.v.
Nisar. Small coins in gold and silver (one or two broad thin pieces of
Shah .Jahan I of the mints Shrdijahanabad and Akbarabiid are known) used
as largesse money. Jahangir in the Tuzuk-i Jahdngiri gives the nisar as
being equal to a quarter of a rupee, and the commonest specimens are
of that value, but others are half the value of a rupee (the broad thin
pieces),and others only one-eighth. They are known of the emperors
Jahangir, Shah Jahan I, Aurangzeb, Jahandar, and Fariukhsiyar and ;

from the following mints Itawa, Ajmer, Ahmadabad, Ahmadnagar,
:

Urdu Zafar Qarin, Akbarabad, Akbarnagar, Agra, Burhanpur, Patna,
Chlnapattan, DaulatFibad, Shrdijahrmabad, Kabul, Ka.shmir, Lfdior.
Nisfi. Peisian = '
half = -| dam occurs on a rare mintless copper coin of
Akbar.
Nur Afshan = ' light scattering': the name is probably derived from
Jahanglr's laqah Nuru-d-dln. They are small silver pieces equal to
-g^^th rupee in value, and are known from the Ajmer, Agra, and Lahoi-
mints. They were apparently used as largesse money.
Nur Jahani = '
light of the world '. Jahanglr's name for a gold coin one tola
in weight : occurs on a coin of Mandu. See List of Couplets, No, 50.
Ra'ij (^'i) = current. Occurs on copper coins of Jahangir equal to a quarter

of a dfim — ulm ralj occurs on his copper coins of half the weight of a lalj.

Rawani = '
current '. Occurs on copper coins of Jahangir equal in weight to
a dam (323-5 grains).
Rupee or Rupiya. The general term for the silver coin of 180 grains
instituted by Sher Shah, and continued by all Mughal emperors. Jahangir,
however, during the first few years of his leign issued heavy rupees of
220 grains, but soon returned to the original standard. Shah 'Alam
Bahadur also in the first year of liis reign issued an order that the
aslirafi and the lupee should be made equal in weight to a tola, and

theie are a few rupees in the British Museum of Patna mint weighing
184 and 185 grains. This experiment was also unsuccessful and soon
SPECIAL TERMS 41

relinquislied ; cf. N. S. XX^'1I1, § 176, p. 67. Tlie word v^j. occurs on
the coinage only once, on a coin of Akhar of A^ra mint 47 k. Kliuidad
in the Bodleian collection (Cat., No. 683) ; cf. /-". ^f. C'., ]>]. x\, iv.
Shahrewar. See Months.
Sikka = 'stanijj' in the lormula djU-e iS^ ocenrs on :i large nuniher of
silver and gold coins from the leign of SliTih 'Alain I'ahridur. For the
combination sikka fulus, see Fulus.
Tanka. A denomination employed hy Akhar in his llahl eojiper c(;inage

after the 40th year. The coinage consisted of the full tankfi with its
half, quarter, eighth, and sixteenth parts. The full tanka was double
the weight of the dam,
i.e. about 640 grains. Cf, N. S. ?vXVHI, § 181,
The ^luradl Tanka', by S. H. Hodivrda.
'

Tanki. At the end of Akbar's reign pieces (jf four, two, and one tanki or
tank! were issued from the Ahmadabad, Agra, Kabul, and Labor mints.
Mr. S. H. Hodivala in N. S. XXVII, § 169, has shown that the tanki
was equal to |tli of a dam or i^g*''
"^ '^ tanka, weight about 64 grains.
Tir. See Months.
DETAILED LIST OF MINTS
KEPRESENTED

ITAWA
MINTS 43

AJMER
.A.^.^^1

Mtistaqirru-l-khilafat.
44 MINTS
Balded occur.s as epithet on some of Shah Jahiln's earliest coins.
Ddra-l-fidli occurs for the first time in Aurano-/.el)'s reign, and with
tlie exception noted above continues throughout tlie reigns of all
succeeding emperors on gold and silver.
The form Ujjainpur occurs on certain small square local copper
coins of Akbar (cf. No, 804). Mr. Hodivala has recently shown that
Akbar's dams hitherto attril)uted to Khairpur are leally coins of
Ujjainpur.

AH SAN ABA D. See GULBARGA

AHMADABAD

JJdru-l-khildfat, JJaru-s-salkinat, Zluatii-l-hildd.

Lat. 23° 1' Long. 72° 38'

G. S. C.
Alsbar 5 153 24
Jahanglr — 74 3
JaliJinglr and Nur Jalian — 5 —
Shah Jahan 3 34 2
]\Iurad Bakhsh — 3 —
Aurangzeb — 18 —
•A'zam Shrdi — 1 —
Shrdi 'Alam bahadur — 1 —
Jahandai- — 1 —
Fairukhsiyav — 4 ~ —
^hilurnmad Shah — 6 —
Shah Jahan III — 2 —
Sliah 'Alam II _ i i

bedar Bakht 1
— —
The epithet Ddru-l-khtldfat occurs in some silver and gold coins of
the year 980 A. H. From 981 till 1000 a. n. DdrU'S-saltancd appears
on all three metals, and also on rupees of 3/ and 38 k. Ziiiatu-l-
hildd occurs on the coins of Rafi'u-d-darjat.
Certain rupees of 981 a.h. No. 7Q7) with the legend Ddru-s-
(cf.

aalto.nat Shuhr-i Miiazzarti are probably from this mint. Cf. P. M. C,
p. xxxiv. For the coins of Ahmadabad, see Dr. Taylor's paper in the
Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. XX,
and Akbar's Copper Coins of Ahmadabad N.S. IV.
'
',
MINTS 45

AHMADNAGAR
46 MINTS
*

ISLAMABAD

Lat.220 21' Long. 91° 52'
G. S.
Auraugzeb — 1

Fariukhsiyar — 2
Muhammad Slifib — 6
Ahmad 8hah Bahadur 1 —
'Alamglr II 1 -r—

Shah 'Alam II — 3

ASAFABAD BARELI. See BARELI

ASAFNAGAR

(Locality doubtful)

G. S. C.
Shah 'Alain II — . 1 —

A'ZAMNAGAR GOKAK. See GOKAK

AKBARABAD. See AGRA

AKBARPUR

(Locality doubtful)

G. S. C.
Akbar — — 2
MINTS 47

AKBARPUR TAXDA

Ddru-l-khilafat

I.at. 20° 2o' Loiiir. 82° 34'

(i. 8. C.
Akbiir — 3 4

Ddru-l-khildfat occurs only on the copper pieces.

AKBARNAGAR (RAJMAHAL)

Lat. 25° 2' Long. 82° 34'
G. S. C.
Akbar — 1 —
Jahanglr — 30 —
•TahiingTr and Nfir Jalian — 1 —
Shall Jahan — 49 —
;
Shall Sliuja — 2 —
Aui'angzeh — 48 —
Shall Alam Bahadur — 3 —
Jahaiidrir — 1 —
Farrukhsiyar — 2 —
Muhammad Shah — 3 —
For tlie attribution of Shah Shuja".s coin to this mint, see N. S. XX,
§ 116.

AGRA AKBARABAD

Daru-l- kh ilCifa t, Ddru-:.-zarh QH'a, DdrvA-khildfat, M ustaqir ru-l -JchilOjat,

Dd)'n-l-'adl, Ddrii-l-dmdn, Baldat.

Lat. 27° 10'

G.
Bfibiir —
Huniayun —
Akhar 1

Jahanglr 1

Jahanglr and Nur Jahan — 3 —
Shah Jnhfai (Agra) 1 1 (Agra) —

17
1

7 (Akharabad) 43 (Akbarabad) 3 (Akbarabad)
Aurangzel)
Shah 'Alam Bahadur
Jahaudfir
Farruklisiyar
13
1

2
58

14




48 MINTS
MINTS 49
50 MINTS

ORCHHA

Lat. 25° 21' Long. 78° 38'
G. S. C.
Rhah "Alam II _ 13 _

AURANGABAD KHUJISTA BUNYAD

Lat. 19° 54' Long. 75° 22'

Aiyangzeb

Shah 'Alam Bahadur
Jahrmdar
Farrukhsiyar
j\ruh;uniriad Shah
1
12
G.
2 (Auraiigabacl)
1

3
4
(Khujista liunyad)
S.

7 (Auraiigabad)


3 (Khujista

1

1
Bunyad)
C.






1 (A^^l•angabad)

From 1100 a.h. the form Khujista Bunyacl 'of auspicious founda-
tion '
takes the place of Aurangabacl, though tlie earlier form is found

on a mulir (No. 3772 a) of Muhammad Shah.

AUKANGNAGAR
MINTS 51

BALAPtJR

Lat. 20° 40' Long. 76° 50'
G. S.

Akbar 1 —

BALANAGAR GADHA

Lat. 23° 10' Long. 79° 56'

G. S.

Shah 'Alam II _ 2

BARAR

G.
Akbai-
Jahanglr 1 —

BRAJINDRAPUR. See MAHINDRAPUR

BURHANPUR

Balclat, BaldaL Fakhira, Ddrii-s-saru.; Daru-s-saltanat
Lat. 21° 18' Long. 76°

Akbar
Jahanglr
Shah Jahau
Aurangzeb
Shah 'Alam Bahadur
JahSndar
Farrukhsiyar
Muhammad Shah
Shah 'AL-vm II
52 MINTS
Baldat occurs on the silver nisars of Shah Jahau it may also
:

occur on Nos. 360, 361, Ilahi rupees of Akbar. See note to No. 360.
Baldat Fdkkirci, the sumptuous town occurs on the first silver
'
',

issue of Aurangzeb, cf. P.M.C., No. 1617.
Ddru-s-sardr occurs first on the coins of Shah 'Alam Bahadur,
silver and gold, and continues to the end of the series.
Ddru-s-saltanat occurs on a mulir of Jaliandar, cf. N.S. VI, p. 264.
MINTS 53

BANARAS
54 MINTS

BAHRAICH

Ddru-l-khildfat

Lat. 27' 34' Long. 81° 36'
G. 8. 0.
Akbar — — 11

BHAKKAR BAKKAR
MINTS 55

BiJAPUR

Ddru-z-zafar
Lat. 1(;° -19' Long. 75° 4G'
G. 8. C.
Aurangzeb 3 14 —
From 23 K.-30 R. of Aurang-zel/s reign the mint name appears
without epithet. Tlienceforward Ddru-z-zafar always appears.

BAIRATA

Lat. 27° 42 Long. 76° 23'
"

G. S. C.
Akbar — — 14
Jahanglr — — 10
Shah Jahau — — 8
Aixrano'zeb * — — 2

BiKANER

Baldat

Lat. 28° Long. 73° 18'
G. S,

'Alamglr II — 1

PANIPAT

Qasha.

Lat. 29° 23' Long. 77° 2'

Shah 'AUim II —2
G. S.
56 MINTS

PATTAN
o\^. *
MINTS 57

PURBANDAR

Lat. 21° 37' Long. 69° 48'

G. S. C.

Farrukhsiyar — — 1 ?

Mr. S. H. Hodivala in N. S. XXXI, § 196, x, luis su^^ested Parenda
as a readino- for this mint.

PUNA
y
Muhlahdd
Lat. 18° 31' LoDg. 73° 51'

G. S. C.

.

Shah'Alamll _ 2

See N. S. XXXI, § 196, ix, l.y S. H. Hodivala.

PESHAWAR

Lat. 34° Long. 71° 38'

G. S.

Shah 'Alani Bahadur — 1

Muhammad 8hah -^ 1

Ahmad Shah Bahadur — —

TATTA

Lat. 24° 44' Loug. 68°

G. S. C.
Akbar — 75 —
Jahanglr — 68
Shah Jahan — 55 —
Aurangzeb — 32
Farrukhsiyar — 2

]\ruliammad Shah — — 1
58 MINTS

TORAGAL

Lat. 15° 57' Long. 75° 17'
G. S. C.
Aurangzeb — 2 —
Shah 'Ahim Bahadur _ i _
JALNAPUR

Lat. 19° 51' Long. 75° 51'

G. S. C.
Jahanglr
"^
— 5 —
JAMMUN

Ddru-l-aiaan
Lat. S2° 44' Long. 74° 55'
G. S. C.
Shah 'Alam II — .2 —
JODHPUR

Ddru-l-mansur
Lat. 26° 19' Long. 73° 8'

G. S. 0.
'Alamglr II — 1 — '

Shah 'Alam II _ i _
JAUNPUR

Ddru-z-zarh Khita mufabarak, Ddru-l-khilafat

Lat. 25° 44' Long. 82° 44'
G. S. C.
Humayun — '

— 7
Akbar 3 23 5

Darii-z-zarh Khita mutabarak occurs on the copper coins of
Humayun.
Ddru-l-khildfat appears on Akbar's rupees 972-985 A. H. and on
some dams^one of 987 witli a complete date is in the Lahore Museum.
MINTS 59

JUNAGARH JUNAGADH
60 MINTS
CHHACHRAULI

Lat. 30° 15' Long. 77° 25'
G. S. C.
Shrih 'Alam II _ — 2

CHlTOR

Lat. 24° 53' Long. 74° 39'
G. S. C.
Akbai- — — 4

CHiNAPATTAN (Madras)

Lat. 13° Long. 80° 15'
G. S. C.
Aurangzeb — 3 —
Shah 'Alam Bahadur — 8 —
Farrukhsiyar — 2 —
Muhammad Shah — 2 —

HASANABAD

G. s. a
Shah 'Alam II _ i _

HISAR

Flroza
Lat, 29° 10' Long. 75° 44'
G. S. C.
Akbar — 5 (Hisar Flroza) 2 (Hisar Firoza)

Hisar without epithfet appears only on the Ilahi dams of Akbar.
MINTS 61

HAIDARABAD

Ddru-l-jihdd Farkhunda Bunyad
Lat. 17° 22' Long. 78° 27'

Aurangzeb
Shah 'Alam Bahfidur
16
G.


8.

1
C.


1

Ddru-l-jihdd occurs on gold and silver coins from 1099 A..H. till

the reiy:n of Shah 'Alam Bahadur. At some time in tliis reiji-n the
epithet was changed to Farkhanda Bunyad. The copper coins are
without epithet.

KHUJISTA-BUNYAD. See AURANGABAD

KHAIRABAD

Lat. 27° 32' Long. 80° 46'
G. S. C.
Akbar — — 5

DOGAON

Ddru-l-khildfat Ddru-s-saldm

Lat. 27° 40' Long. 81° 35'
a s. c.
Akbar — — 39

The epithet Ddru-l-khildfat becomes Ddrii-s-saldm in 986 a.h.
It is possible that coins Nos. 1163-1166 belong to this mint: if so,

they give the form Dokon ^jy>,:>, for which and for the coins of the

Mint see Colonel Yost's article in J.A.^.B. 1895. The tanka pieces
and subse([uent coins bear no epithet.
62 MINTS

DAULATABAD
(j^^\^*o oU^^o
J,.

Ddru - 1- kh ildfa t

Lat. 19° 57' Long. 75° 13'
G. S.

Shah Jahaii 13 —
The form jIjUjj occurs on the earliest coins of Shah Jahan, cf.
No. 2127. The epithet DdrvA-Udldfat occurs on a few rupees of
Shah 'Alani II others of this emperor are witliout any epithet.
;
MINTS 63

Copper coins of Dclili are known us late as Shall Jahan's twelfth
retmal year, and rupees of the year 1049. Sljahjahanabad coins begin
apparently from 1058, and in 1069 A. h. appears the epithet Ddru-l-
kkildfut, which is associated with this mint on silver and gohl coins
to the end of the series. Copper coins are all without epithet.

DEOGARH

G. S. C.
SMh'Alamll — 10 —

RAVI SHN AGAR SAGAR (Sangor)

La^ 23° 51' Long. 78° 45'
G. S. C.
Shall 'Alam II _ 9 _

ROHTAS

Lat. 32° 55' Long. 73° 48'
G. S. C.
Jaliancir — 2 —

SRINAGAR (Garhwal)

Lat. 30° 13' Long. 78° 46'
G. S. C.
Shall 'Alam II — 2 —
For Srhiagar (Kashmir) see Kashmir.

S'ADNAGAR (Akloj)

»Mt>JUo
Lat. 17° 53' Long. 75° 4'

G. S.

Farrukhsiyar 1

64 MINTS
SlIRAT

Bandar-i-miibdrak
Lat. 31° 12' Long. 72° 50'
MINTS 65

SiTPUB

Lat. 29°10' Long. 70° oO'
G. S.
Akbar — 4

SHOLAPUR

Lat. 17° 40' Long. 75° 54'
G. S.
Aurangzeb 1 12

SHERGARH

Lat. 24° 49' Long. 83° 4G'
G, S.
Akbar — 3

ZAFARABAD

Lat. 17° 55' Long. 77° 32'
G. S.
Shah Jahan — 1

Aurangzeb ^ 8

ZAFAKPtJR

G. S.
Aurangzeb 1

ZAFARNAGAR
^Ki^iij
G. C.
Jahi"mgir

This mint has been identities with Jafarabad in the Anrang-abad
districtby Mr. S. H. Hodivahl.
2269.1
^ E
66 MINTS
'ALAMGIRPUR

Lat. 15° 31' Long. 78° 11'
G. S. C.
Auranezeb — 18 —

'AZiMABAD. See PATNA

FATHPUR

I) a ru- s- saltanat

Lat. 27° 5' Long. 77° 40'
G. S. C.
Akbar 2 10 9
JahangTr 1 '?
. — —
Theepithet JJdru-s- saltanat occurs on gold coins of Akbar after
986,and on silver and copper coins from 985 a. h. There is a quarter
rupee of 987 in the Bodleian Collection without the epithet. After
Akbar's reign the epithet is dropped, but reappears on the unique
rupee of Shall Jahan in the Lahore Museum.
MINTS 67

QAMARNAGAR (Karnul)

Lat. 15° 50' Long. 78° 4'
G. S. C.
Aurangzeb — 1 —

QANDAHAR

Lat. 31° 37' Long. 65° 43'
G. S. C.
Jahanglr — 58 —
Shah Jahan — 22 —

QANAUJ
68 MINTS
KALPI

Ddru-^-zarh Muhamiuaddhad. Ddru-z-zarb Khjta. Ddru-z-:,arb

Lat. 26° 8' Long. 79° 45'
G. S. C.
Akbar — 3 13

On the copper issues 963-964 Ddiu-z-zarh Muhammaddhdd : from
964-969 Khita is substituted for Muhammaddldd. A dam of 973>
No. 103.2, appears to liave Ddru-z-zarh alone.

KATAK (Cuttaek)

Lat. 20° 29' Long. 85° 52'
G. S. C.
Akbar — 1 —
Shah Jahan — 5 —
Aurangzeb — 8 —
Ahmad Shah Bahadur — 11 —
MINTS 69

KORA
70 MINTS
GADRAULA
jJ^^cS^
Lat. 28° 50' Long. 78° IG'
G. S. C.
Akbar — 1

GULBARGA AHSANABAD
aJ^lf
Lat. 17° 18' Long. 76° 54'
G. S. C.
Aurangzeb 1 (Gulbarga) j
4 (Gulbarga)
1 1 (Ahsanabacl)

Gulbarga appears on coins of Aurangzeb up to 1115, also on Kam
Bakhsh'scoins, and possibly on a mulir of Jahandar, /. M. C, No, 1710.
Kam Bakhsh also uses the name Ahsanabad.

GULKANDA (Golconda)

Lat. 17° 23'
MINTS 71

GOBINDPUR
^
Lat. 23° 38' Long. 86° 9'

G. S.
Akbar

GORAKPUR MU'AZZAMABAD

DarvA-hhildfat
Lat. 26° 44' Long. 83° 23'
G. S. C.
Akbar — — 2 (Gorakpur)
Farrukhsiyar — 1 (Mu'azzamabad) —
The coins of Mu'azzanial:)ad begin with some rare rupees of
Aurangzeb. Ddru-l-hJdldfdt appears on the earlier fuliis type of
Akbar.

GOKAK A'ZAMNAGAR (Belgauni)

^\Syf
Lat. 15° 51' Long. 74° 31'
G. S. C.

Aurangzeb 1 (A'zamnagar) —
Kam Bakhsh 1 (Goka^) —
Shuh 'Alam Bahadur 1 (A'zamnagar) —
Farrukhsiyar 1 (A'zamnagar Gokak)

For this mint see N. S. XXVIII, § 179, by S. H. Hodivahi. who is

responsible for deciphering the name Gokak. See also N. S. XXX,
§193.

GOKULGARH

Lat 28° 12' Long. 76° 40'
G. S.

Shah 'Alam 11 — 12
72 MINTS
GOHUD
O^S
Lat. 26° 2G' Long. 78° 27'
G. S.
Shall 'Alam II — 1

LAHOR

Ddru-l-Mi ildjat.
MINTS 73

a. S. C.
Shah 'AUim Bahadur — 7 —
Jahandiir — 1 —
Farrukhsiyar — 9 —
liafl'u-d-daijat — 1 —
Shah Jahan II — 1 —
Muhammad Shall — 3 -

Ddrii-l-kldldfat occurs first on a dam ot" 975, and with the exception
of one dam of 981 in the collection of Mr. H. Nelson Wri<;ht all

subsequent (^ams l^ear this epithet. 8arl-dr appears on a dam of 967,
and Khlta on a dam of 963. The silver and gold coins of this mint
are without epithet. For an account of the coins of this mint see
N. S. XX.V, § 151.

-
LAHRi BANDAR

Lat. 24° 32' Long. 67° 24'
G. S.

Akbar — 1

MALPUR

Ddric-l-khildfat

Lat. 23° 21' Long. 73° 28'
^G. S. C.
Akbai _ _ 3

The honoritic title appears only on one gold and one sil\er coin of

early type.

M ACHHLi PATTAN (M ASULIPATAM)
(jsAJ
74 MINTS
MUHAMMADABAD i

Ddru-l-fidils

G.
Shah 'Alain II

MUHAMMADNAGAR TANDA ^

V(J.'A'S S^(J^4SXrO

Sliah 'Alam II

MAKHStJSABAD. See MUESHIDABAD

MURADABAD
MINTS 75

MUSTAFA-ABAl) (Rampur)

Lat. 30° 12' Long. IT'' 12'

G. S. C.
Shah 'Alam II _ 4 —

MUZAFFARGARH

Lat. 30° 4' Long. 71° 14'
G. S. C.
Shah 'Alam II — 8 —

MU'AZZAMABAD, See GORAKPUR

MULTAN

Ddru-l-dma,ii

Lat. 30° 12' Long. 71° 30'
G.
76 MINTS
MUMBAI (Bombay)

Lat. 18° 55' Long. 12" 54'
G. S. C.
Muhanimad — 1 —
Miiinbai coins were struck by tlie East India Company in the
names of the Mu gh al emperors.

MANUU MANDU

Lat. 22° 21' Long. 75° 26j
G. 's. C.
Humayun — — 2

The form jjoL occurs on a uni(iue rupee of Jahangir : see list of
Couplets, No. 51.

MUMINABAD. See BINDRABAN

MAHINDRAPUR BRAJ INDRAPtJR (Bharatpiir)

Lat. 27° 13' Long. 77° 30'
G. S. C.
Ahmail Shah Bahadur — 1 —
'Alamglr II ' — 1 —
8hrdi Jahan III — 2 —
8hrdi 'Alani II — (13 —
1 1 (Braj Indrapur)

j^A^f^ is the spellino- found only on rupees of Ahmad Shah
Baliadur. Braj Indrapur is the form on the latest coins of Shah
'Alam II. Bharatpur is also found on copper coins of Shah 'Alam II.

MiRTHA
20^-0
Lat. 29° 1' Long. 77° 43'
G. S. C.
Akbar — — 1
MINTS
78 MINTS

NASRULLANAGAR

G. S.
Shrdi 'Alam II _ 6

NUSRATABAD

Lat. 16° 35' Long. 76° 51'
G. 8. C.
Auraugzeb — 1 —

HATHRAS

Lat. 27° 36' Long. 78° 4'

G. S. C.
Sluih 'Alam II _ 2 —
A NOTE ON ORNAMENTS
Following Mr. H. Nelson Wright in his Catalogue of the Mughal
Coins ill the Indian Museum these marks on Mughal coins have been

ch11(m1 ornaments, Ijut they are to be distino-uished from any devices

whicli form part of the general ornamental designs which appear on
many coins. What the exact purpose of these special marks was has
not yet been determined, but tliat the changes in these marks had
some special significance in connexion with the mint seems obvious,
and we have one piece of evidence showing what in Shah 'Alam's
reiii'n in the Bareli mint tlie significance of some of these marks was.

In Mr. Thurston's article in the J. A.S. B., 1893, Note on the History
'

of the East India Company Coinage ', p. 66, occurs this passage :
'
It

appears from a report by Mr. Seton that the system of farming the
Baraili mint was abolished in 1802. No alteration was introduced
into the standard of the rupee, except that, to mark the period at
which the change of system took place, the Persian letter ^ (the first
letter of the late Sutah Husain 'All Khan) was discontinued and ^ [w)
substituted in compliment to the Lieutenant-Governor (sic) cf. coins ' ;

Nos. 4643-4645.
Certain marks have long been recognized as relating to special
dynasties or communities. M 80, the ankus, for example, is a Marathi
mark.i M 268, M 102 show the control of the Nawab Wazh-s of
Awadh. Other marks were adopted by certain mints for long periods
irrespective of changes in the mint management, M 96, 97 for example
IjyShahjahanabad, M
81 by 'Azimabad. Another use of these marks
may have been to protect the coinage against forgery by continually
changing them. The East India Company we know employed private
marks for this purpose.^ But without wishing to over-emphasize .the
importance of these ornaments, it has seemed advisable to make the
accompanying list as complete as possible, for the use of the future
student, and also for the general help they give in deciphering-
defective coins.
Owing to the fact that Mughal die-cutters cut each die by hand
there exist numberless varieties of some mint marks ; in long series
of coins bearing the same mark this mark is very liable to degenerate

> Cf.N. S. XXII, § 125. The Post-Mughal Coin^of Ahmadabad.
2 Thurston, ibid., p. (52.
A NOTE ON ORNAMENTS 81

in form, for example, No.227 on the Muhammadabad Banaras series.
In preparing the plates typical marks have' as far as possible been
represented in each case. Sometimes it has been rather difficult to
decide whether two marks are distinct or merely variants of one form
;

in these cases all that is possible is to rely on one's own judgement.

Sometimes it may' have happened that an ornament as represented
in the plates is imperfect, where only ona or two coins exist on
which the ornament is represented, and where part of it has missed
the disk of the coin, but such cases it is hoped are few.
82

INDEX TO PLATES OF ORNAMENTS
Note. Numbers in thick f

pe indicate gold, those in italics silver, and those
in ordinary type copper coins.

Mint Mint
Coins Coins
Mark Mark
1. I.M. No. 10. 25. 850, 903.
9 63, 68, 82, 115, 117, 263, 26. 30,- 452, 531, 761, 876, 888,

453, 457, 469, 488, 529, 549, 1031, 1033, 1034, 1163, 1173,
763, 765, 806, 863, 1009, 1053, 3146, 4452, 4555, 4593, 4606,
1415, 1600, 1745, 1871, 2263, 4674, 4857, 4943, 5195, 5247,
2623, 2771. 27. 734, 776, 969, 3932 a, 4313,
9, 13, 16, 24, 27, 59, 84, 4707.
1872, 1906, 2010. 28. 928, 931, 936.
32. 29. 5202, 4610 c.
71, 86, 90, 111, 120, 262, 30. 547.
277, 283, 288, 293, 319, 365a, 31. 755, 771, 1029, 1069.
367, 466, 489. 552 a, 554, 557, 32 484, 545 a, 4554, 4559, 4565,
768, 769, 770, 785, 791, 794, 4616, 4632, 4712, 4804,
849, 857, 860, 904, 907, 919, 5086 b.
930, 935, 962,963,1030, 1032, 33. 902.
1043, 1048, 1070, 1074, 1080, 34. 3215, 4136, 5017, 5019.
1174, 2113. 35. 890, 1154, 1160, 1162, 4096,
74, 289. 4859, 5169.
6. 815. 36. 1294.
7. 62, 113, 805 37. 44, 48, 53, 55, 59, 2996, 3495,
8. I. M. No. 78. 4503, 4861, 4900.
9. I. ^I. No 84. 38. I. M. No. 674.

10. I. M. No. 85. 39. 3104.
11. 92, 562, 997. , 40. 67 a, 265, 266, 525, 527, 704,
12. 88 803 709, 750, 1005, 1182, 1281,
13. 64, 98, 122, 126, 778, 814, 1373, 1375, 1416.
1935, 4309, 4501, 4618, 4621, 41. 1299 h.
4699, 5167, 5168. 42. I.M. No. 685.
14. 779, 4643. 43. 1817, 1818, 2407, -2408,
15. I. M. No. 206. 2488, 3342, 4680.
16. 275. 44. 2118, 4549.
17. I. M. No. 288. 45. 740, 1450, 2283, 4307, 4392,
18. I. M. No. 291. 4405, 4471, 4604, 4839, 4842,
19. I. M. No. 506'. 4847, 4850, 4890, 5053, 5080,
20. 218. 5083, 5109.
21. 276, 757, 3371. 46. I.M. No. 1113.
22. 752. 47. 2396,2647, 2655,3343.
23. I. M. No. 333. 48. 2528, 2624, 2650,2656, 2958,
24. 29, 31, 295,475, 1085, 1121, 3459, 3462, 4094.
1143, 1170, 5276. 49. 2845, 2956, 3150, 5320.

* Mint-marks 1-149 are identical with the corresponding numbers in the Indian
Museum Catalogue, vol. iii.
INDEX TO PLATP:S OF ORNAMENTS 83

Mint
84 INDEX TO PLATES OF ORNAMENTS
Mint
INDEX TO PLATES OF ORNAMENTS 85

.A lint
86 PLATES OF ORNAMENTS

v>J^ ^ 6^
2a

*
3

X
^
18 19
10

A
^ 20
12

21
6
22
13

3
14

23
15

24
^ o^
25
16

26
17

27
9 -^ 28 29
••
30 31
«

32
• «>
33 34 35

O
36
&
37
4-
38 39 40
4^
41
n bR
44

X>
45
^y-
46 47
^ 48 49 50
t
52.
®
53

54 55
6
56 57 »

• ••
c •
• - •

58
Q
59 60 61 62
9 —

/ ^ >I4 4-
63 64 .. 65 66 67 G8 69 70 71

+ J-
c
3 V ^ ^i±L/
f
72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81
F 82 83
-*^
84
O f
85 86
II?

87
¥ 88
1
89

"4:
90
f
91
;•

92
.+.

93
^ 94 95
1^
96 97 98

nrrn

99 100
t C^101 102 103 104 105 106
f
107

{
108
n
u
109
^
110 111
91©

ii2 114 116
A
4-
>/
PLATES OF ORNAMENTS 87

117 118 119 121 122 123 124 12b

126
r '> ^
127 120 129 130
# ft. d

135 136 137
^
138 133 140 141
4:
142
^^
• " " •

144 145 146 147
^ 148
> a •

150

/ 15c

^,^. ^ 3€> ^ «<
153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161

^ e e
e •
%
162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170

(56 >
-
t
<
<^
172 173 174 175 176 177 179

-f & \XXJ ^ ^^ to;

180 183 184 185 166 lo8
^
2^ ^ /<h-^
•iL* ^
re

189 190 . 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

^ 198
/
199 200
:f:

202
I

^
201 203 204 20!; 206

^^: yi}
^ ')^~">J/-'^ Hi
207 208 209 210 211 213 214 ,

^^£V7 )-•
^^ 1& •A*
217 ?20 221 224
"1'

<#>
CJ ~t'

225 22G 227 2H0 231

^ u <:>
88 PLATES OF ORNAMENTS

234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242

(^
243
^^
244 245
• >e' -^ ^ Y
246 247 248 249 250 251

^-
252 253
t 254
^^
255
y
256
^ 257
y
258 259 260
o
f^ o
6
o
T !^ V-^
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269

+
270 272 273 274 275
>—<
276 277-
jk.

278

279
;(
280
^ 281 282 o^
^^^.-^•^
02:?

284 285
f #
287.

•*•
.-^ ¥ U5 [•
288 289 290 291 292 29i 294 295 296
^«^
R '^^
4.* -h.

298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305

^ t .p.
^ X
307 309

^
306 308 310 311 312 313 314

l^
315 316
t
317
iz
318 319 320
<i
321
J
322 323

n\^
324^ 325 326 327 328 329 330
^
331 332

e {^
333 334 335 336 337 338

n i T >
89

LIST OF PLATES
I. BABUE, HUM AY ON, AKBAR.
II. AKBAll.
III. AKBAR.
IV. AKBAR.
V. AKBAR, JAHANGIU.
VI. JAHANGlR.
VII. JAHANGlR, JAHANGTR with NOR J AH AN.
VIII. JAHANGlR, SHAH JAHAN.
IX. SHAH JAHAN.
X. SHAH JAHAN, MURAD BAKHSH, SHAH SHUJA'.
XL AURANGZEB.
XII. AURANGZEB.
XIII. AURANGZEB, A'ZAM SHAH, KAM BAKHSH, SHAH 'ALAM
BAHADUR.
XIV. SHAH 'ALAM, BAHADUR, JAHANDAR, FARRUKHSIYAR.
XV. FARRUKHSIYAR, RAFIU-D-DARJAT.
XVI. SHAH JAHAN II, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD
SHAH.
XVII. MUHAMMAD SJIAH, AHMAD SHAH.
XVIII. AHMAD SHAH, 'ALAMGlR II.
XIX SHAH JAHAN III, SHAH 'ALAM II.

XX. SHAH 'ALAM IL

XXI. SHAH 'ALAM IL

XXII. SHAH 'ALAM II, BEDAR BAKHT, AKBAR II, BAHADUR
SHAH.
PLATK I

'.
\
-^
\
\

"7

86

BABUR, HUIMAYUN, AKBAR
PLAT1-: IT

^^^bMk^^

AKRAR
PLATE III

709
j^oa

i!^
£ Q ll:iS.>^r

762

AKBAR
PLATK IV
PLATE V

/".

lO/O 07 1085
1
1165

r*-^ 't\

1170 ilfco

II9S
1
199

AKBAR—JAHANGlR
PLATK VI

1 2 ;0

1280 1279
i^t;i

1287
1306

^307
1309
1328

JAHANGiR
PLATE VII

,r.ie"-

1545 1539
1545

JAHANGIR, JAHANGIR WITH NUR jAHAX
PLATE VIII

1793 1794

Ion 1 01:;

.>n»

jta5k

p2^
^^^^^^^

1S31
1S6:
1869

JAHANGIR, SHAH JAHAN
PLATE IX

^^^i'

1942

2111

2141 a 2172
2234

^

2262

SHAH TAHAN
PLATE X

w*(0tii!^>

2456
=455 -457 •'
2452

SHAH JAHAN, !\IURAD BAKHSH, SHAH SHUIA-
PLATE XI

2458 ii

^.-^%v jOt

*?t^iii

AURANGZKH
platf: XII

3397

AURANCiZEB
PLATE XIII

3432 3433

347S
3492

AURAKGZEB, A'ZAM SHAH, KAM BAKHSH. SHAH 'ALAM BAHADUR
PLATE XIV

-. .j^^^ v^^ \

3499

^

5599 3f;04
3567"

SHAH 'ALAM BAHADUR, JAHANDAR, FARRUKHSIYAR
PLATE XV

3750

FARRUKIISIYAR, RAFrU-D-DARJAT
PLATK XVI

3914 3924 394S
3933

SHAH JAHAN II, MUHA:\LMAU IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD SHAH
PLATE XVII

4224 4236 4245 4297 4319

MUHAMMAD SHAH, AHMAD SHAH
PLATE XVIII

4476 4479

AHiMAD SHAH, 'ALAMGIR H
PLATE XIX

449S

4518 4562 a
4512 4534 (J
4559

SHAH JAHAN HI, SHAH 'ALAM II
PLATE XX

-###BOT_TEXT###gt;
;«^
;^ jd^JJ^^*^,
PLATE XXI

^i5.:ov

SHAH 'ALAM II
PLATE XXII

^V'' iiv

v^X
5244 5226 5244
5222

525^ 5296

5323 5323

SHAH 'ALAM II. BKDAR BAI^HT. AKRAR II. BAHADUR SHAH

Related Interests

pe indicate gold, those in italics silver, and those
in ordinary type copper coins.

Mint Mint
Coins Coins
Mark Mark
1. I.M. No. 10. 25. 850, 903.
9 63, 68, 82, 115, 117, 263, 26. 30,- 452, 531, 761, 876, 888,

453, 457, 469, 488, 529, 549, 1031, 1033, 1034, 1163, 1173,
763, 765, 806, 863, 1009, 1053, 3146, 4452, 4555, 4593, 4606,
1415, 1600, 1745, 1871, 2263, 4674, 4857, 4943, 5195, 5247,
2623, 2771. 27. 734, 776, 969, 3932 a, 4313,
9, 13, 16, 24, 27, 59, 84, 4707.
1872, 1906, 2010. 28. 928, 931, 936.
32. 29. 5202, 4610 c.
71, 86, 90, 111, 120, 262, 30. 547.
277, 283, 288, 293, 319, 365a, 31. 755, 771, 1029, 1069.
367, 466, 489. 552 a, 554, 557, 32 484, 545 a, 4554, 4559, 4565,
768, 769, 770, 785, 791, 794, 4616, 4632, 4712, 4804,
849, 857, 860, 904, 907, 919, 5086 b.
930, 935, 962,963,1030, 1032, 33. 902.
1043, 1048, 1070, 1074, 1080, 34. 3215, 4136, 5017, 5019.
1174, 2113. 35. 890, 1154, 1160, 1162, 4096,
74, 289. 4859, 5169.
6. 815. 36. 1294.
7. 62, 113, 805 37. 44, 48, 53, 55, 59, 2996, 3495,
8. I. M. No. 78. 4503, 4861, 4900.
9. I. ^I. No 84. 38. I. M. No. 674.

10. I. M. No. 85. 39. 3104.
11. 92, 562, 997. , 40. 67 a, 265, 266, 525, 527, 704,
12. 88 803 709, 750, 1005, 1182, 1281,
13. 64, 98, 122, 126, 778, 814, 1373, 1375, 1416.
1935, 4309, 4501, 4618, 4621, 41. 1299 h.
4699, 5167, 5168. 42. I.M. No. 685.
14. 779, 4643. 43. 1817, 1818, 2407, -2408,
15. I. M. No. 206. 2488, 3342, 4680.
16. 275. 44. 2118, 4549.
17. I. M. No. 288. 45. 740, 1450, 2283, 4307, 4392,
18. I. M. No. 291. 4405, 4471, 4604, 4839, 4842,
19. I. M. No. 506'. 4847, 4850, 4890, 5053, 5080,
20. 218. 5083, 5109.
21. 276, 757, 3371. 46. I.M. No. 1113.
22. 752. 47. 2396,2647, 2655,3343.
23. I. M. No. 333. 48. 2528, 2624, 2650,2656, 2958,
24. 29, 31, 295,475, 1085, 1121, 3459, 3462, 4094.
1143, 1170, 5276. 49. 2845, 2956, 3150, 5320.

* Mint-marks 1-149 are identical with the corresponding numbers in the Indian
Museum Catalogue, vol. iii.
INDEX TO PLATP:S OF ORNAMENTS 83

Mint
84 INDEX TO PLATES OF ORNAMENTS
Mint
INDEX TO PLATES OF ORNAMENTS 85

.A lint
86 PLATES OF ORNAMENTS

v>J^ ^ 6^
2a

*
3

X
^
18 19
10

A
^ 20
12

21
6
22
13

3
14

23
15

24
^ o^
25
16

26
17

27
9 -^ 28 29
••
30 31
«

32
• «>
33 34 35

O
36
&
37
4-
38 39 40
4^
41
n bR
44

X>
45
^y-
46 47
^ 48 49 50
t
52.
®
53

54 55
6
56 57 »

• ••
c •
• - •

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LIST OF PLATES
I. BABUE, HUM AY ON, AKBAR.
II. AKBAll.
III. AKBAR.
IV. AKBAR.
V. AKBAR, JAHANGIU.
VI. JAHANGlR.
VII. JAHANGlR, JAHANGTR with NOR J AH AN.
VIII. JAHANGlR, SHAH JAHAN.
IX. SHAH JAHAN.
X. SHAH JAHAN, MURAD BAKHSH, SHAH SHUJA'.
XL AURANGZEB.
XII. AURANGZEB.
XIII. AURANGZEB, A'ZAM SHAH, KAM BAKHSH, SHAH 'ALAM
BAHADUR.
XIV. SHAH 'ALAM, BAHADUR, JAHANDAR, FARRUKHSIYAR.
XV. FARRUKHSIYAR, RAFIU-D-DARJAT.
XVI. SHAH JAHAN II, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD
SHAH.
XVII. MUHAMMAD SJIAH, AHMAD SHAH.
XVIII. AHMAD SHAH, 'ALAMGlR II.
XIX SHAH JAHAN III, SHAH 'ALAM II.

XX. SHAH 'ALAM IL

XXI. SHAH 'ALAM IL

XXII. SHAH 'ALAM II, BEDAR BAKHT, AKBAR II, BAHADUR
SHAH.
PLATK I

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PLATE VIII

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PLATE XI

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PLATE XIII

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PLATE XIV

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SHAH 'ALAM BAHADUR, JAHANDAR, FARRUKHSIYAR
PLATE XV

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PLATK XVI

3914 3924 394S
3933

SHAH JAHAN II, MUHA:\LMAU IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD SHAH
PLATE XVII

4224 4236 4245 4297 4319

MUHAMMAD SHAH, AHMAD SHAH
PLATE XVIII

4476 4479

AHiMAD SHAH, 'ALAMGIR H
PLATE XIX

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SHAH JAHAN HI, SHAH 'ALAM II
PLATE XX

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SHAH 'ALAM II
PLATE XXII

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SHAH 'ALAM II. BKDAR BAI^HT. AKRAR II. BAHADUR SHAH

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