SPQR Scenario Battles — Agrigentum and Adys

Mercenary: Land Warfare in the First Punic War, 262-256 BC
BY DAN FOURNIE

You've played Bagradas in SPQR and seen two supply depot for the Roman army. Next,
Hanno advanced against the Roman army.
legions crushed by elephants and enveloped by Hanno sent his Numidian cavalry forward
to harass the Romans. The Roman cavalry
masses of cavalry. Ever wonder how you might charged their opponents, and the
Numidians fled in apparent terror. When
do as Regulus against a Punic army in rough the Roman horse had been led an adequate
terrain with mediocre leadership? Now you can find out at the Battle distance, the Numidians wheeled about.
The Romans were encircled and over-
of Adys, 256 (all dates BC). In addition, you can re-fight the largest whelmed, and finally fled after suffering
severe losses. This was the first of many
battle of the First Punic War. Early in the war Carthage scoured the times the Romans would fall for a
Numidian feigned retreat.
world to hire tens of thousands of mercenaries to challenge a Roman
Now both Hannibal's army and
double consular army. You get to see what happens when they meet at the Roman forces were cut off from
supplies. Hanno had pitched camp on a
the Battle of Agrigentum, 262. nearby hill called Torus, and used his
cavalry to cut the Romans off. The Romans
Background Syracuse. Hiero had had enough, and only survived through the energetic efforts
The First Punic War was decided joined an alliance with Rome, after paying a of Hiero to slip through supplies. This
at sea. After four years of war, Rome found hefty tribute. It was now Rome against stalemate lasted for over two months.
she could never conquer Sicily without a Carthage. Hannibal's situation was more desperate
navy. So Rome built a navy. Twenty years than the Roman's, and he sent constant fire
The council in Carthage finally
later a naval battle ended the war. The and smoke signals to Hanno begging for
realized it had a serious war on its hands.
decisive naval actions of this war (Ecnomus, relief. Hanno finally decided to risk a
Recruiting officers were dispatched all over
Drepanum and Aegates) are portrayed in general battle. The Romans gladly
the western Mediterranean to hire
GMT's War Galley. But only one land accepted.
mercenaries. Celts, Ligurians, Balearics,
battle from the First Punic War is found in Greeks and above all Iberians were hired in
SPQR. Unlike the Second Punic War, large numbers. Meanwhile, Libyan and Both armies came down into an
there were few major land battles in this Numidian troops were also conscripted into open plain for the fight. The consuls
long war. Only one battle involved a service. The troops were concentrated at Postumius and Mamilius had to detach
double consular army — at Agrigentum, Agrigentum, as a convenient base for about a quarter of their army, probably
262. Full consular armies were present at operations against the Romans near about 10,000 men, to guard the trenches
only three recorded battles: Adys 256, Syracuse. The new consuls of 262, Lucius around Hannibal's army in Agrigentum.
Bagradas 255 and Panormus 252. Other- Postumius Megellus and Quintus Mamilius They brought the remaining 25,000 foot
wise, one side or the other avoided pitched Vitulus, concentrated their forces and made onto the field, and deployed in the
battle, and fought a war of attrition instead. a preemptive strike at Agrigentum. They traditional checker-board pattern. They
But it didn't begin that way. caught the Carthaginian general Hannibal brought all their surviving cavalry, less than
before his full army had gathered, and shut 2,500. The Roman horsemen were on the
him up in the city. A full siege was right, the allies on the left.
The Legions Come to Sicily undertaken and works constructed around
Rome managed to slip two the city. There were about 15,000 soldiers Hanno organized his army in
legions, a consular army, across the straits and 35,000 civilians in the city, and three lines, behind a screen of Balearic and
into Messana to open the First Punic War supplies quickly ran short. Hannibal sent Cretan skirmishers. In the van he posted
in 264. At this point Carthage and out a plea for immediate relief. 15,000 mercenaries, barbarians from Iberia,
Syracuse were allied against the Mamertine Gaul and Liguria, as well as a small band of
mercenaries and jointly besieging the city. Sicilian Greek hoplites. The second line
In short order, the consul Appius Claudius was formed of 50 war elephants. In the
The Siege and Battle
taught them what the legions were about. third line were 15,000 African, Libyan and
He first routed King Hiero's Greek army, of Agrigentum, 262 BC Numidian levy infantry. Hanno covered
and the following day crushed the A second Carthaginian army was his right flank with 2,000 superb Numidian
Carthaginians as well. A new kid was on formed at Heracleia, 20 miles northwest of light cavalry, and his left with 2,000 African
the block. Claudius advanced to Syracuse Agrigentum. The general Hanno amassed a heavy cavalry, along with Celtic and Iberian
and laid siege to the city. In 263 Rome sent force of 30,000 foot, 4,000 horse and 50 lancers. Why Hanno placed his elephants in
four legions and both consuls against elephants in his relief army. His first move the middle of his army is unknown.
was a surprise strike at Herbessus, the main Carthage had only been using the beasts
since Pyrrhus' invasion, and may not have

Regulus offered terms that were impossibly of Thermae. 259 BC harsh. Hasdrubal took an . Regulus came out on the plain. 260-256. In 253.500 cavalry and some brutally crushing the revolt of Libyan and was left under command of its tribunes. 256 BC struggle. Once the army was assembled. as the fleet was wrecked in a battles. The second battle. The third Carthaginian line was march. The Carthaginians. But Thermae was riven with dissension. but agile and quick enough was sent to engage the Romans. surrender. Encircled. This plan had succeeded an army in Africa. As they routed into the over the awarding of prizes and honors for a rough. But there no army in the field. about Only 2. The Punic cavalry and the advancing legions as well. and massive fleet and small army. Xanthipus. The result was the employment of reevaluated their policy in Sicily and In 256. the proconsul Gaius the Spartan mercenary captain. Off Cape Ecnomus (southern and encircled by cavalry. The Romans then sacked the from the war in Sicily for the next decade. Unsatisfied with this army. 16. The small drove back one legion. SPQR: Scenario Battles of Agrigentum and Adys developed a suitable doctrine. and were then the fighting as long and drawn out. and began to rampage in all their own. of which no details remain. to safety all the way back to Heracleia. routed. foolishly encamped in and finally buckled. The Romans first besieged and storm with the loss of 284 ships out of 364. While the Carthage called out her civic it back to Rome. the Numidian tribes. and the of a little over 10. The mercenaries was butchered. Hannibal was able to escape only recorded Carthaginian victories in of the other legion and cut off. shattered the Punic navy of 350 ships of Bagradas" in less than a year. all hell broke loose. while the army conducted small scale raids (featured in War Galley). But they were enough to Roman consul Gaius Duilius was winning levies under the two generals Hasdrubal and spread the horrible stories of being trampled Rome's first naval victory at Mylae and his Bostar. along Carthaginian army was busy for two years Carthaginian prisoner. but pursued too far. Roman victory. These generals assembled about by elephants. weary of the long war and with Bagradas. At harass a superior enemy with her fleet and was to clear the seas of the Punic navy. (not Barca. Gaul.000 men killed. the result. hilly terrain. Punic War had ended in a decisive victories led to the invasion of Africa.000 foot of questionable quality.000 infantry. sued for peace. The a substantial elephant corps near Panormus with his mercenary corps strength of this army lay in its mercenaries The two armies clashed. it from the field. left the Roman camp and set up Regulus did not wait for the nium. decided to avoid pitched battles with the Atilius Regulus and the consul Lucius He drilled the Punic infantry in phalanx Roman legions. prompting Carthage to renew the The Carthaginian leaders The Battle of Adys. who had fiercely against the more heavily armored to launch devastating raids. His force was and mounted corps of cavalry and skirmishers and velites were soon driven far too small to threaten a Roman elephants. Sicily with 5. where they were able to cover enslaved. as only 500 the Roman fleet. The Romans had two full legions supported by Italian allies. guerrilla raids. launched his surprise attack. Hamilcar. Polybius describes this phase of brought word that the Roman army near Carthaginian hinterland. The colleague Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio was a 10. the mercenaries were worn down. with the loss of 4. The way to and ambushes in Sicily. They were surely an ill- favorable opportunities to fight small cavalry were brought over on horse starred bunch. The undefended city. land Bagradas. directions. from Agrigentum with his army that night. The mercenaries fought consular army. When the alae sociorum was but attacked them in the rough ground thrown into confusion. 250 BC build a navy in 260. father) had replaced Hanno and Hannibal took the port of Aspis. War of Posts and the Battle was another. is featured in SPQR. where their mounted line of elephants. anxious gradually. The recent battle. Hanno the Great made Hamilcar caught the leaderless army by surprise and inflicted a reverse on the council recalled the general Hamilcar from his name during this fighting.500 crack mercenaries from first recorded battle in which Carthage had In 259 Hamilcar was stationed Iberia. Punic militia and overran their camp. Hannibal's transports. Their mission of 4. earlier battle. and soon routed by breaking camp in the morning. Hamilcar made a night forced Carthaginians to come down to the plain. The allies.000 men. Regulus' mounted arm disaster at Bagradas to be picked up later by Punic commanders were always alert for was quite weak. and force Carthage to only to see his legions stomped by elephants against Dionysius. and cut down by cavalry. The largest battle of the First from Carthage. The besieging Adys. Only a few hundred of Regulus' ever made as commander in Sicily in 260. This war of Africa was now clear. But even while advanced inland. This is the Romans near Segesta. the Roman army with about 1. though a few troops fled Roman legions could react. Roman troops and their allies had argued to relieve the city. The allies were elephants were unable to engage effectively. Regulus went They saw no reason why Rome should be Sicily). The fleet struck the Italian coast.000 horse and 100 elephants. but Hamilcar led his mercenaries in a A large part of the Punic army Hamilcar withdrew before the nearby vigorous counterattack. Liguria and Greek Sicily. Carthage. elephants were caught up in the pandemo. elephants. two major land battles. A time-honored strategy Manlius Vulso were entrusted with a tactics and built up a strong mounted force was to fall back on fortified posts. The Romans then routed the battle. The 25. Agathocles and Pyrrhus. however. His spies been pillaging the rich estates of the Romans.000 inhabitants The center of attention shifted to Rome's cavalry and elephants made their way down who survived the siege and sacking were successful struggle to wrest naval supremacy to the plain. Sicily during the entire 24-year war. and It was a great victory for Regulus. These naval the retreat of the remnants of the infantry. the Roman navy of 330 galleys from being the "Hero of Adys" to the "Goat different.000 Romans survived the avoiding major set piece battles with Rome. dissatisfied with forces were ineffective. Regulus and Manlius Elephant Fever and the attrition finally convinced the Romans to landed their forces near Cape Bon and Battle of Panormus. Hamilcar around their camp. battles at Segesta and Thermae were the They were caught in the flank by maniples Ironically. the mercenaries were cut down in a fierce as the Roman army was exhausted from the Few other battles are recorded struggle.

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c). 1 Praefect Soc. The Battle of Agrigentum. Postumius (use Regulus).b) (5)  COUNTERS— AllcountersformSPQR. (a.13. XIX AS (a. These beasts later entertained the with TQ points totaling 145 have crowds in Rome. Replacements are listed. African.  All Hastati. Hamilcar waged a masterful guerrilla war of XIX Alae Sociorum.strategy rating 5). Mamulius (use Dentatus). army. and VII Alae Sociorum SCENARIO BATTLE SET-UP: defeat at sea. Hasdrubal. units with TQ points totaling 160 city. After 24 years. African LI (1-6) — 1807-12 5. 262 BC 3209-35 (odd hexes/2 per hex) Leader counters were printed in C3i  All Triarii 3416-29 — Magazine Nr. all SK* now began to avoid pitched battle with the Celtic MI (1-8) — 2214-17 & 2227-30 2. and complete the route of the Punic Bostar.b. all cavalry city. from the city walls against them. Mauretanian MI (1-4) — 1813-16 4. hastati & cohorts* elephants. Cretan SK (1-2) The Roman army has two consuls: — 3442-34 (even hexes) Carthaginian Deployment Q. flip a coin. N. WITHDRAWAL LEVELS Caecilius launched a massive missile barrage Iberian LN (1) within 2 hexes of 2203. 256 BC (featured in War Galley). The Numidian MI (1-6) — 1828-33 velites kept goading Hasdrubal's elephants Numidian LI (1-4) — 1834-37 * May form lines occupying every other hex. Balearic SK (1-11). XIV & XIX Roman Cavalry (3)  MAP — Use the Cannae Map within 1 hex of 3004 Carthaginian Deployment  VII AS. SPQR: Scenario Battles of Agrigentum and Adys army to Sicily of 25.all Iberian. When the elephants were CAVALRY caught up at the edge of the trench. Hasdrubal's army into confusion. throwing to withdraw. XIX Roman Legion. Mago — Deploy with any unit have been eliminated.all EL** Carthaginians. Celtic LN (1-2). 1. Replacements are listed. Postumius. Nearly all the elephants were  Roman Army withdraws when units captured.all cavalry advanced against the consular army of (1-9) — 2009-36 (every third hex) Rome: Lucius Caecilius Metellus at Panormus. African Elephants 5. Iberian LI (1-14) — 2207-13 & 2231-37 3. broken.all Carthaginian. ROMAN COMMAND Balearic SK (1-3). Cretan SK (1-3). the Battle of the Aegates The Battle of Adys. Caecilius LEADERS  Carthaginian Army withdraws when had his heavy infantry sally out from the Hanno (OC .  VII. 6 Cohorts per AS —  COUNTERS— All countersform SPQR. XIV Roman Legion. In a complete reverse of the Mercenary HI/HO (1-3) — 2221-23 Carthage: situation after Agrigentum. of the War Consul L. Hamilcar Equit — Deploy with any unit Barca (father of Hannibal) became the new Carthaginian commander-in-chief. and Roman infantry forces are arrayed from returned to the war of posts and attrition.000 men and 140 MERCENARY CORPS LINE ELIGIBILITY elephants. Celtic MI (1-2) — 3338-39 Cretan SK (1-3) — 2406-38 (even hexes) .13. and drawing them ever loser to the trench ** May form lines occupying every third hex and the city walls. The war  A player wins by forcing his opponent Numidian LC (1-6) within 2 hexes of 2241 elephants recoiled in terror. left to right as follows: With a corps of 10. raid and ambush for seven years.000 crack mercenaries. triarii He kept his velites in a trench before the N. He had his army withdraw from Carthage Levy MI (1-11)— 1817-27 3. ELEPHANT CORPS In June of 250 Hasdrubal Indian Elephants (1). But in the XV Roman Legion. velites* Caecilius decided to set a trap for the AFRICAN CORPS 2.  All Velites 2807-37 (odd hexes) — the long war was over. 4 Cohorts per AS —  MAP — Use the Cynoscephalae Map 3010-32 (even hexes/2 per hex) SCENARIO BATTLE SET-UP:  All Principes. Mamilius and L. Mauretanian & Numidian MI & LI plains and stuck to the mountains. with a large supply of missiles. end Carthage was driven from Sicily by a VII Roman Legion. Celtic LN (1) — 3343 To determine who is the OC for the day Iberian LI (1-3) — 3340-42 SKIRMISHERS of battle. The 'elephant fever' was Roman Deployment been eliminated. within 2 hexes of 3039 MERCENARY CORPS Leader counters were printed in C3i Hamilcar — 3339 Magazine Nr. 2 Praefects last major land battle of the war. for fear of the elephants. principes & cohorts* the field before Panormus in apparent fear. the Romans Ligurian MI (1-6) — 2218-20 & 2224-26 1. MI & LI The Roman armies completely avoided the 4. VICTORY CONDITIONS d' Sacred Band HC (1). The Battle of Panormus was the 2 Tribunes. LEADERS Hamilcar Barca and the End Consul Q. Merc HI. Ligurian Celt.

6 Cohorts per AS — 3826-44 (even hexes/2 per hex)  All Principes. Ligurian Celt & Merc HI. Hamilcar may ONLY issue orders/LCs  The Roman player receives two (2) Pr. Roman infantry forces are arrayed from left to right as follows: XIV Mae Sociorum. African LI (1-6) — 3023-28  Roman Army withdraws when units Sacred Band HC (1-2). and XV Alae Sociorum  All Velites 3625-43 (odd hexes) —  All Hastati. Balearic and Cretan SK* 3. Leaders instead of one (1). Hasdrubal. 4 Cohorts per AS — 4027-41 (odd hexes/2 per hex)  All Triarii 4230-39 —  XIV Roman Cavalry (1). velites* 2. 2 Tribunes. Hamilcar may deploy with any Roman/AS unit. Carthaginian Levy MI 4. XV Roman Legion. may automatically issue LCs to his units. XIV Roman Legion. hastati & cohorts*  A player wins by forcing his opponent AFRICAN CORPS 3. 2 Praefects Soc. Hasdrubal is the OC with strategy rating of '5'. African Elephants (1-6) — within 1 hex of 2532 CARTHAGINIAN COMMAND The Carthaginian army had three generals. African LI & Mauretanian MI . Hasdrubal (OC . Roman Deployment LEADERS Regulus (OC). and becomes OC (strategy rating '3') if Hasdrubal is killed. triarii Bostar — 3026  Carthaginian Army withdraws when Mago — 2826 * May form lines occupying every other hex. elephants* VICTORY CONDITIONS and Mercenary HI/HO (1-2) — 3336-37 Rome: WITHDRAWAL LEVELS Ligurian MI (1-2) — 3334-35 1. Mago is a notional subordinate. Deploy both armies as indicated.strategy rating '5') — 2835 4. all Mercenaries (Iberian. Bostar was his co-commander. N. Mauretanian MI (1-4) — 3029-32 N. LI & LN) 2. units with TQ points totaling 95 have Carthaginian MI (1-16) — 2823-38 been eliminated. Numidian LC (1-2) with TQ points totaling 110 have — within 1 hex of 2526 been eliminated. These to HIS mercenary corps units. Soc. MI. XV AS (a) — 3 8 23 -2 4 LINE ELIGIBILITY Carthage: 1. Hamilcar was SimpleGBoH Set-Up a veteran commander from Sicily Agrigentum (262 BC) (victor at Thermae). except for the following change: 1. Bostar and Mago may NOT issue orders/LCs to the mercenaries. 2. 1 Praefect Equit.Mercenary: Land Warfare in the First Punic War 5. principes & cohorts* to withdraw.

activate separately Special Rules  Numdians: Numdian LC add +2 to all Pursuit Checks  Elephant Command: Elephants may not leave a hex in an enemy ZOC or if the Adys (256 BC) Elephant has an enemy unit in its ZOC. However. in the Formation AND both commanders are in the Overall Commander's Command Special Rules Range. All Principes (PR) Class units Furthermore.14 Multiple Formations.  Carthaginian Auxiliary Formations activate separately . See 4. However. The units in the other Formation are automatically Out of Pursuit Checks Command.14 Multiple Formations. The units in the other Formation are automatically Out of Command. See 4. The Overall Commander may move with this activation. Hasdrubal may not use a successful Turn Seizure to activate a Mercenary Corps Formation . Bosar Hastati/Cohort and Principes/Cohort becomes the Overall Commander. All Principes (PR) Class units The Elephant may expend MP to change facing. the Roman player may only place the units in one of the  Numdians: Numdian LC add +2 to all Formations In Command. The Overall Commander may move with this activation. If Hasdrubal is eliminated. b = The Roman player may not activate this formation until either an enemy combat unit is within three hexes or its units are at least six hexes from all other Roman LG type units. Roman Units with Reduced Side b = The Roman player may not activate this Formation until either an enemy combat unit is within three hexes or its units are at least six hexes from all other Roman LG type units. Roman: 110 Rout Points. the units may not move adjacent to an enemy unit until the Roman army has rout points equal to at least one half its Withdrawal Level.  Elephant Command: Elephants may not leave a hex in an enemy ZOC or if the Roman Units with Reduced Side Elephant has an enemy unit in its ZOC. a = A contiguous line may have one intervening vacant hex between each unit. but must remain in the hex Army Withdrawal Levels  Carthaginian Auxiliary Formations Carthaginian: 95 Rout Points. The Elephant may expend MP to change facing. the Roman player may only place the units in one of the Formations In Command. together if each of the Formations has its commander stacked with or adjacent to a unit Roman: 145 Rout Points. Mercenary: Land Warfare in the First Punic War a = A contiguous line may have one intervening vacant hex between each unit. Furthermore. but must remain in the hex Deploy both armies as indicated. Formations together if each of the Carthaginian Units with Reduced Side Formations has its commander stacked with or adjacent to a unit in the Formation Mercenary Heavy Infantry (HI) AND both commanders are in the Overall Sacred Band Heavy Cavalry (HC) Commander's Command Range. Hamilcar may use a successful Turn Seizure to The Roman player may activate the activate his Formation or the Mercenary Shirmishers. Both Mamulius and Postumius are treated as Overall Commanders. The Roman player may activate the Hastati/Cohort and Principes/Cohort Formations Carthaginian: 160 Rout Points. the units may not move adjacent to an enemy unit until the Roman army has Army Withdrawal Levels rout points equal to at least one half its Withdrawal Level.including the Shirmishers.