A Study on

Purchase Intentions of Consumers towards Selected Luxury Fashion Products
with special reference to Pune Region.

Thesis Submitted to the D. Y. Patil University,
School of Management,
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the
Degree of

MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY
In
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Submitted by

Ms. Rimpy Goyal

(Enrolment No. DYP-M.Phil-126090009)

Research Guide

Dr. R. GOPAL

DIRECTOR, DEAN & HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

DR. D.Y.PATIL UNIVERSITY, NAVI MUMBAI

DEPARMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Sector 4, Plot No. 10,

CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai – 400614

APRIL 2014

1

“I DEDICATE THIS RESERACH THESIS TO MY PARENTS,

WITHOUT WHOSE INSPIRATION AND SUPPORT,

BLESSINGS AND NOBLE UPBRINGING,

I WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN ABLE TO BE A PERSON

TO DO SUCH AN EXTENSIVE WORK LIKE THIS”

-- RIMPY GOYAL

2

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the thesis titled “A Study on Purchase Intentions of Consumers

towards Selected Luxury Fashion Products with special reference to Pune Region”

submitted for the award of Master of Philosophy in Business Management at D.Y.Patil

University, School of Management is my original work and the Dissertation has not

formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate ship, fellowship or any other

similar titles. The material borrowed from other sources and incorporated in the thesis has

been duly acknowledged.

I understand that I myself could be held responsible and accountable for plagiarism, if

any, detected later on.

The research papers published based on the research conducted out of and in the course

of the study are based on the study and not borrowed from other sources.

Place: Navi Mumbai

Date:

Signature of Student

3

Place: Navi Mumbai Date: Signature of the Head of Signature of the Guide Department 4 . Also it is certified that the thesis represents an independent work on the part of the candidate. fellowship or any other similar title of any University or Institution. School of Management in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Masters of Philosophy in Business Management and that the thesis has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree. Patil University. Rimpy Goyal is bonafide research work for the award of the Masters of Philosophy in Business Management at the D. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled “A Study on Purchase Intentions of Consumers towards Selected Luxury Fashion Products with special reference to Pune Region” submitted by Miss. associate ship.Y. diploma.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost. I would not be able to complete this study.Phil.Y. I would like to thank all the respondents that took part in collecting valuable data towards this research. advice and guidance throughout the entire preparations of this dissertation. Navi Mumbai for having accepted me as an M. I also would like to express my gratitude and thanks to Dr. I’m greatly touched by the commitments and dedications they have shown.Patil University. I would like to express my deepest sense to my supervisor Dr R. Their endless support had been invaluable and was the force that pushed me to go on. Student.Roshan Kazi for his guidance and comprehensive lecture notes on the using the SPSS tools as well as interpreting the analysis output from the subject. Without his support and guidance. I am thankful to Dr. Place: Navi Mumbai Date: Signature of the student 5 .Pradip Manjrekar for his recommendations and suggestions in every stage of my work. I also would like to thank my family members for support and understanding throughout the course of the completion of this dissertation.D.Gopal for his relentless support. I am extremely thankful to the Dr. Not forgetting also my colleagues and fellow course mates who had provided assistance and support encouragement throughout the completion of the dissertation.

3 Hypothesis 48 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter No.2 Concept of Luxury 9-12 1.1 Overview 1-8 1.6 Ethical Awareness 58 3.3 Luxury Brands 13-17 1.2 Objectives of the study 47 3.4 Brand Variables 18-24 1. Title Page No.5 Limitations of the study 57 3.4 Research Methodology 49-56 3.7 Significance of the study 59 6 .1 Research Questions 46 3. DECLARATION CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES i-ii LIST OF FIGURES iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iv-x 1 INTRODUCTION 1-27 1.5 Purchase Intentions of Consumers 25-27 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE & GAP ANALYSIS 28-45 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY & RESEARCH 46-59 METHODOLOGY 3.

4 DATA ANALYSIS 60-126 5 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION 127-133 6 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 134-135 7 ANNEXURE 136 Appendix-I BIBLIOGRAPHY 137-146 Appendix-II QUESTIONAIRE 147-152 7 .

t Income Table 4.4 Frequency and percentage of respondents buy Luxury Fashion Brand 67 products Table 4.17 105 Income * Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products Cross tabulation 8 .15 Showing relationship in between Gender and PI with the help of 100 Chi-Square Tests Table 4.t Age Table 4.2 Frequency and percentage of respondents by demographic 63 characteristic w.13 Showing the best occasion for purchasing Luxury Brand Products 92 Table 4. LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Conceptions of Brand image 23 Table 2 Past Studies Conducted on Consumer Purchase Intentions towards 35-44 Luxury Brand Fashion Products Table 4.11 Frequencies of Influencers For Purchase of Luxury Products 87 Table 4.12 Brand Variables drives you to purchase luxury Products 89 Table 4.3 Frequency and percentage of respondents by demographic 65 characteristic w.5 Frequency and percentage of respondents possessing Luxury Fashion 69 Brand Products Table 4.10 Frequencies of Source of Information about luxury fashion products 85 Table 4.1 Frequency and percentage of respondents by demographic 61 characteristic w. Table 4.14 List of Rational Variables which influence consumer to buy Luxury 93 Products Table 4.14 Comparative analysis in between Rational v/s Emotional 97 (b) Table 4.9 81 Reasons for purchasing luxury products (Multiple Response Options) Table 4.16 Showing relationship in between Income and PI with the help of 103 Chi-Square Tests Table 4.r.6 Frequency and percentage of respondents how often do they purchase 71 luxury brand products Table 4.t Gender Table 4.r.16 104 Gender * Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products Cross tabulation Table 4. Table 4.7: Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents for variable influencing 73 purchase of luxury products.r.14 List of Emotional Variables which influence consumer to buy Luxury 96 (a) Products Table 4.8 Showing difference in the importance attached to reasons with the 79 help of Ranks Table.

20 Rotated Component Matrix was referred to determine which variable 124 lower down to which factor 9 .18 KMO and Bartlett's Test to check correlation amongst variables 108 Table 4.19 Total Variance Explained with the help of Eigen Values 118 Table 4.Table 4.

Figure 4.r.1 Percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic 62 w.14(b) 10 .5 Percentage of respondents possessing Luxury Fashion 70 Brand Products Figure 4.r.2 Percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic 64 w.t Income Figure 4.6 Percentage of respondents how often do they purchase 72 luxury brand products Figure Rational v/s Emotional Variables 98 4.t Gender.3 Percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic 66 w.t Age Figure 4.1 Various Brand Variable 19 Figure 4. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 The most luxury brands 14-17 Figure 1.4 Percentage of respondents buy Luxury Fashion Brand 68 Products Figure 4.r.

which the consumer wants. This research helps to categorize that among these aspects which factors have significant effect on the purchase intention of the patrons. Moreover. It will help the marketers to focus on the features of the product that are significant and are positively correlated with purchase intentions of the customers. This study will show the purchase behavior of the customers that how general public attract to make purchase of the branded product and also reveal the important aspects which are quite necessary to capture the purchase intention of the customers. The customer driven approach is applied to find out the perception of users to have an exact idea about preference and desires. marketing managers are interested in consumer 11 . it is very much important to determine the exact features. product involvement. brand image. Purchase intention is the implied promise to one’s self to buy the product again whenever one makes next trip to the market (Fandos & Flavian. Purchase intention depicts the impression of customer retention. product attributes and brand loyalty. Purchase intentions are one of the main concepts studied in the marketing literature. product knowledge. There are certain functions of the brand. It has a substantial importance because the companies want to increase the sale of specific product for the purpose to maximize their profit. 2006. product quality.e. which have a strong influence on the purchase intention of the customer’s i. 2005). In this wondrous world where penetration in the market in the presence of competitors is very problematic and challenging. The interest of marketing scholars on purchase intentions comes from its relation to buying behavior. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study attempts to investigate Purchase Intentions of Consumers towards Selected Luxury Fashion Products. Halim & Hameed.

LVMH’s success led to the rise of a new luxury goods sub-sector and other corporate brands. The nineteenth century marked the beginning of the luxury goods sector and the start of many of the highly valuable luxury brands that we know today. the luxury fashion sector is the fourth largest revenue generator in France. The 1990s was a decade of explosive global consumption of modern luxury fashion goods.purchase intentions in order to forecast sales of existing and/or new products and services. market segmentation and promotional strategies. During the last decades. it is important to know individuals behavior towards purchasing luxury brand products. With the clear differences between social classes the consumption of luxury was limited to the elite classes. the 12 . Hermes. the first luxury goods conglomerate with a portfolio of more than 50 brands including Louis Vuitton and Christian Dior. and one of the most remarkable sectors in Italy. Nowadays. Brands like Zara from Spain and H&M from Sweden began to produce catwalk-style fashion at low cost offering consumers of luxury fashion alternatives at low prices.g. The high entry barrier that the luxury sector guarded for centuries has been lowered driven by globalization and the Internet. Spain. e. The “democratization of luxury” means that luxury goods or goods that resemble luxury goods are now available to an increased number of consumers (Okonkwo 2007. 226–227). Purchase intentions data can assist managers in their marketing decisions related top product demand (new and existing products). This study also talks about Luxury and Luxury Brands. The management methods of luxury fashion brands were affected by the rapid growth of LVMH (Louis Vuitton Möet Hennessey). Cartier and Louis Vuitton in France. Burberry in England and Bvlgari in Italy. In regards to the research. the luxury sector has undergone a large change.

According to Kotler (2003. The structure of the methodology will consist of the following: firstly. data that will be collected from both primary and secondary sources is going to be explained. However. mobile phones and Perfumes. Russia and India.t selected luxury fashion products. 13 . The luxury industry has increased impressively having a huge growth in demand. A comparative analysis had been done to know the rational and emotional buying behavior regarding luxury fashion products. Consumers have much choice in products. income and other demographic factors with purchasing intentions of consumers. this study is limited to the following luxury fashion products-watches. Today’s companies are interested in individual customers and hope to achieve profitable growth through larger share of each customer’s expenditure. Thirdly. This study also examine the relationship of age. This study showed the impact of brand variables on purchasing intention of consumers w. They also want to build higher customer loyalty. gender. As to know whether there is significant difference or not in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products. shopping channels and pricing of luxury goods. 26). to know if there is any relationship exists between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. To know all this several hypothesis testing had been done. The study was carried out to know the various factors influencing buying intentions of consumers towards Luxury fashion Products. sampling will be discussed. bags. to know if there is Sufficient correlation exists among variables.r.USA and the emerging markets of China. the research method will be discussed followed by an explanation to which method would be appropriate to use in this study. The luxury consumer is powerful. many companies are moving from the marketing concept to the customer concept. Secondly.

It describes the results from a survey of 400 respondents at various areas of Pune like Koregaon Park. Convenience sampling method was applied to distribute questionnaire. the statistical data analyses in a form of IBM SPSS Software 20 with the help of Microsoft Excel were conducted by applying a method of Frequency distribution tables. Friedman Chi-square Test and Exploratory Factor Analysis. Descriptive Statistics. The combinations of qualitative and quantitative were used to aid the explanation of the results. sources of information. ethical values will be taken into account. This work mainly focuses on reasons for purchasing luxury brand products. a short summary will be noted at the end of the chapter. this study had been carried out in Pune Region. Aundh. which is considered a key role in gathering data for results. will be approached. Pie-chart and Bar-chart. Out of the 400 respondents surveyed it is clear that people buy luxury products sometimes. 14 . Kalyani Nagar and Kondhwa. Next. Viman Nagar. rational Vs emotional variables and various brand variables which drives customer for purchasing luxury products. One interesting finding is that from the mean ranks table it can be seen that High Quality. the questionnaire design. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products. As mentioned above. In this study. Based on the Friedman Test it is concluded that there is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products. Multiple Response Analysis Test. Magarpatta. envy others with luxury brand products. Best design and esteem of brand are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off. Finally.Fourthly. Chi-square Test of Contingency.

as a result from the questionnaire to where data is gathered respondents should not be at risks (Fowler.From the Source of Information for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Online Adds and Television are the top two sources of information for purchase of Luxury products. or specifically selected for the result to look better because it is considered unethical and bias due to using data to the advantage of the study. Regarding Rational and Emotional Variables. From the Chi-square test it is concluded that there is relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. Secondly. Among all brand variables it can be seen that Brand Trust is the top most brand variable drives you for purchase of Luxury products. In this study. During the statistical data analysis. Finally. all information that has been gathered will be combined so respondents’ comments will remain confidential. An interesting observation can be seen that Media is the top most influencer for purchase of Luxury product. the protections of comments from the questionnaires. therefore. it can be seen that respondents purchase luxury fashion brand products rationally. Additionally. higher income group people buy luxury fashion brand products. Brand Conscious and Quality Conscious. This study focuses on human subjects. Related to occasion it is found that consumers buy luxury products at any point of time. It is concluded that there is no relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. 2002). attention on ethical values must be provided. and individual’s well being have been catered for. data that has been acquired 15 . Based on factor analysis and reasons for purchasing luxury fashion brand products it can be concluded that a luxury product buyer can be classified as Status Conscious. data will not be altered.

16 . Data that researcher think they are interesting can only be suggested as a useful information for further research but not for researcher’s own study (Jones. 2002). perceived societal status and brand loyalty can influence consumer buying intentions of luxury branded goods. This study will help the present Marketing Managers to better reposition their branding and advertising strategy to capture the correct target market to boost the sales in times where economy are at a challenge. the impact on online advertisement is clearly an influential media to promote branding of products and variables that influence buying decisions is surely a focus to ensure the Marketing Communications are done correctly and effectively. reasons for purchasing luxury products.should be analyzed based on the original design. over minor details. to avoid respondents being identifiable (Fowler. Ensuring effective execution of strategy are by understanding how variables such as brand image. in the presentation of data. With such study. 2000). care is taken during the analysis stage. Additionally.

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 17 .

2007). fashion. Twitchell (2003. Additionally. Individuals are influenced according to the important events and 18 . the contribution of the Industrial Revolution played a key role in bringing in more wealth. jewellery. Silverstein and Fiske (2001) stated that the increases in luxury purchases are influenced by social and business factors. luxury products have been more affordable for middle class consumers. In regards to the changes of the luxury goods market. p. middle class consumers have increased by 50% towards the purchasing of luxury products (Keane & Mcmillan.” Coco Chanel During the early years. 2007). However. There are many products that are considered as luxury. luxury products were considered a privilege to possess.43) explains that luxury is “things you have that I think you shouldn’t have”. and accessories. Chapter 1 Introduction 1. food. As explained by Nueno and Quelch (1998) the word “luxury” was applied to products that were rare and scarce which were only presented to minor individuals. Frank (1999) noted that cars and homes are some of the emerging luxury features that are consumed. in the United Kingdom. which made luxury products more achievable for all consumers (Hauck & Stanforth. For example. it is still unpredictable how middle class consumers determine what luxury products are (Hauck & Stanforth.1 Overview “Luxury is a necessity that begins where necessity ends. 2004). the definition of luxury was also redefined. since time has changed and the luxury goods market has grown considerably. which makes the market size undeterminable. The varieties of products include automobiles. However.

moments that occur in their lifetime (Meredith and Schewe, 1994; Ryder, 1965). These

moments and events may include war, economy, superstars, icons and technology that

influences individual’s perceptions and values. Additionally, the significant influence that

individuals will recall occurs between their adolescent and early adulthood years, that

they will never forget for the rest of their lives (Schuman & Scott, 1989). Researchers

have discovered that culture has been amongst one of the most popular categories in

influencing individual’s perceptions (Hauck & Stanforth, 2007). In regards to the

research, it is important to include Western and Eastern countries to compare different

individuals behaviour towards purchasing luxury brand products. Thus, the United

Kingdom (UK) is included in this study is because it is a part of the Western culture,

which contains the highest amount of millionaires (47,000) that purchases luxury goods

(The Guardian, 2005). Eastern culture such as China is included since the country has a

mass population of 40 million Chinese consumers who purchases luxury brand products

(The Guardian, 2005). Additionally, this figure of consumers has been predicted to rise to

160 million between the next five years (Matheson, 2007). Thailand is also apart of this

study as it is a part of the Eastern culture. It is one of the developing and Newly

Industrializing Countries (NICs), which received considerable changes in culture,

lifestyle, and behaviour towards luxury consumption (Timmer, 1998). From the

perspective of marketers, in targeting individual’s desires is a part of a valuable technique

(Noble & Schewe, 2003). Individuals influence from moments and events, should be

taken into consideration in developing luxury products. Defining luxury products, in

terms of the middle class consumers will gain marketers advantage in product

specification. Kemp (1998) explains that identifying products, which are luxurious,

19

would help marketers to indicate the boundary in price setting (Kemp, 1998). Whenever

you switch on the television, or flip through the pages of magazines, you are bombarded

with celebrity news and reality shows that touch your inner needs to feel beautiful,

important and recognized. Those gorgeous people in advertisements tell you that their

lifestyle and material possessions like clothes and accessories can make you beautiful as

well, and help you to be part of their world. All you need to do is to buy the right fashion

goods by the right designers. Then you start to crave for the Louis Vuitton bag or the

Chanel glasses. Soon you are hooked by the luxury fashion fever called brand loyalty.

Fashion has always played a significant role in the history of the great civilizations.

Already in Egyptian, Greek and Roman Empires fashion was a key social element that

reflected the society through apparel, accessories and cosmetics. With the clear

differences between social classes the consumption of luxury was limited to the elite

classes. The nineteenth century marked the beginning of the luxury goods sector and the

start of many of the highly valuable luxury brands that we know today, e.g. Hermes,

Cartier and Louis Vuitton in France, Burberry in England and Bvlgari in Italy.

During the last decades, the luxury sector has undergone a large change. The high entry

barrier that the luxury sector guarded for centuries has been lowered driven by

globalization and the Internet. The “democratization of luxury” means that luxury goods

or goods that resemble luxury goods are now available to an increased number of

consumers (Okonkwo 2007, 226–227). The 1990s was a decade of explosive global

consumption of modern luxury fashion goods. The management methods of luxury

fashion brands were affected by the rapid growth of LVMH (Louis Vuitton Möet

Hennessey), the first luxury goods conglomerate with a portfolio of more than 50 brands

20

including Louis Vuitton and Christian Dior. LVMH’s success led to the rise of a new

luxury goods sub-sector and other corporate brands. Brands like Zara from Spain and

H&M from Sweden began to produce catwalk-style fashion at low cost offering

consumers of luxury fashion alternatives at low prices. (See Appendix 2: The major

luxury fashion conglomerates.) Nowadays, the luxury fashion sector is the fourth largest

revenue generator in France, and one of the most remarkable sectors in Italy, Spain, the

USA and the emerging markets of China, Russia and India. The luxury industry has

increased impressively having a huge growth in demand. The luxury consumer is

powerful. Consumers have much choice in products, shopping channels and pricing of

luxury goods. Consumer behaviour is the keystone of marketing planning. In the late

1960s, consumer research was in its infancy. Many different, interdisciplinary

perspectives have influenced the study of consumer behaviour, and nowadays it is an

essential part of business marketing. Today’s companies are interested in individual

customers and hope to achieve profitable growth through larger share of each customer’s

expenditure. They also want to build higher customer loyalty. According to Kotler (2003,

26), many companies are moving from the marketing concept to the customer concept.

Southeast Asia is one of the key regions that luxury fashion brands should not ignore.

Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines are niche markets with

rising standard of living. (Chada and Husband, 2006) Certainly, Thailand is part of this

phenomenon since the country emerged as an economic tiger in the late 1980s. The

growth of upper and middle-class has contributed to the increase in consumption rates of

luxury fashion brands. It shows a newfound status. (Chada and Husband, 2006)

21

(Nueno and Quelch. people feel burdened with too many belongings. The consumer behavior of Thai female students particularly in Bangkok is definitely influenced by the commercialization and globalization. Gaysorn Plaza. The Emporium. on the other hand. people always appreciate the fine stuff which has matured over generation. 2006) In addition. the metropolis of Bangkok becomes a venue for many luxury brands to open flagship stores. (Suadmalai. (CBS. 2010) Despite the economic crisis. 2010) In Thailand. 2006). there is a lot of luxury malls in Bangkok such as Siam Paragon. 1998) “Luxury brands are a modern set of symbols that Asians are wearing to redefine their identity and social position (Chada and Husband. People adapt more on foreign cultures. luxury brand marketers are developing 22 . 1998) Realizing this trend. the luxury market is not severely affected. the government of Thailand tries to promote its capital city Bangkok as a regional fashion hub and shopping paradise for luxury goods. (Schutte and Ciarlante. Shopping and Fashion are playing major roles in young women’s lifestyle. and culture. Thai female students in the present days are more fashion conscious and they are influenced by the media. 2010) The long-term recession in Europe and small population growth rate in Europe has forced many European luxury brands to expand their business to Asian consumers who regard Western luxury brands as a symbol of good taste. Consequently. The Erawan Boutique Mall. This can be seen in the changes in social value. and The Peninsula Plaza. (CBS. economy.2006) Luxury fashion products are purchased more for “face” reason. luxury fashion brand culture does not only appeal to the high class people but also to the middle-class and low class people. Central World. (ITN.Moreover. Right now. All these malls are complete with facilities.” Thailand became a hot spot for this market. (Chada and Husband.

and fashion events in the urban shopping malls have influenced the transnational cosmopolitanism among consumers.strategies to attract Thai female students. One strategies being used luxury brands in Thailand is hiring celebrities to promote their brand. (Chada and Husband. 2006) Globalization has catalyzed the growth of fashion industry and the marketplace attractions have driven the cultural attributes of consumers significantly across various consumer segments. The conventional method of using societal icons as the cultural drivers have now been replaced by global fashion players with flagship brands as a basis for product position and market segmentation. Many researchers argue that increasing globalization is reducing the homogeneity of consumer behaviors within countries. consumer preferences. while increasing communalities across countries (Cleveland and Laroche. Customer centric market strategy developed on self-esteem attributes of consumer is used by the firms to enhance purchase intentions towards fashion apparel (Horowitz. and constituted 23 . fashion advertisements. and purchase intentions towards designer products is arguably the most critical issue faced by the marketing managers today. Shifts in the cultural values. 2009). Most firms manufacturing designer apparel are trying to bridge intercultural differences and building cultural consonance across consumer segments on a variety of contexts that stimulates interest in fashion apparel. It is found that multi-channel systems of brand building and differentiation influence the consumers towards fashion apparel and need is created at local levels supportive of. Powerful market stimulants such as fashion shows on television. 2007). Such interactive marketing strategies of fashion apparel have shown convergence of traditional and modern values and lifestyle to develop a homogeneous global consumer culture. in-store displays.

The Italian city of Milan shows how the city has became a destination brand. and short product life cycles in fashion retailing cultivate asymmetric consumer behavior and pose a number of marketing challenges for retail firms in Mexico. advertising. Thus. 24 . and ethnicity in the global marketplace. it is vital for manufacturers and retailers to develop and leverage core marketing capabilities. Consumer market for fashion apparel has become more diverse by designer brands. personalization. cultural industries. Globalization and increasing competition. This paper also discusses the marketing competencies of fashion apparel brands and retailers in reference to brand image. and external-market knowledge. 2010). the purpose of the present study is to investigate the attributes of shopping designer apparel among consumers in Mexico.by. store brands. If manufacturers and retailers of fashion apparel can identify the target consumers' preferences. little research has been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the apparel shopping behaviors among Hispanic consumers. However. promotions. In order to survive in this industry. they may be better able to attract and maintain their target consumer group. This study examines the effectiveness of different fashion marketing strategies and analysis of the consumer behavior in a cross-section of demographic settings in reference to fashion apparel retailing. where different various channels are being negotiated and integrate service fashion and design branding strategies (Jasson and Power. The study examines the determinants of consumer behavior and their impact on purchase intentions towards fashion apparel.

creative and sensuous dimensions – something beyond mere practicality. In economic terms. luxury objects can be said to be those whose price/quality relationship is the highest on the market. There are two things relating to luxury: the monetary capacity to pay the price of quality and a propensity to appreciate the object’s artistic. too. but the price differential between luxury products and products with comparable functions” (Kapferer 1999. luxury is enlightening. is not the absolute price. (Kapferer 1999. Luxury glitters. What is luxury for someone is just ordinary for others. tangible functions of an object. Luxury items provide extra pleasure and flatter at the senses. Luxury is visible. 78. (Kapferer 1999.2 The concept of luxury It is not so easy to define the word “luxury”. Luxury brands are exemplifying the signs and attitudes of the former aristocracy: a restricted group bonds together and distances itself from the rest of society in terms of price and preferences. others must see it. Like light. 77). Jean-Noël Kapferer criticizes this definition by saying that “what accounts. Luxury comes from “lux” that means light in Latin. indeed. as a pleasure or an advantage that 25 .) Kapferer uses etymology to clarify the concept.) The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defines luxury as the enjoyment of special and expensive things. particularly food and drink. by the consumer and. The strictly economic perspective does not help differentiate the upper-range brand from the luxury brand. 78–79. Luxury defines beauty. He states that upper-range products could be defined as tangibles associated with a specific product category. Quality means their measurable.1. clothes and surroundings. while luxury products are intangibles associated with values and ethics. Kapferer states that sociology and history can help clarify the concept.

Automobiles Today. the twenty first century. luxury consumption has become so popular (Kapferer and Bastien. Eyewear sunglasses and prescription glasses 5. Wines and spirits 6. Clothing and apparel designer fashion (haute couture) ready-to-wear clothing (prêt-à-porter) sportswear b. 2009) despite the fact that there is a relatively small number of companies selling luxury products. particularly 26 . 2007) Everyone aspire for luxury. Leather goods and accessories bags and wallets shoes belts luggage 2. Perfumes and cosmetics 3. Watches and jewelry 4. LUXURY AND PRESTIGE GOODS 1. Luxury products include both goods and services. Fashion a. (Uche Okwonko.you do not often have and as a thing that is expensive and enjoyable but not essential.

To add on this aspect. the first and second world wars. the luxury industry is somehow small in terms of number of companies in this world compared to other industries. Obviously. the word “Luxury” is not the same with everyone and some people do not exactly interpret this word like that in the dictionary. Chadha and Husband (2006) said that the democratization of luxury brands during 90s made the door of exclusivity open to ordinary people. (Oxford. and even communication. people all over the world are familiar with the word luxury fashion brands. Although. the state of great comfort and extravagant living or an inessential but desirable item. And. and there are European luxury brands that use Chinese silk as raw materials in productions. it 27 . Since luxury is the symbol of good taste and wealth. such as. In fact. there are Asians addicted to European Luxury brands. They feel that its beyond that and the definition seems to be hard to fathom. luxury fashion industry has been a multi-billion dollar industry in the world.in fashion. 2009) Consequently. 2009). the period of globalization offers many sources of luxury. It plays a remarkable role in the economy. the social stratification is gradually vanishing in the present days. 2009) Actually. luxury is everywhere today (Kapferer and Bastien. (Kapferer and Bastien. or democratization. increase in spending. Until now. This is driven by the development of industries. economy. “Luxury” means. If ever. there has been many luxury brands established in the world over the past centuries regardless of. there are some popular Japanese luxury brands in European countries. there is no doubt why everyone wants to have it. new trades. the industrial revolution period. and influences the modern society. But people still tend to distinguish the class in society by the leader in society and rich people always want to have and show off their extravagant life. For example.

not the product that is sold to the 28 . 2007) Another group of people think that expensive goods are always good and credible.would be a never ending discussion. while commanding a strong appeal to the desire and aspirations of its potential customers. Hermès for leather bags. it is true that luxury and expensive products must have high quality and durable. Luxury is very selective and exclusive which there is almost the only brand in its product category.. Brioni for mens suits. typically have higher quality/design. Kapferer and Bastien (2009) said that the concept of luxury is very old as the age of humanity. but an affecting goods. Yuwa Hedrick-Wong. according to Dr. Only one brand specializes in one product category.. But. The history and reputation of the brand are factors in considering luxury. for example. Actually. On the other hand. 2008) Those examples have very long history and background as well. The statement about luxury is very selective and exclusive and almost only one brand dominates in one product category. Asia/Pacific MasterCard Worldwide (2007). The sense of being sophisticated and having a good taste are based on this definition. The unique attribute of each product category belongs to one brand or it is called “the icon”. Valentino for womens dress.” (Wong. Economic Advisor. Although. it cannot be completely valid in the situation today. According to Kapferer and Bastien (2009). the quality of expensive goods is not that good but people still buy it because its aspirational. and Guerlain for cosmetics. (Chevalier and Mazzalovo. sometimes. usually higher than the average price of goods/service in the same category. luxury is “a brand of goods/service with exclusive/selective distribution. It is the price. the luxury goods are not perfect.

expertise and ethics. Sometimes they are not very happy with the function of the purchased 1. The brand identifies the origin of an item. 10–11. people want to own luxury goods just because it is expensive. or design or a combination of them.860$m on Louis Vuitton making it the most valuable brand in the luxury goods industry and the sixteenth most valuable brand in any product category in the world. there are few existing brands that can claim true luxury status." In 2010. sign. developing and effectively managing a luxury brand is a long process. intended to identify goods or services of one seller or groups of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors” (Kotler 2003. Interbrand placed a brand value of 21. because you cannot talk about luxury goods without talking about brand names. It is the mark on the product. term. a brand is “a name. 29 . It has the key credibility factor: offers a guarantee.3 Luxury brands In this chapter the author looks at brands. Interbrand is a global branding consultancy. They are not concerned much about quality. At this point. 3. symbol. FIGURE 1 represents the most valuable luxury brands in the world in 2010. By the definition of the American Marketing Association.customer. (Kapferer 2001. a source of confidence and is a sign of power.) As Okonkwo (2007. 418). known as "The Best Global Brands. but it is also the overall value conveyed with promises of tangible and intangible satisfaction. It releases an annual ranking of the best global brands by value. 4–5) says.

LUXURY BRAND MERCEDES-BENZ LOUIS VUITTION GUCCI ARMANI FERRARI PORCHES BURBERRY COACH 30 .

ZARA DIESEL VERSACE PRADA CALVIN KLEIN CHANEL RALPH LAUREN HUGO BOSS 31 .

D&G GIVENCHY GUESS DKNY CHRISTIAN DIOR ESBADA HERMES ELIZABETH ARDEN 32 .

TISSOT KENNETH COLE RADO JAGUAR CARTIER ROLLS ROYCE Source: Website of the Various Organizations Figure 1: The most luxury brands (Interbrand 2010) 33 .

Today brands play an integral part in marketing strategy in capturing consumer attention. a means of legal protection of unique features and of endowing products with unique associations. For the manufacturer. brands provide a means of identifications for ease of handling and tracing.1. cassette recorders and personal computers. video. the similarity between different brands is not unlike the similarity between various brands of gasoline. Consider the various brands of televisions. To the consumer. It is ironic that in such technologically sophisticated products. Furthermore. which in turn. 1997). This is because brands have become an important marketing component to the manufacturer and a rich source of information for consumer. assigns responsibility to the product maker and provides a promise or bond with the maker of the product (Keller et al. derive satisfaction from product consumption and secure financial returns.4 Brand Variables Branding Branding may also provide a source of differentiation for other reasons.. The pace of today’s technology change has made it difficult to differentiate purely on physical attributes. 34 . a brand identifies the source of the product. brands signal quality levels to consumer and can be effectively used to gain competitive advantage. They have become commodity items (Kohli & Thakor. 2008).

Porter (1974) said that by activation of the feelings may not only be occur speedily but also may lead to believe processing that is following in order or succession. Brand Loyalty Brand trust Brand Variable Brand Attachment Brand Attitude Core Brand Images Source: Own Analysis Figure1. Attitude towards the advertisement and brand cognition directly impact on attitude towards the brand. Porter (1974) forbade that advertisement should not be presented in hollowness and competes against other advertisements so in this context a consumer’s 35 . (2007) revealed that abundant studies expressed that advertisement is evaluated by the impact of ad context. Formation of responses that are cognitive gives back a necessary process directing to account change in the attitude. Teng et al.1: Various Brand Variables Brand attitude In dual mode persuasion process.

Brand attitudes can be seen as consumers affective response to a brand. and other such models perhaps lend better possibilities to form brand attitude (Bagozzi and Recall.1983). (2007) concluded that a customer attitude leading to a focused brand not only is dependent on his cognition of brand. 36 ..e. Teng et al. but also dependent on his perceptions of brand in a competition. According to Batey (2008) brand attitudes are a function of the belief that consumers have with regard to a brand and the degree to which the brand possesses certain attributes or benefits and consumers evaluative judgment of those believe (i. Consumers very often embed information in advertisements into easy presentations throughout the globe.perception in general of other advertisements may have impact on his or her attitude leading to the focused advertisement. The reactions to advertisements are not as such valid. As a result researches extend to one more factor i. embedded information. Attitudes toward a brand are determined in large part by more rational and functional elements where consumers are likely to be more able to verbalize their attitudes and their reason for them. However the models like attitude. Bagozzi and Recall (1983) operationalized definition of brand attitude as consumer attitudes in a un dimensional sense as the sum of the products of beliefs times evaluations. how desirable it is that the brand possesses these salient attributes or benefits). it may be fruitful to examine attitudes as multidimensional constructs consisting of networks of interconnected beliefs and evaluations. attitude towards advertisement and attitude towards the brand interaction to purchasing behaviour or intention leading towards the brand.e.

Few segments related to consumers are interested in store brands where as 37 . 2006). Only if a brand’s outcome is a satisfied customer and is trusted by the customer then there will be attachment that can be observable (Berry. On the other hand trust is a vital result of these interactions. Brand plays an extra ordinary role in companies related to services because brands. Sirdesh mukh et al. which are strong. (2002) declared trust of the customer as a vital and necessary construct in developing customer relationships stronger and achieve sustainable share in the market. increase the pace of customer’s trust of the purchase that is invisible (Berry. Trust on the brand is impact based. Thus in the model satisfaction for the brand is included in addition trust is also added on the brand to testify rational and affective results. Trust of the customer and satisfaction with a retailer mediates the impact of trust in brand and satisfaction on consumer intentions to repurchase (Zboja and Voorhees. 2006).. Secondly the attachment towards the brand makes interaction and specifies the brand powerfully express an outcome in advance that how often brand was bought in the past and will be bought in the future. it is concluded as vital element for the close interactions.Brand attachment Aspects of public interactions include sensation for other people. 2000). Since interactions are relationship over time. Binninger (2008) suggested that earlier in 1990s customers loyalty is marked as a main concept against in association with many others that consists of commitment. In earlier researches in psychology as well as in marketing. satisfaction. that refers to a touch. Therefore one more construct has been included that indicates this interdependence: attachment towards the brand. identification. which is the result of public interaction associated with brand (Esch et al. trust and the relationship with or attitude leading to brand. 2000).

which are on the top normally. distribution. produces more publicity and share in the market so as a result the consumers perceive these brands as superior. awareness for the brand and preference for the brand has an impact on core-brand image and is positively associated with the attitude of the core-brand (Shwu- lng and Chen-Lien. commitment inducing bond between the brand and the consumer. (2000) described that fashion 38 . relevance and awareness both are vital (Sevier. Shwu-lng and Chen-Lien (2009) said that market share. Delgado-Ballester and Munuera-Aleman (2005) declared trust associated from past experience becomes the part for current purchase and terms the customers as loyal which further intact the brand equity. Moreover for the effective branding. and promotional and advertising costs are pointing out objectively. 2007).customers that are satisfied marked as loyal (Martenson. Moore and Steve. The two components of core brand image. Shwu-lng and Chen-Lien (2009) portrayed researches on a larger scale suggesting the major components of core-brand image are awareness for the brand and preference for the brand. Esch et al. 2009). (2006) defined operationally as Brand attachment is a longer lasting. Older studies ended that the strength of the brand is perceived both as objectively or subjectively. 2001). He further explained that overall assessment of the consumers to the brand. which is vital part when extending the brand process. Core brand image In the perspective of core brand image and in the context of extension of a brand one obvious issue is the strength of a brand. Bogart and Lehman (1973) explained that brand awareness came into being from the big consists of dissimilar parts and dependent upon extension to different fields of advertised messages. channel stronghold.

brand expansion into global market has achieved success in space of brand image and awareness. affected by communication activity of the company. 1998). Furthermore attributes (the thing which exists and can be distinguished from each other) that are rational might be in true sense viewed as “causes” to the image of the brand rather saying than the image itself. and which may help to achieve sustained superior financial performance”. symbolic and Brand image is not a simple experience image phenomenon of understanding. Contrary to it. and add a helping hand to the firm’s success with the help of stronger cash flows and higher values in terms of the shareholders (Wong and Merrilees. Table 1: Conceptions of Brand image Source Main Meaning Conceptions of Brand image Park (1986) Functional. Take a closer look at the brand. This is a consumer’s understanding 39 . that is difficult to imitate. (Da Silva and Alwi. Roberts and Dowling (2002) explained operational definition as “The corporate brand is a valuable intangible asset. Atmosphere and quality of the store positively impacts the perception of quality of private label brands. 2006). 2006). it represents the ability of producing synergy effect of complete efforts of the marketing that inserts and stretch the existence of an image in the minds of consumer. the similarity among national brand and image of the store shows negative impact on the quality of private label brands (Vahie and Paswan.

Non-product-related attributes and elements that are not factual. reflecting associations of a consumer’s conscious. Brand associations are categorized into three significant groupings. of a complete brand set. intermediary element while indirect associations are what lead to associative chains. where elements are linked together thorough one or more intermediary elements. which are attributes. 40 . developed by a company. 2008). Aaker (2002) Associations How is a brand conceived by a consumer Source: Janonis. which affect product performance or non-product-related such as extrinsic attributes that do not have a direct bearing on product performance. 2007:79 Brand Associations Brand associations take up many forms from concrete to abstract. and Virvilaite. benefits and attitudes (Batey. Keller (1998) Conception Brand conception. such as ingredients and design features. the direct to indirect. though they mane be very important in the purchasing decision. as described by Batey (2008) may be product-related such as physical composition of a product and those elements. Direct associations are those that occur directly between two elements without the need or presence of a third. Utilitarian considerations such as functional benefits and product-related attributes constitute the more concrete and pragmatic meanings of a brand. Attributes. from the conscious to the unconscious.

product attributes and brand loyalty. Halim & Hameed. This study will show the purchase behavior of the customers that how general public attract to make purchase of the branded product and also reveal the important aspects which are quite necessary to capture the purchase intention of the customers. product quality. it is 41 . based on single products or product types – with specific attributes. In this wondrous world where penetration in the market in the presence of competitors is very problematic and challenging. more enjoyable or more meaningful. There are certain functions of the brand. Purchase intention depicts the impression of customer retention. particularly given that most brands were mono brands – that is. It has a substantial importance because the companies want to increase the sale of specific product for the purpose to maximize their profit. Products and product-related attribute formed the basis for categorization in the consumer behaviour. product involvement.e. 2005). This research helps to categorize that among these aspects which factors have significant effect on the purchase intention of the patrons. 1. The differentiating benefits that motivate brand purchase may be functional (as a result of on or more product attributes and the functional utility they buy.5 Purchase Intentions Purchase intention is the implied promise to one’s self to buy the product again whenever one makes next trip to the market (Fandos & Flavian.objective or instrumental underpin the more symbolic meanings of the brand. product knowledge. which have a strong influence on the purchase intention of the customer’s i. brand image. more fun. Benefits describe how a brand can solve a problem or offer an opportunity to the consumer or how it can make a consumer’s life easier. 2006.

1996). which the consumer wants. Moreover. Parasuraman et al. 1996. smell.. 1992. Purchase intentions are one of the main concepts studied in the marketing literature. It will help the marketers to focus on the features of the product that are significant and are positively correlated with purchase intentions of the customers. Boulding et al. Despite its importance. . whereas some others have reported an indirect relation mediated by satisfaction (Cronin and Taylor. Several studies have reported a positive correlation between purchase intentions and purchase behaviour (Morwitz and Schmittlein.very much important to determine the exact features. The interest of marketing scholars on purchase intentions comes from its relation to buying behaviour. . sensorial (physical experience of a brand and derive from its sensorial properties – looks. 1993). Sweeny et al. . and a direct effect of consumer satisfaction (Reichheld and Teal. The customer driven approach is applied to find out the perception of users to have an exact idea about preference and desires. 1990. 1999). Some scholars have found a direct relationship between perceived quality and purchase intentions (Carman. Studies have reported an indirect effect of values (Pitts and Woodside. market segmentation and promotional strategies. McQuitty et al. marketing managers are interested in consumer purchase intentions in order to forecast sales of existing and/or new products and services. There is a debated issue on the relation between perceived quality and purchase intentions. 2000) on purchase intentions. 1996. . Morwitz et al. 1984) and involvement (Swinyard. Purchase intentions data can assist managers in their marketing decisions related top roduct demand (new and existing products). expressive 42 . 1992. 1996). purchase intentions have not been explained well in marketing provide). Zeithaml et al. . 1993. taste. texture and so forth).

contributing to a sense of identity) or emotive (positive feelings created in consumers when buying or using a brand often have a symbolic dimension and respond to profound human needs such as the need to be cared for or the need to give and receive love). 2008). Strong brands often deliver a combination of those benefits type (Batey. 43 .(allowing the consumer to express certain values.

CHAPTER-2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 44 .

Then it. They were also the first to try to characterize them. First. was an "art de vivre". In this chapter the most important luxury researches will be explored. But in contrast to the Affluent. for whom luxury. These contributions to the field of luxury research are the most significant among a growing – but still relatively small-scale academic research within the field of luxury brands. according to Dubois and Laurent. who. for whom the world of luxury was. 17–18) says. could account for more than three purchases out of four. appeared that a major part of the market consisted of “Excursionists”. in most countries.1 Dubois’s. Excursionists did have access to luxury items. a dream. In opposition to the Excluded. and secondly. often linked to exceptional situations or circumstances. Dubois and Kapferer were among the first to recognize the importance of luxury products and brands in academic literature. the “Affluent” (well- to-do) who could be sub-segmented into two groups: “Old money” and the “Nouveaux Riches”. There is little systematic research on luxury. the” Excluded”. a third group of consumers who. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2. The purpose of this research was 45 . however. without access to luxury. Perhaps the most interesting thing in Bernard Dubois’s and Gilles Laurent’s (1995) research concerning luxury possessions and practices is their theoretical starting point based on earlier findings. comprised a vast majority of the population. their acquisition and consumption of luxury items was intermittent. Previously. it had been possible to identify two major consumer segments in the market for luxury goods. Laurent’s and Czellar’s researches As Radón (2010. at best. in certain product categories such as perfumes.

From the comments offered by the respondents on characteristics of luxury. The first study was a consumer-based exploratory analysis with usual qualitative interviewing methods. in-depth interviews with sixteen consumers having very different occupations. pass-on to Generations super fluousness or uselessness: non-functional. 46 . Dubois. A professional psychologist conducted first. expertise. both males and females of 17 to 70 years of age. a battery of attitudinal items was developed and administered to a sample of 440 French consumers. delicacy. limited number. The interviews were done on a faceto-face basis and taped. Laurent and Sandor Czellar (2001) published a consumer report analyzing complex and ambivalent attitudes to luxury. The researchers found out that luxury items provoked many ambivalent feelings and reactions: luxury products were desirable at a daydreaming level. on the basis of the results. contemplated at a distance. Then.to develop an empirical scale to measure to which degree a person is immersed in luxury. craftsmanship very high price: expensive. tailor-made aesthetics and polysensuality: piece of art. while the positive opinions were kept for "my" luxury. Again they conducted two studies. One could say that many negative feelings were attached to "others' luxury". Dubois and Laurent (1994) explored the meanings attached to the word "luxury" using a two-step survey methodology. The researchers also used factor analysis in their research. But when thinking of buying them. correlation and principal component analyses were performed. six facets emerged to define the cognitive domain of content: excellent quality: exceptional ingredients. beauty and dream ancestral heritage and personal history: long history. guilt feelings awoke. In order to improve the understanding of the attitudinal structure. elite and premium pricing scarcity and uniqueness: restricted distribution. tradition.

5). located on four continents. consumers can interpret luxury as the symbol of brand prestige.4 % female mean age 26.Their main objective in the second study was to assess the great diversity of luxury attitudes in a quantitative way. an extensive survey of American consumers’ product choices and the way how companies create “new luxury” brands that appeal to the mass-market consumer. companies’ news and annual reports. In 2002. This study was based on a large-case survey using items derived from the first study. 2. Health and Labor Statistics. They polled 2333 adults using Internet surveys asking questions about luxury shopping. with the help of the research team of The Boston Consulting Group. At a symbolic level. the researchers conducted a quantitative survey of American households. Much of their information was gathered from public sources. Dubois and Czellar (2002) have also explored the relationship between the concepts of "luxury" and "prestige" as applied to brands by means of an interpretative analysis of in- depth consumer interviews. e. in partnership with a leading marketing research firm Harris Interactive. Their research can be regarded as a sociological study and as a business strategy. The results were published in their book Trading Up in 2003.g. The final sample comprised 1848 subjects (39. US Census Bureau data. The results indicated that prestige can be achieved independently of luxury in many categories.2 Silverstein’s researches Michael Silverstein and Neil Fiske conducted. They therefore collected data in twenty different developed countries in a Western cultural context. All items were asked using a 5 point agrees-disagrees Likert format. The data was analyzed using a variety of statistical 47 .

As an example Silverstein mentions a 22- year-old single woman working as a business professional. single and workingwomen have a high influence on the new luxury market both as consumers and tastemakers. there is no “typical” new luxury spender although consumers have some common features. and to gain further information the researchers interviewed thirty respondents that had participated in their survey. others” (Silverstein & Fiske 2008. food and beverages.techniques. Divorced women were the top traders up. (Silverstein & Fiske 2008. They are very selective buyers: “They carefully and deliberately trade up to premium goods in specific categories while paying less or trading down in many. The quantitative surveys raised many questions about consumer motivations. furniture.) Other important traders up are “empty nesters”: married couples. pet food and travel. 276– 279. Nowadays. they did another survey polling 2105 consumers. Dual-income couples with no kids (DINKs) and dual-income couples with kids (DIWKs) are also new luxury buyers as they afford to buy premium goods that make their lives easier and less stressful. 16–17. The results were consistent with those of the first survey. Young. As their prime categories of new luxury goods. In 2003. Young. cars.) In general. or most. (Silverstein & Fiske 2008. single 48 . widows or widowers with good incomes having no children at home any more. This same trend is also seen in Japan. Most American women participate in the workforce. women are the dominant new luxury consumers in America. they are less likely to get married or do so later in their lives. 16. Silverstein mentions fashion. Many of them are single working people in their twenties. She buys Coach handbags and premium wines and visits gourmet food shops but her shampoo is from a cheap drugstore.) According to Silverstein’s researches. 15–16). (Silverstein & Fiske 2008.

and workingwomen – who live at home with their parents and have very low living

expenses – have helped make Louis Vuitton the most successful luxury brand.

Respondents were also asked how buying luxury goods make them feel. Four emotional

spaces were found (Silverstein & Fiske 2008, 35):

Taking care of me

Connecting

Questing

Individual style.

The emotional spaces are closely related without any strict boundaries between them.

Taking care of me

For many American consumers the most important reason to buy new luxury goods is the

Taking care of me –emotions they arouse. Chocolate, ice cream, coffee, home-theatre

equipment, appliances, furniture, bedding etc. give emotional uplift, stress reduction,

comfort, pampering and rest. When women have some moments for themselves, they

want to make the most of them, maybe have an aqua therapy bath or restaurant dining.

Men retreat into a room equipped with a personal computer or a home theatre.

(Silverstein & Fiske 2008, 35–37.)

Because these goods or activities are so personal, people sometimes think they are selfish

when indulging in them and feel guilty, especially working mothers. People live in an

uncertain world with fears of terrorism, war and other conflicts, but by using Silverstein’s

(2008, 41) words:

But even in the face of uncertainty–especially in the face of uncertainty– Americans don’t

want to spend their money on bland, emotionally empty goods. They want to spend on

49

items that bring emotional engagement, from spirits to nice sheets. Why not? As Frances

put it, “There’s a part of me that feels like, ‘Spend some money. Have some fun! You’re

going to die tomorrow.’ “

Connecting

New luxury goods are instrumental in helping to make connections and keep them strong.

For many singles, dating is a serious marketing exercise. Goods can be used to send

prospective partners signals to show who you are and what you are looking for. Goods

tell about taste, knowledge, achievements and values. After a romantic breakup goods

can bring solace, reward or revenge. In many families when family members cannot

spend much time together, goods can act as compensations or substitutes for the lost

moments. (Silverstein & Fiske 2008, 41–44.) New luxury goods also give consumers a

way to make affiliations and to “join the club”. People buy premium goods to show that

they belong to the ranks of successful people. (Silverstein & Fiske 2008, 44–45.)

Questing

According to Silverstein (2008, 45), “questing is about venturing out into the world,

experiencing new things and pushing back personal limits”. Travelling is the most

popular way to add adventure and exoticism to life. Travel is not anymore only a rest and

getaway but also acquiring new skills and memorable experiences.

Individual style

Brands are important when creating an individual style, especially when talking about

shoes, clothing, watches, fashion accessories, spirits and cars. Brands send messages to

friends, lovers and potential employers about who a person is or would like to be. Not

only the brand names but the specific attributes which stick with the brands are important

50

to new luxury consumers. Goods can be a nonverbal method of self-expression and social

dialogue. The home is an important expression of individual style and a place for status

purchasing, too. (Silverstein & Fiske 2008, 48–51.)

Silverstein’s and Fiske’s research was meant to make a tool to help consumers and

creators of new luxury understand the key impulses behind most purchases. According to

Silverstein (2008, 248), the four emotional spaces they identified in the United States also

drive European consumers, but with some nuances. Europeans are more focused on

authenticity than US consumers and care a lot about the origin of their goods. They are

also more focused on individual style than Americans. Especially in France the

genuineness of premium goods is important. Babette Leforestier (Silverstein & Fiske

2008, 248) from a French research firm says that “the claim of authenticity is one of the

major trends in consumption and the ingredients strengthen the image of these products

as genuine”. In addition to the well-known premium global brands, many new luxury

brands have emerged in France. Also in Europe women have increased their influence

and roles in the economy and workplace, the average household size is decreasing and

the number of single women has increased as well as the number of divorces. Europeans,

just like Americans, are stressed by fast-paced lives. (Silverstein & Fiske 2008, 247.)

2.3 Other researches

Table 2: Past Studies Conducted on Consumer Purchase Intentions towards Luxury

Brand Fashion Products

Title Author Source, Year Key Findings

Consumer Behaviour patterns in luxury market

Perception of Kaufmann, H.R., European J. Cross- *Russian luxury

51

luxury: Vrontis.. 2012 adaptation to the Russia Western lifestyle. *Two groups Identity of consumers: real connoisseurs (value of quality. behaviour in (63). further relation on factors as loyalty or country of origin. Y. Fashion and Andreeva A. Cultural consumption differs Idiosyncratic Manakova. 2012 specified. Vol. D. Competence and from that of Western Russian consumer Management. *Segmentation on upper and upper middle class consumers with their consumer behaviour 52 .. Management 02 consumption in Russia. exclusiveness) and status lookers (show off in the society) Limitations: lack of broader exploration. Brand *No culture of luxury demonstrative Marmi E. not deeply culture and 2. societies.

price.. of St. M. & Journal of *Brand innovation. which includes examining brand 65(10). *6P’s of Luxury Marketing description: people. pleasure. 2012 creativeness. originality. the price of which corresponds to the quality Marketing of luxury goods Marketing of Andreeva A. differentiation *The purchase of goods. 1471– uniqueness. Petersburg. purpose. luxury in the 1479. K.. modern Bogomolova N. strategies University Press. Luxury products. product. Business Research. *Theory of hedonic consumption(emotions and pleasure). K. clarity by Mills. 53 . *Motives for luxury 2008 consumption. W. Contributing Miller. Publishing House *Characteristics of luxury. passion.

3. *Brand leadership has a reasonably strong direct effect on brand luxury assessments. differentiated from 459-478. The Marketing of Vickers. & The Marketing *Luxury goods can be Luxury Goods Renand.fashion market expressiveness and imagination. S. 54 . seems to affect brand luxury. Review.. No. F. J. 2003 normal or 'non' luxury goods by the extent to which they exhibit a distinctive mix of dimensions: functionalism. * Path in the Brand Luxury Model is innovation→ leadership →brand luxury → user- imagery fit →value → willingness to pay a premium.

. Management. Luxury Consumption Behaviour A review and a Vigneron. A. * The symbols displayed by luxury products have a major influence on the choice of one product compared to another. ‘perfectionist’ (quality& prestige-seeking Vol. quality. Marketing emotions) and framework of Science Review. experientialism and symbolic interactionism. and Brand brand’s image in terms effects of non. emotional. L. & Journal of Product *Consumers evaluate a examining the Frost. F. social. H. 1. Status brands: O’Cass. of its 55 . unique. 1999 design) luxury purchase consumer motivations. Academy of *‘Hedonic’ (positive conceptual Johnson. behaviour *Prestige values: conspicuous.

11. Marketing and quality as a brand factors Management.13. & Journal of Fashion *Consumers perceive consumption Cicic.product related Vol. 2. determinant. 2010 an added value.10. *Rare products indicate prestige and respect. *”Snob 13(2).; To be or not to be? Benita Patel The Swedish *Consumers of luxury . 231–245.A study of School of Textiles. No. M. Luxury Husic. desire of status. brands perceive the Luxury Report No. service they receive as Consumption 2010. highly 56 . effect”: consumers buy 2009 the expensive products to distinguish themselves. symbolicmeaning; brand associations 2002 *By symbols individuals on status and communicate meaning conspicuous about themselves to consumption their reference groups.. M.* Sub categories: ”old aristocracy” and “new money”.

D. Japan and the USA) *Criteria governing the decision to purchase luxury goods worldwide: design. G. 1470... B Russia.Godey.. Journal of *Intercultural analysis of origin effect on Pederzoli. Brand and country. appreciate it. 65(10). Italy. whereas older once are stick only to luxury. R. 1461– effect on the luxury decision to Donvito. products H. France. B. Business Research. 57 . brand. (China.. *Russian consumers attach more specific significance to design and Coo. Weitz.. Oh.. of brand effect and Coo consumers’ Aiello. Chan. 2012 purchasing decision purchase luxury P. *Young consumers tend to mix luxury fashion with fast fashion. guarantee.

Y.. self. an individual can maintain or boost self-esteem by purchasing luxury goods. per cent of the global 58 . McColl. and luxury Consumer motivated consumers of Goods Services. & Journal of *The findings confirm motivations. Ashok Vikalpa: The *By 2015 BRIC Emerging Markets Journal for countries will have 36 Decision Makers.Intrinsic Truong. *The relationship between self-esteem and self. Luxury in emerging countries Logic of Luxury in Som.directed pleasure proves to be very salient. 2011 look at the actual quality of the product and its ability to provide self- directed pleasure. 18(6). luxury goods tend to consumption 555–561. R Retailing and that intrinsically esteem.

Issue 1. distribution (not many exclusively luxury destinations can be found). *Consumer expectations are very varied in BRIC countries: in Russia consumers expect luxury products to have a balance between tradition. p75-77. 36 luxury market. *Challenges in BRIC 2011 countries: education and knowledge about luxury. *Russia has knowledgeexperience 59 . the size and population of countries.Vol. Russians like to show off that they can spend a huge amount of money for a valuable product. modesty and wealth.

2010 motivated by pleasure and the quest for social distinction. Source: Referred various journals and research papers The motivation to consume for the sake of consuming was first discussed by the social analyst Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929). He claimed that a major role of products was to be used to inspire envy in others through display of wealth or power. *Country- specific aspects: ability to mirror symbols of pleasure and sensuality inherent to the Russian spirit. Petersburg. inpotential for consumption is in Moscow and St. Luxury in Stéphane Truchi IfopLive Journal *In Russia luxury is emerging countries (19). He created the term “conspicuous consumption” to refer to people’s desire to show their ability to afford 60 . to integrate local elements in the communication of international brands.

luxury goods. For him the process of conspicuous consumption was most evident among

“the leisure class”, people for whom productive work was taboo. (Solomon et al. 2002,

395–396.) Anita Radon (2010) made her study of luxury brands online, using the Internet

and websites. She collected her empirical material through e-mail interviews, instant

messaging or live chat and visual data presentation.

61

CHAPTER-3
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
AND RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

62

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3.1 Research Questions

The purposes of this study to know the purchasing intentions of consumers regarding

luxury fashion brand products. In evaluating the statement, this study attempts to answer

the following questions:

 Why do the buyers buy Luxury Fashion Brand Products?

 What is the gender distribution of Luxury Fashion Products buyers?

 What is the income distribution of Luxury Fashion Products buyers?

 What sources of information do they seek?

 What is the impact of brand variable on purchase decision?

 Which income group normally buys luxury fashion brand products?

 Is luxury buyer’s gender specific?

 What is the relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury

Fashion Brand Products?

 What is the relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury

Fashion Brand Products?

 What is the difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for

purchase of Luxury Products?

63

The study is limited to the following luxury fashion products-watches.r.  To provide necessary suggestions to Brand Marketers. income and other demographic factors. 64 .t selected luxury fashion products. mobile phones and Perfumes and to the city of Pune 3. Watches. H02: There is no relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. Bags).r. H12: There is a significant relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products.  To study the impact of brand variables on purchasing intention of consumers w.2 Research Objectives  To study various factors influencing buying intentions of consumers towards Luxury fashion Products (Products taken are Mobile Phones. bags. gender.  To examine reference group influence on purchasing intentions of consumers.3 Hypothesis H01: There is no difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products. H11: There is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products.3.t age.  To study the factors w.  To study rational and emotional buying behavior regarding luxury fashion products in different areas of Pune Region. Perfumes.

H14: Sufficient correlations exist among variables. Next. 65 . Ho4: No Sufficient correlation exists among variables. 3. the research method will be discussed followed by an explanation to which method would be appropriate to use in this study. which is considered a key role in gathering data for results. Additionally. this investigation has been taken towards selecting an appropriate approach in regards of the research question.H03: There is no relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. data that will be collected from both primary and secondary sources is going to be explained.4 Research methodology 3. the structure of the methodology will consist of the following: firstly. 1993). will be approached. as it is considered important to apply a suitable method to achieve the research objective. the significance of using the correct method also generates a more accurate result (Silverman. Therefore. the questionnaire design.4. a short summary will be noted at the end of the chapter. sampling will be discussed. Finally. H13: There is a significant relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. Fourthly.1 Introduction The methodology section cannot be overlooked. ethical values will be taken into account. In this chapter. Thirdly. Secondly.

3. 1998).2 Method Selection Howard (1985) explains that in applying a particular method towards research does not tests how useful its techniques are. and the results of the data (Curwin & Slater.4. 3. Qualitative researchers explain that the use of quantitative data alone may ignore the social and cultural variables of the information acquired (Silverman.3). Kirk and Miller (1986) stated that attitude cannot be simply explained using researches of series of numerical analytical assumptions. which includes naturalistic and interpretive approaches to research (Denzin & Lincoln. This study aims to explore purchase intentions of consumers towards purchasing luxury fashion brand products. life story. but just relates the strengths and limitations that have been used.3 Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative Methods The quantitative approach uses numerical values in explaining research and problem solving. which will be defined below. attempting to makes sense of. For example. statistical analysis. meanings. interviews. 2000). observation. p. interaction. there has been criticism towards quantitative methods. and visual texts. This means that “qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings. These methods are quantitative and qualitative. There are two options in regards to research method. middle age and 66 . 1998. and complications from individual’s experiences. The importance of quantitative research will be focusing on the collection of numerical. The data for qualitative methods are usually descriptive moments. The materials that are used for qualitative methods include: personal experiences. or interpret. Since there have been a large number of young. phenomena in terms of meanings people bring to them” (Denzin & Lincoln.4. Qualitative can generally be defined as a multi method. 2002). However.

which is a combination of both quantitative and qualitative data . and resolving a problem. The use of the mix method approach that uses both qualitative and quantitative data is because once these two types of data is combined it provides a better understanding of the data rather than if they are explained individually. Although these data have been collected in single studies. The reason that qualitative questions are included in this part is because respondents are able to give in depth answer of their personal views. for example. by mixing both qualitative and quantitative data would also be able to answer questions that words or numbers are not able to explain alone. more suitable to help collecting data from large sample sizes. Analysis of the information that is collected could be used for research questions or to test hypothesis. Additionally. The benefit of 67 . and own opinion of their thoughts and behavior towards luxury brand products. The study has collected quantitative data by applying closed-end questions towards a questionnaire. Quantitative data consists of closed end information that includes numerical figures. they will be combined in the mix method process. the combination of these two data is able to bring balance for the weakness of individual method that is applied (qualitative or quantitative) alone. quantitative (numerical figures) could be expanded on and explained further by qualitative (words) resulting in a more in depth explanation of the analyzed gathering of information and vice versa. Using this method for research heads the data towards a direction of analysis. therefore. Qualitative data includes open-ended information. The purpose of using both types of data collection is because. the method of quantitative research is. The approach to the research question has been applied with the mix method strategy.old consumers purchasing luxury brand products. Additionally. Gathering qualitative data is also applied in the questionnaire.

and books. These sources of data provided useful background information on the luxury fashion brands and luxury goods market.using the mix method approach is because it is able to address complex questions.1 Primary Data Gathering information from consumers of luxury brand products through face-to-face questionnaires was used in collecting primary data. Proquest. The advantage of data collection from consumers by using face-to-face questionnaire is that it is possible to correct any misunderstanding of the questions that is being asked. However. which are all related to research. Previous researches from various authors were found from databases that include Emerald. as well as indicating investigations that had 68 . 1994). articles. Dependent on the way the data will be used. will affect how the data will be collected (Waters.4. EBSCO. and etc.4. 3. 3. Questionnaires will be distributed to respondents and collected all the necessary information required for the study. 2002). questionnaires. Mix method is also a neutral approach to research so that if audience’s prefers one type of data to another.4.2 Secondary Data Secondary data is collected from mainly journals.4. data collection is divided into two parts: primary and secondary data collection. internet. data base.4 Data Collection There are many forms of data collection – mail. they are able to relate to the result in one form or another.4. interviews. and etc. 3. there are conditions to which specific data collection method should be approached (Fowler. and by gathering both forms of data enables all audiences to understand the information. and any missing information that has not been filled in. In this section.

3.4. 79). Chi-square Test of Contingency. situations questionnaires will use samples rather than populations because it is impractical to obtain data from an entire population (Waters. but in smaller size (Fink. 3. 2003). which will aid the decision-making process or gain competitive advantage in organization. and Aundh) 69 . Kondhwa. “data are collected from a representative sample of items or people. Secondary data provided relevant information that is used in designing the survey questions and identifying the problems that has occurred rendering significant outcome. 1994.6 Sampling The sampling method represents a larger group of population. Additionally.already been taken place. previous research identified areas of studies that have not been explored before. (1997) explain that the raw data. p. Magarpatta.4. they will then be analyzed by using a statistical method. Sampling Frame: Areas covered in Pune Region (Koregaon Park. and these are used to infer characteristics about all items or people” (Waters. figures. A reliable sample is a copy of the larger population. the statistical data analyses in a form of IBM SPSS Software 20 with the help of Microsoft Excel were conducted by applying Descriptive Statistics. which is analyzed in the correct method. As a result. would produce useful information. In other words. Friedman Chi-square Test and Exploratory Factor Analysis. Thomas et al.5 Statistical Data Analysis Once all primary data is gathered from the online questionnaire. Multiple Response Analysis Test. In usual. In this study. pie charts and bar-charts. 1994). Kalyani Nagar. Viman Nagar. the data that has been analyzed will be presented in the form of cross tables.

Viman Nagar=50. Hence s=6/6=1 Therefore n= (1. Formula: n= z2 X s2 e2 where n= sample size z= standard score associated with chosen level of confidence.84 0. Aundh=50) Sample size was determined using mean method. Kalyani Nagar=50.96)2 X (1)2 (0.10)2 = 3. Since most variables that are measured using Interval Scale. Magarpatta=100. 95% in this case Hence z=1.01 =384 Thus the sample size rounded off to 400 70 . Kondhwa=50.Sample Size: 400 (Koregaon Park=100.96 (derived from normal distribution) S=variation in the data E=tolerable error (10%) S was computed as a ratio of range/six standard deviation Range=7-1=6 Derived from the 7 point scale used for measuring variables.

The questionnaire design is composed of three parts (as shown in appendix 1). for example. 1994).Sampling: The current study utilizes a non-probability sampling techniques that is convenience sampling. 2=partially agree 3=agree. gender. the majority of the data that will be gathered are quantitative in a form of closed questions with support of data that are qualitative consisting of open questions. In this part 71 . Part two also consists of quantitative questions that are comprised of questions.7 Questionnaire Design Curwin and Slater (2002) explain that it is irrelevant how well investigations have gathered data or how methods have been applied. which requires rating from 1 to 7 (1= strongly agree. lots of the qualitative data might not be valuable. whereby respondents are required to rate their decisions (Waters. Part one consisting of quantitative questions contains personal details of respondents including: age. If the questions that are used in the survey are bias. Since there is limited number of time in conducting this research. Additionally. These types of questions are also related to ordinal data. 5= disagree. Within the questionnaire. The reason why a few qualitative questions are attached is the qualitative questions involve more attention and thinking for participants. 6= partially disagree and 7=strongly disagree) on their answers.4. and income. the question of how often do respondents purchase luxury items indicates the personal frequency of purchasing luxury items. 4= neutral. Personal details are required for general background of respondents who purchase luxury brand products. questions are categorized and ranked on scales. 3. interpretation of results from numerous qualitative data is more complex and consumes more time than quantitative data. Additionally. the results in the questionnaire will lose significant value.

36-45 and above 45 years old. The raw data were obtained from students who age less than 25. 72 . These open questions require answers where respondents are allowed to elaborate using words and expressions of how they feel (Fink. Analysis obtained from conducting Descriptive Statistics.4. Friedman Chi-square Test and Exploratory Factor Analysis will be presented in a form of cross tables and various figures which will be further discussed in the next chapter in more detail. Chi- square Test of Contingency.requires responses from individuals in what influences them into purchasing luxury brand products. Then. 2003). The flow of the questionnaire moves from topic to topic that involves questions that are directed towards source of information. influencer influences for purchasing luxury fashion brand products.58). pp. Multiple Response Analysis Test. between 26-35. firstly. 3. which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research. The survey in the form of questionnaire composed of 13 close questions and one open question with a help of “sampling method” was use to collect raw data. a selection of mixed methods. Qualitative questions are included in part three. Secondly. time period for purchasing luxury products in order to “avoid any radical jumps between topics that will disorientate respondents” (Cuwin & Slater. the use of IBM SPSS Software 20 along with Microsoft Excel analyzed all data that met the sampling criteria. was conducted to examine. how reasons for purchasing luxury brands products. various source of information and brand variables which drives the consumer for purchasing luxury products.8 Chapter Summary In this study. 2002.

a clearer view of purchasing intentions of consumers towards products known as luxury would be more reliable if large numbers of participants are taken into account. Aundh.3. Magarpatta. appropriate interpretation of the results are needed in order to avoid misconception.5 Limitations of the study Even though results of this study are based on the past researches in an area of Purchase intentions of consumers towards luxury fashion brands products. This study focus on Pune region. However. This method does not ensure that each unit will has an equal chance of being selected as in probability sampling. which would generate lower risk for external validity. Kalyani Nagar and Kondhwa. As this study employed “convenience sampling” which is a type of non. only a small sampling size of 400 respondents can be obtained. such samples are vulnerable to selection biases.probability sampling method. Since a limited amount of time is a constraint in this study. Areas covered under Pune are Koregaon Park. 73 . Viman Nagar. therefore.

this study has taken precautions over ethical principles. Firstly.6 Ethical Awareness This study focuses on human subjects. Additionally. therefore. During the statistical data analysis. data will not be altered. as a result from the questionnaire to where data is gathered respondents should not be at risks (Fowler. attention on ethical values must be provided. Finally. As obliged by the Belmont Report. In regards to the questionnaire part one. care is taken during the analysis stage. all information that has been gathered will be combined so respondents’ comments will remain confidential. the respect for individuals has been taken into account. or specifically selected for the result to look better because it is considered unethical and bias due to using data to the advantage of the study. 2000).3. In this study. in the presentation of data. over minor details. Additionally. 74 . Secondly. details of individuals’ names have not been recorded. therefore respondents remaining anonymous. data that has been acquired should be analyzed based on the original design. to avoid respondents being identifiable (Fowler. the protections of comments from the questionnaires. and individual’s well being have been catered for. conducted by the National Commission (1979) for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Data that researcher think they are interesting can only be suggested as a useful information for further research but not for researcher’s own study (Jones. 2002). 2002).

With such study.3. Understanding of variables such as reasons for buying luxury products. the impact on online advertisement is clearly an influential media to promote branding of products and variables that influence buying decisions is surely a focus to ensure the Marketing Communications are done correctly and effectively. quality and societal status will be able to help further understand how these variables affect the decision making of consumer. reasons for purchasing luxury products. Ensuring effective execution of strategy are by understanding how variables such as brand image. This study will help the present Marketing Managers to better reposition their branding and advertising strategy to capture the correct target market to boost the sales in times where economy are at a challenge.7 Significance of the Study This study is to explore the relations between variables that influence the purchasing decision of consumer on luxury brand. perceived societal status and brand loyalty can influence consumer buying intentions of luxury branded goods. 75 .

CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS 76 .

5 100.0 Total 400 100.5 27.5 female 110 27. Quantitative Results and Qualitative Results.r.1: Frequency and percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic w. According to the objectives of the study and the questionnaire designed.0 100.5 72. Chapter 4 Data Analysis This chapter presents the data analysis based on the 400 questionnaires distributed in order to answer the research questions. the results of data will be analyzed in two main sections. Statistical Data Analysis using IBM SPSS Software 20. 1.t Gender Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Male 290 72.5 72.0 77 . Gender wise distribution of respondents Gender N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4.

The above frequency table and pie chart shows frequency distribution for gender of respondents. 78 .r.t Gender. Most respondents in the survey were men .Figure 4. Out of 400 respondents surveyed.1: Percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic w.5%) were women. 290(72.5%) were men and 110(27.

0 77.5 above 45 6 1.8 15.8 36 to 45 83 20.0 62.0 79 .5 100.r.0 Total 400 100. 2.0 100.t Age Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid less than 25 63 15.2: Frequency and percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic w. Age Age N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4.8 98.5 1.8 15.8 26 to 35 248 62.8 20.

r. respondent groups aged between 26 and 35years were 248(62. Most respondents in the survey fall in the age group between 26 and 35 years.0%) followed by age groups between 36 and 45 years were 83(20.8%) followed by age groups less than 25 years were 63(15. Figure 4.5%). 80 .8%) followed by age group above 45 years were 6(1.2: Percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic w. Out of 400 respondents surveyed.t Age The above frequency table and bar chart shows frequency distribution for age of respondents.

r.3: Frequency and percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic w.3 5.0 19.8 31.0 13 to 18 lakhs 176 44.0 100.0 81.3 6 to 12 lakhs 127 31. Income Income N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4.0 above 18 lakhs 76 19.0 44.8 37.3 5.0 Total 400 100.t Income Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid less than 5 Lakhs 21 5.0 81 .0 100. 3.

3: Percentage of respondents by demographic characteristic w.8%) had an annual income in between 6 to 12 lakhs followed by 76(19.r. Figure 4.0%) had an annual income above 18 lakhs followed by 21(5. Out of 400 respondents surveyed.3%) had an annual income of less than 5 lakhs.0%) had an annual income ranging between 13 to 18 lakhs followed by 127 (31. about 176(44. Most respondents in the surveyed had an annual income ranging between 13 to 18 lakhs.t Income The above frequency table and bar chart shows frequency distribution for income of respondents. 82 .

8 91. Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4.0 100.0 Total 400 100.8 no 33 8.0 83 .4: Frequency and percentage of respondents buy Luxury Fashion Brand Products Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 367 91.3 100. 4.8 91.3 8.

75%) buy luxury products and 33(8. 84 . Out of 400 respondents surveyed.4: Percentage of respondents buy Luxury Fashion Brand Products The above frequency table and pie chart shows frequency distribution for buying luxury products. Figure 4.3%) does not go for luxury products. 367(91.

0 Total 400 100.3 93.8 100. 5. Do you posses any luxury goods N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4.8 6.0 100.3 No 27 6.5: Frequency and percentage of respondents possessing Luxury Fashion Brand Products Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Yes 373 93.0 85 .3 93.

5: Percentage of respondents possessing Luxury Fashion Brand Products The above frequency table and pie chart shows frequency distribution for respondents possessing luxury products.25%) possessing luxury products and 27(6. 86 . 373 (93. Figure 4.75%) does not possessing luxury products. Out of 400 respondents surveyed.

0 87 .0 Total 400 100.5 52.8 37.0 100.5 90.8 100.8 37.6: Frequency and percentage of respondents how often do they purchase luxury brand products? Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Often 151 37. 6.8 9. How often do you purchase luxury brand products N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4.8 sometimes 210 52.3 seldom 39 9.

Figure 4. 210 (52.6: Percentage of respondents how often do they purchase luxury brand products The above frequency table and pie chart shows frequency distribution for frequency of luxury product purchase. Out of 400 respondents surveyed.75%) buy luxury products often followed by 39(9. 88 .50%) purchase luxury products sometimes followed by 151 (37.8%) buy luxury products seldom.

650 Esteem of brand 400 2.357 To fit in with friends 400 2.62 1.57 1.328 .86 1.931 .576 .07 1.97 1.427 .50 1.919 Brand name 400 2.291 Envy others 400 3.207 1.84 1. Deviation Skewness Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic High Quality 400 1.480 Best Design and Aesthetic 400 2.80 1.593 Show off 400 4.067 89 . Descriptive Statistics N Mean Std.49 1.202 1.Descriptive Statistics Table 4.65 1.131 Upper class status 400 3.7: Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents for variable influencing purchase of luxury products.324 Value for money 400 2.16 1.409 .844 Follow the trend 400 2.955 -.207 Differentiate myself 400 3.765 .712 .333 .

742 .243 Esteem of brand .905 .896 .923 .243 Show off .122 -.122 .851 .243 Differentiate myself .734 .122 1. Error Statistic Std.62 1.122 .122 2.025 .311 .243 Brand name .243 Best Design and Aesthetic .243 Value for money .904 .122 -.122 -.243 90 .122 .243 Follow the trend .122 .Representation of celebrity 400 3.094 Valid N (list wise) 400 Descriptive Statistics Skewness Kurtosis Std.117 . Error High Quality .243 To fit in with friends .

Upper class status .122 -1.243 Envy others .122 -.243 Valid N (list wise) The above table shows descriptive statistics for variable influencing purchase of luxury products.870 .008 . The scale used was a 7-point Likert Scale as mentioned below:- Strongly agree =1 Partially agree=2 Agree=3 Neutral=4 Disagree=5 Partially disagree=6 Strongly disagree=7 91 .243 Representation of celebrity .582 .122 -. Respondents were offered with 12 commonly observed reasons behind purchase of luxury products and were asked to rate each reason on the basis of importance they attach to these reasons while purchasing luxury products.

s.2). so I want the same products that they have( mean=3.9).5. s. s.d=1. Envy others with luxury brand products. Based on the mean and standard deviation values it can be concluded that High Quality.9. 92 .d=1. Friedman Test A Friedman Chi square test was conducted to see if there is a difference in the importance respondents attached to the various reasons to purchase of luxury products.Mean and standard deviation values for all variables are as follows.d=1. it can be concluded that high quality ( mean=1.2). Best design and aesthetic and Esteem of brand are the three top reasons for purchasing luxury products and Show off. so I want the same products that they have and differentiate myself from others are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products. best design (mean=2. to differentiate myself from others( mean=3. Statistical Test: Friedman Chi-square test Variables and Measurement: Respondents were offered with 12 commonly observed reasons behind purchase of luxury products and were asked to rate each reason on the basis of importance they attach to these reasons while purchasing luxury products.d=1.8.d=1. brand name( mean=2. envy others with luxury Brand products. s.9).07. s. s.d=1.65.1.7) are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products.3) are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury Products whereas show off( mean=4.

The scale used was a 7-point Likert Scale as mentioned below:- (Strongly agree=1. Neutral=4. Disagree=5. Partially disagree=6. Partially agree=2. Strongly disagree=7) 93 .12 Variables are: (a) High Quality (b) Best Design & Aesthetic (c) To fit in with Friends (d) Esteem of Brand (e) Follow the Trend (f) Value for Money (g) Brand Name (h) Show Off (i) To differentiate myself from others (j) Want others to view me as an upper class status (k) Envy others with luxury brand products. Agree=3. so I want the same products that they have (l) Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them.

798 Df 11 Asymp. . Sig.Hypothesis-I H0: There is no difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products.05 Test Statistics N 400 Chi-square 1161. Level of Significance: α= 0.000 94 . H1: There is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products.

798 P value=0.22 95 . In order to identify where the difference lies we refer to Ranks Table.OBSERVATION X2 (11)= 1161.23 Follow the trend 6. Mean Rank High Quality 3. Table 4. Therefore it is concluded that there is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products.78 Best Design & Aesthetic 4.42 To fit in with friends 6.000 N=400 Conclusion Since P value (0.05) the null hypothesis is rejected.8: Showing difference in the importance attached to reasons with the help of Ranks Table.000) is less than level of significance (0.01 Esteem of brand 5.

Partially disagree=6. Disagree=5. Strongly disagree=7) It is interesting to know that a favorable response was given a lower code.00 Note: Labels of Likert scale were coded as below:- (Strongly agree=1.27 show off 9. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products.11 Differentiate myself 7. Agree=3.64 Representation of celebrity 8.Value for money 5. From the mean ranks table it can be seen that High Quality.95 Upper class status 7. 96 . Hence a mean rank of smaller value indicates more importance.79 Brand name 5. Partially agree=2. Neutral=4. Best design and esteem of brand are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off.59 Envy others 8. envy others with luxury brand products.

7% 62. Table 4.4% 17.3% 400 100. Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Reasons for purchasing 399 99.0% 97 .9: Reasons for purchasing luxury products( Multiple Response Options) Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Reasons for purchasing High Quality 308 24.0% luxury products a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.8% 1 .4% Aesthetic To fit in with friends 68 5.3% 77.2% luxury products Best Design and 249 19.

0% Follow the trend 85 6. 1=Yes 0=No 98 .3% Value for money 197 15.3% Representation of 11 .8% celebrity Total 1266 100. Esteem of brand 72 5.3% a.4% Brand name 164 13.7% 2. Each reason was measured using a two point scale.0% 41.9 shows multiple reason analysis for reasons for purchase of luxury products.0% 317.1% show off 27 2.7% 18. The above table 4.6% 49. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.4% 7.6% 11.5% Envy others 9 .7% 21.8% Differentiate myself 30 2.9% 2.5% Upper class status 46 3.1% 6.

Out of the total 1266 YES response 308(24.6%) accounted for Value for Money.9%) accounted for Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into 99 .3%) accounted for High Quality.7%) accounted for Follow the Trend.7%) accounted for Best Design. 30(2. 11(0.0%) accounted for Brand Name. 72(5. so I want the same products that they have l) Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them. a) High Quality b) Best Design & Aesthetic c) To fit in with Friends d) Esteem of Brand e) Follow the Trend f) Value for Money g) Brand Name h) Show Off i) To differentiate myself from others j) Want others to view me as an upper class status k) Envy others with luxury brand products. 27(2. 164(13. 249(19.6%) accounted for Want others to view me as an upper class status. Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20. 68(5.1%) accounted for Show Off.7%) accounted for Esteem of Brand.4%) accounted for to fit in with friends. 197(15.4%) accounted for to differentiate myself from others. 85(6. 46(3.

0% 400 100. so I want the same products that they have. Best design and value for money are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products. 100 . Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Source of 400 100. From the table 4. envy others with luxury brand products.0% 0 . Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.7%) accounted for Envy others with luxury brand products.purchasing them.0% Information a. 9(0.9 we conclude that reasons for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that High Quality.

7% 29. Table 4.10: Frequencies of Source of Information about luxury fashion products Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Source of TV 199 21.2% 49.8% Videos 48 5.8% Face book 90 9.6% 43.8% 18. The above table 4.0% 234.5% News paper 73 7.10 shows multiple reason analysis for source of information about luxury products.0% 58.0% Total 939 100.8% Informationa Online Add 235 25.8% Magazine Friends 119 12. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.1% 12.3% Fashion 175 18.8% a. Each reason was measured using a two point scale.6% 22. 1=Yes 0=No 101 .

10 we conclude that Source of Information for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Online Adds and Television are the top two sources of 102 . YES response 235(25. 48(5. 90(9. 175(18. 73(7. a) High Quality b) Best Design & Aesthetic c) To fit in with Friends d) Esteem of Brand e) Follow the Trend f) Value for Money g) Brand Name h) Show Off i) To differentiate myself from others j) Want others to view me as an upper class status k) Envy others with luxury brand products.8%) accounted for Newspaper. Out of the total 939.0%) accounted for Online Adds.1%) accounted for Videos. so I want the same products that they have l) Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them. 119(12.6%) accounted for Face book. 199(21.7%) accounted for Friends.2%) accounted for Television. From the table 4. Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20.6%) accounted for Fashion Magazine.

Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.11: Frequencies of Influencers For Purchase of Luxury Products Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Influencers For Friends 120 24.0% Purchase of Luxury Influence Productsa Ask a relative 40 8.0% 0 .8% 30.3% 10. Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Influencers For 400 100.0% Purchase of Luxury Productsa a.0% 400 100.0% 103 . Table 4.information for purchase of Luxury products and Newspaper and Videos are the bottom two sources of information for purchasing luxury products.

2%) accounted for Colleague.5% Media 164 34.7%) accounted for No influence.2% 13. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.3% Total 483 100.8%) accounted for Friends Influence. The above table 4. 105 (21.0% 41.0% 120. 40(8.8% a.0%) accounted for Media Influence.11 shows multiple reason analysis for Influencers for purchase luxury products. Out of the total 483 YES response 164 (34. 1=Yes 0=No Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20. From the table11 we conclude that Influencers influence for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Media is the top most influencer for purchase of Luxury products and Colleague is the bottom influencer for purchasing luxury products.0% No Influence 105 21. Each reason was measured using a two point scale. 120(24.3%) accounted for Relatives. 104 . Colleague 54 11.7% 26. 54(11.

Table 4. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.0% Brand Trust 196 29.0% 0 .3% Brand attachment 72 10. Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Brand Variable Drives 400 100.0% You To Purchase Luxury Productsa a.8% 33.5% 31.12: Brand Variable Drives you to purchase Luxury Products Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Brand Variable Drives Core Brand 124 18.0% You To Purchase Image Luxury Productsa Brand Attitude 133 19.0% 400 100.7% 18.2% 49.0% 105 .

The above table 4.8%) accounted for Brand Attitude.2%) accounted for Brand Trust. Out of the total 671 YES response 196 (29. 72(10.5% Total 671 100. 106 .3%) accounted for Brand Attachment. Each reason was measured using a two point scale.7%) accounted for Core Brand Image.12 shows multiple reason analysis for Influencers for purchase luxury products.0% 167. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1. 40(8. From the table 12 we conclude that Brand variables drives you for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Brand Trust is the top most brand variable drives you for purchase of Luxury products and Brand Attachment is the bottom brand variable which drives you for purchasing luxury products.8%) accounted for Brand Loyalty.8% 36. Brand Loyalty 146 21.8% a. 146 (21. 133 (19. 1=Yes 0=No Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20.

0% 400 100. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.0% At any point 161 32.13: Purchase Occasion Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Purchase Occasiona Festive 101 20.7% 22.0% Special 88 17.3% Total 498 100.0% 0 .0% 124. Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Purchase Occasiona 400 100.7% 37.3% 40.0% a.3% 25.5% 107 . Table 4.3% Offers Seasonal 148 29.

3% 25.7% 22.0% At any point 161 32.13 shows multiple reason analysis for Influencers for purchase luxury products.0% 124.3% Offers Seasonal 148 29. 108 .13: Purchase Occasion Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Purchase Occasiona Festive 101 20.3% 40. Each reason was measured using a two point scale.3% Total 498 100. 1=Yes 0=No Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1. Table 4.0% Special 88 17. The above table 4.7% 37.5% a.

Table 4.13 we conclude that Purchase Occasions for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that people purchase luxury products at any point of time is the top most reason and Special Offer is the bottom reason for purchasing luxury products.7%) accounted for Seasonal. 101 (20. 88(17.Out of the total 498 YES response 161 (32.14: List of Rational Variables which influence consumer to buy Luxury Products Responses Percent of N Percent Cases 109 . 148 (29.8% 17 4.3%) accounted for at any point of time.3% 400 100. From the table 4. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.0% a.3%) accounted for Festive Offers. Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Rational Variablesa 383 95.7%) accounted for Special Offers.

8% Search local shop 51 9.0% 137.8% 54. 1=Yes 0=No Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20.8%) accounted for Online Survey.4% 35.7%) accounted for Search local shops to get best deals. Each reason was measured using a two point scale.2%) accounted for comparison of price.Rational Variablesa You Compare the 134 25. 110 .2% 34.14 shows multiple reason analysis for Influencers for purchase luxury products. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.7% Online survey 210 39. The above table 4. 133 (25. From the table 4.3% Total 528 100.4%) accounted for comparison of features with other brand.0% feature Compare of price 133 25. Out of the total 528 YES response 210 (39.9% a.7% 13.14 we conclude that Rational variables for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Online survey is the top most reason and search local shops to get best deal is the bottom rational variable for purchasing luxury products. 134 (25. 51(9.

0% 19.0% a.9% 111 .6% 66. Table 4.0% 111.0% likings Total 47 100.5% 358 89.7% Family 8 17. Case Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Emotional Variablesa 42 10.5% 400 100.2% Known ones 28 59.14(a) List of Emotional Variables which influence consumer to buy Luxury Products Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Emotional Variablesa Do not bother 11 23. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.4% 26.

6%) accounted for purchased the product from your known ones.0% 19. 11 (23. Dichotomy group tabulated at value The above table 4. Out of the total 47 YES response 28 (59.4%) accounted for they do not bother to compare its features & 112 .2% Known ones 28 59.7% Family 8 17.0% likings Total 47 100.4% 26. 1=Yes 0=No Responses were analyzed using “Multiple Response Option” in IBM SPSS Software 20.9% a.14(a) shows multiple reason analysis for Influencers for purchase luxury products. Each reason was measured using a two point scale. Table 4.14(a) List of Emotional Variables which influence consumer to buy Luxury Products Responses N Percent Percent of Cases Emotional Variablesa Do not bother 11 23.0% 111.6% 66.

0 88.14(b) Comparative analysis in between Rational v/s Emotional Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid rational 352 88. irrespective of all other reasons.0 88.price with other Brand. irrespective of all other reasons is the bottom emotional variable for purchasing luxury products.0%) accounted for they buy the products because your family liked it.0 113 . From the table 4.0 emotional 48 12.0 100.14(a) we conclude that Emotional variables for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that purchased the product from your known ones is the top most reason and buy the products because your family liked it.0 Total 400 100.0 100.0 12. Statistics Rational v/s Emotional N Valid 400 Missing 0 Table 4. 8 (17.

0%) respondents said that they purchase luxury brand products emotionally. 48(12. Conclusion: Respondents were asked to tell about their feelings after purchasing luxury products:-- 114 .Figure 4. 352(88.14(b): Rational vs Emotional As per the above pie-chart.0%) respondents purchase luxury fashion brand products rationally.

Crosstabs Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Gender * Do you buy 400 100. Felt Happy after purchasing luxury products. Statistical Test: Chi-Square test of contingency 115 . felt better in the society. luxury brands gives an overall satisfaction.0% Luxuxy Fashion Products Hypothesis-II Purpose: To study if there is any relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. look like an upper class status.0% 400 100. felt awesome.Good Quality. felt like my standard is raised.0% 0 . felt better. felt a brand name is attached to you on which you can trust. it makes me feel comfort and the quality we get help us to buy more products.

566a 1 . (1- Value df (2-sided) sided) sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1. 0=No) Null Hypothesis H0: There is no relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products.193 Fisher's Exact Test .295 Likelihood Ratio 1.05 Table 4. Exact Sig. (2.Exact Sig. (1=Yes. Sig. Alternate Hypothesis H1: There is a significant relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products.098 1 . Level of Significance: α=0.693 1 .15: Chi-Square Tests Asymp.308 .Variables and Measurement: Both the variables gender and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products where nominally scaled variables with two response options.211 Continuity Correctionb 1.146 116 .

0 cells (. Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent 117 . b.211(two-tailed). Computed only for a 2x2 table Observation: X2(1)=1.10(one -tailed) Since P value (0. 0. Hence it is concluded that there is no relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products.0%) have expected count less than 5.08.211 Association N of Valid Cases 400 a. the null hypothesis is retained.562 1 .10) is more than level of significance.5666 P value=0. The minimum expected count is 9.Linear-by-Linear 1.

0% Luxury Fashion Products Hypothesis-III Purpose: To study if there is any relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products.0% 400 100. Alternate Hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. (1=Yes. 0=No) Null Hypothesis H0: There is no relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. Statistical Test: Chi-Square test of contingency Variables and Measurement: Both the variables income and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products where nominally scaled variables with two response options.0% 0 . Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Income * Do you buy 400 100. 118 .

73. Sig.Level of Significance: α=0.588 1 . To study the nature of relationship we refer to cross tabulation. Hence it is concluded that there is relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products.000 Since P value (0. 1 cells (12.40 P value=0.16: Chi-Square Tests Asymp.05 Table 4.402a 3 .5%) have expected count less than 5.000 N of Valid Cases 400 a.000 Linear-by-Linear Association 22.000) is less than level of significance. The minimum expected count is 1. (2- Value Df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 28. Observation: X2(3) =28. the null hypothesis is rejected. 119 .000 Likelihood Ratio 31.622 3 .

16: Gender * Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products Cross tabulation Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products yes No Total Gender Male Count 263 27 290 Expected Count 266.9 9.8% 8.0 400.5% 5.0 33.3% 100.0% Gender female Count 104 6 110 Expected Count 100.0 % within 90.0 % within 91.3% 100.1 110.0% Gender Total Count 367 33 400 Expected Count 367.0 % within 94.Table 4.7% 9.9 290.1 23.5% 100.0% Gender 120 .

7% 14.1% 100.17: Income * Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products Cross tabulation Do you buy Luxury Fashion Products Yes No Total Income less than 5 Lakhs Count 18 3 21 Expected Count 19.0% Income 6 to 12 lakhs Count 104 23 127 Expected Count 116.7 21.0 % within 96. Table 4.0% Income above 18 lakhs Count 76 0 76 121 .0% Income 13 to 18 lakhs Count 169 7 176 Expected Count 161.9% 18.3 1.5 176.5 10.3% 100.5 127.0 % within 85.0% 4.5 14.0% 100.0 % within 81.

Only 4% with their income less than 5 lakhs.17) it can be seen that out of the 400 respondents.0% 100.0 % within 100. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that higher income group people buy luxury fashion brand products.0% Income Total Count 367 33 400 Expected Count 367. 367(91.0% .0 33.0 % within 91.7 6.8% 8.3% 100.16 and 4. 122 .8%) said they purchase luxury fashion brand products.0 400.0% Income From the cross tabulation table (Table 4.3 76. Expected Count 69. Out of the 367 respondents who said they purchase luxury fashion brand products 46% were between the income groups 13-18 lakhs followed by 20% in the income above 18 lakhs followed by 28% were between the income group 6-12 lakhs.

Hypothesis: IV Factor Analysis An exploratory factor analysis of 12 reasons for purchasing luxury products: a) High Quality b) Best Design & Aesthetic c) To fit in with Friends d) Esteem of Brand e) Follow the Trend f) Value for Money g) Brand Name h) Show Off i) To differentiate myself from others j) Want others to view me as an upper class status k) Envy others with luxury brand products. 123 . so I want the same products that they have l) Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them was performed on the data collected from 400 sample size. H1: Sufficient correlations exist among variables. Ho: No Sufficient correlation exists among variables.

.539 .000 . Chi-Square 1809.18: KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.000 Correlation Matrixa High Best Design To fit in with Quality & Aesthetic friends Correlation High Quality 1.The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy was 0.000 124 .096 .826 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx.000 indicating sufficient co relationship between variables.194 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .539 1.096 Best Design & .140 Df 66 Sig. The Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant P=0.000 . Table 4.812 indicated that correlation between variables identified were suitable for principal component analysis (Factor Analysis).194 1. .

000 .000 125 . Esteem of brand .072 -. High Quality .140 .010 .044 .049 .300 Brand name -.047 .400 celebrity Sig.027 .024 .329 Upper class status . (1.016 .248 .081 .027 tailed) Best Design & .033 .020 .397 Representation of .107 .059 .535 Envy others .047 .288 Differentiate myself -.028 .070 .423 Follow the trend .404 Value for money .097 .000 Follow the trend .000 Esteem of brand .085 .000 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .000 .081 -.239 show off .057 -.000 .

314 .077 . Value for money .085 .010 Correlation Matrixa Esteem of Follow the Value for brand trend money Correlation High Quality .424 .000 Upper class status .140 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .049 Best Design & .000 Envy others .000 Representation of .121 .026 .255 .248 .000 show off . Determinant = .346 .300 126 .404 .070 .174 .174 .000 Differentiate myself .107 .000 celebrity a.292 .000 Brand name .052 .003 .126 .423 .165 .

390 .082 Differentiate myself .003 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .415 . Esteem of brand 1.016 .291 Envy others .000 Brand name .229 1.430 .332 1.000 .435 .332 .000 Follow the trend . (1.229 Value for money .000 Esteem of brand .354 Follow the trend .000 .318 .507 .000 127 .409 .431 .429 .354 .165 tailed) Best Design & .000 .298 Representation of .133 celebrity Sig.000 .315 .044 .081 . High Quality .056 Upper class status .000 .297 .372 show off .000 .000 .308 .

033 .000 .000 . Determinant = .329 .004 celebrity a.024 Best Design &amp.000 .000 Representation of .020 .097 .000 .010 Correlation Matrixa Differentiate Upper class Brand name show off myself status Correlation High Quality -.131 Upper class status .000 .239 .047 Aesthic To fit in with friends .057 -.000 .288 . Value for money .000 .000 .535 128 .047 .000 .000 . .000 Brand name .000 .051 Differentiate myself .000 Envy others .000 .059 -.000 show off .000 .

314 .000 .549 .000 129 .000 Follow the trend .000 .174 .297 .314 tailed) Best Design & .424 Differentiate myself .296 .000 .126 .000 .379 1.539 . Esteem of brand .542 .372 .346 .000 .000 .000 .314 .000 Esteem of brand .306 .082 .056 .026 .379 .318 .000 .424 . (1.291 Brand name 1.507 . High Quality .000 .539 1.409 .522 .000 .000 Envy others .121 .435 .000 .255 .610 Representation of .174 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .369 .417 1.417 Upper class status .296 show off .596 .390 .000 .431 Value for money .590 celebrity Sig.315 Follow the trend .

000 .010 -.000 .000 .397 .000 .000 . Value for money .000 show off .000 . Determinant = .028 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .000 .000 .010 Correlation Matrixa Representatio Envy others n of celebrity Correlation High Quality .051 .400 130 .000 .081 Best Design & -.000 .000 Representation of .000 Envy others .000 .000 .000 Differentiate myself .000 Brand name .131 .000 .000 Upper class status .072 .000 .000 .000 celebrity a.

542 Upper class status .369 .298 .610 .000 Esteem of brand .424 .308 Follow the trend . (1. High Quality . Esteem of brand .000 Follow the trend .430 .077 .133 Brand name .701 Representation of .052 tailed) Best Design & .000 .306 show off .590 Envy others 1.000 .000 .596 Differentiate myself .000 131 .429 .701 1.549 .292 Aesthetic To fit in with friends .000 celebrity Sig.000 .522 .415 Value for money .

762 Best Design & 1.000 .000 .781 Aesthetic To fit in with friends 1.000 show off .000 .000 .000 . Value for money .000 Envy others .462 Esteem of brand 1.000 Differentiate myself .000 Representation of .000 .000 .556 132 . Determinant = .000 celebrity a.010 Communalities Initial Extraction High Quality 1.000 .004 Brand name .000 Upper class status .000 .

451 Value for money 1.604 Upper class status 1.000 .000 .537 show off 1.01% of variance.000 .617 Differentiate myself 1.723 celebrity Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 . 133 .000 .000 .000 . Although the point of inflection was slightly below the point of inflection. Total variance explained table (4.000 .Follow the trend 1. The scree plot which is a graphical representation of Eigen values and factors suggested three factors to be retained.680 Representation of 1.19) The total variance explained table shows that three factors have Eigen values >1 cumulatively accounting for 62.706 Brand name 1.561 Envy others 1.

480 3.323 5 .046 3 1.917 52.326 92.251 80.196 9.091 on0 8 .307 2.965 62.351 2.129 38.522 4.630 5.917 52.348 85.896 12 .924 95.965 62.740 6.313 69.555 97.575 38.670 13.129 38.670 13. Table 4.999 89.011 1.090 9 .169 75.341 11 .046 1.129 4.011 4 .492 dim 6 .19:Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings % of Cumulative % of Cumulative Total Variance % Total Variance % 1 4.104 100.743 ensi 7 .416 10 .252 2.399 3.000 134 .878 7.129 2 1.196 9.575 38.

670 13.924 95. Table 4.341 11 .878 7.307 2.129 2 1.965 62.011 1.090 9 .575 38.480 3.169 75.670 13.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.011 4 .129 4.196 9.416 10 .522 4.999 89.251 80.351 2.19:Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings % of Cumulative % of Cumulative Total Variance % Total Variance % 1 4. 135 .091 on0 8 .252 2.046 3 1.917 52.323 5 .348 85.492 dim 6 .965 62.196 9.896 12 .326 92.129 38.129 38.399 3.046 1.104 100.630 5.743 ensi 7 .740 6.313 69.917 52.555 97.575 38.

553 3 1.047 17.057 48.Total Variance Explained Component Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 3.615 13.011 4 5 dim 6 ensi 7 on0 8 9 10 11 12 136 .780 31.496 2 2.457 62.496 31.

496 2 2.553 3 1.496 31.615 13.047 17. 137 .457 62.057 48.780 31.011 4 5 dim 6 ensi 7 on0 8 9 10 11 12 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Total Variance Explained Component Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 3.

Figure 4.812 138 .7 : Scree Plot Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 Envy others .

629 Brand name . 3 components extracted.775 celebrity Upper class status .641 Esteem of brand . Component Transformation Matrix 139 .667 To fit in with friends .712 Differentiate myself .856 Aesthetic High Quality .730 .746 show off .663 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.409 -.696 Follow the trend .Representation of . a.466 Value for money .566 -.465 Best Design & .

103 dim ensi 2 -.846 celebrity show off . The factor rotation technique used was Varimax.487 .426 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Component 1 2 3 1 . Table 4.291 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.810 .777 Differentiate myself .20: Rotated Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 Representation of .404 -.776 140 .899 on0 3 .328 .868 . The rotation component matrix was referred to determine which variable lower down to which factors.

From the Rotated Component Matrix (Table 4. “Show Off”.839 Brand name . “Want others to view me as an upper class status”.20) it can be seen that “Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products” influence me into purchasing them.627 High Quality .441 Value for money . “Envy others with luxury brand products. a.659 Esteem of brand .770 Upper class status . so I want the same products that they have”. Rotation converged in 5 iterations.Envy others . “To differentiate myself from others”. “Follow the Trend” have high loadings on factor 1. 141 .Thus Factor 1 can be named as Status Conscious. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.860 Aesthetic Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.610 To fit in with friends .676 Follow the trend .866 Best Design & .

Thus Factor 3 can be named as Quality Conscious. “Value for Money”. Similarly “High Quality”. Thus Factor 2 can be named as Brand Conscious. Brand Conscious and Quality Conscious.Similarly “To fit in with Friends”. “Brand Name” have high loadings on factor 2. “Esteem of Brand”. “Best Design & Aesthetic” have high loadings on factor 3. Conclusion: Based on factor analysis and reasons for purchasing luxury fashion brand products it can be concluded that a luxury product buyer can be classified as Status Conscious. 142 .

CHAPTER-5 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION 143 .

so I want the same products that they have and differentiate myself from others are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products. Disagree=5. In Friedman Chi square test was conducted to see if there is a difference in the importance respondents attached to the various reasons to purchase of luxury products. In descriptive statistics for variable influencing purchase of luxury products. Best design and aesthetic and Esteem of brand are the three top reasons for purchasing luxury products and Show off. The scale used was a 7-point Likert Scale as mentioned below:- (Strongly agree =1. Most respondents in the surveyed had an annual income ranging between 13 to 18 lakhs. Partially disagree=6. Chapter 5 Findings and Conclusion Findings Based on the 400 questionnaires distributed. Agree=3. Respondents were offered with 12 commonly observed reasons behind purchase of 144 . Neutral=4. Respondents were offered with 12 commonly observed reasons behind purchase of luxury products and were asked to rate each reason on the basis of importance they attach to these reasons while purchasing luxury products. the various findings are mentioned below: The frequency distribution for gender of respondents showed that most respondents in the survey were men. Partially agree=2. Most respondents in the survey fall in the age group between 26 and 35 years. Strongly disagree=7) Based on the mean and standard deviation values it can be concluded that High Quality. Envy others with luxury brand products.

145 . Brand Name. One interesting finding is that from the mean ranks table it can be seen that High Quality. From the Source of Information for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Online Adds and Television are the top two sources of information for purchase of Luxury products. Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them) Therefore it is found that there is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products. Show Off . Out of the 400 respondents surveyed it is clear that people buy luxury products sometimes. An interesting observation can be seen that Media is the top most influencer for purchase of Luxury product. To fit in with Friends. To differentiate myself from others. Follow the Trend . Want others to view me as an upper class status. Best Design & Aesthetic . Variables are: (High Quality. Envy others with luxury brand products. Based on the Friedman Test it is concluded that there is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products. Best design and esteem of brand are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off.luxury products and were asked to rate each reason on the basis of importance they attach to these reasons while purchasing luxury products. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products. envy others with luxury brand products. Esteem of Brand . Value for Money. so I want the same products that they have .

It is concluded that there is no relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. felt better in the society. Felt Happy after purchasing luxury products. From the Rotated Component Matrix it can be seen that “Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products” influence me into purchasing them. From the Purchase Occasions table for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that people purchase luxury products at any point of time is the top most reason and Special Offer is the bottom reason for purchasing luxury products. Respondents answered on how they felt when they bought luxury products. “Envy others with luxury brand products. felt awesome. higher income group people buy luxury fashion brand products. look like an upper class status. Related to occasion it is found that consumers buy luxury products at any point of time. so I want the same products that they have”. felt better. felt a brand name is attached to you on which you can trust. felt like my standard is raised. From the Chi-square test it is concluded that there is relationship between income of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. Among all brand variables it can be seen that Brand Trust is the top most brand variable drives you for purchase of Luxury products.From the table11 we found that Influencers influence for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that Media is the top most influencer for purchase of Luxury products and Colleague is the bottom influencer for purchasing luxury products. it makes me feel comfort and the quality we get help us to buy more products. 146 . luxury brands gives an overall satisfaction. some of the answers are as Good Quality. it can be seen that respondents purchase luxury fashion brand products rationally. Regarding Rational and Emotional Variables. “Show Off”.

envy others with luxury brand products. “Follow the Trend” have high loadings on factor 1. “Esteem of Brand”. “Want others to view me as an upper class status”. Thus Factor 3 can be named as Quality Conscious. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products and a luxury product buyer can be classified as Status Conscious. Best design and value for money are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off.Thus Factor 1 can be named as Status Conscious. Thus Factor 2 can be named as Brand Conscious. “Best Design & Aesthetic” have high loadings on factor 3. “Brand Name” have high loadings on factor 2. “Value for Money”.“To differentiate myself from others”. Brand Conscious and Quality Conscious. 147 . Final from the data analysis and factor analysis it was concluded that reasons for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that High Quality. Similarly “High Quality”. Similarly “To fit in with Friends”.

Respondents answered on how they felt when they bought luxury products. it can be concluded that respondents purchase luxury fashion brand products rationally. Regarding Rational and Emotional Variables. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products.Conclusion Based on the findings a number of conclusions are generated as follow: From the study it is clear that higher income group people buy luxury fashion brand products. Based on the Friedman Test it is concluded that there is significant difference in the importance respondents attached to reasons for purchase of Luxury Products. felt better. From the study it is concluded that Media is the top most influencer for purchase of Luxury products and Brand Trust is the top most brand variable drives customer for purchase of Luxury products and Online Adds is the top most Source of Information for purchasing luxury products. luxury brands gives an overall satisfaction. felt awesome. Based on the results it is concluded that High Quality. Felt Happy after purchasing luxury products. it makes me feel comfort and the quality we get help us to buy more products. 148 . envy others with luxury brand products. felt a brand name is attached to you on which you can trust. People generally go for online survey to buy luxury products. felt like my standard is raised. felt better in the society. look like an upper class status. Best design and aesthetic and esteem of brand are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off. some of the answers are as Good Quality.

it was concluded that reasons for purchasing luxury products it can be seen that High Quality.It is also concluded that there is no relationship between gender of respondents and purchase of Luxury Fashion Brand Products. Best design and value for money are the top three reasons for purchase of Luxury products and show off. Brand Conscious and Quality Conscious. so I want the same products that they have and Representation of celebrities associates with luxury brand products influence me into purchasing them are the bottom three reasons for purchasing luxury products and a luxury product buyer can be classified as Status Conscious. In summary. envy others with luxury brand products. 149 .

CHAPTER-6 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 150 .

Another interesting discovery that has been found in this research is that the majority of consumers purchase luxury brand products to fit in with friends. so they should give more advertisement on Television and put some more pop ups on Face book regarding luxury products for maximum efficiency in attracting consumers. Research has also indicated that consumers consider quality as a high priority when purchasing luxury brand products. Marketers should consider the idea of identifying which luxury products has been consumed the most by consumers. Research has also indicated that consumers have their high trust on Brands. Chapter 6 Suggestions and Recommendations It is considered a priority for marketers to know the reasons behind the purchasing intentions of consumers towards luxury fashion products. which will then be able to accumulate other consumers alike into purchase similar products. Marketers could use this finding and make the consumer more comfortable and build the brand Loyalty towards luxury fashion brand products. Marketers should also design such strategies so that consumers also consider other variables as shown in this study for purchasing luxury products. Marketers should also note that. the use of the media has a mass influence on consumers. From this study it is clear that consumer purchase luxury products due to its high quality and best design. 151 . Marketers could use this finding towards improving products. Products that show more quality could be beneficial to consumers.

CHAPTER-7 ANNEXURE 152 .

APPENDIX-1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 153 .

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APPENDIX-I

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Luxury can be in forms of Watches (Armani. This questionnaire is about fashion luxury products in your mind. Rado Tag-Heuer. in department of Business Management. Bvlgari. Ferrari & Hugo Boss etc. Sony. as each one will contribute to the final analysis. Nexus. Rolex. Tissot etc. and Perfumes (Chanel.). Questionnaire A Study on Purchase Intentions of Consumers towards Selected Luxury Fashion Products with special reference to Pune Region.Phil.). Coach. Please answer all questions as completely as possible. Kenneth Cole. Name: Rimpy Goyal Contact: Email ID: Address: 164 .Y. If you have purchased products that have been included above.). The information used by me in this study will be highly confidential and used only for statistical purpose and it will not be disclosed anywhere. Gucci. satisfaction. etc. etc. Victoria secret.). Bags (Louis Vuitton. Prada. Mobile Phone (Apple. Luxury can be defined as “something adding to pleasure or comfort but not absolutely necessary. an indulgence in something that provides pleasure. Student of D.Patil University studying M. Samsung. I’m Rimpy Goyal. or ease” (Merriam Webster Dictionary 2004).

Benetton. Ralph Lauren. Louis Vuitton. Prada. DKNY. Giorgio Armani. Guess. How often do you purchase luxury brand products?  Often  Sometimes  Seldom 7. Gender  Male  Female 2. Givenchy.?  Yes  No 5. Diesel. such as Versace. Escada.1. Gucci. Reasons for buying purchase luxury products (You are required to rate each of the following statements on a scale arranging from 1 to 7 where 1 indicates Strongly agree and 7 indicates strongly disagree and 4 indicates that you are Neither agree nor disagree)? Strongly Partially Agree Neutral Disagree Partially Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Disagree High Quality        165 . Income (in lakhs)  Less than 5  6 – 12  13 – 18  Above 18 4. Calvin Klein. Coach. Do you possess any luxury good?  Yes  No 6. Armani. Do you buy luxury fashion branded products. Age (in Years)  Less than 25  26 – 35  36 – 45  Above 45 3. Christian Dior. Tommy Hilfiger. Chanel. Hugo Boss. etc. Elizabeth Arden. Hermes.

Best Design & Aesthetic        To fit in with Friends        Esteem of Brand        Follow the Trend        Value for Money        Brand Name        Show Off        To differentiate myself        From others Want others to view me        As an upper class status Envy others with luxury        Brand products. so I want The same products that They have Representation of celebrities        Associates with luxury brand Products influence me into Purchasing them 8. Reasons for buying purchase luxury products  High Quality  Best Design &  To fit in with  Esteem of Brand Aesthetic Friends  Follow the Trend  Value for Money  Brand Name  Show Off  To differentiate  Want others to  Envy others with  Representation myself from view me as an luxury brand of celebrities others upper class products. so I associates with status want the same luxury brand products that products they have influence me into purchasing them 166 .

Name the factor which influenced you in the purchase of luxury fashion products?  Friend influence  Ask a relative for  Ask  Media on me to make advice Colleague/mates significantly purchase for advice influence me to make purchase  No influence 11. which Brand Variable drives you most to purchase  Core Brand  Brand Attitude  Brand  Brand trust Images Attachment  Brand Loyalty 12. What are the ways through which you buy luxury fashion products (rational variables)?  You Compare  Comparison of  You do Online  Search local the feature with Price Survey shops to get best other Brand deals 167 . What is the source of information about luxury fashion products for you?  Television  Online Adds  Facebook/Twitter  Newspaper  Fashion  Friends  Videos  Others__________ Magazine 10. When do you prefer the most to buy luxury fashion products?  Festive Offers  Seasonal Offers  Special Day Offers  At any point of time 13. While purchasing luxury fashion products.9.

irrespective of with other Brand all other reasons What do you feel when buying luxury fashion brands? Why? Thank you very much for taking the time to complete this survey. Your feedback is valued and very much appreciated! 168 .OR What are the ways through which you buy luxury fashion products (Emotional variables)?  You do not  You purchased  You buy the bother to the product from products bcoz compare its your known ones your family liked features & price it.