Management Information Systems, 12e (Laudon

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Chapter 13 Building Information Systems

1) The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is automation.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 489
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.1

2) Rationalization of procedures describes a radical rethinking of the business models.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.1

3) Failure to address properly the organizational changes surrounding the introduction of a new
system can cause the demise of an otherwise good system.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490
AACSB: Analytic Skills
CASE: Evaluation
Objective: 13.1

4) TQM describes the measurement of quality as 3.4 defects per million.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.1

5) Thorough testing is not required if, during the programming stage, the design documents are
sufficiently detailed.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 499
AACSB: Analytic Skills
CASE: Analysis
Objective: 13.2

6) The system is not in production until conversion is complete.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 501
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.2

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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

7) Documentation reveals how well the system has met its original objectives.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 501
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.2

8) A data flow diagram offers a logical and graphical model of information flow, partitioning a
system into modules that show manageable levels of detail.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 502
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.3

9) A structure chart is a bottom-up chart, showing each level of design, its relationship to other
levels, and its place in the overall design structure.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 503
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.3

10) Object-oriented development is more incremental than traditional structured development.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.3

11) Objects are grouped into hierarchies, and hierarchies into classes.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.3

12) CASE tools facilitate the creation of clear documentation and the coordination of team
development efforts.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 505
AACSB: Use of IT
CASE: Content
Objective: 13.3

2
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 509 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Inc.4 16) End-user-developed systems can be completed more rapidly than those developed through the conventional systems lifecycle.4 3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. but operates the software on its own computers. a company hires an external vendor to create the software for its system. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 509 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 507 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.4 14) Prototyping is more iterative than the conventional lifecycle.4 15) A problem with prototyping is that the systems constructed using this method may not be able to handle large quantities of data in a production environment.4 18) In some forms of outsourcing. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 506 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 507 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. .13) The oldest method for building information systems is prototyping.4 17) One advantage of fourth-generation tools is that they can easily handle processing large numbers of transactions or applications with extensive procedural logic and updating requirements. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 510 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.

5 21) What is the primary driving factor in firms to select domestic outsourcing firms to build system solutions? A) to take advantage of technical skills the firm does not have B) to save labor costs C) to avoid change management issues D) all of the above Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 511 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13. reengineering.1 4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. and paradigm shift. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 511 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. rationalization.19) A primary benefit of offshore outsourcing is that this can substantially reduce hidden costs. D) automation. Inc. automation. . C) automation. automation. B) rationalization. and redesigning. redesigning. in order from least to most risky. and paradigm shift. reengineering.4 20) Systems development activities always take place in sequential order. are A) rationalization.4 22) The four kinds of structural organizational change enabled by IT. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 489 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. restructuring. and paradigm shift. reengineering. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.

Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. D) business process redesign. Inc. simplified. The goal is to gradually improve its efficiency over time. D) paradigm shifts. B) rationalization of procedures.1 26) An upscale organic foods grocery chain is implementing an information system that will enable it to add same-day home delivery of groceries to its customers. D) business process redesign.1 5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. B) business processes are reorganized to cut waste and eliminate repetitive. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. C) paradigm shift. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 489 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13. and redesigned in A) business process redesign. C) paradigm shift. B) rationalization of procedures. . This is an example of A) automation. and some steps are combined to reduce bottlenecks in processing. This is an example of A) automation. paper-intensive tasks. C) automation.23) Business processes are analyzed.1 24) In automation A) business processes are simplified. C) standard operating procedures are streamlined to remove bottlenecks. D) employees are enabled to perform their tasks more efficiently. B) rationalization of procedures.1 25) A bank has reworked its mortgage application process so that several steps are handled by computer software. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13.

Inc. (3) implementing the new process D) (1) analyzing processes to change (2) designing the new process. (3) designing the new process C) (1) identifying processes for change. . (2) analyzing existing processes. C) six sigma. what are the first three steps in BPM? A) (1) identifying processes for change. B) BPR. (3) measuring the optimized process Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 492-493 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13.27) In order. (3) designing the new process B) (1) analyzing existing processes. (2) identifying processes for change. A) Business process redesign B) Business process management C) CASE tools D) TQM Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 491 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13.1 6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.1 28) ________ provide(s) a methodology and tools for dealing with the organization's ongoing need to revise and optimize its numerous business processes. Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 490 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13. (2) designing the new process.1 29) The idea that the achievement of quality control is an end in itself describes a main concept of A) BPM. D) TQM.

C) job design.2 33) System design specifications that address the category of database design issues will include specifications for A) transaction volume and speed requirements.30) Which process develops a detailed description of the functions that a new information system must perform? A) feasibility study B) requirements analysis C) systems design D) test plan development Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. B) shows how the new system will fulfill the information requirements. where. D) user information requirements. . B) feasibility studies.2 31) The entire system-building effort is driven by A) organizational change. B) data entry. Inc. C) the information value chain. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 498 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.3 32) Systems design A) describes what a system should do to meet information requirements. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 498 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. C) identifies which users need what information. D) program logic and computations. when and how. D) is concerned with the logical view of the system solution. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497-498 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13.2 7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.

Inc. . Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 491 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13.2 36) Determining methods for feedback and error handling would be defined by which category of system design specifications? A) training and documentation B) user interface C) manual procedures D) security and controls Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 498 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. D) workflow management.34) Enabling organizations to make continual improvements to many business processes and to use processes as the fundamental building blocks of corporate information systems is the goal of A) business process management. D) provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.1 35) Transferring data from a legacy system to the new system would be defined by which category of system design specifications? A) input B) database C) manual procedures D) conversion Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 498 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. C) workflow engineering.2 37) Unit testing A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.2 8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. C) tests each program separately. B) business process redesign. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 499 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.

Inc. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 499 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.2 9 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. D) provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. C) and the old are run together. C) and the old are run together. the new system A) is tested by an outsourced company. C) tests each program separately. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 500 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.2 40) In a parallel conversion strategy. D) is introduced in stages. B) replaces the old one at an appointed time. C) tests each program separately. B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.38) System testing A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system. D) provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. D) is introduced in stages. B) tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.2 39) Acceptance testing A) includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system. B) replaces the old one at an appointed time. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 499 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. . the new system A) is tested by an outsourced company.2 41) In the direct cutover conversion strategy.

3 10 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.42) Changes in hardware. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 501 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. C) user documentation. documentation. D) data flow diagrams.2 44) The primary tool for representing a system's component processes and the flow of data between them is the A) data dictionary.3 45) To understand and define the contents of data flows and data store. or production to a production system to correct errors. software. . C) user documentation. meet new requirements. B) production. B) process specifications diagrams. Inc. system builders use A) a data dictionary. or improve processing efficiencies are termed A) compliance. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 502 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 503 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. D) data flow diagram. D) acceptance. C) maintenance. B) process specifications diagram.2 43) In what stage of systems development are design specifications created? A) systems analysis B) systems design C) testing D) conversion Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 501 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.

and Physics be related? A) Degree would be a sister class to Mathematics and Physics.3 48) In object-oriented development A) the class is used as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 503 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. how would the classes Degree.3 49) In an object-oriented development framework for a university. C) processing logic resides within objects. and its place in the overall design structure. structured methodologies use A) structure charts. Inc.46) To show each level of a system's design. B) Degree is a superclass to Mathematics and Physics. C) process specifications. B) an object is a collection of data that is acted on by external processes. . Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 502 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. C) process specifications. its relationship to other levels. step-by-step development process is essential. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Evaluation Objective: 13. D) structured diagrams. C) Mathematics and Physics would be ancestors to Degree.3 47) An entire information system is broken down into its subsystems by using A) high-level data flow diagrams. D) a strict. B) low-level data flow diagrams. D) Degree would be a subclass to Mathematics and Physics.3 11 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. B) Gantt and PERT charts. Mathematics. D) data flow diagrams. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 499504 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13.

4 12 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. C) objects are reusable. B) prototyping. D) all of the above. D) the systems development lifecycle.50) Object-oriented modeling is based on the concepts of A) objects and relationships. C) class and inheritance. Inc. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 505 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. B) classes and objects. D) a single user interface object can be used for the entire application. B) code generation. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 504 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.3 52) CASE tools automate A) documentation. D) objects and inheritance. C) object-oriented development. .3 53) The oldest method for building information systems is A) component-based development. C) creating data dictionaries. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 505 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 506 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. B) iterative prototyping is not required.3 51) Object-oriented development could potentially reduce the time and cost of writing software because A) object-oriented programming requires less training.

use the prototype. . end users A) are important and ongoing members of the team from the original analysis phase through maintenance. revise and enhance the prototype. develop the prototype. C) Define the requirements. D) are limited to providing information requirements and reviewing the technical staff's work. B) are important only in the testing phases. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 506 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. develop solutions.54) In the traditional systems development lifecycle. B) Identify user requirements. D) Define the requirements.4 55) In which type of systems building are the development stages organized so that tasks in one stage are completed before the tasks in the next stage begun? A) traditional B) prototyping C) RAD D) all of the above Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 506-507 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Inc. revise and enhance the prototype. What is the order of steps you will follow in this project? A) Develop the prototype. revise and enhance the prototype.5 13 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 507 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Synthesis Objective: 13. and implement the prototype. C) have no input.4 56) As a technical project manager you have decided to propose implementing a prototyping methodology for a small Web-based design project. select the best prototype. use the prototype. develop the prototype.

Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 510 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. . software.4 14 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.57) A systems building approach in which the system is developed as successive versions.4 59) Which type of fourth-generation language tool contains preprogrammed modules that can be used to create entire applications? A) PC software tools B) report generators C) application generators D) application software packages Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 509 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. B) the organization quickly outgrows the new system. D) testing and documentation may be inadequate. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 507 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.4 60) When systems are created rapidly. C) hardware.4 58) Which type of fourth-generation language tools are end-users most likely to work with? A) report generators and query languages B) report generators and application generators C) PC software tools and query languages D) PC software tools and report generators Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 509 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. D) agile. B) iterative. each version reflecting requirements more accurately. and quality standards are less important. without a formal development methodology A) end users can take over the work of IT specialists. is described to be A) end-user oriented. Inc. C) object-oriented.

Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 493-494 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. B) are not designed to integrate with legacy systems. C) establishing standards for user-developed applications. B) tools to automate business processes.61) Management should control the development of end-user applications by A) developing a formal development methodology.1 15 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.4 63) Categories of tools for BPM include all of the following except A) tools to integrate existing systems to support business processes improvements. Inc. C) do not incorporate methods for documentation. B) requiring cost justification for end-user IS projects.1 64) What is the greatest barrier to successful business process change? A) ineffective project management B) usability of implemented solution C) selecting the correct process to change D) organizational change Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 493 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. D) do not incorporate methods for testing. D) tools to test the security of business processes.4 62) Fourth-generation tools cannot replace conventional development tools because they A) cannot handle large numbers of transactions or extensive procedural logic. C) tools to identify and document business processes. . Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 509 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. D) both B and C E) both A and B Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 510 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.

. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. However. The most important consideration for the firm is being able to offer the tool as soon as possible as a new corporate service.5 66) Which type of systems development is characterized by significantly speeding up the design phase and the generation of information requirements and involving users at an intense level? A) RAD B) JAD C) prototyping D) end-user development Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.65) The process of creating workable information systems in a very short period of time is called A) RAD. D) B and C. B) JAD. What development method would be most successful for this project? A) RAD B) JAD C) end-user development D) prototyping Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 507 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Synthesis Objective: 13. you know that many of the senior managers that are business owners of this project have difficulty in understanding technical or software development issues. C) prototyping.4 16 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.5 67) You are an IT project manager for an advertising firm. The firm wishes to create an online tool that will be used to survey focus group reactions to products in development. and are likely to change their requirements during the course of development. Inc.

Web services promise to be less expensive and less difficult to implement because of A) their ability to integrate seamlessly with legacy systems. C) the ubiquity of the Internet. in which type of software development? A) object-oriented development B) component-based development C) structured methodologies D) RAD Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 515 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Inc. A) Agile B) Rapid application C) Joint application D) Object-oriented Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. D) the ability to reuse Web services components.5 71) A(n) ________ is an organizational change that involves rethinking the nature of the business and the nature of the organization itself.1 17 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. B) the use of universal standards. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 515 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. which can be combined into large-scale business applications. .68) Groups of objects are assembled into software components for common functions.5 69) Compared to the use of proprietary components. Answer: paradigm shift Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13.5 70) ________ development focuses on rapid delivery of working software by breaking a large project into a series of small sub-projects that are completed in short periods of time using iteration and continuous feedback.

2 18 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. system specifications that were prepared during the design stage are translated into software code. and how the information is needed. Answer: programming Diff: 1 Page Ref: 499 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. Inc. identifies who needs what information. and organizational standpoint.2 74) A systems analysis includes a(n) ________ that is used to determine whether the solution is achievable from a financial. and when. called a(n) ________.4 73) During the ________ stage of system development.2 76) A(n) ________ is the model or blueprint for an information system solution and consists of all the specifications that will deliver the functions identified during systems analysis.72) A software package evaluation process is often based on a series of questions sent to vendors. request for proposal Diff: 2 Page Ref: 489 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Content Objective: 13. Answer: Information requirements Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.2 75) ________ contain a detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy. Answer: RFP. Answer: feasibility study Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. where. Answer: systems design Diff: 2 Page Ref: 498 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. technical. .

Inc. Answer: Process specifications Diff: 3 Page Ref: 503 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.2 78) ________ describe the transformation occurring within the lowest level of the data flow diagrams.3 79) ________ are software tools that enable end users to create reports or develop software applications with minimal or no technical assistance.77) ________ is the process of changing from the old system to the new system.4 80) ________ design is a process used to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end-users and information system specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions. Answer: Joint application Diff: 2 Page Ref: 514 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.5 19 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. Answer: Fourth-generation languages Diff: 3 Page Ref: 508 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13. . Answer: Conversion Diff: 2 Page Ref: 500 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Content Objective: 13.

In automation. without the need of a hotel employee to confirm the process.4 defects per million opportunities. employees are assisted with performing tasks automatically. Inc. as it might be illustrated through the operations of a hotel. this might mean that a reservation system that required three or four steps for checking a customer in would be reduced to one or two steps. Answer: 1. In business process reengineering. Quality improvements in business processes can increase efficiency. In a hotel. In paradigm shift. or perhaps even as a condominium or other business type. Everyone is expected to contribute to the overall improvement of quality. quality is the responsibility of all people and functions within an organization. and can raise the level of product and service quality. reduce waste. In rationalization of procedures. the reservation and check-in system might be designed to allow the customers to reserve rooms and check in themselves. business processes are analyzed.1 82) What is the business importance of managing the quality of business processes? Describe two methods of quality management. Answer: Quality management is one area of continuous process improvement. . this might mean that a system is set up for the reservations desk to record and process customer reservations. In TQM. Most companies cannot achieve this level of quality but use six sigma as a goal to implement a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs. Give an example of each type of change. standard operating procedures are streamlined. the very nature of the business is rethought and new business models are defined. simplified and redesigned.1 20 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.81) Describe each type of organizational change enabled by information technology. Six sigma is a specific measure of quality.Two methods for achieving greater quality are Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma. In a hotel. In a hotel. In a hotel. 3. this might mean that the idea of renting rooms on a night-by-night basis to clients might be rethought of as an extended stay place. 2. 4. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 489-490 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Synthesis Objective: 13. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 490 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. lower costs. representing 3.

but should include an understanding of the first step of systems development — systems analysis. and whether the organization could handle the changes introduced by the system. technical. which has previously been handled entirely with a paper-based process. The process then assesses the feasibility of each. observing system operations.83) You are consulting for the information technology division of a state university to guide and facilitate the design of a new system for handling college applications.2 21 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. and how. This involves identifying who needs what information. This consists of defining the problem. identifying its causes. identifying the information requirements. The systems analysis would include a feasibility study to determine whether that solution was feasible. It is up to management to determine which mix of costs. whether the technology needed for the system was available and could be handled by the firm's information systems specialists. where. from a financial. Answer: Student answers will vary. work papers. advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. and organizational impacts represents the most desirable alternative. A written systems proposal report describes the costs and benefits. An example answer is: The college will need to perform systems analysis. benefits. and organizational standpoint. along with feasibility studies and determining information requirements. Requirements analysis carefully defines the objectives of the new or modified system and develops a detailed description of the functions that the new system must perform. specifying the solution. The feasibility study would determine whether the proposed system was a good investment. . technical features. Describe in detail their first steps and any studies they should perform before designing the new information system. or achievable. examining documents. They should identify several alternative solutions that the organization can pursue. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 496-497 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Synthesis Objective: 13. They would like to set up a system by which prospective students can apply online. Inc. and procedures. They will also need to define the specific information requirements that must be met by the system solution selected. It also includes identifying the primary owners and users of data along with existing hardware and software. and interviewing key users of the systems. when. the problems of existing systems.

Transfer files. In end-user development. What activities. . audit trails • Documentation.2 22 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. Building successful information systems requires close cooperation among end users and information systems specialists throughout the systems development process. user documentation • Conversion. process design. record specifications • Processing. catastrophe plans. Computations. Medium. organization and design. where • Controls.84) List and describe at least nine factors considered in the design specifications for a new system. timing • Input. efficiency. job design. through the use of prototyping and JAD. and more opportunities to control the outcome. how. Task redesign. processing controls. when. In SLDC. The role of the user in the development of software depends on the method of development used. Input controls. flow. procedural controls • Security. content. end users and information systems specialists work together in an interactive session to discuss design. Operations documentation. feedback. Give at least two examples for each one. Logical data model. output controls. reporting relationships Diff: 2 Page Ref: 498 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. required reports. develop training modules. initiate procedures. through the use and review of iterative steps of the prototype. Simplicity. the users themselves create the system. Users are typically more involved also in RAD. timing of outputs • Manual procedures. end users are limited to providing information requirements and reviewing the technical staff's work. who performs them. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497-514 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Synthesis Objective: 13. Answer: • Output. systems documents. Incorporating user knowledge and expertise leads to better solutions. volume and speed requirements. organization structure design. In joint application design. errors • Database design. identify training facilities • Organizational changes. cut over to new system • Training. Origins. logic. Whether a new information system succeeds or fails largely depends on the roles of users. Inc. work.2 85) Discuss the role and influence the user plays in software development. In prototyping. users are involved throughout development. they have more opportunities to mold the system according to their priorities and business requirements. They also are more likely to react positively to the completed system because they have been active participants in the change process. If users are heavily involved in the development of a system. Select training techniques. Answer: The user is the primary focus of software development. select testing method. Access controls. data entry • User interface. program modules.

(5) In outsourcing—systems are built and sometimes operated by an external vendor.2 87) What qualities of object-oriented development make this method especially suitable for Internet applications? Answer: Object-oriented development uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. (3) An applications software package is commercial software that eliminates the need for internally developed software programs (4) In end-user development. the system will need to be tested as accessed from the variety of platforms that are supported by the application. first (in unit testing). and it is your job to set up the testing processes for a new enterprise system the company will be hosting. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 503-505 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Evaluation Objective: 13. Any individual components will need to be tested separately. and iterative process. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 506-513 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Analysis Objective: 13. requirements are specified dynamically with experimental systems in a rapid. . Diff: 3 Page Ref: 499-500 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Synthesis Objective: 13. rapid and informal. The system is modeled as a collection of objects and the relationships between them.86) You work for the IT department of a startup ASP. Because this is a hosted application. Object-oriented development allows objects to be reused and repackaged with other objects to create new software. and retire their technology capabilities very rapidly. users continually interact with the prototype. Inc. If the hosted application supports both Mac and Windows users. limited role of users. (2) In prototyping. What unique considerations will you have? Answer: The first step is to prepare the test plan. Finally acceptance testing will be conducted to make sure the system is ready to be used in a production setting.4 23 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. and then the system as a whole will need to be tested (in system testing). Answer: 1) Systems lifecycle is a sequential step-by-step formal process. informal. change. E- commerce companies need to be able to add. systems are created by end users using fourth-generation software tools. minimal role of information systems specialists. saving money and development time.3 88) Identify and describe each of the five systems development approaches. written specification and approvals. the system and its parts will need to be tested using client computers running these systems. Describe the processes you will recommend.

Because prototyping encourages intense end-user involvement throughout the process. being able to develop systems that in-house staff may not have the time or skills to do. Inc. . (3) use the prototype. In the case of offshore outsourcing. a primary benefit is cost savings. If the completed prototype works reasonably well. or situations in which the users have no clear ideas of what their information requirements are. This can backfire later with large quantities of data or large numbers of users in a production environment. redesigned. and other human resource issues. Answer: Prototyping is most useful when there is some uncertainty about requirements or design solutions. Working prototype systems can be developed very rapidly and inexpensively.4 90) What is outsourcing? Describe the advantages and disadvantages to outsourcing software development. Disadvantages would include relinquishing some control over development. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 511 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Evaluation Objective: 13. Rapid prototyping can gloss over essential steps in systems development. it is more likely to produce systems that fulfill user requirements. It is also possible to underestimate costs in outsourcing. in the case of domestic outsourcing. which include costs for transferring knowledge. cultural differences. as costs and salaries in foreign countries can be significantly less. having third party firms access to privileged company data and information. The steps in prototyping are: (1) Identify the user's basic requirements. full documentation in testing to build a polished production system. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 507 AACSB: Analytic Skills CASE: Evaluation Objective: 13.89) What are the advantages and disadvantages of prototyping? Describe the steps in prototyping. Give at least two circumstances under which prototyping might be useful. a firm hires an external organization to build or maintain part or all of its information systems needs. but the firm may also host any developed applications on its own hardware while having the vendor create and maintain software or systems.5 24 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. management may not see the need for reprogramming. Prototyping might be especially useful in designing end-user interfaces. (4) revise and enhance the prototype. productivity losses. Answer: In outsourcing. This can include software development and hosting applications. (2) develop an initial prototype. The benefit to outsourcing is. The vendor may be domestic or in another country (in offshore outsourcing).