# Mathematical

Exercises Part I
Module 5
Andleeb Javed

Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816

QUESTION 01
How would you teach numbers 0 to 10 to a child according to Montessori Method? Explain
all the exercises in this group briefly in your own words?

Arithmetic of Variables (Group 1)
The Number Rods, Sand Paper Cyphers and Number Rods and Cards form the first half of the
Maths Materials for Group 1, in which the ‘Addition of Variables’ takes place

1. The Number Rods
The Number Rods introduce the child to quantity 1-10 and their corresponding number
names. It serves as the child's link to the sensorial exercises as it is very similar to the long rods.
Through exploration with the material, the child also develops concepts in sequence of number,
combinations of 10 and basic arithmetic.

The Number Rods are similar to the Red Rods, only here they are rendered countable by
blue stripes, so that each rod is clearly a multiple of the first rod, (the unit), each section of the
subsequent number rods is equal in length to the first one. These rods materialise the quantities
of the numbers from 1-10. Through the Number Rods ‘quantities’ can be seen as an unbroken
multiple of a unit in which quantities are measured in terms of a unit; the ‘Arithmetic of
Variables’. After completing these first activities of Group 1 the child is given quantities
according to the ‘Arithmetic of Groups’, quantities formed by loose identical units (Spindles and
Counters).
The advantages of using Number Rods to initially represent quantity are;

 Past experience with the Red Rods helps the child to use the Number Rods, sensorially
appreciating the difference between them
 The child’s intelligence accepts, understands and associates different names with the
differences she can see between the Rods.
 Each Rod differs by the same increment, which is equal to the first in the series (the unit)
 The Rods show the position of the succession of numbers 1 to 10
 They show the close relationship between Ordinal and Cardinal numbers

Presentation:  Ask the child to sensitise her fingers and select a group of three Sand Paper Cyphers in any order  Invite the child. graded in length from 10 cms to 1 metre. The child is asked to verify by touching each partition The rods are placed randomly on the mat. identical to the Red Rods. having worked with the Number Rods. cut rom sandpaper and mounted on separate boards. 2. introduce the material and bring it to a chowki  Trace each numeral with two fingers as with the Sand Paper Letters . the directress picks a particular one and the child names it. each rod is coloured in alternate red and blue 10 cm long partitions. the child is preparing for writing numbers. The Cyphers are symbols for the quantities and different from the Sand Paper Letters (which the child will have already used) because they represent not just a sound. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Material Description: Ten wooden rods. By tracing the numerals in the style and direction in which they are written. The child is then given the opportunity to relate his knowledge of quantity and symbol with the number rods and cards With the help of the Director. the children already know the names of the numbers 1-10 and associate them with their quantities and sequence. The child is asked to verify by touching each partition. The Sand Paper Cyphers The sandpaper numerals introduce the child to symbol 0-9 and their corresponding number names. but a whole idea Material Description: The Numbers 1 to 9 and 0. the director asks for a particular one and the child brings it. The first rod and the first partition in each succeeding rod is red Exercises: The rods are placed randomly on the mat.

take one spindle with your right hand. The Spindle Boxes Spindle Boxes provide practice in associating quantity and symbol for the numbers 0-9. one at a time.  Continue up till nine  Point to 0 and explain to the child. Sand Paper Cypher for 0. place it in the corresponding compartment  Then take two spindles. and Working Mat Presentation:  Invite the child. and introduces zero as no quantity. introduce the material and help her to bring the Spindles and Spindle Boxes to a Working Mat  Point to the symbols and ask the child to identify them  Skipping zero. each exactly the same. counting them in her hand and then puts them on the mat and places a green band around them before putting them in the compartment. Eight green coloured ribbons or bands. where loose quantities are associated with loose symbols form the second half of the Maths Materials for Group 1. At the interior back of each compartment is a painted symbol of the numbers 0 to 9. where the symbols are fixed and Cards and Counters and Memory Game . (This shows they have been grouped together counting them on to the mat in front of you and then transfer them as a group into the corresponding compartment). place it in your left and aloud count “one”. The Spindle Boxes are presented after the child has had sufficient experience with the ‘Arithmetic of Variable’ an is mentally prepared for the abstraction required for the ‘Arithmetic of Groups’ Material Description: Two boxes. divided into five compartments or one box divided into ten compartments. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 The Spindle Boxes. in which the ‘Arithmetic of Groups’ takes place 1. 45 spindles in a basket or box. “zero means not anything”  Show the Sand Paper Cypher for 0 and ask the child to trace it and associate it with the symbol on the first compartment .

A basket for these cards. if less children. 55 identical counters and A mat for each child Presentation:  With a group of children take the cards and explain the game . Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Games to reinforce the concept of Zero With either one child or a small group ask children to perform actions a number of times. Memory Game of Numbers The memory game. when you ask for zero times pause expectantly and see if the child can explain why she hasn’t performed an action 2. and counters serve as practice for the child as he is required to remember and associate quantity to symbol. Cards and Counters Material Description: Small Number Cards 1 to 10 and 55 identical counters in a box Presentation:  Invite the child. cards. use less cards but ensure that 0 is always in circulation Material Description: Folded Cards. Can be played with up to ten children. The cards and counters provide practice for the sequence of numbers and also introduce odd and even numbers. introduce the material and help her to bring the Cards and Counters to a Working Mat  Place the Number Cards at random on the Working Mat  Ask the child to place them in sequence horizontally leaving a gap between them the width of her palm  Place the correct number of counters in pairs under each symbol if the number is odd put the remaining counter centrally beneath the last pair 3. with a number from 0 to 10 written.

More knowledge at this stage (such as knowledge of the teens and words used to describe the tens) distracts from the enjoyment of the minimalist aesthetic. simply. reads the number silently. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816  Each child chooses a card. refolds it and puts it on her mat or chowki  One at a time each child is asked to collect the amount of counters corresponding to the number on her card  The child with zero will not move however much the Director entices her  When all of the children have their objects they count them to verify to themselves and the Director hat they have understood QUESTION 02 What do you know about the decimal system? How would you enable children to count any quantity and identify numerals till 9999? ANSWER: The Decimal System The decimal system is a numeral system which organizes and classifies numerical quantities into different hierarchies of units. A tray containing Golden bead materials for introducing the decimal quantities of 1. 100 and 1000 Geometrical entities are used by Montessori as Material Abstractions for the decimal system of numeration  1 Golden Bead is a unit (point)  10 Golden Beads make a ‘bar of ten’  10 ‘bars of ten’ make a ‘hundred square’  10 ‘hundred squares’ make a ‘thousand cube’ .) The young child’s Sensitive Period for Order and Classification ensures a greater thrill for handling large quantities at this stage. 10. memorises it. with the knowledge of the symbols 1-9 and can recognize zero. The child is given the total decimal system – clearly. harmoniously and with its unlimited. universal applicability. In the Casa it is offered when the child can count to ten with complete understanding. At this stage the child knows what is necessary and sufficient to see and apply the laws governing the decimal system (that ten units can be dynamically exchanged for one of the category above etc.

directress should point to quantity and ask. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Golden Bead Material The golden bead material introduces the child to the decimal system with concrete representations of the hierarchy of numbers. This excersice is for age 4 and above. Quantity and place value of the decimal system are explored by the child in activities in the operations of addition. And in period three. In period two. Excersice1 : Presentation of the decimal system (Introduction to Beads (Quality): This excersice requires a single golden bead. one ten. one ten and one thousand using above materials. In period one teacher introduce the students with each one unit. subtraction. This is 3 period excersice. directress should ask the student about the above three that which of them are what. one unit. multiplication and division. This excersice is conducted to introduce decimal system. . a thousand cube and a dark green table mat. a ten bar. ahundred square. one hundred and one thousand.

" One child counts the units. She places the hundred square over the hundreds on the mat. The child counts the hundreds. When she has ten." More problems are worked in this way. she exchanges them for a hundred square. Our multiplicand is 1345. The child counts the thousands. . The thousand cube is placed over the thousands on the mat. She counts the rest of the units. There are no hundreds remaining. "We multiplied 1345 times three. The large number card "30" is placed beside them. We will add them together. The teacher superimposes the large number cards and re-caps. so she changes them with the child in charge of the bank for a thousand cube. There are 4. When she has ten. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 teacher stresses that the quantities are equal. There are 5. she exchanges them with the banker for a ten bar. "Today we are doing multiplication. She counts the rest of the tens. We multiplied this by 3. The product is 4035. The child counts the tens. represented by our three students. so the large number card "5" is placed beside them. She places the ten bar over the tens on the mat. She says. There are three. our multiplier. We have 1345 three times. There are 10. so the large number card "4000" is placed beside them.

" Student continues until she has subtracted 2112 in golden beads. 4326. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 QUESTION 04 Explain how would you give the concepts of subtraction and division? ANSWER: Exercise 1: Subtraction without Exchanging: This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging. "Today we are going to work subtraction problems.1103 subtrahend difference The teacher tells the children. 2122 and 1103. she guides them through the process. The material is arranged as for addition. and places them on the mat. You can take two of these units. She gives a tray to each of two children. Below is how the following problem would be worked. She makes the subtrahends." "Yes. "How many tens do you need?" "One. The teacher may choose to use one or two subtrahends (the number being subtracted). other is of the large number cards. Mary and John. These subtraction problems will not involve exchanging. How many units will you take?" Other student continues until he has subtracted 1103 in golden beads. and difference. The purpose of this exercise is to give an understanding of subtraction and to give the vocabulary: subtraction. other student may subtract 1103. in small number cards and puts them on two trays. 4326 minuend . . subtrahend. One child is in charge of the golden bead material. "How many units do you want?" "Two." Student does so.2112 subtrahend . The teacher takes the small number cards 2112 off student's tray and puts them under the large ones which form the minuend at the top of the mat. They do so in turn. in golden bead material and the large number cards." "You can take one ten then. minuend. She asks the children to read the numbers on their trays. "Now. and another the small number cards." The teacher makes the minuend. This exercise is for children 4 and half years and onwards This exercise requires a small group of children. As the children have not worked subtraction before.