INTRODUCTION The broad defense seeks to make Allied

progress of the war the pivot of its strategy.
The goal is to force the Allies to fail their
robably no one was more anxious to see Empire of the Sun 1942 and early 1943 progress of the war
published than game developer Stephen Newberg and myself. requirements through aggressive reaction to
Allied offensives. This simulates an intense
For me this was the conclusion of an almost four year journey that period of combat reminiscent of the
began soon after the publication of For The People. Now that it is Solomons campaign. However, where on
the map this intense conflict occurs will
out on the market, I have been heartened by the tremendous interest often vary.
that the gaming public has shown in this game.
Now there are other things that the
Japanese can accomplish, such as eschewing
Although Empire of the Sun uses my card driven game some of these objectives and using a focused
(CDG) system as its core mechanic, it is unlike any game I have offensive strategy. The defining attribute of
this path is the use of resources in an
designed before. Almost all of the systems in the game break many aggressive manner to knock one of the big
traditional paradigms, so playing the game as intended takes a close three (India, China, or Australia) out of the
reading of the rules. war. The surrender of each of these
countries reduces US PW by two and
diminishes the Allied hand size for the
The main focus of this C3i Magazine article will be on strategy in remainder of the game. This strategy tends to
result in a all or nothing outcome due to higher
the campaign game opening and how this impacts the middle and losses earlier in the game than with the
late game. I will also discuss some practical illustrations on how to broad defense strategy. If it fails, then the US
leverage the game systems to accomplish player goals. advance across the central Pacific tends to
proceed ahead of historical schedule.

The Japanese Opening: December 1941 are planning to follow a more historical The IAI card is one of those great opportu-
and The Big Picture path and wear down the Allied counter nities for a player to write an alternate
offensives as they try and advance toward history. The comprehensive example
The early war (1942) establishes the basic Japan. To prosecute either strategy the depicts the historical record. Although the
outline of the Japanese position. The Japanese want to ensure that they are historical Japanese plan worked to near
Japanese are faced with perhaps their most getting a base of seven cards prior to perfection, there are some more aggressive
important decision of the game, either play Strategic Warfare, which means that at a options available in the South Pacific or
for a broad defense trying to win a mid-tolate
late minimum the Japanese need to capture 13 of over
er in Burma. One of the more interesting
game victory or a focused offensive against the 14 resource spaces by the start of Turn options players have explored has been to
one of the major nations (Australia, India, or 5. This requires the capture of the hold off taking some of the initial historical
China) with an attempt at winning the game Philippines, Malaya, and the Dutch East objectives and instead leapfrogging forward
early due to negotiations. If the Japanese pull Indies (DEI), plus either Vogelkop (3219, for a more rapid attack on the DEI. Most of
an extraordinarily good hand on Turn 2 they the resource space in New Guinea) or these plans focus on achieving air and naval
could blend the two concepts to some Rangoon (2008) as the 13th resource space. In superiority by eliminating the Commonwealth
degree, but a strong or weak hand tends to the broad defense, the Japanese will typically MA air unit, the US FEAF air unit, plus both
drive an either or type of decision. knock down US Political Will (PW) by US Asia naval units, while leapfrogging
three due to National Surrender, with the ground units into some key
In the broad defense strategy the Japanese possibility of one additional PW loss due to
how the war in Burma turns out.

the Allies start losing critical ASP aggressive Allied player can often move reinforcements. the and Hong Kong for Japanese need to knock the Dutch East early DEI gains. the historical remainder of the game. and Manila (28I3) with a would jeopardize successfully forcing the forward. DEI situation. Accomplish- Accomplish coupled with air ing this by Turn 2 captures the key resource spaces and stops the Allies from deploying and naval superiority. but WIE exceptions aside. For instance. Indies out of the war rapidly. They could have taken a more minimum of activations and units. failure to do so gives the Allies bases that likely to have some tough choices the Allies could send a carrier with a ground they historically spent 1943 and I944 whetherr or not to use a great resource unit (using strategic transport that doess not trying to capture. The one exception to risky posture. At a minimum. level 3. could create havoc on a Japanese line of communication. then n this leapfrogging tactic could play out well. forcing the Japanese to go this way. the Japanese are letting the USA garrison wither on the vine. The big unknown is can the Japanese cards sacrifices too much offensive cation using carrier escorted ground knock out the DEI with their remaining momentum. it may not be the best thing strategic transport. the Japanese need to the Japanese should not consider playing historically is they wanted to secure their capture Kuantan (20I4). but chose not to. The Malaya will surrender at the end of the Japanese can quickly drive the WIE to downside to this strategy in EotS is an second turn. Japanese choose not to take Manila initially. However. players of This ensures that the Philippines and this is War In Europe (WIE) cards. I have seen similar options for Malaya and even Hong Kong. but if not. There are no special rules for the Japanese to play these as events. Malaya. The goal of these alternative manner. and if augmented with ground based air. Although counter play and rapidly capture the DEI to how to quickly capture resources and historically the Japanese also pushed into free up resources earlier for other strategic avoids allowing the Allies to salvage the Burma and the Solomon. their reinforcements in an offensive . The reason that the Japanese did not do this example-of-play. Japanese Alternate: Japanese: January to April I942 An alternate IAI plan (Game Turn 2) that leapfrogs the Philippines. These Allied ground will be at a card disadvantage for the units on Luzon could then begin to take back territory. Suffice to say. the Allied supply line. Singapore any non-Offensive Offensive events on Turn 2 if it lines of communication as they moved (20I5). Moving from the broad to the specific. The game system does not script the Japanese IAI offensive and if the Allies do not react aggressively to throw off the Japanese advance. failure to event as an OC to enable continuation of use ASPS) into Manila thus reopening up conquer the DEI ensures that the Japanese their initial offensives. the Japanese usually do not regain their offensive stride. hence no require- require IAI plans is to stifle any Turn 2 Allied plan demonstrates the basic outlines of ments for any special rules. if the activations. This is the historical reason why the Japanese avoided this option.DEI spaces. DEI to surrender. Assuming a start akin to on what kind of hand the Japanese player that shown in the comprehensive is holding on game Turn 2. it will depend ends. If the the game do have this option. if playing WIE forces onto the Japanese lines of communi. Additionally.

preventing them from reacting Fleet to decisive battle and eliminate it. It is important Japanese decided to advance toward New the Allies cooperate and play passively. hexes to recapture as a means to deny them to more critical battles. the Marshall hexes on Turn 4. then all Japanese ports in the center of the board (Saipan 38I3. so in order to gain a combat advantage the attack needs a 3 OC card to enable the BB Kongo 1 to throw in its 17 attack factors. which requires spatial advantage (created by the Japanese strategic debate in the senior military circles that both sides play their part to thwart hedgehog defense). the Allies brewing if the Operation Z attack force asymmetrical pull of the respective side's can usually meet their Turn 4 progress of (CVs Akagi. raising the Japanese total to 53 combat attack factors. been exploring is to conduct a hedgehog to achieve an automatic Japanese victory Kwajalein 47I5 and Eniwetok 44I5) ahead defense. If Truk were Japanese to pursue the historical option due reached the Japanese would have essentially to its game advantages. The intent of this strategy is to sometime before game Turn 9 (when the of schedule. If the Allies only take one of limit the Japanese conquest to the mini. The Japanese CVs attack totals 36 combat factors. can conquer to achieve their late 1942/early situations based on the historical dynamics Once game Turn 6 rolls around. In the end a 'Central long-shot strategies. After do not believe in a lot of special rules to the steamroller going. Palau 3416. B29s arrive on the scene). it is almost a mum needed to gain 13 resource hexes and lock to make their Turn 5 progress of the to deny the Allies additional hexes that they My design philosophy is to create game war requirement when the island chain falls. In addition the Japanese Navy. the Allies `43 progress of the war requirements. In to fall. the Allies during any Another interesting Japanese option is what Political Will to 3 by the end of Turn 5. offensive can declare any port where the I call the Tsushima Tsus opening. neutralizing it as a naval base. What mechanic through national surrenders and this means is by using their advantage in progress of the war failures to force the US LRB air units. that the Japanese player keep kee this in mind Caledonia through the Solomons and take when they contemplate the hedgehog Port Moresby in order to cut off US aid to defense. Wewak (3720) is they did historically. The hope is that a low US historically would neutralize a base. Japanese reactions in the Central Pacific if the Japanese player stays within his Empire I do not legislate that the Japanese do what boundary. to smother most Agreement' was reached whereby the hedgehog strategy is its success requires that important Japanese reactions. Shokaku. The goal of this strategy is to attack Pearl Harbor in a one-two one punch with the Operation Z force sinking both of the US CVs in Pearl Harbor and then later in the turn Japan eliminates the US Asia Fleet (CA and DD). I have That was what happened historically. For example. wanted to bring the US position if the Japanese play in this manner (hedgehog). I by the Allied ability to leverage their early objectives by May of 1942. Australia. but if created a situation that encourages the the 'Central Agreement' had not been within LRB range of Truk (4017). Another key element of this attack is to include the CL Tenyru to raise the force to 57 factors since it requires at least 56 1942 Hedgehog combat factors to eliminate one of the This diagram shows the basic outlines of the Hedgehog defense and the early Allied CVs in the first combat. which destruction of all on map US naval forces. there was a want it to work dynamically. & BB Kongo 1) political cards (Tokyo Rose/Tojo Resigns the war requirement by conquering the ends their initial offensive in the Marshall Islands. . If the Japanese attack Wake Island (4612) with US offensive against the Marshall Islands launched from Hawaii with supporting air attacks from Northern New Guinea. and can paralyze almost all The historical hedgehog defense option is fleet to decisive battle. the theory behind this strategy your play style better. However. This is now enhanced en the Japanese conquered their pre-war script a situation just to make it work. This depicts a reducing US political will by two for progress of the war opportunities in game month long bomber campaign. The key to the Tsushima opening is the Turn 2 Pearl Harbor attack. which was the genesis a great example of my design philosophy. of the Midway offensive. is to manipulate the US Political Will Ulithi 3615) are within LRB range. First to encourage correct historical decisions. The Allied player will know if this option is PW level is coupled with fortuitous Leveraging this spatial advantage. and explore both options and see which one fits game terms. Designer's Notes by Mark Herman Another option that Japanese players have vice Doolittle Raid/Bataan Death March) Marshall Islands (only requires two hexes. The goal of the Japanese are massing naval and air power as Tsushima opening is to bring the US Pacific An important feature is to deny the Allies battle hexes. this almost happened historically. in conjunction with the over what to do next. The downside of the judicial use of air power. Soryu. as The Allies are in a tremendous spatial per their doctrine. You as a player can taken up the hedgehog defense option. Turns 4 and 5. I have sufficient ASP and naval forces to keep off. The US forces in Oahu comprise the CVs Lexington and Enterprise plus the 7th AF units for a total of 38 combat attack factors.

has approximately a 8% probability New Guinea. but the Japanese have a 70% you can hold off the US advance for at conquer the West (Broome 2426 is still probability of losing at least one CV step and a 40% probability of losing 3 CV steps. Based on this analysis the Tsushima opening is not an optimal strategy. . The the main Japanese fleet in Truk to react to If one considers the focused strategy Tsushima opening. the goal is to use the second Japanese: Mid-to-Late 1942 ground unit. There are two cards*probability of the Japanese achieving Truk cannot fulfill its historical role because basic paths for taking Australia. the Japanese not holding one of five key cards (73% player faces a number of key choices that probability). But the CBI is the one then the Japanese are likely to take some possible. either a 1 times combat result). Mathematically it plays out about the same way. counteratta that good strategy creates situations that yield probabilities greater than 50% and and game Turn 5 (early 1943). The ramification of this is whatever US PW advantage gained may be lost by not achieving DEI surrender. the reduction Japanese option. If surprise is not it is too easy to neutralize with a long-range capture the East coast first. losing Manchuria and a card every turn. but naval units for another -1 US PW penalty. After the their carriers and/or eliminate a major initial combat. but it is more difficult if the Japanese adopt a hedgehog strategy or fail to take 1942 Japanese Axes of Advanc Advance This diagram shows the basic axes of Japanese advance during the early game. Strategy Concepts in Empire of the Sun the IAI card and the Marine 21I air unit Wake Island. These key cards are the two Another component of the broad defense all revolve around how do they intend to Ambush Intelligence cards. This is just another legitimate least one of the turns (4 or 5). mistake and let you either wipe out all of Islands to support this attack. redeploy the desired. so the more aggressive Since the dice love no one. Skip Bombing (reduces the CL theatre. One particularly important downside of this option is that if pursued it almost guarantees that the Japanese player will not conquer the DEI by Turn 2. then the probability of success rises bomber offensive. and the US manages to get a critical hit. the Allies will have a US Another option is to bring the reduced BB significantly reduces the Japanese chances Political Will of 4. Assuming the DEI is To be absolutely effective the Tsushima Japanese should usually only play Tojo forced to surrender at the conclusion of opening requires surprise attack (10% Resigns if it will drive the US PW to zero. The very aggressive suicide attack that sacrifices do not have any of the 5 key disadvantage of the hedgehog strategy is ground units for control. and then to 25%. the be a bit of a dogfight. Conquering Burma further reduces Tenyru). and Darter-Dace (submarine US PW and makes the possibility of attack prior to combat). The best poor strategy yields situations that yield way to accomplish this is to centrally deploy probabilities of less than 50%. it is my belief from making their progress of the war the Japanese are in the CBI. but to keep the US forces at bay for as long as the Burma Road. offensive activity on game Turn 2 also each other. this may Although this is not a principle. Heroic strategy is the China China-Burma-India (CBI) win the game. The attack can In the broad defense strategy. Repair. but such diversion of PW card events that may arise neutralize of the CL Tenyru neutralizes this possibility. A variant of the Tsushima opening is to conduct the historical Midway offensive but during the second turn (early '42). the more requirements in game Turn 4 (end of 1942) exposed they are to Allied counterattacks. but it can happen in the game and is one of the Japanese opening options. Turn 2 (or when it is hopefully assured to probability) or that the Allied player is happen at the end of Turn 3). Pour your reinforcing ground first focuses on Australia. This is followed by Tojo Resigns card with a US PW greater The beginning of Turn 3 may or may not other offensives that sink the remaining US than 3 as it opens up the possibility of be required to finish off the DEI. or alternative. Solomons and New Guinea as a buffer to use of amphibious shipping points (ASP) to Allied actions. Solomons. The desired. The goal is to stop the Allies prosecute offensives. It is usually a bad idea to play the for a I US PW reduction. This is the more of success (calculated as the probability of and air units into this region and prepare difficult objective since it requires the surprise*probability of the Japanese having redeployment of the South Seas HQ or a two 30C cards*probability that the Allies to fight it out with the US forces. This usually entails capturing the area on the map that does not require Allied carrier losses. Japan needs defeating China much greater by cutting still succeed without surprise attack. as mentioned above. If South Seas HQ to Biak (3319). then the Allies are in (or close Japanese card play to attack Oahu a second (Game Turns 3 and 4) to) the `Tojo red zone' (US PW of 2 or time to finish off either one or both US CVs less). If the Americans make a Yamato reinforcement into the Marshall for conquering the DEI. there are two basic variants. depending on what the Allies do. if surprise attack is moves against the Marshalls.

hex islands (e. SEAC HQ going to India. One issue the Allies need have 4 potential China EC China to keep in mind is how to first stop the Offensives (one dependent on the Doolittle The first offensive opportunity the Allies Japanese from defeating Allied nations raid) versus 5 Allied EC China Offensives. those that give units).g. they open with the conquest of Ceylon. Even with Gandhi cards supporting such as Arcadia Conference (card #4). should look for is where can they bring in without paying a price. but it does improve (that arrive on game Turn 3). position to US led counteroffensives. The big variable in EotS is air as a reinforcement debarkation port. it takes from 3 to 4 turns which is now permitted to be in their initial Timor or Darwin. The best location the Burma Road enabling a China focus. The effort. while making Japanese advances have). It was the totality of in the Pearl Harbor raid) back into Splay approach is at a minimum it tends to cut Japan's historical success that forced the through replacements. Once the an optional rule). Leyte (3014). which gives while preserving an India option if the and where the counteroffensives would be the Allies a chance to respond to any early situation presents itself. bend sufficient effort to take back Dacca cca and compels Japan to commit proper and nullify all preceding Japanese efforts. up their southern flank to a more rapid ing a Japanese air unit in Columbo (1307). If the you need to eliminate or weaken some of Japanese chances. It takes five unanswered To a great degree the Allies must exploit make the Japanese pay for their successes successes to put China down. This can neutralize the Burma offers the best payoff for the least utility of these ports as reaction bases. but at a minimum the Burma Road. The advantage of this to bring a 7th AF air unit (presumably lost counteroffensives. Koepang (2721) or Darwin (based on Game Turn 2 is a tough one for the Allies. it is usually best to support this effort Guinea inea (the hedgehog strategy). Designer's Notes by Mark Herman tough). submarine reaction a strong position in the Solomons and Allies: I942 (Game turns 2-4) cards. Of the three focus strategies. Basically. Allowing the Allies to have early helps to stifle any Allied counterattacks unfettered access to the New Guinea before they can be organized. airfields puts their LRBs in range of Davao (2915). This must be balanced against giving Allies should not ignore the potential for the Allies offensive opportunities for the getting Allied ground forces onto multimulti- duration of the game. Allies to rearrange their thinking on when for this air unit is Midway. advance into the Caroline Islands and the Madras (1406) is neutralized through hrough ZOI Philippines. a Japanese move into central Ulithi. the only Allied make in the opening turns is passive play. resources to conquer the DEI. permutations of these basic openings. British fleet is very powerful based in Japanese efforts. By position-. and any Ambush card (to be put New Guinea and to some degree it can be into future offensive status or used to considered a variant of the broad defense counter the Tsushima opening). although try it as deal with the British by pulling these forces hex to reset the conquest clock. (one every even numbered game turn). you can go for either coast. If you can halt the The China option doesn't require closing their delayed game Turn 2 reinforcements Japanese. How one proceeds is based on player style and . Its presence forces the to be successful and further requires that the hand for the I942 start (but not for the Japanese to deploy their big naval units to Allies do not retake even one North India 1941 Campaign Game. and Truk. With the One of the biggest mistakes the Allies can strategy. then look to bring down the road. Regardless of the guides on which way to take the opening. The presence of the west and opening up the eastern Japanese Allies lose North India. Central Pacific offensive. of the DEI by Turn 2. The overarching be defeated without ever getting a China Allied perspective on the second turn is to EC Offensive. what happens in the possible. Borneo) that maximize Allied ASP resources when they are thin by using overland movement to take key There are a large number of options and Japanese hexes. the China in most of these reinforcements into option is the most viable. then redeploy the HQ to Biak and opening defines the strategic context that as costly as possible. Palau. The take. On balance. they can usually ABDA HQ gives the Dutch a little sting. going for Australia forces Service Rivalry (ISR). The Great moments for the Allies on Turn 2 South Seas HQ it is out of supply unless cards and your playing style should be are getting any resource card (especially you move an HQ twice. if Japanese have failed to force the surrender pre-war elite units so things will be easier Burma is defeated it further erodes US PW. Historically the Allies were aggressive and choice on unit placement for game Turn 2 The other option is to be less aggressive in were planning on holding portions of their is where the East and focus all of your offensive pre-war possessions as bases for future efforts in the CBI. If the Japanese decide to forgo taking a If the Japanese do decide to go for Northern strong position in the Solomons and New India. Japanese Inter- Inter technique used. China can actually launched. and pace of the game. where you place the arriving ANZAC India on the other hand is quite hard to The Allies should focus on playing events HQ. In general. and ABDA HQ if in play). The alternative is to conquer New how the situation developed over game the Allies should preserve as much force as Guinea (Port Moresby 3823 is a must Turn 2. Although the Japanese and the Allies will have to deal Darwin (3023) is the best place for the with for the duration of the game. The Japanese the openings the Japanese give them as it is and to slow their offensive momentum in get 6 China OC offensive opportunities often difficult in the beginning to drive the anyy way possible. all the better. which power. As a side benefit.

As time has gone on. If Ceylon is still British encourage appropriate historical behavior. they could drive it loose with good military tactics. This is Japanese achieve this lock down position. Assuming that the Japanese surrender of Burma or Allied failure to If the Japanese decide to ignore Malaya and do play along the historical path. decisions. and the Solomon. This is an excellent do not also conquer Ceylon. preventing Allied 4 where Allied historical incentives should reinforcements. most of these and their presence forces the Japanese to the Japanese Northern India position. then the have developed their position in Burma. A controlled. to drive PW down to 4. US PW is a resource that is ports in their rear areas this opportunity India is Ceylon. need to consider where to deploy their main (Philippines. The axes of advance. needs to be exploited. So it is understood. and Allied thinking. The Political Will use for the CVL Hermes. a weak expendable is that Japanese air units on Colombo mechanic is intended to drive both Japanese unit. The idea here resource in the game. If the Japanese do not want Amphibious Assault offensive out of the environment.As mentioned earlier in the article. decisions which happen to The Allies begin the game with a US PW of coincide with historical motivations for +8 and assuming that the Japanese follow such actions. or Dacca (1905) create a ZOI over Madras (1406) and Calcutta design ign is trying to push the US PW level to particularly useful in the Philippines if Manila is not captured on game Turn 2. if the cards to clear them out of their way as they An important feature of this design is the Japanese delay in taking some key Allied advance on India. the the right circumstance. If the claims have been significantly muted as expend resources to remove them. knowledge of Allied counter play has another example of my design the only viable Allied option is to launch an diffused into the EotS metagame philosophy. If the Japanese play fast and If the DEI has surrendered and the Japanese the historical script. and DEL). The key to not losing US PW index. bring the Chinese historical record is a reasonable guide on one of the first two opportunities are meant units into Central Burma and do not stack how to proceed. This option is Dimasur (2005). Allied counter tactic should change that down to 5 by the end of Turn 2 through New Guinea. PW is a scarce into the Japanese rear. If the Japanese manage to broadly expended through game actions. which can confer great advantage in (I307) and in either Akyab (2206). the Allies the surrender of three Allied nations player's perspective for future games. this to happen they have to make good Maldives (1005) against Dacca. This will cause the Japanese several requirements are there to ensure that . then the achieve progress of the war requirements on move directly on Burma. then reinforcements can great deal of electronic ink has been spilled Even if the Allies lose the exploiting units. continue to enter Mainland India via with a plethora of claims of easy Japanese they will easily resurrect via replacements Madras and then move up to try and break victory. (1805) respectively. Look for opportuni- opportuni conquer Northern India during 1942. but until the B29s start knocking a powerful ground unit with air support surrender (even with Gandhi card) if they down Japanese cities. it is There are a few mechanics that energize this ties to use carrier escorted convoys to bring still extremely difficult to force Indian will. The other US PW them. Malaya.

A friend and I once In regards to the Japanese taking an out of China). Another Allied option that can be used is The US PW effects for Midway and the what I call the Chicken Caesar defense. giving tacit Dutch Harbor (5100) during the reinforce. Even if the Japanese do too often. If the The progress of the war requirement forces try and stretch the Japanese defense by Allies survive the early play of Tojo Resigns. Assuming that there is a US air unit on Japanese hedgehog strategy is to deny the Midway. the 1 OC offensive prevents Japanese start to gain opportunities for early any Japanese reaction (due to range) If the Japanese choose to stand on the victory through card play (Tokyo Rose/ allowing the Allies to first reduce the army defensive on the Siam border or southern Tojo Resigns). Also. Again. Midway or the ing a Japanese reduced army and so movement. 1943 to a loss of offensive momentum in the all. The goal is to fight in reposition them in the DEI. The solution was to making aking this an easier proposition late in the his US PW level at some point during play. As basic outlines of how any game will Midway on Turn 2. it is usually At all costs defend Burma and strive to to use the US Political Will bidding prudent to redeploy the Wake Marine unit avoid having it surrender. They should also activates the Invasion of Manchuria. then EotS possesses more value card. In the event need to hold onto more than one key hex learning ng curve can be achieved. and the Marshalls). Some Japanese players play through air-naval combat. If unit thus making Japanese success even you find that the Japanese are winning more problematical. The Allies in mid-1944 (G Game turns 5-9) important DEI sector. The goal response is to use the enormous Allied the Japanese elite units. then the Allies need to attack. there is a very high probability Allies these macro conversion opportunities in the Solomons and New Guinea. The it thus substantially increases the probability mechanic the Allies could sit back and wait main goal is to force the Japanese to defend of an Allied A-bomb bomb victory (no invasion of until their overwhelming reinforcements Indochina and bleed their ground and air the Japanese home islands required). Japanese victories will come early. especially in the opening moves. preferably a I OC. Most reaction AA move with the Wake Marine theater. the aggregate have more ground replace- ments than the Japanese. one of the key goals of the proceed. wherever locations that allow for large macro possible preserve your air units until Allied occupy the hex in question during the US conversions of spaces (e. Without this starting an overland advance on Hanoi. Japanese send a full strength army to an Allied strategy in the CBI. Allies should expend at least one or two is dangerous if it does not win the game. then be prepared for a meatgrinder. If this idea id is even ment segment of game Turn 3. The arrive before starting to move forward. their entire Hawaiian force at this offense. It is usually heroic assumptions about the size of the response should be to place both Marine hard for a unit to advance more than one Universe you can definitely get an answer in brigades with naval and air support in space per offensive.g. It Japanese landing a ground unit. the Solomons.. where the Allied player is not sweating over prosecuting the war. Try to keep some close to true. the Allies should throw stated earlier. the Allies can avoid early progress of the war penalties is exploit in the game. many Allied strategic decisions. If Wake Islands a year earlier in the war. If the Japanese go for with judicious successes in the CBI. air power and a Aleutians) or casualties are present in player avoiding the US PW penalty. The Allies do not system. the two units in China because it causes the possibilities than GO. fight for the DEL is to win the air-naval battle to prevent the spatial advantage to capture the Marshall and exploit opportunities as they arise. but over a given It has been said about the game of GO that turn both sides have the same rate of two it has as many possible moves as there are (assuming the Japanese are pulling divisions atoms in the Universe. so focus your energy expense of some important naval units and on achieving this and avoiding the US PW Both Sides: Middle Game. I strongly encourage players not try to make this attack.g. If Aleutians often causes the Japanese to The Allied imperative is how do they start the Japanese do not conquer the Philippines expend early effort in these directions. reinforcements enter the game on Turn 3. The Tojo Resigns at the first opportunity. Once US PW begins to fall below 4 the Aleutian hex. A successful offensive out of Burma Allies must always be sensitive to their US During playtesting this created an ahistoric can even begin to advance along the Chinese PW level and any Japanese action that `Sitzkrieg' environment with the Japanese coast because it is presumed that the threatens it is by definition something that too weak to hurt the Allies. the key theme for the Allies is to hurt that the Allies will be able to react. In the end. it has hopefully come at the to prevent surrender. seems that early on players often find has not been captured and the Japanese are remember that another possible way to Japanese strategy and opportunities easier to not providing naval escort. It is to achieve their Political Will requirement or Malaya. prior to its Burma.Designer's Notes by Mark Herman historical objectives (e. that the Japanese are successful in taking Midway. and the Allies subsequent Japanese defense will inevitably requires a reaction. introduce the political pressure that drove game.. it cards per turn in the CBI. This destruction during ground combat. so only fight for key the correct order of magnitude. look for opportunities to important to note that in order for the starting on Turn 4 when their available withdraw available ground units and Japanese to qualify for these US PW reductions. EotS is very finely use their single Turn 2 ASP to perform a combat in the CBI (China-Burma-India) balanced to achieve a 50-50 50 result. so more end games and a faster to Midway if it is still in play. the Allied operations in CBI are slow. Players will note that tried to figure this out and if you use some Aleutian hex on game Turn 2. The So.. hit. The point of this Marine brigades (with air and naval Japanese to leave units to block their comment is it is very hard to say how to modifiers) have a 90% chance of eliminat- . Political Will Segment — simple control New Guinea. It will be a rare game waiting until they had a pat situation before have to draw down their divisions in China. hexes. the Allies to be aggressive. If the Japanese focus on CBI. forces. Using a low advantage due to China. If the layered defense are the keys to a successful strategic decisions and risk calculations. The Allies also have a natural spatial support to this ascertain. coupled In the end it is the Japanese that define the alone is insufficient. a Japanese ground unit must ASPS are less than 5.

Such bases as were Getting Allied land based planes into Although the Allies appear to have within reach were hammered by shore-based based normal range of Kyushu is usually done overwhelming force by Turn 8. game. cannot be delayed) can be placed there and the strategic bombing campaign begins on schedule. but this will and air forces remains a constant Allied tion of gunfire from combatant ships of the require a large fleet of CVs and a reasonably priority du during the middle game. This will put Allied air power in range of Truk. the Allies should then isolate and conquer the Marshall Islands. or make a The flip side of Allied strategy becomes the which were not withdrawn until air fields Japanese strategy. the destruction of Japanese naval both escort and fast carriers and a concentra concentra. a platform to attack Formosa. forces the Allies to seriously protect pattern developed. from Okinawa (3209). direct attack on Okinawa using non-LRB ashore could be prepared and activated. particularly Saipan/ Tinian (3813). The other major component of the Allied The early Allied efforts should be to first retake the Solomons and the north coast of (Continues on page 46) New Guinea. like HQs. direct attack on Formosa. supportfirce. There are also a number of need to coordinate their assets to achieve excellent cards that make the Philippines an However. each of their middle game offensives (as they United States objective were smothered by a and the best way to do that is from Kyushu. neutralizing it as a base. objective area." This it is assumed that the Japanese are probably air at half strength from the north Luzon is a textbook formula for how the Allies not going to win a negotiated settlement. on them supported by air power. the best place to get air power of naval losses can be replaced and the as the amphibious force moved up. augmented by Kamikaze cards. then the Allies will This is where a CBI heavy Japanese strategy probably find themselves doing the same. Strategic Bombing Survey of 1 July think about this is to work your way back that every offensive could bring on a major 1946. Another alternative is to base a B29 out of China. campaign begins on schedule. The key to any middle game strategy for the Allies is the capture of the Marianas Islands. All key land based air power if they are to effect a locations need to have full strength armies Assuming that the Japanese have followed successful invasion of Honshu. In either case. then their Turn Nine B29 air unit (remember the B29. bein the Allied Offensives is taken right out of the are going to invade Japan. combination of Japanese reaction forces. airfield. The best way to Allies have to move under the assumption U. "For long-range range amphibious advances from the final objective in terms of land battle. they still air. then the invasion of Japan is the only way Allied Axes of Advance for the Allies to win the game. the Allies still the Japanese air and naval forces. A good strategy is to reaction. concentration of air power. the Japanese still need to create maximum results in EotS and is built into attractive objective for the late-middle situations where they can kill a US Marine the fabric of the design. can rapidly blows at all positions which could threaten the cause a large number of step losses. This is an additional incentive for the Japanese to have an active CBI theater by cutting the Burma Road to slow this B29 deployment. As long as A good way to think about how to conduct need to continue playing the game as if they the Japanese maintain a fleet in being. fast carriers within range of Okinawa is Formosa (3009). if possible.S. These alternatives natives are particularly important if the Japanese player over-defends the Marianas. the Allied advance at Division or Army Corps (-I ( PW) to keep some point in the late middle game needs to the Allied player honest and potentially pull pul end up in the neighborhood of Kyushu with off a late game negotiation victory. This threat of Japanese air and naval against strongly defended positions a typical based airpower range. Only a limited amount based air softened the area to be occupied. Working even need to be careful. . an amphibious assault over the weak Japanese air force. With close air supportftom The Philippines can be circumvented by a Therefore. Once this has occurred. and further back. Consequently it is beaches was made. Japanese bases flanking the get land based air within range of Honshu. This diagram shows the basic Allied Axes of Advance to set up the Invasion of Japan and initiate the Strategic Bombing Offensive. At this point in the game. although there are alterna- tive locations like Marcus Island (4110). Strategy Concepts in Empire of the Sun proceed in the Middle game without Even if the Allied strategic bombing middle game strategy is to seek and destroy characterizing the opening. If the Allies capture Saipan (or an alternative site) by game Turn 8. did historically) or suffer su potential setbacks. advancing beyond the objective struck swift and the next step back is the Philippines. Carrier-based based air and available shore shore. The objective was secured often a good idea to take Luzon via Leyte as under air support and coverftom the carriers. the historical script. If B29 deployment can't be accomplished (flying in from Northern India means it cannot bomb on Turn 9).

benefit because it causes the Allies to advance and if the Tojo Resigns/Invasion of under the assumption that the Japanese can Manchuria combination has already played A defending full strength Japanese army. leaving the Allies with a fairly game is how both sides position themselves China. In this case. knowing the result of the opening plays. cost only applies when moving via a also increases Political Will by 1 (limited to once per game turn). victory is whenever the Japanese can turn Charts and Tables Trans Route into a hex that is not  Occupation of Alaska penalty (-1 by Steve Carey enemy occupied (land units must pay PW) requires the Japanese to occupy an the full terrain cost to enter any enemy Aleutian Island hex for 2 consecutive The charts and tables included with occupied hex).. then if the Allies have not lost the Manchuria card play will occur prior to objective by reducing the Japanese army game by Turn 8. a successful submarine for entire game in such case. the same for entire game in such case.e. A valuable event play Tojo Resigns card has been played. free hand for the remainder of the game. the ranges drive Allied objectives. so applying the defenses. or sortie out the entire fleet for the final two reduced armies.. Empire of the Sun are extremely helpful. the Allied Allies need to plan and position their forces for Japan is the 'Defense Doctrine' card advance will quickly pick up momentum. air power available. geography and air power their DEI positions of ground and air eliminate three steps in ground combat. or airfield). i. A for the invasion of Japan. late 1944-45 1944 can hurt because the loss of ground steps to embrace economy of force operations. in addition to a mainland  Terrain Effects Chart — the MP  Strategic Bombing — a successful B29 roll named location. or a 1 hex Island (that contains a port the US). Japanese ASP by I. and they do provide the  Replacements — may not arrive into  Occupation of Alaska — basics for navigating your way a hex that is within an un-neutralized (Clarification) this does not apply if through the various aspects of play.Designer's Notes by Mark Herman (Continued from page 43) During the middle game the Japanese need Both Sides: Late game. A significant Imperial avoid potential US PW casualty penalties. but at the sacrifice of As I said earlier. They should still pick (for battles fought on any one hex island) up on the cheap any resource hexes that the can be the difference between victory and Japanese have either abandoned or are defeat. A well-fortified island position will If the Japanese do not follow the historical weakly held as a hedge that the Invasion of require that the Allies soften up the script. the Japanese need of air power that can support the defense). can potentially knock out. A Dutch Regiment should warfare roll also permanently reduces be in hex 2721 (Toepang). and also include capture of a Resource hex.  US Political Will — US Casualties penalty (-I PW) only applies to indicated units that are capable of receiving replacements (not `dot' units). or +2 to 0). additional reminders that I've found restriction as a Reinforcement. regiment). it is very hard to say much the Allies to win. For the Japanese winning through a negotiated Allies to ignore this possibility is to court settlement becomes very remote. enemy ZOI (that existed prior to the captured on Turn 1. making it bold reaction at the wrong time can see the difficult to properly defend the key invasion entire Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) The dominating character of any EotS end routes due to lack of replacements from eliminated. Assuming that the fleet in being strategy works to the Japanese Allied strategic bomber offensive is on track. whose permanent +1 ground DRM for the big invasion. If the possibility of an A- A stacking limits (which reduces the amount more about the middle game without bomb victory still exists. If this threat is removed. which takes a card. (#3I). disaster. helpful to pencil in:  Occupation of Hawaii —  Quick Start Set Up Map — The DD  Submarine Warfare — in addition to (Clarification) this does not apply if US Asia naval unit should be in hex reducing the Japanese hand size by one card captured on Turn I. and will also reduce  Progress of the War requirement (+5 Escorts (+4 to +2. If only the out six steps of Allied ground units in an Allies to use more resources to take less amphibious assault. A successful Japanese defense d of Allies are forced to bring three ground units map's spatial logic is the Japanese player's Honshu usually rests on having sufficient to well defended positions if they want to best guide for where they need to defend. to be cautious in how much they denude Since even a reduced Japanese army can Having said this. then the Allies should seriously look at showdown. A (game turns 10-12) with such a strategy is inevitable. . disregard penalty Listed below are a small group of Replacement phase). disregard penalty 26I6 (Tarakan. the territory. port. This is a situation where two the Allies should have advanced faster than The Japanese player should start to pull reduced armies (which can't be eliminated the historical timeline and consequently the forces back for the defense of JapanJapa if it via air-naval combat) are a bit better than a possibility of an A-bomb victory increases. Note that hex occupation starting on turn 4) may  Air Naval CRT — the +4 Ambush Japan's minimum hand size is 4 Cards. This threat alone will cause the going for an A A-bomb victory. turns. the possibility of the game Turn 12. or airfield. and air units. DRM applies to the Allies (not just Japan can never lose its last ASP. with the Dutch for the current turn. looks likely that invasion is the only way for full strength army.

the island. moves and is very costly in resources for Allies never penetrated into the Sea of Japan tion for the Allies is to use one of the both sides. Once a port is captured. Game Turn 2 — all Allied Turn 2 Trans Route movement rate cannot be Movement may occur. the Defense Doctrine garrisons. there is only I (not two) US Page 41. Hong Kong Step 2 — there is a Army ground unit (the I1th Corps) and 3 Further. It is number of Allied cards remaining is to maintain a link to the Asian mainland. +2 for Naval Superiority. This invasion is +1 DRM. can result in some nasty outcomes Examples of Play to its roll. since it is usually attended by large Allied victory always remains a possibility. counteroffensive prior to the Allies The Allies usually need to reposition one of expanding ffrom a Honshu port unless the The Japanese have to be a little bit careful their HQs at the end of the game. Replacement Phase — Place the Australian could not leave Singapore (to invading Japanese 14th army would be move into Kuantan) since it could not halved on defense (since it is amphibi. victory. it is presumed that the Japanese 29I3 is mixed terrain. but if the Japanese air Conference cards that confer the exchange a Japan they should. A key card combina. the Allies for the duration of the game. leave a declared battle hex. Kuantan (2014) since Col. the Japanese I9th would not be able to activate (done so first moved a CV (just off-map Army would only receive a +2 DRM (+2 for in this example for illustrative purposes example) to neutralize the ZOI of the Air Superiority. Borneo Step 3 — Post-Battle provides 2 MPs (it's OC value). coupled with the normal +3 AA almost always very bloody and if US PW is benefit. The most important focus of the end against Japan. Once the Japanese. not the Japanese. 3606 does not). 627 Special Reaction Move —for for this Page 41. No particularly the Korean resource hex (3305). through their early actions. Japanese strategy always dominates the make this a difficult Allied undertaking. I hope air unit. terrain benefit. Here again. the 25th Army could not 7th AF air unit and thus allow the for Mixed Terrain). is the best hope for Japanese seven hexes (six of which have intrinsic you have as much fun playing EotS as I do. wealth ground units who are immune from opening phase and the character of the US PW penalties. delayed). particularly effective to get a Joint Allied insufficient for them to finish the job. the 8th Page 41. so mathematically the I4th army returning 7th AF non-LRB non unit in by Steve Carey must suffer at least 1 Hit (and would be Midway (5108) and the returning 7th eliminated with 2 Hits on an Allied roll of AF LRB unit in Oahu (5808). and the defending Allied NL Corps likewise gets +3 DRM Page 43. and the Page 42. units are allowed to PBM as required. the Page 12. For the Japanese it is a cut Japan off exists. backed by at least one (e. with victory often use the I8-18 Korean Army for offensive initial Honshu invasion. Col. Page 43. HQ positioned close to Japan to enable the matter how it goes. for the final conquest of game as a whole. Historically the units in the late game. Strategy Concepts in Empire of the Sun back an Allied invasion of a Honshu hex low enough a late war negotiated Japanese for the Allies as they grind towards Japan.g. Finally. but if not. Unit 82 — since the rulebook: neous). the card with the discard pile bonus allowing force for all attacks or potentially suffer a possibility of an Allied invasion of Korea to the Allies to regain a major military event game losing setback. Cot Tsugi. Philippines Step 10— the Page 42. but hopefully the basic the intrinsic defense. Philippines Step 11 — since hex 22nd air flotilla and the BB Kongo2 example. Tsugi's card text neutralizes the normal hex is Mixed Terrain. Allied focus should occurring on the last card of the game. the final conquest of otherwise there exists the potential for an use of Commonwealth ground and naval Honshu offers few opportunities for subtle Allied blockade (see 12. or at a should pour ground forces into Japan via Conclusion minimum returning it to this location to Strategic Transport. Also. The following are a few clarifications to 6+). have defined the Allied strategies in the end game are broad outlines of their defensive perimeter eliminating the Japanese air force and it is up to the Allies to figure out how to whatever remnants of the IJN that still penetrate it to bring their forces to bear There is no particular subtlety to the exist. cards in hand) to conquer Honshu's themes are now a bit more visible. particularly Common. If the Allies can avoid invading with surface units. Battle of Kuantan — it is of course the British who retreat into Singapore. Japanese 17th Army since the battle diversion roll for Europe.93). operations early in the game.. . The number of combinations defense of Honshu. Having every Honshu game is to get sufficient Allied ground and permutations are beyond this article to hex covered with a ground unit to augment power onto Honshu with sufficient time fully articulate. ously invading). -2 only). use maximum and naval forces are sufficiently reduced. The Japanese apanese often will such as Operation Coronet to launch their fight to the last unit. move from Kota Bharu (2112) to landing of the ground unit at Kauai. card text states that "Only Japanese ground units may be activated". Note that Surprise does not apply to enhance examples included in the Ground Combat (which is always simulta. The Japanese should consider a ground casualties. It is a good be on taking a Honshu port as their first idea to consider leaving this force in Korea objective. note that the + 4 DRM modifier of -2 DRM to the roll of the US Army air units present to each make a provided during combat is correct. Tsugi only Page 40. even though no Reinforcements go into the Delay Box used to enter an enemy occupied hex actual battle occurred — any activated except the SEAC HQ (since HQ's are never (must pay full MP cost). Also.