The term deep sea creature refers to organisms that live below the photic zone of the ocean

. These
creatures must survive in extremely harsh conditions, such as hundreds of bars of pressure, small
amounts of oxygen, very little food, no sunlight, and constant, extreme cold. Most creatures have to
depend on food floating down from above.
These creatures live in very demanding environments, such as the abyssal or hadal zones, which,
being thousands of meters below the surface, are almost completely devoid of light. The water is
between 3 and 10 degrees Celsius and has low oxygen levels. Due to the depth, the pressure is
between 20 and 1,000 bars. Creatures that live hundreds or even thousands of meters deep in the
ocean have adapted to the high pressure, lack of light, and other factors.

Deep-sea gigantism[edit]
Main article: Deep-sea gigantism

Humpback anglerfish: Melanocetus johnsonii

The term deep-sea gigantism describes an effect that living at such depths has on some creatures'
sizes, especially relative to the size of relatives that live in different environments. These creatures
are generally many times bigger than their counterparts. The giant isopod (related to the common pill
bug) exemplifies this. To date, scientists have only been able to explain deep-sea gigantism in the
case of the giant tube worm. Scientists believe these creatures are much larger than shallower-
water tube worms because they live on hydrothermal vents that expel huge amounts of resources.
They believe that, since the creatures don't have to expend energy regulating body temperature and
have a smaller need for activity, they can allocate more resources to bodily processes.
There are also cases of deep-sea creatures being abnormally small, such as the lantern shark,
which fits in an adult human's palm. [2]


Smaller cousins of giant tube worms feeding at a hydrothermal vent

Bioluminescence is the ability of an organism to create light through chemical reactions. Creatures
use bioluminescence in many ways: to light their way, attract prey, or seduce a mate. Many
underwater animals are bioluminescent—from the viper fish to the various species of flashlight fish,
named for their light.[3] Some creatures, such as the angler fish, have a concentration
of photophores in a small limb that protrudes from their bodies, which they use as a lure to catch

The chemical process of bioluminescence requires at least two chemicals: the light producing chemical called luciferin and the reaction causing chemical called luciferase. Fresh luciferin must be brought in through the diet or through internal synthesis. Bioluminescence can also confuse enemies.curious fish.[4] The luciferase catalyzes the oxidation of the luciferin causing light and resulting in an inactive oxyluciferin.[4] .