Part 11: Adult Stroke

2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
Edward C. Jauch, Co-Chair*; Brett Cucchiara, Co-Chair*; Opeolu Adeoye; William Meurer;
Jane Brice; Yvonne (Yu-Feng) Chan; Nina Gentile; Mary Fran Hazinski

N early 15 years of increased stroke education and orga-
nization has produced significant strides in public
awareness and development of stroke systems of care. De-
American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines for the manage-
ment of acute ischemic stroke.3,6,7

spite these successes, though, each year 795 000 people suffer Management Goals
a new or repeat stroke, and stroke remains the third leading The overall goal of stroke care is to minimize acute brain injury
cause of death in the United States.1 Many advances have and maximize patient recovery. The time-sensitive nature of
been made in stroke prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation, stroke care is central to the establishment of successful stroke
but arguably the greatest gains have been in the area of stroke systems, hence the commonly used refrain “Time is Brain.” The
systems of care. Integrating public education, 911 dispatch, AHA and ASA have developed a community-oriented “Stroke
prehospital detection and triage, hospital stroke system de- Chain of Survival” that links specific actions to be taken by
velopment, and stroke unit management have led to signifi- patients and family members with recommended actions by
cant improvements in stroke care. Not only have the rates of out-of-hospital healthcare responders, ED personnel, and in-
appropriate fibrinolytic therapy increased over the past 5 hospital specialty services. These links, which are similar to
years, but also overall stroke care has improved, in part those in the Adult Chain of Survival for victims of sudden
through the creation of stroke centers.2 To achieve further cardiac arrest, include rapid recognition of stroke warning signs
improvement in reducing the burden of stroke, healthcare and activation of the emergency response system (call 911);
providers, hospitals, and communities must continue to de- rapid EMS dispatch, transport, and prehospital notification;
velop systems to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of triage to a stroke center; and rapid diagnosis, treatment, and
stroke care.3 The “D’s of Stroke Care” remain the major steps disposition in the hospital.
in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and identify the key The AHA ECC stroke guidelines focus on the initial out-of-
points at which delays can occur.4,5 hospital and ED assessment and management of the patient with
acute stroke as depicted in the algorithm Goals for Management
● Detection: Rapid recognition of stroke symptoms of Patients With Suspected Stroke (Figure). The time goals of
● Dispatch: Early activation and dispatch of emergency the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
medical services (EMS) system by calling 911 (NINDS)8 are illustrated on the left side of the algorithm as
● Delivery: Rapid EMS identification, management, and clocks. A sweep hand depicts the goal in minutes from ED arrival
transport to task completion to remind the clinician of the time-sensitive
● Door: Appropriate triage to stroke center nature of management of acute ischemic stroke.
● Data: Rapid triage, evaluation, and management within the The sections below summarize the principles and goals of
emergency department (ED) stroke system development and emergency assessment and man-
● Decision: Stroke expertise and therapy selection agement, as well as highlight new recommendations and training
● Drug: Fibrinolytic therapy, intra-arterial strategies issues. The text refers to the numbered boxes in the algorithm.
● Disposition: Rapid admission to stroke unit, critical-care unit
Stroke Systems of Care
This chapter summarizes the early management of acute The regionalization of stroke care was not widely considered
ischemic stroke in adult patients. It describes care from out-of- in the era before availability of effective acute therapies. With
hospital therapy through the first hours of in-hospital therapy. the NINDS recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)
For additional information about the management of acute trial, the crucial need for local partnerships between academic
ischemic stroke, see the American Heart Association (AHA)/ medical centers and community hospitals became a reality.9

The American Heart Association requests that this document be cited as follows: Jauch EC, Cucchiara B, Adeoye O, Meurer W, Brice J, Chan Y-F,
Gentile N, Hazinski MF. Part 11: adult stroke: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency
Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010;122(suppl 3):S818 –S828.
*Co-chairs and equal first co-authors.
(Circulation. 2010;122[suppl ]:S818 –S828.)
© 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.
Circulation is available at http://circ.ahajournals.org DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971044

Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20, 2015
S818

prehospital providers to triage patients with suspected stroke ment on primary stroke centers with recommendations for to designated stroke centers. In 2000 the Brain Attack Coalition provided a descrip. an area where further improvement is Downloaded from http://circ. There. of primary stroke centers and comprehensive stroke centers. and 3 centers is rational and quite tion of “primary stroke centers.7 The logic of having a multitiered Substantial progress has been made toward regionalization system such as that provided for trauma was evident. in an organized fashion. even in densely populated metropolitan centers.6 Following the establishment accuracy of dispatch. in 2005 the Brain Attack Coalition followed the state. Several states have passed legislation requiring fore. Goals for management of patients with suspected stroke. This is contingent on the comprehensive stroke centers. 2.ahajournals. This stroke-prepared hospital can access stroke Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved rtPA for expertise via telemedicine. Jauch et al Part 11: Adult Stroke S819 Figure.org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20. 2015 . The comparison with a trauma stroke. system with Level 1. of stroke care. The time-sensitive nature of stroke requires such an approach.” which would ensure that best intuitive to emergency care providers familiar with such practices for stroke care (acute and beyond) would be offered configurations. The idea of a the new concept of a stroke-prepared hospital has recently “stroke-prepared” hospital emerged after the United States emerged.

such as pronator drift. Educational efforts need to couple the facial smile or grimace.38 After receiving training in use of a EMS systems of care include both 911 emergency medical stroke assessment tool.35. or emergency nursing can also assist in with the other this process by determining which hospitals in their commu. or sudden severe headache then identify asymmetry in any of 3 examination categories: with no known cause. history of seizures. LOE B). a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 89% when scored by arm. the time of onset of symptoms is defined as the last for the use of air medical transport for patients with acute time the patient was observed to be normal.23 sensitivity and specificity. and just over half of all victims Stroke Assessment Tools of acute stroke use EMS for transport to the hospital. 2010 needed. It is imperative patients with stroke increased to 86% to 97%. perform on distance and the hospital’s stroke capability.33 Another assessment tool.14 ● Normal—patient uses correct words with no slurring ● Abnormal—patient slurs words.17–21 EMS providers can identify stroke patients with reasonable Stroke knowledge among the lay public remains poor.34. 2015 . may be helpful) stroke networks. This time represents time zero for the patient. trouble speaking or understanding. uses the wrong words.10.7. especially on one side of the body.22. dizziness. the probability of a Stroke Warning Signs stroke is 72%.40 We that the stroke system of care provide education and training recommend that all paramedics and emergency medical to 911 and EMS personnel to minimize delays in prehospital technicians-basic (EMT-basic) be trained in recognition of dispatch. Current literature suggests that 911 telecommunicators do not recognize stroke Prehospital Management and Triage (Box 2) well and that the use of scripted stroke-specific screens As with any other time-sensitive acute illness. sudden prehospital providers. ground transportation.37.11. EMS providers stroke and determine the most appropriate destination based must be able to support cardiopulmonary function. for 911 telecommunicators. prehospital notification should be per- vided within the first few hours from onset of symptoms. Most strokes occur at home.36 call 911.9. patch to patients with stroke symptoms. The presence of a single abnormality on the CPSS has stroke include sudden weakness or numbness of the face. ● Abnormal— one side of face does not move as well as the other side alization. Emergency medical tele. paramedic sensitivity for identifying dispatch centers and EMS response personnel. and speech abnormal- message is clear and succinct.35. especially in regions with ● Normal— both sides of face move equally relatively high population density and large critical mass of stroke centers to effectively create a model for stroke region. With standard training in stroke recognition. The signs and symptoms of ities. sudden trouble requires that the provider rule out other causes of altered level seeing in one or both eyes. or is unable to Stroke Recognition and EMS Care (Box 1) speak Interpretation: If any 1 of these 3 signs is abnormal. abbreviated out-of-hospital screen- communicators must identify and provide high-priority dis.13. establish time of onset of symptoms Downloaded from http://circ.org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20. As with rapid stroke assessment.16 formed to ensure appropriate activation of stroke resources. assessment. ing tool such as the CPSS or LAPSS (Class I.28 Studies are ongoing to providers must perform an initial assessment and intervene if investigate the effectiveness of such a stroke assessment tool necessary to provide cardiopulmonary support. hypoglycemia) and loss of balance or coordination. the LAPSS. Regional the patient wakes from sleep or is found with symptoms of a stroke resources work with EMS agencies to establish criteria stroke. Community and pro- (CPSS)31–34 (Table 1) or the Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke fessional education is essential22.S820 Circulation November 2. and transport. The Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale is crucial for improvement of patient outcomes.30 for stroke.36. Abnormal speech (have the patient say “you can’t teach an old dog new nity offer care concordant with the Brain Attack Coalition tricks”) recommendations for primary stroke centers. grip.ahajournals. stroke using a validated.12 Although a large proportion of the US population Arm drift (patient closes eyes and holds both arms straight out for 10 is now within close proximity to a stroke center. The LAPSS knowledge of the signs and symptoms of stroke with action— has a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 97%. of consciousness (eg. The EMS provider checks for 3 physical fibrinolytic therapy.25–27 Patient education efforts are most effective when the findings: facial droop.11 Efforts have Facial droop (have patient show teeth or smile) been strong in many regions. air medical services may be used.39.24 and has successfully Screen (LAPSS). arm weakness. sudden trouble walking. ● Normal— both arms move the same or both arms do not move at all Additional work is needed to expand the reach of regional (other findings. In addition.10 The integration of EMS into regional stroke models Table 1. prehospital during a 911 call may be helpful.29. using abbreviated out-of-hospital These factors can delay EMS access and treatment. paramedics demonstrated a sensitivity of 61% to 66% for identifying 911 and EMS Dispatch patients with stroke. resulting tools such as the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale in increased morbidity and mortality. it is not clear seconds) how many stroke patients arrive at stroke-prepared hospitals. Identifying clinical signs of possible stroke is important because recanalization strategies (intravenous [IV] fibrinoly- sis and intra-arterial/catheter-based approaches) must be pro. ● Abnormal— one arm does not move or one arm drifts down compared emergency medicine. and arm strength. If potentially long. confusion.36 The CPSS is based on physical exam- increased the proportion of stroke patients treated with ination only. or leg.15. providers must clearly establish the time of onset of In settings where ground transport to a stroke center is symptoms. Healthcare professionals working in EMS.

stroke within 10 minutes of arrival in the ED. En route to the facility. over the CT scan but may identify a recent acute myocardial ceiving hospital should define its capability for treating patients infarction or arrhythmias (eg. The plan should detail the roles of healthcare professionals in the care of patients with acute stroke Assessment (Box 4) and define which patients will be treated with fibrinolytic The treating physician should review the patient’s history and therapy at that facility and when transfer to another hospital with verify time of onset of symptoms. studies examining the difference in rates of rtPA administra.ahajournals. porting patients directly to a stroke center has undergone breathing. oxygen saturation ⬍94%) stroke patients (Class survival rate. there are no data to support in managing stroke. to the most appropriate receiving hospital. stroke to appropriate facilities.50. atrial fibrillation) as the cause with acute stroke using the definitions established for stroke. 2015 . including bradycardia. ED staff should are transported directly to stroke centers. EMS. LOE C).7 and should communicate this information to premature atrial or ventricular contractions. These blood pressure is not recommended (Class III.50 Recently promptly identify and treat hypoglycemia. functional outcome. When such a facility is available within a EMS providers should consider transporting a witness.41– 44 LOE B). On arrival ED personnel should establish or confirm IV tion after implementation of a hospital bypass protocol for access and obtain blood samples for baseline studies (eg. The combination of tals are within similar transport distances.59 – 62 document consistent improvement in 1-year hypoxemic (ie. General care rapy. and provide prearrival notification stroke patients directly to designated stroke centers (Class I.46 – 48 Bypass of community hospitals in favor of trans. LOE B). or caregiver with the patient to verify the time of hospitalization should be admitted there (Class I. LOE C) or those with unknown oxygen saturation.63 hospital is capable of organizing the necessary resources to There is general agreement to recommend cardiac monitoring safely administer fibrinolytic therapy.41.48 Each re.65– 67 This may require a dedicated stroke unit is appropriate. stroke symptom onset. results should be relevant to the outcome of dedicated stroke units staffed with experienced multidisciplinary teams in the Transport and Destination Hospital United States. LOE C). and Initial ED Assessment and Stabilization (Box 3) provide prehospital notification. EMS personnel poor perfusion and hypoxemia will exacerbate and extend should consider triage to the stroke center with the highest ischemic brain injury and has been associated with worse capability of stroke care. order an emer- activation of stroke teams by EMS. Investigators in New York. stroke centers3.50. and family The role of stroke centers and in particular stroke units members to establish the time that the patient was last known continues to be defined. but a growing body of evi.51 gent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain. Although the studies reported were initiation of hypertension intervention in the prehospital conducted outside the United States at in-hospital units that environment.47. moni. hypoventilation. every hospital with an ED during the first 24 hours of evaluation in patients with acute should have a written plan that is communicated to EMS ischemic stroke to detect atrial fibrillation and potentially systems describing how patients with acute stroke are to be life-threatening arrhythmias. coagulation studies. blood glucose).6.64 managed in that institution.52–58 indicates a favorable benefit from triage of and transport the patient. incorpo- Downloaded from http://circ. Protocols should be used in the ED to minimize delay to Prearrival hospital notification by the transporting EMS definitive diagnosis and therapy: “Time is Brain. and quality of life when I. and activate the EMS providers must rapidly deliver the patient to a medical stroke team or arrange for consultation with a stroke expert. Jauch et al Part 11: Adult Stroke S821 (or the last time the patient was known to be normal). All have found significantly larger percentages of complete blood count. may not be necessary. primary stroke centers. Although not every atrioventricular conduction block.46. prehospital intervention for outcomes were apparent very early in stroke care.49. includes assessment. Administration of oxygen to hypoxemic patients with stroke Canada. If the patient is hemodynamically prepared hospitals. providers should continue to support cardiopulmonary function. and comprehensive stable. circulation).org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20. witnesses. interviewing out-of-hospital providers. triage dence47. and Australia have performed before-and-after (oxygen saturation ⬍94%) is recommended (Class I. family reasonable transport interval. to be normal. and evaluation of baseline vital signs. facility capable of providing acute stroke care and provide A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) does not take priority prearrival notification to the receiving facility. Neurologic assessment is performed. Unless the patient is hypotensive (systolic provided both acute care and rehabilitation. check blood glucose if possible. investigations that merit attention. or asymptomatic the EMS system and the community. The ED physician investigators have begun to examine the impact of direct should perform a neurologic screening assessment. treatment of other arrhythmias. When multiple stroke hospi- and (rarely) neurogenic pulmonary edema.31. outcome from stroke.”43 As a unit has been found to significantly increase the percentage goal. patients hospitalized with acute stroke are cared for in a Although blood pressure management is a component of dedicated stroke unit by a multidisciplinary team experienced the ED care of stroke patients.49. cardiopulmonary support (airway. the improved blood pressure ⬍90 mm Hg). preplan to enable EMS providers to direct patients with acute mise from aspiration. ED personnel should assess the patient with suspected of patients with acute stroke who receive fibrinolytic the. EMS systems should establish a stroke destination Patients with acute stroke are at risk for respiratory compro. Italy.45 Both out-of-hospital and in-hospital Multiple randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses in medical personnel should administer supplemental oxygen to adults50. stroke patients who require member. of an embolic stroke. If not patients with ischemic stroke treated with rtPA when patients already identified in the prehospital setting. upper airway obstruction. In-Hospital Care tor neurologic status.

Centers may perform more uncommon (0. or rhage.5 mg/hr every Fibrinolytic Therapy (Boxes 6.72 If the patient remains a candidate for fibrinolytic therapy Table 3. Management of blood pressure during and after rtPA or other acute If hemorrhage is not present on the initial CT scan and the reperfusion therapy: patient is not a candidate for fibrinolytic therapy for other ● Monitor blood pressure every 15 minutes for 2 hours from the start of reasons. 8.ahajournals. systolic blood pressure centers. the physician should discuss the risks and potential Stroke Patients Who Are Not Potential Candidates for Acute benefits of the therapy with the patient or family if available Reperfusion Therapy (Box 10). consider exclusion criteria for IV fibrinolytic therapy (Tables 4 and 5) sodium nitroprusside and perform a repeat neurologic examination incorporating the NIHSS or CNS. 2015 . acute hypotension. noncontrast CT scan may not indicate signs of brain ischemia. Careful dose calculation and removal of Consider blood pressure reduction as indicated for other concomitant organ excess rtPA help prevent inadvertent administration of excess system injury rtPA. if the patient/family elects to Consider lowering blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke if proceed with fibrinolytic therapy.4%) and usually occurred at the site of femoral advanced neurologic imaging (multimodal magnetic reso. lower to 3 If the CT scan shows no evidence of intracerebral hemor- mg/hr. and 10) 5–15 minutes. ● Labetalol 10 mg IV followed by continuous IV infusion 2– 8 mg/min. or ● Nicardipine IV 5 mg/h. enalaprilat.64 ASA website: www. and be prepared to monitor and treat any potential ⱕ185 mm Hg systolic and ⱕ110 mm Hg diastolic to limit the complications. function is rapidly improving to rating either the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale normal and is near baseline).2% of 2639 patients treated.70 have documented a higher likelihood first day of good to excellent functional outcome when rtPA is Downloaded from http://circ. administration of fibrinolytics (NIHSS) or the Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS) (see the may not be required (Box 6). This complication val from onset of stroke until effective treatment of stroke occurred in 6.15.4% of the 312 patients treated in the NINDS with rtPA is limited. begin the rtPA bolus and systolic blood pressure ⬎220 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure infusion as quickly as possible and begin the stroke pathway ⬎120 mm Hg of care (see below). and systemic bleeding.org). major systemic bleeding was within 45 minutes of ED arrival. The physician must verify that there are no dependent on fibrinolytic eligibility. 2010 Table 2.69 During the first few hours of an ischemic stroke the ● Nicardipine IV 5 mg/hr. Emergent CT or MRI scans of Patient otherwise eligible for acute reperfusion therapy except that blood patients with suspected stroke should be promptly evaluated pressure is ⬎185/110 mm Hg by a physician with expertise in interpretation of these ● Labetalol 10 –20 mg IV over 1–2 minutes. consider administration of aspirin (Box 9) either rtPA therapy. Consult a If blood pressure is not maintained at or below 185/110 mm Hg. titrate up to desired effect by 2. trials9 and 4. Because the maximum inter. and then every hour rectally or orally after the patient is screened for dysphagia for 16 hours (see below). then every 30 minutes for 6 hours. the appropriate patient is not a candidate for fibrinolytic therapy. CT perfusion. blood pressure must be patient. As with all medications.68 clinical practice showed a symptomatic hemorrhage rate of 5. fibrinolytics have potential ad- Management of hypertension in the stroke patient is verse effects. etc) may be considered when (Boxes 6 and 8). the patient may be a candidate for fibrinolytic therapy ● Other agents (hydralazine. Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Who Are Potential Candidates but obtaining these studies should not delay initiation of IV for Acute Reperfusion Therapy rtPA in eligible patients. Approach to Arterial Hypertension in Acute Ischemic (Box 8).71 Other complications include Imaging (Box 5) orolingual angioedema (occurs in approximately 1. Admit the patient to a stroke unit (if available) If systolic BP 180 –230 mm Hg or diastolic BP 105–120 mm Hg for careful monitoring (Box 11).6% of the 1135 patients treated in 60 Canadian sion above these levels (ie. maximum 15 mg/h The treating physician should review the inclusion and If blood pressure not controlled or diastolic BP ⬎140 mm Hg. maximum 15 mg/hr. In one the patient’s arrival in the ED and should be interpreted large prospective registry.70. puncture for acute angiography.S822 Circulation November 2. do not neurologist or neurosurgeon and consider transfer as needed administer rtPA for appropriate care (Box 7). If hemorrhage is noted on the CT scan. consider the risks and benefits to the eligible for fibrinolytic therapy. The major complication of IV rtPA for stroke risk of bleeding complications. when desired blood pressure reached.70 A meta-analysis of 15 published case series on the ⬎185 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ⬎110 mm Hg) will open-label use of rtPA for acute ischemic stroke in general not be eligible for IV rtPA (Tables 2 and 3).5 mg/hr every 5–15 minutes.5% of Ideally the CT scan should be completed within 25 minutes of patients). For patients potentially exclusion criteria. Potential Approaches to Arterial Hypertension in nance imaging [MRI].org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20. is symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. or studies. titrate up by 2. and CT angiography). If the patient’s neurologic signs are spontaneously clearing (ie. Typically neither anticoagulant nor antiplatelet treat- ● Acute myocardial infarction ment may be administered for 24 hours after administration ● Congestive heart failure of rtPA until a repeat CT scan at 24 hours shows no ● Acute aortic dissection hemorrhagic transformation.strokeassociation. After this discussion. may repeat ⫻1. A reasonable target is to lower blood pressure by 15% to 25% within the Several studies9. most patients with sustained hyperten.

Additional Inclusion and Exclusion Characteristics of With Ischemic Stroke Who Could Be Treated With rtPA Within 3 Patients With Ischemic Stroke Who Could Be Treated With rtPA Hours From Symptom Onset From 3 to 4. INR. These results have been supported by a subsequent ment (Class I. a knowledgeable team. ● Seizure at onset with postictal residual neurologic impairments randomized trial (ECASS-3) that specifically enrolled pa- ● Major surgery or serious trauma within previous 14 days tients between 3 and 4. ● Evidence of active bleeding on examination Recent guideline revisions have modified the original FDA criteria.5-hour window has not yet been FDA approved. LOE B). ECASS-3 eligibility criteria is recommended if rtPA is tals with a stroke protocol that rigorously adheres to the administered by physicians in the setting of a clearly defined eligibility criteria and therapeutic regimen of the NINDS protocol.78 Data ● Only minor or rapidly improving stroke symptoms (clearing spontaneously) supporting treatment in this time window come from a large. including but not limited to ● Onset time is either witnessed or last known normal –Platelet count ⬍100 000/mm3 ● In patients without recent use of oral anticoagulants or heparin. and institutional commit- protocol.74 verifying increased rate of complications. and PT. with a baseline NIHSS ⬎25. resulting in aPTT ⬎upper limit of with rtPA can be initiated before availability of coagulation study results normal but should be discontinued if INR is ⬎1. FDA.16. and institutional commitment to. international normalized ratio.5 Hours From Symptom Onset Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria ● Diagnosis of ischemic stroke causing measurable neurologic deficit ● Diagnosis of ischemic stroke causing measurable neurologic deficit ● Onset of symptoms ⬍3 hours before beginning treatment ● Onset of symptoms 3 to 4.to 4. international normalized ratio. use of IV rtPA within the 3. treatment with rtPA can ● CT demonstrates multilobar infarction (hypodensity ⬎1/3 cerebral be initiated before availability of platelet count but should be discontinued hemisphere) if platelet count is ⬍100 000/mm3 Relative exclusion criteria rtPA indicates recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.78 Administration of IV rtPA to within 3 hours of onset of symptoms. except that ● Recent acute myocardial infarction (within previous 3 months) ECASS-3 excluded patients older than 80 years of age. suggesting that clinical Downloaded from http://circ. Inclusion and Exclusion Characteristics of Patients Table 5. Additional analyses experience in. A physician with expertise in acute stroke care may modify this list ● Acute bleeding diathesis.75 Evidence from prospective randomized in both community and tertiary care hospitals in clinical trials studies9. Consider risk to benefit of rtPA administration carefully if any of these relative outcome.80 Failure to adhere to protocol is associated with an investigators confirmed the validity of the results. treatment –Heparin received within 48 hours. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.15. prothrombin time.7 mmol/L) ● In patients without history of thrombocytopenia.81 There is a relation- even when imbalances in the baseline stroke severity among ship between violations of the NINDS treatment protocol and treatment groups is corrected. had a combination of diabetes and prior stroke.77 increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and Treatment of carefully selected patients with acute ische.71 In Germany there was an increased risk of death after mic stroke with IV rtPA between 3 and 4. Food Recent experience suggests that under some circumstances—with careful and Drug Administration.ahajournals. taking oral anticoagulants.76 in adults also documents a greater likelihood of rtPA may be difficult to replicate in hospitals with less of benefit the earlier treatment is begun. Jauch et al Part 11: Adult Stroke S823 Table 4. NIHSS. particularly the risk of that improved outcomes in the rtPA treatment arm persist symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. acute stroke of the original NINDS data by an independent group of care.79. or who rtPA indicates recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. death. INR.5 hours after onset administration of rtPA for acute ischemic stroke in hospitals of symptoms has also been shown to improve clinical that treated ⱕ5 patients per year. although the degree of clinical benefit is smaller contraindications is present than that achieved with treatment within 3 hours. 2015 . 1-year follow-up study.7 or PT is elevated by local –Current use of anticoagulant with INR ⬎1.5 hours before beginning treatment ● Age ⱖ18 years Exclusion criteria Exclusion criteria ● Age ⬎80 years ● Head trauma or prior stroke in previous 3 months ● Severe stroke (NIHSS ⬎25) ● Symptoms suggest subarachnoid hemorrhage ● Taking an oral anticoagulant regardless of INR ● Arterial puncture at noncompressible site in previous 7 days ● History of both diabetes and prior ischemic stroke ● History of previous intracranial hemorrhage Notes ● Elevated blood pressure (systolic ⬎185 mm Hg or diastolic ● The checklist includes some FDA-approved indications and ⬎110 mm Hg) contraindications for administration of rtPA for acute ischemic stroke. At present. aPTT. activated partial thromboplastin time. Criteria for inclusion in days) ECASS-3 were similar to the NINDS criteria. as well ● Recent gastrointestinal or urinary tract hemorrhage (within previous 21 as a meta-analysis of prior trials.5 hours after symptom onset. consideration and weighing of risk to benefit—patients may receive fibrinolytic therapy despite 1 or more relative contraindications.73 reanalysis of the NINDS data. prothrombin time.7 or PT ⬎15 seconds laboratory standards ● Blood glucose concentration ⬍50 mg/dL (2. These results are patients with acute ischemic stroke who meet the NINDS or obtained when rtPA is administered by physicians in hospi.org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20.74. and PT.74 and It is important to note that the superior outcomes reported a meta-analysis.79. although it is recommended by a current administered to adult patients with acute ischemic stroke AHA/ASA science advisory.

Downloaded from http://circ. a meta-analysis83– 87 have demonstrated improved outcome from however. deep gist. an emergent CT scan is re. administered at a rate of approxi. posterior circulation stroke. if appropriate for the medication. management of hypertension. Current recom. administration of anticonvulsants is recom- responsible for the deterioration. Medications may be given in applesauce or jam. These mately 75 to 100 mL/h.100 –103 where resources and expertise are available. aspiration pneumonia. If the patient can sip and swallow without General stroke care. If there are no signs of coughing or aspiration optimal glucose control. nity for a return to previous quality of life and decrease the istration of IV normal saline boluses may be appropriate. prophylaxis is not recommended. To date. intra-arterial administration of fibrinoly. careful admin.104 In patients with severe edema should be started immediately as indicated. In efforts will provide stroke patients with the greatest opportu- stroke patients who may be relatively hypovolemic. and swallow. LOE C). including monitoring of blood screening evaluation involves asking the patient to sip water pressure and neurologic status and physiologic optimization.82 There is also strong evidence to avoid all come. however. Normal saline. there are limited data on the role of hypothermia specific to acute General Stroke Care ischemic stroke.88 –95 but there is no direct treated with fibrinolytic therapy and produce excellent clini. and begin tion (Table 3).72 Adding a dedicated stroke team to a community Hyperglycemia is associated with worse clinical outcome in hospital can increase the number of patients with acute stroke patients with acute ischemic stroke. overall societal burden of stroke. In carefully selected patients. then it is safe for the patient to have a tional support.5°F]). ideally within 3 hours from arrival.96. Thus. administration of intra-arterial fibrinolytics is reasonable (Class Temperature Control I. the utility of administration of IV or subcutaneous insulin to lower blood glucose in patients with acute ischemic intra-arterial fibrinolysis. patients should be admitted as quickly as Additional stroke care includes support of the airway.99 Current AHA/ASA recommendations call for the to ensure optimal patient outcomes. the patient is asked to take a large gulp of water cludes prevention of hypoxia. Any venous thrombosis. and nutri. centered on physiologic optimization. These findings insulin treatment of hyperglycemia in other critically ill show that it is important to have an institutional commitment patients. LOE C). and the positive effects of stroke unit the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (Class IIb.S824 Circulation November 2. more liberal acceptance of hypertension is recom. All patients with stroke should be screened for dysphagia Patients should be admitted to a stroke unit (if available) for before they are given anything by mouth. ultimate goal of stroke care is to minimize ongoing injury.8 If the patient’s genation and ventilation. such as aspirin rectally or. urinary tract infections) and initiation of patient who fails a swallow test may be given medications secondary stroke prevention. oxy- possible. Summary mendations for control of blood pressure in patients who receive Advances in stroke care will have the greatest effect on stroke IV rtPA or intra-arterial recanalization therapies are shown in outcome if care is delivered within a regional stroke system Table 2. evidence that active glucose control improves clinical out- cal outcomes. LOE B). care can persist for years. Hyperthermia in the setting of acute cerebral ischemia is asso- tics has not been FDA approved. fibrillation (VF) sudden cardiac arrest. maintenance of euthermia. stroke who are not candidates for standard IV fibrinolysis. from a cup.org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20. after 30 seconds. difficulty. and vital sign measurements. but for patients who expe- quired to determine if cerebral edema or hemorrhage is rience a seizure. Given the requirements for frequent neurologic assessment intravenously. provided no other comorbid conditions require interven.ahajournals.97 There is contradictory evidence for the benefit of delays and treat patients as soon as possible. mended. In those patients for whom recanalization is not designed to improve both efficiency and effectiveness. intramuscularly. 2015 . Additional efforts center on prevention of com. The benefits from treatment in a stroke Dysphagia Screening unit are comparable to the effects achieved with IV rtPA. Blood pressure management varies depending on whether or not fibrinolytic or intra-arterial therapies were used. in.98. is used to maintain euvolemia as needed. and nutritional support. ciated with increased morbidity and mortality and should be catheter-based thrombectomy is being performed at centers managed aggressively (treat fever ⬎37. emergently recanalize acute vascular occlusions. and in younger patients. secondary measures to maximize functional recovery.5°C [99. Treatment of hemorrhage or mended to prevent more seizures. The pending ASA Hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and functional acute ischemic stroke guidelines will provide greater detail about outcome in patients following resuscitation from ventricular intra-arterial strategies. or subcutaneously. At this time there is insufficient scientific Recent studies establish that stroke unit care is superior to care evidence to recommend for or against the use of hypothermia in in general medical wards. The planned. stroke. healthcare providers must observe for signs of increased Blood Pressure Management intracranial pressure. A simple bedside careful observation (Box 11). for patients with acute ischemic stroke when serum glucose is ⱕ185 mg/dL remains uncertain. especially after administration Other Stroke Management of IV rtPA. Seizure neurologic status deteriorates. 2010 experience is an important factor in ensuring adherence to Glycemic Control protocol. thickened diet until formally assessed by a speech patholo- plications associated with stroke (eg. use of insulin when the serum glucose level is greater than 185 Evidence from 3 prospective randomized studies in adults and mg/dL in patients with acute stroke (Class IIa.

Total Award to Temple. or 5% or more of the person’s gross income.000 2005–2010 NIH NINDS U01 NS40406-04 Albumin in Acute Ischemic Stroke (ALIAS) Trial. or owns $10 000 or more of the fair market value of the entity. A relationship is considered to be “modest” if it is less than “significant” under the preceding definition. A relationship is considered to be “significant” if (a) the person receives $10 000 or more during any 12-month period. Total Award to Temple. Investigation of the effect of Pioglitazone on development of diabetes and stroke recurrence after ischemic stroke or TIA. †Significant. 2015 . which all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit. direct costs: $184. †Active Support: 5 NIH U01 None None None None None Department of Emergency Medicine NS044876–03. Perform research in the areas of EMS and stroke. direct costs: $225. Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) Trial. Perform clinical work in the emergency department. Downloaded from http://circ. *Modest.000 2008–2011 Mary Fran Vanderbilt University School of None None None None None None Hazinski Nursing—Professor.org/ at VA MED CTR BOISE on August 20. AHA ECC Product Development–Senior Science Editor †Substantial consulting fees as a senior science editor for the AHA ECC Product Development. Jauch et al Part 11: Adult Stroke S825 Disclosures Guidelines Part 11: Stroke: Writing Group Disclosures Other Speakers’ Consultant/ Writing Group Research Bureau/ Ownership Advisory Member Employment Research Grant Support Honoraria Interest Board Other Edward C. This table represents the relationships of writing group members that may be perceived as actual or reasonably perceived conflicts of interest as reported on the Disclosure Questionnaire. Jauch Medical University of South NIH trials related to stroke None None None None None Carolina-Professor Brett Cucchiara University of Pennsylvania–Assistant †NIH RO1-migraine imaging None *Multiple CME None None *Occasionally Professor of Neurology research-significant talks at different serves as expert institutions witness for medicolegal cases Opeolu Adeoye University of Cincinnati–Assistant None None *Genentech EKR None None None Professor of Emergency Medicine Therapeutics and Neurosurgery William Meurer University of Michigan–Assistant None None None None None None Professor Jane Brice University of North Carolina: None None None None None None Associate professor in the department of emergency medicine. Human Serum Albumin will be compared to placebo on improving the 3 month outcome of ischemic stroke patients when administered within 5 hours of symptom onset. Teach in the School of Medicine–Associate Professor Yvonne (Yu-Feng) The Mount Sinai School of None None None None None None Chan Medicine–Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine Nina Gentile Temple University–Professor. or (b) the person owns 5% or more of the voting stock or share of the entity.ahajournals.

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) © 2011 American Heart Association. DOI: 10. On page S823. the Table 4 footnote read. “rtPA indicates .” 2. 2010. issue of the journal Circulation (2010. .” which published ahead of print on October 18. partial thromboplastin time.1161/CIR.org e404 .122[suppl 3]:S818 –S828). and PT. “rtPA indicates .org/cgi/content/full/122/18_suppl_3/S818. Inc. . prothrombin time. 2011. prothrombin time. . which is available at http://circ.ahajournals. . the following corrections were needed: 1. Correction In the article by Jauch et al. . Circulation is available at http://circ. partial thromboplastin time. and PT. . 2010. “rtPA indicates . “rtPA indicates .” It has been changed to read.” These corrections have been made to the current online version of the article. and PT. “Part 11: Adult Stroke: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.ahajournals. and appeared with the November 2. . On page S823.” It has been changed to read. .124:e404. the Table 5 footnote read. and PT.0b013e318235ce74 (Circulation.

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