Pompey chose to conduct his post in

absentia, by assigning lieutenants to run
Spain, while he stayed in Rome. Crassus
felt that military glory was the one thing
that money couldn't buy, and set off for
the east.

The triumvirate became a duo when
Crassus got himself killed at Carrhae in
53 B.C.. Perhaps more importantly,
earlier, Caesar's only daughter Julia,
who happened to be Pompey's wife,
died in childbirth (54 B.C.), severing the
marital relationship between the two
survivors. In 52 B.C. the death of
Clodius Pulcher, an aristocrat turned
Plebeian demagogue, set off extensive
civil unrest in Rome. Pompey, who may
have created the crisis, was awarded by
the Senate a sole Consulship (sine
This article will focus on Caesar's initial Julius Caesar had made his share of collega) to save the Republic, effectively
operations in Italy up to the Siege of powerful enemies while moving to the making him a Dictator.
Corfinium and Caesar's subsequent top of the Republican world. Caesar,
entry into Rome. It includes one very like Pompey, was attempting to main- Besides restoring order, Pompey
small historical engagement and one tain a series of Consular and Gubernato- instituted a series of judicial reforms
hypothetical battle that never occurred. rial posts without interruption to make that made juror bribery almost impos-
To play these small scenarios, all you himself proof against his enemies while sible. Caesar realized that under these
need is a copy of the "Great Battles of accumulating power. His intent was to new laws his immense wealth wouldn't
Julius Caesar" and the Stone Bridge ensure that there was no interruption in protect him from prosecution, that is, if
counter included in this issue of C3I. the succession of these offices, so that he he allowed such an opportunity to arise.
would never be accountable in court nor
The Crisis vulnerable to political defeat. The 1st The "constitutional" crisis that started
In order to grasp the nature of this Triumvirate formed in 60 B.C. between the Civil War was over a far more
crisis, a basic point of Roman law must Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar wasn't a subtle, but dangerous reform that would
be understood. A Consul or a Governor, formal legal institution, but an informal have created a six month gap in Caesar's
while in office, could not be prosecuted arrangement whereby the three most command. We are sure this was the key
or sued in court. All such actions could powerful men in Rome supported each issue for Caesar, based on his statement
and did occur after the term of office other's political agendas. It resulted in to Pompey's peace envoys. "Prestige",
had expired. In fact, most retiring Caesar becoming Consul in 59 B.C. and he averred, "has always been of prime
governors were sued by someone, with receiving the provinces of Cisalpine importance to me, even outweighing life
guilt or innocence determined by the Gaul, Illyricum, and Gallia Narbonensis itself; it pained me to see the privilege
amounts of capital (political and for 5 years in return for supporting conferred on me by the Roman people
monetary) that the defendant possessed Pompey's legislative agenda. That term being insultingly wrested from me by
relative to his accusers. The facts were of Governorship was extended by law my enemies, and to find that I was being
almost irrelevant in these high profile (Lex Pompeia Licinia) for an additional 5 robbed of six months of my command
cases, since the jurors were usually years in 55 B.C., during the Consulships and dragged back to Rome, although
bribed. It was this basic fact upon which of Pompey and Crassus. At the conclu- the will of the people had been that I
the crisis turned. sion of their Consulships, Pompey should be admitted as a candidate in
received Spain and Crassus got Syria. absentia at the next elections."

if not permanently. Caesar's counteroffer was appeal to his love of Rome. Pisaurum.. crossed his provincial boundary without Next. but under the rules. to lose his provinces and his army the Rubicon River. What this did was make Caesar's provinces immediately available for occupancy. I'm ..C. An Senate brought the situation to a head "the die is cast"). since he doesn't say. Ariminum. exempted Caesar's provinces from being allocated for five years (until 1 March 50 B. that at the time he people of Iguvium. the the famous phrase alea iacta est (loosely. Caesar ordered the timing of these various delegations.C. Fanum. he sent Mark Caesar got Pompey to twice extend and Nero received during the Metaurus Antony with five cohorts to occupy exempt his provinces from the new set campaign. at which time they were assigned. After Caesar's occupation of Ariminum. been doing. but on 7 January 49 B. he crossed the Rubicon analysis of what Caesar appears to have with its Senatus consultum ultimum. become a private citizen without any troops. though.C. Adriatic coast of Italy while sending while assigning Gaul to Lucius a peace delegation arrived attempting to blocking forces to cover his exposed Domitius. while Caesar and two cohorts express Senatorial permission. Caesar counteroffered with his Arretium held a strong position on the their provinces simultaneously. To appreciate the subtlety and the level at which these two individuals were competing.C. Any governor who before he could become Consul elect. but offering Western flank.) the Consular provinces were picked prior to a Consular election. Mark Antony at that Pompey and he should give up nothing. Therefore. and thus immune from prosecution. and on 10 Caesar's text is vague on the exact Flaminia. Hence. by stating that a five year interval must elapse before an ex-Consul (and ex- Praetor) could hold a province. Without those Legions. Caesar's provinces would have been allocated to one of the Consuls of 49 B. In effect Caesar was about was the provincial boundary marked by party.C. the war was on.C. Suffice to say..). the Consul wouldn't have gone to his province until 48 B. This mutual de-mobilization proposal. while Caesar would hav^ temporarily. because holding a province meant having an army of Legions under your command. and began a Civil War. with Arretium. However.). Upon hearing that the towns- Xlllth Legion from Ravenna to Considering. and three Cohorts to garrison of rules.C.This was important. and Ancona. Between these two towns sure that he appeared as the aggrieved to take over. we need to briefly examine the details of the "constitutional" crisis. Via Cassia while Fanum sat on the Via counteroffer was rejected.C. such as remained at Ariminum. 123 B. since there were many individuals then eligible who wouldn't wait until 48 B. Rome.. was an outlaw. on 1 March 50 B. the Lex Pompeia Licinia (55 B. both of which led directly to January 49 B. was to pass a Senatorial decree that effectively canceled the Lex Sempronia. Under the Lex Sempronia of Gaius Gracchus (c. Caesar knew that his election to Consul in 48 B. at which time Caesar would have been Consul-elect.C.C. further down the wrote this down Pompey was dead. might never occur. Caesar was faced with a situation whereby Pompey would have continued to control Spain and his Legions. is that which ordered Caesar to surrender his he was advancing South down the provinces and demobilize his army. What Pompey did in 52 B.C.

about 3 miles tions and advanced with 2 cohorts for battle. The news of Caesar's rapid advance "where was Pompey?" caused panic in Rome and the suspen. the war. with the two cohorts at sufficiently expanded his forces to win Camerinum (13 cohorts total). Upon his arrival he found 5 Heartened by his early receptions. Caesar's advance guard that the advantage in naval mobility pursued. Curio. were well disposed conquest of Italy. and after a short skirmish. give up Italy and marshal his forces cohorts attempting to destroy the bridge Caesar increased his tempo of opera. Leaving of the river) Caesar's rapid advance with just one Auximum. his command were recently Caesar's. The Pompeian Forces (Set up first. rounded up many of the toward him. Vibullius Rufus. but Map: allowed. withdrew. Any other result is a Pompeian victory. Thermus. garrison under the praetor Thermus. The town was him a potentially war-winning advan. Lentulus re- Caesarian Forces (Set up on North side of confront their old commander in battle treated. strongly supporting the type of men who retreated into the town. attacked and drove off Ahenorbarbus' held by Attius. it is unlikely that Picenum.Via Flaminia. and Ariminum and the one at Fanum. Special Rules: Pompey was clearly surprised and Tribunes can give Legion commands unready to meet that threat. even though he was outnumbered. S3217/3218 hexside. He understood / leave. At captured the town from its five cohort Corfinium was Domitius Ahenorbarbus. That early in the After collecting additional corn sup- townsfolk. which was held by Lentulus except the 1st) their loyalty must have been suspect. on future operations. Initial Deployment: sion of recruiting in that area. a defeat in battle would have plies. on either side could stamp his foot and raise soldiers. Pompey's naval superiority gave from the town. Caesar's advanced guard Auximum. The two veteran Legions under Xllth Legion. conservative. so Asculum. Caesar had seized the (pick any 3 cohorts) initiative by starting active operations before his other Legions could arrive. under the circumstances. who had been bridge) war. forced marched to Corfinium. Caesar advanced through Tribune XVIth Legion Legion seems to have caught him off Picenum where he was joined by the 5 Cohorts of the XVIth Legion guard. further south to join Pompey. upon hearing about the early. could be used to recapture Italy when Attius' men deserted. he still might not have fared any advance and not liking the mood of the better in the war. Caesar was able to mass superior forces. almost bloodless actions. If Pompey had tried to confront Caesar with 20 recently-raised cohorts. . sent by Pompey to take control of Tribune Xlllth Legion 3 Cohorts Xlllth Legion Characteristically. The combat was Caesarian: North map edge characterized by quick. besides others fleeing from the town. and his men deserted him on river no closer than 5 hexes from the during the entire Italian portion of the the road. I am sure that many a contin. quently. Had he the bridge are secured by the end of the \ not been able to secure such a rapid fourth game turn. further South. but his five conflict. that enhanced Caesar's support Game Length: amongst the citizenry. Caesar was also Caesar pursued him into another theater A Bridge Too Near using a very enlightened policy. within 2 Although Pompey had boasted that he Senate evacuated the city and moved hexes of the Stone Bridge. It was that rapid 4 game turns growth in Caesar's economic strength and access to the Italian recruiting Victory Conditions: districts that made Caesar such a serious Caesar wins if the both hexes adjoining threat to the Senatorial forces. overseas before confronting Caesar in over the Aternus river. Upon hearing Pompey never allowed those Legions to of Caesar's approach. If Caesar had been more (Historical) whereby all prisoners. who received a local tage. He did. such a battle probably were freed and no pillaging was would have taken place in Italy. Assume Corfinium surrender than die for a cause no one is 3 miles off the South end of the map. of operations. Pompey seems Use the Pharsalus South Map and place gent of just recently recruited young to have decided to temporarily defer the the Stone Bridge counter across the legionnaires felt that it was better to main event. he rushed forces to occupy Caesar could have sustained and deserters. even leaders. because Pompey's forces Retreat Direction: were spread out and still in the process Pompeian: South map edge of being recruited. had a significant impact on Pompey's Legions (Xllth and XHIth). Spinther with 10 cohorts. He then advanced on (pick any 5 cohorts. understood. The obvious question is. delegation that encouraged him to strategy he employed. So Pompey decided to Corfinium. Caesar advanced with his two cohorts soon deserted. Conse- without being in range of an SC.

determine whether Pompey arrives this Dyrrachium and Lesnikia. Xllth. He compatriots. Pompey's standing forces were (Hypothetical) troops whose loyalty was suspect.) turn. Legions. along with the 1st and 3rd of hex 3000). and then began siege operations when Pompey ordered all of his forces to the VHIth Legion arrived. After nine days of small intense escape with his forces and join him. Pompey encouraged him to entrance. probably would have changed the outcome of the war. Pompey managed to get a left for Dyrrachium. but his look but he couldn't pursue Pompey until he and demeanor gave him away. with the battles of Tribunes and set them up first. true to navy. Use the XVIth. out of the town. Caesar's offensive was one of lead his forces out of Corfinium to fight rout off the map loses. While his orders negotiated a surrender and Corfinium were being carried out for assembling a fell to Caesar bloodlessly. Pompey Caesarian Forces (Set Up within 15 hexes arrives. the camp they cannot be Rallied and was able to accomplish with one Legion. and XXX Each turn. On a die roll of "0-2". Ahenobarbus Brundisium. 17th and 30th. he does Caesar OC not arrive. marched to the relief of Ahenobarbus. Xllth. later. . and Xlllth Legions When Pompey and the Legions arrive. Upon Caesar's arrival at Brundisium. and Xlllth Legions (with they may enter the map via any vacant Tribunes) plus Antesignani 1-6 and two hexes between 1015-1032 (inclusive). what it Caesarians: would have taken an army to accomplish Battle of Corfinium Mapedge with hex 3000. before Pompey was prepared. plus challenge Caesar in battle. Had Caesar Ramparts of Corfinium from which For more balanced play. In reality. but siege actions. he entered Rome.once they enter intuitive grasp of the value of time. Caesar pursued him with sent messengers to Pompey informing Six Legions (3 Veteran and 3 Recruit). substitute the failed in that strategic roll of the die. Due to his conquest of Italy. plus one Praefect. sine collega. his policy. Caesar's forces would have fought Rome. Pompey remained message through which basically stated in the town with a small force. the ships arrived to take Caesar's rapidly growing siege lines Pompey and the remainder of his forces made that nearly impossible. Caesar was the master of Italy. after hearing number of Cohorts that rout off the areas prevented his rival from raising a the bad news. With Pompey's with- Ahenobarbus told his men that Pompey drawal. are eliminated. but enormous monetary and human re- Map: this makes it more of a match.Siege of Corfinium Final Operations in Italy Caesar conducted some local operations On learning of the fall of Corfinium. At no Pompeian Forces (Set up first within Variant: other time in his career was Caesar's 15 hexes of the camp) To make things a bit more interesting genius for rapid action and political Ahenobarbus OC and SC for for Caesar. although sources fell under Caesar's control. On any other result. Assume the camp is the outer to further prosecute the war. Ahenobarbus has deployed his men to Pompeian 1st and 3rd Legions for the Pompey's more extensive resources. Mark Antony SC for Vlllth. incorporated the new men Retreat Edge: into his forces and gave free passage to Pompeians: Caesar's success was based on his . XVIIth. His men could assemble a fleet. him that 33 cohorts and many promi. Caesar's rapid Ahistorical Notes: The victory conditions are based on the advance through Pompey's mobilization This battle assumes that. The first side to have 15 Cohorts new army. Caesar. but he immediately plans in jeopardy because of that attempted to block off the harbor decision. control of Italy. Use Vlllth. Gaul LN. Ahenobarbus decided to map. and the payoff was a battle with Caesar. Victory Conditions: something Caesar knew. during the Auxiliaries Phase. which they successfully accomplished. he nent men were in danger unless he came found that most of Pompey's forces had to their aid. Use the Munda Map without the a long shot for the Pompeians. whether he never told Ahenobarbus to go to by design or due to lack of shipping Corfinium and he wouldn't put his Caesar didn't know. giving him a substantial base from which extension. calculated risk. (The Great Battles of Julius Caesar picks (with Tribunes) Legions plus the Pompeian player rolls one die to up where this article ends. paying normal movement costs. was marching to their relief. harder and longer in my estimate. Ahenobarbus and his prominent The Roman Camp . this variant examines what acumen better demonstrated than during Pompeian forces might have happened if Pompey had his nearly bloodless conquest of Italy.