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Philip Hawthorn and Caroline Phipps
Edited by Jenny Tyler and Helen Davies
Series editor: Anthony Marks

Designed by Kim Blundell and Lindy Dark
Cover design by Russell Punter

Illu ted by Joseph McEwan,
Guy Smith and Peter Dennis
Cover illustration by Ross Watton


USIC ts by Daniel Scott and Caroline Phipps
Music engravings by Poco Ltd and Michael Durnin

Contents
Section 1
Baroque music 4
Classical music 22
Romantic music 38
Playing the pieces in section 1 62
Glossary 64
Composer chart 66

Section 2
Theatre music 68
Music for dancing 86
Religious music 100
Descriptive music 110
Playing the pieces in section 2 126
Index 128

Pieces in this book
Trumpet tune (Purcell), 6 Terzettino (Mozart), 70
When I am laid in earth (Purcell), 7 Fidelio (Beethoven), 72
Adagio (AlbinonilGiazotto), 8 The Barber of Seville overture
Spring (Vivaldi), 9 (Rossini), 73
AlIa Danza (Handel), 10 Drinking song (Verdi), 74
Arrival of the Queen of Sheba Anvil chorus (Verdi), 76
(Handel), 12 Soldiers' chorus (Gounod), 78
Thine be the Glory (Handel), 14 March of the kings (Bizet), 79
Canon in D (Pachelbel), 15 Du und du (Strauss), 80
Viola concerto in G (Telemann), 16 Morning (Grieg), 81
Brandenburg concerto no.3 (Bach), 17 Flower duet (Delibes), 82
Air on the G string (Bach), 18 Pizzicati (Delibes), 84
Minuet in G (Bach), 20 Sleeping Beauty waltz
Rule, Britannia (Arne), 21 (Tchaikovsky),85
Bourree (Leopold Mozart), 24 Musette (J. S. Bach), 88
Che faro (Gluck), 25 German dance (Mozart), 89
Emperor's hymn (Haydn), 26 Minuet in A (Boccherini), 90
String quartet in D (Haydn), 27 The Blue Danube waltz nO.l
Clarinet concerto (Mozart), 28 (Strauss), 92
Romance (Mozart), 29 Hungarian dance no.5 (Brahms), 94
Symphony no.40 (Mozart), 30 Dance of the hours (Ponchielli), 95
Duet from The Magic Flute (Mozart)., 32 Slavonic dance op.46, no.8 (Dvorak), 96
Ode to Joy (Beethoven), 33 Eugene One gin waltz (Tchaikovsky), 97
Pastoral Symphony (Beethoven), 34 Norwegian dance op.35, no.2
Minuet in G (Beethoven), 35 (Grieg),98
Moonlight Sonata (Beethoven), 36 Polovtsian dance no.l (Borodin), 99
Impromptu (Schubert), 40 Wachet auf! (J. S. Bach), 102
The Unfinished Symphony (Schubert), 41 Jesu, joy of man's desiring
Serenade (Schubert), 42 (J. S. Bach), 104
Caprice no.24 (Paganini), 44 The Heavens are telling the glory of
William Tell overture (Rossini), 45 God (Haydn), 105
Harold in Italy (Berlioz), 46 The Lord's my shepherd (J. S.
The Jolly Peasant (Schumann), 47 Irvine), 106
The Wild Horseman (Schumann), 48 Jerusalem (Parry), 107
Prelude op.28, no.7 (Chopin), 49 Go down Moses, 108
Nocturne op.9, no.2 (Chopin), 50 Swing low, sweet chariot, 109
Violin concerto in E minor Autumn (Vivaldi), 112
(Mendelssohn),52 Nocturne (Mendelssohn), 114
Liebestraume (Liszt), 54 Hebrides overture (Mendelssohn), 116
La donna e mobile (Verdi), 55 Nocturne op.15, no.2 (Chopin), 117
Ride of the Valkyries (Wagner), 56 Romeo and Juliet (Tchaikovsky), 118
Bridal chorus (Wagner), 57 Promenade (Musorgsky), 120
Symphony no.3 (Brahms), 58 Vltava (Smetana), 121
Swan Lake (Tchaikovsky), 59 Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakov), 122
Piano concerto no.l (Tchaikovsky), 60 The girl with the flaxen hair
Solveig's song (Grieg), 61 (Debussy), 124

opus 2 and so on. for example. Sometimes titles were added later by other people.l. called an opus number. Introduction The tunes in this book are taken from popular pieces of classical music. The pieces are grouped in three sections according to the period in which they were written. composers began to number their works as they were published. Many of them should be familiar. op. At the beginning of each section there is an introduction to the music and composers of that period. . and have been specially arranged and simplified to make them easy to play. Beethoven called his sixth symphony the Pastoral Symphony. (Opus is the Latin word for "work"). no.l). Composers often gave their music titles as well. Beethoven's sonata op.27. opus 1 (or op. For example.2 was given the name Moonlight Sonata. even those with titles that you may not recognize. Often a single opus number was given to a group of pieces published together in one book. each one was given a second number.4. When several pieces appeared with the same opus number. Naming n p of c i Most pieces of music have a number. no. In the 17th century.

until later in the 18th around 40 players. Italian called Cristofori. architecture and music from about 1600 to 1750. • plano Harpsichord The first piano was made in about 1700 by an An orchestra is a large group of instruments. are also sections of brass. the main keyboard instruments in an orchestra are strings. orchestra. It was works. A suite is a group of pieces of special theatre for opera) was while the smaller group played music. An example of this is staged in private homes in the written for a small group of the minuet. woodwind and spinet and clavichord. Opera The concerto grosso Dance music and suites i. a type Baroque composers began to some or all of the words are of piece called the concerto use dance music in their sung. scenery or opposite page you can find out about the action. virginal. a dance which was 1590s by a group of poets and instruments and a larger very popular at the court of composers called the Camerata. The first public opera house (a mainly as an accompaniment. and worked its way north to Germany. different dance styles. More than half of the century. There instruments were the harpsichord. The first operas were grosso was popuJar.l-psichord player or the The others had quills to pluck the strings. Baroque orchestras were the strings struck. an orchestra had up to become popular. On the and orchestra without costumes. usually on a religious theme. Cantatas are similar to oratorios but they Baroque composers whose music are more an act of worship. 4 . Buildings were very ornate. and music echoed this. though. often including appears in this section. France and England. The orchestra acted Louis XIV in France. popular hymn tunes. were directed by the ha. It is performed by a choir some of these are described here. special solo parts. Baroque music started in Italy. The first piano The orchestra Example of a baroque Early orchestra. lead violinist. often including several opened in Venice in 1637. as they are on a piano. It is known for its contrasts of speed and volume. Many new styles or forms of music were developed in the Baroque period. Only on the clavichord percussion instruments.The Baroque period Baroque is the name given to the Oratorios cantatas European style of art. Until then. An oratorio is a musical story or drama. Pianos didn't really In the Baroque period. - I An opera is like a play where In the Baroque period.

many concertos be a priest. all over Europe. Mozart. He composed and harpsichord player. he died a of Queen Mary in 1695. then went to Weimar and Cathen. He also wrote for singing school with his wife. poor man. Mendelssohn. Bach was born into a famous Arne was one of the most His father didn't want him to be German musical family. From 1703 he when he was eight. and at 20 and a lot of other instrumental taught the violin at a girls' became the organist at music. including oratorios. He was melodies. in 1709. including for kings George I and George music later influenced ma. and famous English composers of a musician.Baroque composers Henry Purcell Tomaso Albinoni Antonio Vivaldi (1659-1695) (1671-1751) (1678-1741) Purcell was the most famous Albinoni was an Italian Vivaldi was an Italian English Baroque composer. majnly for strings. where he opened a 550 of them for various 40 plays.ny those of Shakespeare. so as a boy he had held important posts as a the late 18th century. including music for Venice. and lots of music and subject in 1726. George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Thomas Arne (1685-1759) (1685-1750) (1710-1778) Handel was born in Germany. Britannia. He lived in musician at the courts of noted for writing pleasant Italy for a while. and the funeral death. He known for his development of London. Rule. composer. He was to play in secret. He school in Venice. violinist operas. and wrote about works. 5 . he directed his operas much of his life. Beethoven and remembered is now known as operas and concertos. Although he royal occasions such as Margherita. He is best Westminster Abbey in also wrote over 50 operas. including for which he is best music. Handel wrote many kinds of other composers. His songs for plays. He wrote over 30 England and became a British an excellent organist. He wrote over 40 composer who also trained to He had a song published cantatas. After her was a famous musician for coronations. The tune II. instruments. He wrote over 500 lived most of his early life in the concerto.

. I --- 3 4 fl _.. r------[ j • j ""." \I 1-0 II I""" ppl - • I""" J/L . Purcell 1"1 1 1 L / 1 1 2 3 -- •• .. :I: o· r: • 1 (9. / •• h...- u - I otr-' otr 1 1 / 5 3 I I fI 1-0 I II -- • .l't - v . r- I. v II 1- I-" •---- l.. • II. -. 1 3 J I{ \I 1-0 II I""" • I""" • .. I I mp f f/.. o· U· f 1-0 v 1 I I --' 2 5 7 .. It is based is sung before she on The Aeneid.. h. h.. 1'[J'-· .ment and Aeneas. I -4 -' '"': ..... -----------. • 1001- •• --' " . • II. v 0 fJU r... ..I P ---- / .-. . 2 4 fI I _. r..-J /' " --' I"" .I'" • r_ v .. .2 31 2 1':\ t I{ r_ v '-. /j mf pp :lIi..oIIIL -. - .. . rit.. :lfio r ... Ii 'v"V 1-0 U r.•• II J ... I'" - -' • L">.oIIIL :-- """"'- J/IIL. 1/ / I I{ r_ v '-. • otr -' otr....... '- 1 LLL I I. •• fJ " . I'" 1 2 3 1 I 3 / 3 4 3 5 fI \I 1-0 I II - -' ....21 1 1 5 1 3 r----. a dies.II • • . 4 - I ----.... _. = pp I ' f . -' • - -' c -' " \..-..0 I""" • 1 • . - -' • --' --' ".-l 5 2 5 3 -• I"" r ". II f/- otr r... j otr .. 1 J f .'l . --. J/L --- . - < 1':\ I "". .. 1/ mf t" . . otrl-" Ioo1Il1ii.. til.. 0 U :::::::::. When I am laid in earth This tune is from Jt is also called the opera Dido and Didos La.u 1'1 - . story by the Roman poet Virgil.

• 1".. of'!'. '- fl "" U' . ":t:: - I""" •• - I""" •• -' 1 3 '" -----.1 of'!'"./ v ":t:: 3 2 _." -' of'!'... -. - Q.. of'!'. r- ·· I 12.' -' v 2 I""" oJ • . .. • r.' -"- U r.. r. • • 1"- .. Giazotto thought this he left a lot of music piece was so unfinished. Giazotto listed all of Albinoni's music.' -' .. ... Albinonil Giazotto Adagio I 1'. \oH'J IS.... U· of'!'. r- . 'rJ • 3 --- t I{ 1'_" '-'I fl \I .. Adagio When Albinoni died.. ...---- 11 .. -5 I""" "" I. • -----...:lIi. Q. H.---. I -' ... I IJ .. • - I""" • 1 -- 4 I""" I""" r:. 1 •... . I""" I 12 1 11 I 5 4 8 .... I . :lIi.J 3 I . I '".. • I I-.. ·· --. • • .1 1.. 'rJ • .. In 1945. of'!'. beautiful that he an Italian named completed it. 1 lJ . 5 4 I fl I II . ----. • -0. .y--- I"""-' 1 3 • I r. . r.J U r...:lIi. - ..•• . --- •• 2 p I I. 2 1 4 3 J - 2 _____ I 1'. -. r. .1+\ t . Ii "" .........J . mf 3 ..

.. ::I: 1. ...-I • . ......--- 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 f 3 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 p 4 2 3 9 .•• -Ii' 7 r... --""'= r. "::I: r.l.. -. --- .- r.. . . Allegro r. f --....l.. poem for Spring Each is based on a poem.-.. • •• -• . • • • -. -. •• J/IL • - . "::I: • 1 --'0.This is one of four Spring On the left you violin concertos can see how the The Four Seasons.. r. Vivaldi . fl.. "::I: -..

ill ..:.....A 5..- I'""" 2 I'""" I I'""" J •. I'""" 5. 1 I""" 1 1 f I .... . 2 t fl \I I{ r_ 5. ."'I I'""" I I'""" I I'""" I'""" t. These showed roughly which showed the exact pitch of notes. Guido of Arezzo. 0 [" r' 5. ...:....• . . I'""" ...•• -' .. .J "".. I'""" I'""" I'""" I""" I""" I""" . r....•.:.. __ ___ _ 10 .•• -' . . ..:.. r- •.A c:.. .This tune is from Alia Danza (from Water Music) This music was the second movement composed for a of the Water Music suite royal river outing in D... perfected the staff.. •. "'·0 •• U -' "" 5 I 1 -j.. ..• - r. .J" I ".. During the middle ages. r- I •. I I neumes. • r- . 5. . . . ..... It was written on the Thames... 0 1 0 . for George I of England in 1717... .. r- - J. - I 5 . . . . 4 4 ... •..j I'""" .- 2 3 2 4 . 5.-----.... I'Jc U c:. . The I I I how high or low the • example on the right is from the 13th century.'J'FW .. 1 u • 2 -- I . •.:. ...J 1 1 1 I I "". I. called 1050.. over them..... I I (7 - mf r------------. . •. " J . r- I .-. . an \ the words of a song had Italian monk who died in small marks. Handel Allegro moderato 5 - 2 5 4 - 1 " eJ 1 .-.. . •• -' U· •. 3 - 4 tt'm fl \I L:l • [. 2 • I • 2 r_" -.•- 5. 0 - 5.- 3 . fr - I - I'""" 2 '".-- ! Writing music down i. • .- J 14 . 5. I'""" .- 12 I I 5 r- /4 . I""" I r..-. ------------. 1.. ...... 5. . . 5...JIL J - r- -.

I ... .. .. ..j r_ . f I . J/L .... J/L J/L r_- If .. ..:. 3 I Ii r_ I'" ...21 . • • ----S... In the composer Josquin des Pres 13th century Franco of (1440-1521)... .-.. I ... ..Handel also wrote some At the first music for a fireworks performance in display given by George London.. caught fire. -. ...I . 3 .... r- .. . r- 5 •.L!:::J. JL --'"" 14 . • . . 4 . - 5 fl 4 2 ...-- I"" I4 I"" I I "" '. .. J . L:L • .. . . -"'- .. r- ':J I. ... 5 . '..- I 4 . - \I r..:.... •.. notes of different lengths. _IlL 3 1 - 3 II I .. .. .L " -- .. :11.oIIL "':' 2iI '":" -= J/L . ..:... to celebrate frame built to support peace after the war of the fireworks Austrian Succession.:.."' ..oIIL -'IiL '":" . the wooden II in 1749.. • . 3 iT L:L r- 2 Many people contributed On the left is a piece of to the development of music by the French music notation. .. . _ll f' I r- If 1 ' f ... . I I - I "".L '. ) . . 11 . ... I .:.. ".oIIL .... .. It was Cologne first used written near the end of the different symbols to show 15th century. . .Ia- I . .. 1 ... .... .. - I"" 2 '-Y U I • f' -. . . ....I - - I'" _IlL --'"" If lot-> • '.0...oIIL "':' ....- I 4 I . ."' -'.. .- I'" I'" 1 1\ . ...L.. .•• f ... I r. • .j .. f ... ..I.... .

.- fl..-I - I • • - - ....... 1\ ":::I: I"'" r_ r... -• . -11' "l..f- W-I'r 1\ - r..-I "':" :.• Allegro h.r- ... 4 ..j. r- '" - I"'" ":::I: f - I L .. .. •• oM' . ... • . ... • • • -' -".-I - .• .... . Old Testament of the Bible.. • •r. . 1 I 1\ oM' • • '- • • . r.- r- L r- _ r... • •r.. • • • • • 5 -. •r- I ... ..-....r- .... ... . .. ..I • r.-I r. • r- . - " • • .... •• oM' - ... - I I -' -". r- I • .. - . r.. • •r...f- oM' . . r- .. I"'" 11 .j..• - 1 r. .. •r.-I . fl. - -' .r- • .. • ... - - -- JL . •• -I'r - r- I . • I •r- • •r. - I I -' -". and first Solomon. r- '" ':a: 1 I I ".... 2 I . I"'" r -..• ..-I •r..... • .....- ..r- - . based heard at Covent on a story in the Garden.. ..r- - r- I •r- - ..f- W-I'r - ...- r- _ r- - r_ - r.j.J I . .--.... - -- .r- r- . fl. -... 3 _ _ r.... •• • • • • 4 • 1 .. • r- • r. -- ....I - • .• _ • r- 'I .. •r.. I"'" I r. • I .. London.1""" .... • .f. . r- I r_ 1\ fl.. • ....." r. r- •• r.-......f- "JL -I'r '" • -- r- _ . Arrival of the Queen of Sheba This tune is from It was written in the oratorio 1749.....I ... .-I ....-I . -. Handel .... .- r- 3 . . - r....j... - .. •• -I'r • .. • - I"'" )'. r.J .. ...j.. r- r- r- 1 3 .. I I I I 12 ..

..-.• I . I .. "J.. r....• ... . .-- 3 - I""" ...... man called Jennens..I .. .- 3 I""" • I""" .. .. r- '-'1. -' ...-... - 2 1 1 4 4 5 lIo!"!" I""" • - I""" I""" I""" I""" - r_ I""" I I""" I - • .-.... r \: " o!"!" • --.. "...... -.... It is about the were written by a life of Christ... ... -' lIo!"!" ..-. -.-.... r. lI! 4 ...-• ....- I""" I""" I""" - I""" I"" I""" ....... 1742....---rr •• o!"!" r.. " • . r- -# -. r. • -' ·•• o!"!" ..... -....-...... . -....-.#.o+f •• o!"!" ..... ...-.-.-.... .-I I - I I - I I I"" I -. r...-. r.. r- ) -' · •• o!"!" . - . -:- 5 ... r.-. .--..I _ - I""" -...-• -.. .)-.... I"" r.. . 3 ... or libretto. . . - I I I ·•• o!"!" .. .. Handel's best On the left you can known religious see a page from the oratorio is probably original music.. r- -- .... written in words...-- I""" I""" I"" .... .. The Messiah......... . -..... - . .. .... - 2 - 2 1 3 2 1 2 - 1 2 3 o!"!" ..- -' ...... 13 . • • -... I - I""" I - I 3 - I""" • lIo!"!" -.

.- J JJ I - I'"" _ I 1 I'"" -e- IJ - I'"" 1 ./ I'"" . Thine be the glory This piece was The picture shows originally from some of Handel's Handel's oratorio pupils in England called Judas .. ... " ... .-I 0 ... 4 . .Itis Wales and his now better known sisters. -... - I'"" os..-......I x I I '-"" I I mfj J J. -.. " v . L ·· n v J 'S....-1. I'"" 4 1 • 1 3 -- I'"" IJ - I'"" I r- .. I -.... - . r- 3 7- r- . /"'"' 2 r- I . ...-- 3 2 -. / 'I r- r.......-II I I - I --..J. I • r.01 . I - I .j t -'•• .I .......I r:. . X "-" - I'"" I'"" ....v -......... .-I _ ....... J .. -.... ... "-" ... I'"" I 5 5 5 4 1 I .... ---..--- - I 2 " - I .r J I J 1 1 J J J J J ) · f. - -. ..01 r:.- fI I I 3 1 -.. ."" ...•• 'S.I I I • u 14 ... r..... IJ )'."" I I .. • • r:.-III I . - I .J- 0 . · v J - - 1 I'"" 1 - 1 . r- J. I'"" I'"" r...-. I'"' _ - ... . --<I'! I_V ... I - I'"" I r- -e- IJ 5 1 -. I I --. I .J J. "Ir- • d ....-. --- I'"" os. .- I'"" I'"" 1 0 I I J " '" I 5 4 2 3 5 -_.. _i00i_.... r- r- .. - / .the Prince of Afaccabaeus. -- 2 . _ r- I r"" . r- r- ..- j r -J 'V J -J -J J d \ v -... I -' •• v.- Maestoso -.-I "Ir. X "-" J J I..... - _llJ J -.... J 'S.. .... _ j) J I I I r I I -e- - "".I "Ir- I I 1L I'"' 3 1 I'"' -r 5 3 -- . I'"' . Handel as a hymn tune. J 'S.. "':"" .. I'"" 11 - I r:. -- v '" r:.

.••0l0i'01###BOT_TEXT###quot; I -.. organist for five years.: -. -... -. Stephen's 1653..I r:...I J:IiL J""": I -I @. Andantino Pachelbel p 4 2 5 3 5 3 mp 5 4 3 5 f'I I J Jr-' J .- '. 01###BOT_TEXT###quot; .--- I{ r_ \.. ."2 - .I r:..lffi mf 15 .- -' -' -' r:.. He was a Cathedral in successful Vienna. 1. -- l- - I""": - -' -' -' r- f -' til • '5 I J .J I -- cresco - I - -I"5 . - .Pachelbel was born The picture shows in Germany in St. where composer and Pachelbel was an organist.

... Telemann Largo 2 4 . . oI'!' a •• • .... in coffee houses to This theme is from play music and the first movement socialize.j.. :'It... l' n n I ""'oI'!' f •• oI'!' ..I. I .... . • CJ -' • - f"'" •• --- Q. I r_ "u . )'. I .-... 0 I -...j.. --- 17 . - 101" I . fl../ -----" r J r J U "-' ) I it. f\ . ----.. of the concerto. •• oI'!' --' ". - ..j. .. (2. • .. ... I'"" 101" •• 101" r f ) ... - -' • . _...j. - I 5 2 tr . • . - - f 0 f"'" .f':J -' f':J 1 -d I ...Telemann (1681- Viola concerto in G Telemann and his 1767) was born in friends used to meet Hamburg.J '"" - ..... oI'!' 1 _.I .j. oI'!' " f"'" /'-... _.. "'" '" I" 0 0 ..-I ---:. - I P J CJ CJ .. ".• I'"" 101" I).j..... . • . I'"" IIIIT I r_ 7"I. . •• I'"' 2 •• • ./ .... /..---.. oI'!' •• •..... I _. t: ...j. ••.I I'.. Germany. . r.. fl . "'. - 4 4 2 1 -.'oI'!' u 1"7 '" f':J I'"'" -' -------- I'"'" I"'

Related Interests

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Related Interests

f"'" J 101" '" J r 7' P.. 1'"" • J .... ... •• ....I - 0 . • ..r.. 3 ..j. . •• !9- . .. ...... j r. I'"" IIIIT 101" i. f"" 1" Go I r I I "'-. - r:._. !9- "'. r 1 -d '-" 16 ...

were written....I0I0 2 1 2 I I " r_ ..........-I I • .j..... • • I -- I .J -.. • r - J- 5 4 3 17 ...J 4 • . . ••• of'!' . 2 .J • . J.. of'!' - . .J -..- ... . -• - .--. 1721.-I 1 . .... Bach Allegro 5 3 r_ \...-I • • • • \.j.-I -.-I . I - J- I • 2 j"'" - J- . -< • - .: _ .. concertos. - . • • • I "'. .....J ..J - .-I • • .J .: I\.J 3 .. I .J • .-"..This theme is from It is not known the first movement exactly when they of the concerto... but Bach wrote six they were completed Brandenburg by March...of'!' / ' •• of'!' • I .J til - ... """"- ..- .--. • - r- - ./ I I "--'" - ....• .J • - . 1\.....J': - ..-' :4j til .

_T -' • -# . .t -. .l.j. -'" lJ 'fr ..011' •• 011' I"" .-. with its regular.. -' -' '" -e. ' ... Bach M0 d - 1 3 I "'.. ..... Suites are groups stepwise pattern of pieces.- .• -""IlL I .j.- fI . If r_ 3 -# T . of Baroque music.. ----. -..-.. · I""" · · -"'IlL JIlL _1""" -' I""" -' . I"" . - I • I -# p- _"i"T"1"" I 2 -- -""IlL S 12 1 11 I -' --I 18 .. . ClI> .- -f'-r----f'.. \I . r_ I I = .- -"'Ill Is 1 1 3 f1. dim.. I ""I: ':I: I 1 --' - -' 'fr-' 1'1". ""...- '.. Suite no.-.-.. j .J -.... Air on a G string This tune is from The bass part. • - - I LL dt • • 01'1" • r'- _ r'.. .. ..... _I - . . I""" _ I""" =. I""" -' I --- -====== = I - -- -'L....l.l.. I2 I -# s 2 - . ...I' < I . -f'. JIlL "--'" . -- - -e- mf ... usually of notes.- /' ..-- If r_ ... 1'- .. 5 4 f1.. . _ . . mp-f'-1'- .j.3 in D. I""" 1"""... V 'J' 'fr- '-. S 3 S 4 3 - - \I 'fr/ . - I • .. --#- ':I: -' ""I: .l. -(:f-' I""" _ _ 1 I 011' ._ .1'-. - -. -#T ·· · • Co I 3 ___ .J.. is typical dance tunes.

" r_ \: t.... - l""" • . 1'T' . 1 l""" _ 3 r- 2 • .. _2 ..... . _ n l""" -..###BOT_TEXT###quot;1' l""" I I""" I ---. I -..-I .... .. r- = . _1'T'l""" JIlL 1'T'_ 1'T'1"" • r. - rc • r 1'T' '-' .. .. -' I I • I ..-. . I"" 1'T'1"" J/IL \..' \J oi1' " i./J. u '.... •1 I...•• oi1' -' -# -. --'"" 1......... L"i-"- r. = ..-I I I -..-I ..... . I'"': 1 rit.... oIf_ . I l""" I --. ·· 5 19 . \J'" --. After his death.. oi1' . .Bach was a very fine On the left is a picture of organist and wrote a lot the organ he used at the of organ and church New Church at Arnstadt music...... l""" l""" ... in Germany.-I --.. I"" JIlL L r ) 't..J .-I .J/IL 4 J/IL . . 0 4 3 flolf 3 2 5 3 .. L £: - 2_ r- t....... 11' .. -..J dim.---- 4-1 I r flolf " \.. . 2 - l""" I ..In 4 1...- I 1 . ..-I .\_ il • 1'T't:Ii.- - I ..l: r- --------. l""" I I ...-::::- --'"" .. .. r- r..-I t.. l""" ###BOT_TEXT###quot;I'l""" - l""" ••3 1 13 11"- • nvp cresco poco a poco 5 4 . p ) "'. his music went out of fashion for about 80 years.)J" l""" I Oil r r ...J .... t:\ -- fl 2 2 4 5 - 0 11 _l'"'" _ _ _ ·· oi1' L ___ L .n.

j -... :....... oIf 0 U I- Moderato &. fr" . • . • 0 - I '''..j 1 /' t... professional They were married in 1721.. I"'" I"'" 2 4 t r '" oIf - I"'" - ..- SSSI r- ..- 1 2 - fI.I+ 4 I 1 lIo1f I r.- .....----- -n'.... Bach I .. I{ r"...0l0i' ...I . I"' • -.1-0.0l0i' -p .j .j . I-----o· '''.- ..-.. • - .0 • fT· - . / / Anna Magdalena.r jL - .. I"'" T . - .......T• I " I- ":to 2 4 I r.. -r -:::::::::: • . -.. "':'" 20 . 11- 2 jL - .... • 1". = -' .j • 3______ . - . '" I"" ...- ... I ) n· = _.. --------- fI.-J • ..'-=v" oIf • ... She was a < .. 4 l' ..I • - . ... .... n n....- - ... MinuetinG Bach wrote this tune The picture shows the cover of a book of for his second wife. ... .j ... 1--> '\: I I • --- < f " I ''''. ... • . 2 1 2 OS] I r '\:. ..of- p ------ I"' - ........ ..0l0i' .j.j -. ...---...... which Bach 'aedicated to her.. -I---... .... n • rIo : . " oIf . ..•• 0l0i' " - 4 .j '''. I -....j ....j ..--3______ I"" r- I .....j .. ..j...•• 0l0i' o· ./ - .•• 0l0i' ..0l0i' •• oIf t-" ------.. .

... 5 .. -:..- 1 5 fl-ll- - ..A I"' ""--- -' "" • - fl#- ... "!II ..--.-' -' . -' --J "!II • ....-' -u .!l.: • -' ....-1'1' •• otT r. .j . -' • I"" 17 r- I 1 1 2 5 2 4 4 5 5 1 3 11 - fI...: --. I"'" . noblemen.... - I{ r_ " -.-' I"' lo.. .j IIIIT.... I I -'•• ....!l- I.j .j I"' . - 1\ r_ .. . ... Rule. :. r: 3 I 1 1 5 2 21 . fl#..- 1 ". 1 2 ..-' ....- • •• 111 • ti* .-.. 0. o f . 2 1 1 --. -- 11-1'1' .-1'1' -' •• otT a 'U - I"'" 2 .-' .: .. •.- fI.-. •..- 12 4 - I S.. '".- I"'" 13 •• 1 I"" 1 I "r r 5 :.-'--'-'" .-' .. .. 1 #........ I ".. -:.-' J• -.. II -1'1' To ":::I:: .: I r_ I.. - ..-' ..... -' 'Sf .: . .-' . • ":I: . A masque is a sort of play with music.....:::I - . -' ...-.- .-' .-' .. """ '" ....-'" • 5 2 . .. ":I: f . Moderato 3 . .- otT .. '" ......-' .!l... JL11' •.- .- -' -.- I...r ....- - mp . .. I"" 11 -1 •.. -' • •• ...•• ". I"" 3 I"" 4 •..- o J ... .!l-_1 1 1 1 - - 2 2lo.. .-' :.-.----- r: • -----------. . .r • ..j • I -' •5 I 4 .-To '" 10· otT . 1 .. .j....j ..j . - 3 -----.. ... singing Arne -- and dancing. .. '-" • • • .. ---- . "" r- r- I._ otT 1- 'JI "1 I"! .. ..-1'1' r..... 1 .-' .!l..-..... I I . - . . . Britannia This is a song Masques were from a masque popular at the called Alfred.-- ......-.."---" .-.- """'-J .- 2 1 2 3 2 > .......-'_-'......- 3 5 - 2 fI .. -' -' I"' • .-' - 'Sf I"' I I"' . .. f'I. houses of wealthy written in 1740..-. . 11 3 . " ....-' J '" ".... . .. 1 --..-. 0... • IS.

The symphony The concerto The sonata A symphony is a piece of A concerto is a piece of Classical sonatas were music for an orchestra. Fast. Above In the 18th century. I- 1. lived there for much of their lives. most a soloist. concerto grosso (see page other instrument. or symphonies had four the Baroque form. They Each one had its own speed 4). Cristofori's you can see the most common orchestral invention was called the "fortepiano". 22 . It developed from keyboard instrument. 3. At this time. A minuet and trio 3. the piano gradually grew in popularity. Unlike the harpsichord. orchestras grew in size. cheerful. 4. century. harmonies and "classical". like movements (see below). Fast. it could play loudly (forte) 3 bassoons 2 harpsichords and softly (piano). Slow. Usually I 1. Haydn. it became known as the pianoforte. though others were frequently included and eventually it was shortened to just the as well. Today. Slow 2. New the three greatest composers of the instruments enabled composers to age. 1. In music for an orchestra and written for either a single the Classical period. developed. Vienna second half of the 18th century. the orchestra j. called movements. instruments of the classical period. 'i. Later.The Classical period Some people call all serious music develop new sounds. but the word is mainly musical forms. Orchestras were usually still piano. was one of the most important musical Classical music reflects the confidence cities. Mozart and Beethoven. often in the had three movements. the word Fortepiano is used directed by the harpsichord player or for an instrument built in the early 18th lead violinist. Orchestras 23 violins 7 violas A square piano A grand piano 2 trumpets During the 18th century. 2. 4.. and liVe] 3 Minuet \ Y. The concerto usually usually had three or four and sty Ie. Fast and In the first and last trio. This meant that a much wider variety of music could be As new instruments were invented or played on it. Some of these forms are used to describe the music of the explained below. pattern shown below. Fast (dance tunes). movements. the for a keyboard and one sections. those shown below. called a cadenza. begins and then the soloist joins in. Fairly fast and lively. Fast 2. the soloist sometimes had a part to play alone. and prosperity of this period. Slow.

His early ever written. dedicated a set of string Haydn wrote nearly every quartets to him. In his ninth pieces included the symphony. He trained as a string quartets. but settled in concertos. but this 23 . he of the most challenging music lived in Vienna. including 41 music at the age of five. the opera Fidelio almost totally deaf. of the Esterhazys. who off.t. and wrote his first symphony at the age of nine. choir of St. 27 piano seven he went on a concert tour and Munich./ Mozart was an Austrian Mozart wrote his first Mozart wrote a huge amount composer. he became many major European music director at the court cities. well as an orchestra. the music. --- rranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) \ Haydn was born in Rohrau.. a rich In the 1780's he became Hungarian family. many Austria."''''. --. Above you can see a Vienna in 1781. opera The Magic Flute. operas and choirboy. form of music. including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) ---. for most of his life. conductor for his own music. Stephen's His music was popular all Cathedral in Vienna for ten over Europe.. Paris symphonies. he used a choir as Moonlight Sonata for piano.. his third. on and Mozart (see below). continued writing all kinds of he became known as the music. including London. fifth and sixth By the end of his life he was . Because of pieces like greatest composer of his day. poster for a concert he gave in appeared as the soloist and Above is a scene from his England. At He lived in Salzburg. He visited years.... to three piano concertos.. he was troubled by gradual and incurable deafness. His last and grandfather were both string quartets contain some musicians. 108 symphonies. of music. From about 1802. of Europe. . He often chamber music and 19 operas. . and increase the dramatic effect of two symphonies.. Classicalconnposers . But he and two more piano concertos..u. where his father his greatest music. was when he wrote some of Germany. In 1766. religious music.. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Beethoven was born in Bonn.. He very good friends with worked for them. From 1792... and sang in the church music.

.. .. c...- I - 1 -.j..../ o!'!' _ .L -# 24 .- 1 4 - 1 - J -.. Amadeus Mozart. He the city where was also a musician...J - 1 - ...j. I J "". r---------. I / o!'!' •• o!'!' U 1 5 ..... Bourree Leopold was the The picture on the father of Wolfgang left shows Salzburg.- ... "l'l"r- I I I I \ no •• .j. -.. • . --- IJ o!'!' I"" r. r. . r- -.1II.. . _o!'!'_ -...j...r. -"'Ir. J'"' . Leopold Mozart Moderato - - ...- 4 .- 1 o!'!'_ o!'!'r- fIlL -. 2 ../ •• o!'!' r.. .j. o!'!' •• o!'!' o!'!'" I . {'7 • 0 -.. . o!'!' - 1 - - I - I .. \ ./ '--- -" ---' I -# 2 r- I / 1\ . I . .- I I .-- I I I"' 4 I \ ... ....--- J'"" ..I I 4 I .... - ...j.. o!'!' • . o!'!' -.r.j.. .. Leopold Mozart lived and worked..-. U· - 1 -# 1 / } 1\ . 1+- 2 - Li· - - J "". . I Li -= 3 '''---------' 1\ .... ... .j. . - 2 ". ....'o!'!' .... LL I -----t--- I I 1/ 1\ . ---:::--..

..- :10- ....-I. .... ...: @..-I I I JIlL .-- - - .-- -.... . . and he also lived in The picture shows Vienna and Milan.-I ...".J.I"'" r ....- ---j ..-I ./ ...-. .-. j"'" JIlL \ r--.-I . r--.J -. .-- JIlL ... .----..-I .1'0..-I • @....:-:: =.....-- II .." - 3 .-...-----.. ..-I ..-- JIlL -. . #J - .I"'" 1 JIlL1 JIlL 1 I -' r ':JI...-... -.:-:: " JIlL I JIlL .-I • -= • -=:: -=:: n" " '..J'-.-...J .... a scene from the opera... . .. r_ @..-I "3 ....J \ \ . • I I I I I I -' ... ..-- -. -= - .- .... • • • III!.-I .:-:: ""-.-I • --....- --.. '--"'" JIlL .- ... .... 1 - 4 25 ..-.Gluck was a German Che faro This song is from composer..... ..--.. He an opera called studied in Prague Orfeo ed Euridice..-/ ...... 'J .r -. \ --- . -....-. - .. .-I 2 - I( ..-.- -.-. .... . --. . .-I ..-I I I .. Gluck mp 3 5 2 4 5 .... "-- .. 3 4' I ..""'" ....-I -.... --. .-I 2 . r " " - .10- -' - - .

... 4 ...... La -"'- • ..JZ:>... ......L v " .. 4 11 3 1 5 1 . .....L I · d zm..IlL. . •• ..JL • JIlL. \I ............. . -"'.. . -..• I tJ ":I: '--- ... - 3 I I I \I 1'1.-/ mp ) "..... .. .-. ... 26 . . J '-.. .. op.. :. called anthem of West Germany. (2 p- I'" • v 4 1 3 .- .I' • - I'"" 0 - r- :l- . v •• - 1"1" !.-. . Moderato 1 I I 3 1 I( r.. and is now the This is the third.• r -. • ------ )J J ) .. • 1"........ - I'"" . v . .JL JIlL. La • • .. r r I ) f •• J..... . r. -.... . . I •• . I •• f J..r.--....... 3 2 5 . --'-- IlL '-. • ... • .76. p.. ... ... tIL L:l ....I f. -.. I -. The Emperor... b.J:: JIlL.... 5 1 / I " ... • • .J'"': JIlL. I . L - \I I J....." tJ.. -=. •'---. ..... 2 1 2 . anthem. .. JIlL.. b. .- .... r.. ... . .. - . I( r_ v J.. -.... • -# . - h . . • • . • .......... • • . J :.. I( C r_ v ... • - - J. .....-.....J.. • . •• • C ....JL - < p ------ )J J I .- . W-- 1\ h Co r_v • •• u y • cresco I I f '" ll· f •• h - r..... .. .....f J..... .... Emperor's hymn This and the next tune It was originally the are from a set of six Austrian national string quartets...r--i - 1 l .!. I I •• f J. flag Haydn .. -P. . -# . 4 4 4 .'1I tJ'-. 2 4 1 I -- - .. . p. .... .. I'- .J.J'"': -"'.. .

. --. 4 / h '7 v --.. • I II' :-10.. ---...!"" h . II' .... Cello Haydn Largo -... I"" _.. !'So I"" Q. ... I"' -.-. -. • -----....5 The op.. .J' • • • •• . ....JI •• ..-...A string quartet is String quartet in D op.'-l..""v I "' •• . .. two violins... p .. • ..... -& I"' - --....... - • ------ .. • V 5 I --. 5-.... • •. .. •• -.......:.. .. no... I "". I'!I:: ' : ... - ... . fl II h v ---.. . !'So I"" •. • V 5 2 -. • ------ --- h I"' . • /':\ l ... •• .. --..... / ' ../ h v I I"' "" 2 I I2 4 -....• •..• .I • J ..: . !'So I"' • --.... '-" . h •.. ------ '1\.. 2 4 II I 2 I 5 ___ . • . h .... ./ h v 5 ___ 2 11 I ""'- . I u . / r.:... ---. II -# I • I • p = } ..J 17 I.........:. •. .""v . .. I 3 .. ... I .. . -::r ./ h V 1 !'So I"" - !'So I"" . '-- fl 5 3 5 2 ..• • • - !'So - I'!I:: I"' ... •• • - .... ........ This tune is the fifth in the set. I 2 I .. ....:. -' 4 ... •.. •.• I. . -.76 string music played by a quartets were cello... r.... 27 ..JI 1 ..... a viola and written in 1797..... -.... • .. . I .. •. V 5 • I .76. • .....r... ' • .. ..... .

• .. 1 .. ) .I -' I"' • • -' I"'" • • \..----. .. I"'" 5 II -' • • -------. . Mozart's time.' <' "'- w. .. . .' "-'"" 1 3 11 I'l .- I"' I"'" • I"'" -' I"'" • I'" rJ' . $: ..'1)' r r • . . . "'- w.. $ ". . • .I .J dim. ..J X 1 -" .L ' .'" . • .I' 0 • I '" 2 4 I I'l . slow. Mozart Andante I'l \I . ". -' . -' I""" - I"'" t----. - .v 1.. Clarinet concerto Mozart loved the This tune is from sound of the clarinet. 1.1 r I""" u .. _ I" . 2 • • r I!"!"\ .. .J 1 1 r . --..' y--- • - I"'" " I ' 1" cresco nJ I --"-" I --' . a... I .' a . -L.' • ###BOT_TEXT### I"'[ I""'" 1"":l ' I""" i. 1 fL ..jo!' '- 011' t:ri.-.' -t . ----._ 1 • • .. the second. .. .I 1'"i ' . I"' 1 3 3 5 5 II . . . • I"'" 3 . a famous clarinettist. ..:... concerto for his friend Anton Stadler. 2 4 28 . He wrote this A clarinet in movement.

./ I .. - • '.... \. -..-• -• • _ ./ •• "rf • • .. . -• r.i'f..... I"'" .. r- ..."'. • 3 •• -- r.. '2iI . fl-ll- II "rf . ---.... • - I'"' • -• -• .-. -..• • 3.. :I: .. • .. 2 3 _ r-. .... ... • r........ . . . I .. .• p j ••.. .. ":I: '2iI '2iI "" '-' I '-iiiiiI I "" r "" r .- ./ T. It "a little night music"..... • _.L. • 2 -.... I- J. I . 1-'• _.::::l I /' I I ... . I"'" _011" 1 _ .. 2 3 . .. 1787.---rr.. 011"- -.1 ..-_..... - t:Iio •• -- 5 Mozart ... "rf.. .... • • • • --- .. ......... - ... ..." "" '-' --- .• 3 2 r.. . • U J 2 1\ fl-ll- 1I"rf 1'... 2 I 4 ...... I2i..- r- I"'" I I. . .. I'"###BOT_TEXT###quot; 5 r- • _5 r-r- r- r. - 3 5 1 .. .ooI""" I = ==-- .... - '. ---. .. _ - r- 1 •• 2 --- 1 3 1 r.. I - I'"###BOT_TEXT###quot; • • i •_. . I I 2 4 29 ._ I .... I ..... . . _. I 1\ fl-ll- 1I"rf 1'- ..• .011" .J" r. r-r- T. .jl. • r- _ - I"'" • • I I _... 1i ..J .. 3 r- b•• - I"'" . ------ r ..... .. -.•• -t1' '± ........r- I'"' -- -.... _ .. -.:..r. . . _ r- r. I fl../ -" .. '2iI = =====-- -..... .. I -.. . would often be played It was completed in after a dinner...2 I If fl-ll- 1I"rf 1'- --:- I2i.. _. . r. . /' ... . I I'"' .- 1\ :I: I'"###BOT_TEXT###quot; t:Iio • I""f 55 •• 1'. . _ "- I 2 r. .... _ I'"' "rfl"'" 5 4 _ L1 I.--------..r- - I'"' I '-" 4V "" '-' I I - ..J ..-- p • • .. ... ::::::=:=- - JIlL 2 . -..... ... 1 .. I I[ 11011" I'.. 3 ... Romance The title of this music This form of music is is German. • • . ... r.. 3 I 1\ fl-ll- 1I"rf 1'- ... I2i. • ! ..- :-lo- • 3 5 ---... J 'J.. It means (from Eine Kleine Nachtmusik) called a serenade.1- _-t1'- -.. ...

. If h T..- I j ..- -'>c t .t I@J . _v . ...r 1 - ......... . .... -- " ....-or - -. h V IJ . - I 4+r--"I .001 I v ....... ..... " ...... I \I IJ ..-:-... .001 I " -:- - P I I -'•• .001 . r- I •r...A ....... Parts tune..... Symphony no..40 This symphony is one This is the first of Mozart's last...... .... - n .::: -# -# I .j - •• . .-..Co -I --- I • '--- I P "" ••. moving.. " IJ ---... L -= ..A ...... -- .. fa 2 3 4 3 . -...j •• •r.. h •. r" I k 1 30 .- -.. ""V h . • .. . .... . _ . "- ..- f} ...... To -• • • • • • • • • • • --.. ..... Mozart Allegro _.001 •. 4 _____ -= .... To •r. 'I.... :...-...001 I . -• • -• • • .... c_ ...- .... 0 ... I I I r" I ... r-' I •r.....fi f I . 0 I •• IJ ..001 •r. .. .- ..-... • •r. 5 fa I 1 1 1 -... • • ..... .001 -' . 1 =::::::::::. or theme..-. I 1 2 ) .. "''" .. "V 'V h IJ - ..... in of it are very sad and the symphony. •. 2 il . :.... :. •r.. h . .001 ..

. .• •.. ... r.L t..hI r_v ... I"'" I r- (5 1 r- " r- 3 II •'-- -. many weird and used as a wonderful ones table.... II 4 - I .§.. •• -' h v rJ r- -• -• •• .. . 31 . " .. J""" I !Ii. - ... • 3 2 1 3 5 1 .. r..... .. .. keyboards for there have been A piano that could also be two players. r...• • •.Mozart's last three On the left symphonies.. r. •• """"" \I 11 t.. rJ If h ..... made made.. - ...... • 3 .. --I . r.L ..... .. is a picture numbers 39. lr.. --I ..40 of Mozart and 41.. -.. -.-• -• -• -• -#-# "'... were conducting written in six an weeks during orchestra.- u tL II • . J""" I !Ii...•• • • -. I'" r. 1788.. . 1 'JL I l ....... • -' hi r.. some on the right. r- v r.....U ":" I I "":" -# 1 .- • • _ J""" t. . r.. A "harp piano" made in 1857. r- .-. I'"' I .... I'"' r. -..hI . II I 2 2 1 ... J""" • 1 • • ! Ii. r_ v '"':'" r..."""""-.§.. • (T lr... . . You can see about 1850. "' •• -' hi v rJ . . • . t..- I 2 -. Amazing pianos •• A "twin semi -cottage" piano (made about Ever since the piano 1850) had two was invented..

. P r . ---.... . L hi v l"'" i_ - l"" . . • '(' I S. _.....-.r ... r- --- L L' hi u u L .. I"" . i 1'- t..- -. - f/I-. .:. - r J .. -... . . .. - I"" . - --...• 2 r .J. . h -t- .- I"' -' . . i_ .- 4 ..... • • I ) . /" .. .- " I r 1 J • lIlT - . \ 4 ... v h Moderat 0 ill U C) 5 lIlT .:.... -.l . ... 0 . .. characters Papageno ? Papagenois and Pamina. --......" .-... Mozart I 1l 'L r". :10.. 4 fl • 1 1 .... eA · .. . •.." -- r... .. • I-- .. I"" ..-/ - 32 fl r""" v II ... IS... the royal birdcatcher. · I "" " .. .-"- 3 .. h ..• .:I .. 2 - :. --------. r.l 5 3 - ---. .r.. i_ ) ..I :.L!'IIL ... r- i mf • • • • :S :S :S ...-.---..- fl 3 I II If \.." hi v • "' - . __ . .I' 1 - I"" I"" . . . r- 2 L':' - . ..The Magic Flute is Duet from The Magic Flute It is sung just as one of the last pieces Papageno rescues Mozart wrote.. - -' - I"' . •• •• .. :J mf e: ..• -7IIIT....• I 7f r""" fl . ..-/ ... This Pamina from the duet is sung by the evil Monostatos.

r. -. Germany.- 3 I I - 'IT' r.-I (.-/ G -'- '--.Jr - 1 4 1 3 I ) ... '-- - .... ----- ..-I -:::: '. i""" I 33 .Lo'lT' . It is called Beethoven's was too deaf to hear birthplace in the Choral Symphony Bonn. 'J 1 2 1 3 3 1\.L '1'\ 11 -"---..-I .. I t:\ . - -' 0 (. " 11 @. • ./ I --.J' i""" i""" r-' - 1 I 2 flJ. 3 - -' 0 5 . . IJ"'" - If ..Jr 'IT' -'l . -.-I 5 0 4 tJ.Lo 0!1' . "':I: . -----.-I • -.-I ------ • IL I I ot'!' I J .Jr 3 I I ---.l. 1 - flJ.0 . p • '--..-I • 1 4 I"'" . .v -'0 • • (.-I 0 .-I - -' rit./lilt.-I I • . - t:\ I .l '- 'J -::::::::: - .-I I - 1 2 - I ------.I -' . the music or the because it was the first applause.L ':I: r./ • !. Beethoven Allegro . Ode to Joy This tune comes from By the time it was Beethoven's ninth performed Beethoven symphony. one to include a choir. • -----.J. - r1f' -' . _/ / "0'" I"'" - I"'" I.. I'" I I"" Z 3 -. ..rl .J....I- P I j .-I • -. .. Toot'!' i""" F' .---- - ot'!' I'- --." I7IIIT '" - ./ .

'" ••..I -# • . \I '- • . . I w_ ./ "v -:: .. I -... I ../ - ----... ...1\ h \ _... .I • •• 3 34 ... ..1\ h ' •• I I I r (T. n . (T. "v 1 3 I -. ../ h V 3 . ... ./•. ..... It is first movement. _. .I 1'\ 1'\ I r • ---. o· ... •• •• 1'\ • • • r • -# • I P 9-. based on the theme of the countryside. "v • ------- ._. I . I ..1\ •• • - . I w_ .. 5" . •.. • _.. ---.. • .. Pastoral Symphony This symphony was The tune is from the Beethoven's sixth. .....1\ v . Beethoven All tt It \I " •5 .... •• r I '110. --" -- .. -.. --. . ... .. C../ v U . /' I - ..

. u I- ":I: • " ::.o!:l 1..... • 2iI • . • . . 4 3 3 ... r.- I"'" .. .... 4 - I"'" I 1..r... . . I • - I"'" ----- · •" .. .. l.../ I •r- \ I 1 3 4 2 -...- 2iI • • 'lIiI............ .0_ "'II"'" 2 13 1 • 14 . 1\ .. 01 1 .. '"v .. --..r - I"'" 0 • " I I I 3 ..r- I 11 3 • ----. ... ·· 35 ..... 01 -' •• ." - .r -- ::. . (a piano playing with a string quartet)... - 3 4 2 1- . .. -' .. - I"" ..-• I"'" ----- -I u = .1/ "" r. I """"'""--. ... r.. • •• . ----- '-' 1/ cresco ------- I "" -' . 2 5 ." '" 1/ r- ... v = t "" -' ..j '" -I.:...-- ... ""1"'" 7 2iI • • l1li4 I T nvp . \I .----- -I .. . - = "" ... - 3 ... -I · • - 2... • I"" .. r. ...----- \ '" ....:::::::::: • - -J A .. .. -.. ""--- 1. ::.. •• 011" -I -:- 5 - .----- 11 --I ... " .. 1 .......: . -......-...... ":I: -I.. '-- r.. .j ....- I 1 I 5 . . .. ·· -- -I.. /'- --- -I • " .J .... I"" - I"" • " • I - . .-/' . I'!Iii.- 1 2 1 ... .. I"" . . ".A minuet is a The picture shows dance tune in a piano quintet three-four time. •4 1 """'"'" I r....... -. - 1\ ... • -' -.. 1/ ""1'!Iii. I r.../ t "' . Beethoven ----- Moderato .-..-. I r...•• -- 5 _. ..... . p • .. ..V '" - . . -.• IS. • 1 I ".. .....

....t. -.. It Sonata because a poet called was dedicated to a Rellstab said it Countess with whom reminded him of Beethoven was in love..-...2) was written in 1801. Moonlight It got its name This sonata (op. #- pp j . Beethoven Adagio sostenuto fI...27..-.I .-.-. -. -. .-. =-- I • -' -' -. ' -If 2 2 2 36 ..-. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 If .-.-. moonlight on a lake..-. -.I - .. I ' . no.-.I- I -....l..-..

.J • I ...... pp 4 37 . . -..-.... On the Moonlight the left is a picture of Sonata. ..... ... .. .. ________ I s--.... j ...•• of'!' .J. his grand piano.On the right is Beethoven played the the last page of piano at the first the original performances of much manuscript for of his piano music. . 1". ..1 cresco j ....J...". I..........I.I. -======= -======= ====- _________ ______ 2 fl. .. 101""" ....." dim. J I ------- fl. I. r.l.• • -• . . I I I "'. t I- ... J.' I.1..•• of'!' • • I I I 'IT I J j------.

You Some people view Beethoven as the can find out more on page 54. composers began looked more or less like it to write more complex music does today. the orchestra As a result. being built. It was also given more keys. You can find out painting. and much of their work is they performed as well. A conductor stands in music were front of the orchestra. The more adventurous in the a large scale in the 1870s and harp was also included in kind of music they wrote for were the kind most people had in their homes. were often very very dramatic and moving. (Chopin's Nocturnes). different example. Many the speed. 38 . Valves on a trumpet By about 1830. It was often inspired by later music. He was followed by Schubert other arts. The orchestra The Romantic piano During the Romantic period. the piano became the most popular instrument. types of Tchaikovsky. many by a separate musician Music for . he introduced style of music that developed in Europe in Romantic styles and expressions into his the 19th century.with exotic very precise directions could Romantic expressed a mood settings and romantic be given to the orchestra.. In the picture below you can see an upright piano. Since the eary During the 19th century. most Romantic orchestras have been directed period. The 100 instruments. write music that expressed their feelings Romantic composers. The introduction of the most of a conductor meant that important Opera .. orchestras from about 1820.The Romantic period 'Romantic' is the word used for a new first Romantic composer. especially when and emotions. styles. depending conductor was able to control on the type of music. by the invention of valves so composers began to be These were first produced on and keys (see above).. the orchestra. popular. As orchestras grew larger. the right. On beating time with one hand. volume and mood instruments were improved of the music very accurately. that of called a conductor. it was no longer practical for Romantic one of the musicians to direct music the others and play at the same time.. so A harp-the its sound was able to fill the pedals were large concert halls that were invented in 1810. Romantic composers tried to about them on the opposite page. especially poetry and and then many others. or adventurous plots. There could be with greater variation in anywhere between 70 and dynamics and tempo. It was Keys on a clarinet much more strongly built. and telling the orchestra how you can read loudly or softly to with about some the other. H<O"'"'.. popular and had huge followings.

. He composed over composer. He played and man. He first opera at 18. Richard Wagner Johannes CaDdllEi . He wrote and directed music. Nicolo Pag-anini (1797-1828) (1782-1840) (1792-1868) Austrian Italian Italian Schubert was known mainly Paganini was not only a Coming from a musical as a writer of songs. including The such as the Trout Quintet. Hector w"". and Peer Gynt. pianist Puccini dedicated himself to symphonies. including pianist. over Europe. including Ravel. He wrote piano and orchestral and conductor as well as a was also a very emotional music. 39 . He was a by Liszt and influenced of the Nibelung last 18 hours. and this is reflected 300 songs. Fryderyk Franz Liszt Giuseppe-Verdi Chopin (1811-1886) ( 1813-1901) (1810-1849) Hungarian Italian Polish Chopin was one of the Liszt was a brilliant Almost all Verdi's music is greatest composers of piano concert pianist by the age opera.. among the most difficult best known are Afda. close friend of Schumann. He was banished variety of music. Rossini wrote his also composed beautiful virtuoso performer. Robert Felix (1803-1869) Schumann Mendelssohn French (1810-1856) (1809-1847) German German Berlioz was a very A gifted pianist. enthusiastic audiences. many others. Tchaikovsky and Grieg.. He was admired His 4 operas called The Ring many songs. played the violin to wildly 40 more. and Madam Butterfly. ever written. Schumann Mendelssohn was a pianist inventive composer. Pyotr Il'yich Edvard Grieg Giacomo Puccini Tchaikovsky (1843-1907) (1858-1924) (1840-1893) Norwegian Italian Russian Tchaikovsky is famous for Grieg promoted Norwegian After seeing Verdi's Afda. Clara. (1813-1883) Brahms Saint-Saens German (1833-1897) (1835-1921) German French Much of Wagner's music was Brahms wrote a wide Saint-Saens was a famous political. Among his others. four symphonies and composer. Among his best ballets such as Swan Lake works are the Piano known works are La Boheme and The Nutcracker. His piano music is allover Europe. and and conductor. but also a family. by his love for his wife.. He composed instrumental music. organist and from Germany for 11 years. Barber of Seville. He influenced many of 12.Romantic composers Franz g"'UULUII:. but he composer. Concerto. Two famous opera. La Traviata and Rigoletto. many influenced conducted his music all in much of his music.&. many types of music: music as a composer. including Liszt. concertos.

lt 51 1 1/ " -I . --- fl.1 p i i1 I':) i1 I .j1' I . .0 "f'r "f'r J ...-. $ hb-B.0 - .... .0 ""'0"f'r r.. r- 0 0 5 4 I 40 . Impromptu op.... -. 3 .. . . I""" I""" /- . J - -J _ -J I .-. 'LI ":I: I. 3 -i l -- fl.. .-- I'"" I r- I000o. - -J _ .. r.0. I""" I""" r. I . 0 a "- !.-.. .. ":I: r.. ":I: 5 I 1 .=----...142.))(b) 0 1J u 0 J ' " .- 3.....!+ 2 5 1I"f'rr. -J • r... 0 0 o0 "" a 1 I 15 2 2 ....- ...U I I 1 3 2 4 -- 4 1 '1 '1 . "" . - If -J _-J -J ... 0 .U -...I I'"" 3 -.. the spot... r.. -. • 3 I'"" '-0 UI ___ . -il -- fl.. -J _/ .... Schubert's room that is. J....c: r- .0 "f'r .0 "f'r ... .. . fl.. 0 '0 i J j..--. I "".-.......-- 3..-l 0 I 1 ::::::>- I il .....3 An impromptu is The picture on the meant to sound as if it left shows is being improvised.. ....= - I I 1. r. .-l 1 0 0 0 0 .-.. r- - I""" - .. I""" I""" I""" -J -J '-.. Schubert Andante . I'"" I'"" I000o..j1' i1 ihJ j..!+ "f'r .. made up on with his piano. i J j.I I'"" =mf -. - _0 -J _. .. u I""" r.. -. no... ".......!+ ..... (J -=::::::::::=: =====- I 0 i1 t: -. -J 0 I -----.... t: "f'r ":I: I. 1 2 5 "f'r If . .i J i -J J'J = I .. a -..lt 1I"f'r U ... 3 5 I If r_ fl...V ":" u I i j..-. • '.. -....... 'i"'ooo. _ -J r..-._ .

"'" . 2 I r1\_ " I. ------. . . • - r..• -------- --"-110."". . I.. j ""..--.......:... ._.- . _. I. r- r- r- ":I: r r 1 14 3 4 3 ..-.•- I '" .- . only Symphony performed until has two movements. -"! r- '"" 1. 1 1 1 "'" r. h . -..•.•... '" . rit. I... . . --. . .. j '" .- r- 4 • r.. •• r- • - r- U· r 1 4 I 2 1 14 41 . ... \ • _. . . . .. -._..I" 3 2 3 1 1 1 I " I.'... .. f"'" 1 r- 1 r 1 . ------- ".- -. l..•...- . didn't finish it because in Vienna. """- ¥ . . dim.. u r. dim. 11.. Austria. - --.-. -. 3 r- J. .# "'" 0 -.---.- . .. . -" •• "'" u I- -------..-----.... l. r- • r .. _-----.. J • • .... Schubert Allegro moderato 2 2 1'\.... . I. .p---. .> r. --.- -- _.J . .... . - 1\ r_ "...... I -" o!'###BOT_TEXT###quot; "'" r- • r-: ... . -' -' .1 ... _. -... . .. I -" •• r- • r- .. o!'###BOT_TEXT###quot; -" "'" • f"'" . -. -. .. l.. '" I- -- ::II: . he got tired of it.- .... ------- r- r. l. 2 "'" I -. It wasn't Schubert's eighth... • r- • r ---- r- • r- --------• r I 2 1 14 1 14 3 3 . -" "'" r- II o• r r- - r. --.•• _. .- ..... . .. . .. -"l r- • -• r- 1 1 1 3 1 4 3 2 2 .. The Unfinished This symphony. 37 years after It is thought he A statue of Schubert Schubert's death. -.- I. .. . . ._.J... 1 ..> -..-.. . ..

• • • 1 -' -' ":I: ..-#f pp I I / . \ .. . /" I 1 1 1. The Trout....- -' I •• 3 - I"': t..- I -f". • •• .... :10... . 1 I •.. A U o· r- - 1 I I I j I{ h I'_V '-' 1\ \I 1'-. t'" . """"- J ! J I ". called song manuscripts.. r- ..I z· I .... J/L I • I I I I I 3_ 3 fro .I .J 1 j "". f h . .. r- . "- "V h I"': . . 21.. h V o· U' 1"> • r- 2i J t .. Schubert 1\ Andante I{ I'_V 'fI n r.One of page of a song which Schubert wrote over Schubert's Schubert wrote. .This piece is the Serenade On the left is the front music to a song..' 1 .........J • .I l"' J"" •• " .-. - .. --- .... I 1'...I "':' "':'" "':'" .. +..- -' -' • ... Lieder.. ..-. ' h n d I- . .. .- 10...J . J- I f h :J. .I _.rJ • .. I :J !.I /' "-. r- .-. .. called 600 songs. 3 41 3 .. I . • ... - -' I J ! . eJ· v I I 1\ 1 42 .J I I ' / . r- . • - -' -' . U· II / i _..

v 4 0 31 "JO I I = . 0 I /0 h "JO "JO r- 0 v 0 3 fl 1 2 3_ _ 0 I ..-.. Uo II • •• 0 = (20 " t j dim..""v • . 0 oIf- -' h r... r:....0 rit. • • oIf _ • "0 • .""v h - --0 0 • -" ... 1 2 0 I( h •• • J • 0 .3 _0 ..""-L O " 0 '1'1' -' h v 1 1 1 5 fl I 3 .. ....IL 1110.00 .Qo .Qo .0 L'l 0 .= j t -J t r. - I -' 0 h v 0 '1'1' ... 1 -. .. "0 ! -J ! hda ! J = ... h --.. •• r-.. -.. . of one on the left.... • . ... 0 r- 1 1 5 fl 2 3 . ..0 - '0 .... 1"1 r- 0/ '-.. o t.0 a . 0 -' h T.. 0 .0 oIf 0 "JO "JO '1'1' CF'> 0 .. fl ..I --...""0 t J ! J "JO .. ".... " -" _0 h .".. •...Schubert used to These became have gatherings in known as his house for which Schubertiads. .""v h 1-1' .I •• •.. 3 . p mf 1oolLO ao ....0 0 'J' t . 0 .. -