Mathematical

Exercises Part I
Module 5
Andleeb Javed

Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816

QUESTION 01
How would you teach numbers 0 to 10 to a child according to Montessori Method? Explain
all the exercises in this group briefly in your own words?
ANSWER:

Arithmetic of Variables (Group 1)
The Number Rods, Sand Paper Cyphers and Number Rods and Cards form the first half of the
Maths Materials for Group 1, in which the ‘Addition of Variables’ takes place

1. The Number Rods
The Number Rods introduce the child to quantity 1-10 and their corresponding number
names. It serves as the child's link to the sensorial exercises as it is very similar to the long rods.
Through exploration with the material, the child also develops concepts in sequence of number,
combinations of 10 and basic arithmetic.

The Number Rods are similar to the Red Rods, only here they are rendered countable by
blue stripes, so that each rod is clearly a multiple of the first rod, (the unit), each section of the
subsequent number rods is equal in length to the first one. These rods materialise the quantities
of the numbers from 1-10. Through the Number Rods ‘quantities’ can be seen as an unbroken
multiple of a unit in which quantities are measured in terms of a unit; the ‘Arithmetic of
Variables’. After completing these first activities of Group 1 the child is given quantities
according to the ‘Arithmetic of Groups’, quantities formed by loose identical units (Spindles and
Counters).
The advantages of using Number Rods to initially represent quantity are;

 Past experience with the Red Rods helps the child to use the Number Rods, sensorially
appreciating the difference between them
 The child’s intelligence accepts, understands and associates different names with the
differences she can see between the Rods.
 Each Rod differs by the same increment, which is equal to the first in the series (the unit)
 The Rods show the position of the succession of numbers 1 to 10
 They show the close relationship between Ordinal and Cardinal numbers

Presentation:  Ask the child to sensitise her fingers and select a group of three Sand Paper Cyphers in any order  Invite the child. graded in length from 10 cms to 1 metre. The child is asked to verify by touching each partition The rods are placed randomly on the mat. identical to the Red Rods. having worked with the Number Rods. cut rom sandpaper and mounted on separate boards. 2. introduce the material and bring it to a chowki  Trace each numeral with two fingers as with the Sand Paper Letters . the directress picks a particular one and the child names it. each rod is coloured in alternate red and blue 10 cm long partitions. the child is preparing for writing numbers. The Cyphers are symbols for the quantities and different from the Sand Paper Letters (which the child will have already used) because they represent not just a sound. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Material Description: Ten wooden rods. By tracing the numerals in the style and direction in which they are written. The child is then given the opportunity to relate his knowledge of quantity and symbol with the number rods and cards With the help of the Director. the children already know the names of the numbers 1-10 and associate them with their quantities and sequence. The child is asked to verify by touching each partition. The Sand Paper Cyphers The sandpaper numerals introduce the child to symbol 0-9 and their corresponding number names. but a whole idea Material Description: The Numbers 1 to 9 and 0. the director asks for a particular one and the child brings it. The first rod and the first partition in each succeeding rod is red Exercises: The rods are placed randomly on the mat.

below the ‘rod of six and four’  Remove the ‘rod of four’ and the child sees that the ‘rod of six’ remains  Continue nil the rods are in their original Red Rod position ‘Arithmetic of Groups’ . Impressions of putting together (addition)  Ask the child to build the Number Rods in sequence in the middle of a Working Mat and to place the cards on the last partition of each rod  Ask the child to move the ‘rod of ten’ to the top of the mat  Ask her to put the ‘rod of nine’ below it and then say. The Number Rods and Cards Material Description: Number Rods. with the ‘rod of five’ in it’s original place. b. “Lets make the ‘rod of nine’ an long as the ‘rod of ten’  The child places the ‘rod of one’ adjacent to the ‘rod of nine’ and puts their cards in place  Continue until the ‘rods of six and four’ have been placed  Move the ‘rod of five’ beneath the ‘rod of six’ and ask the child where we can get a rod to complete the length – possibly flip the ‘rod of five’. Set of wooden or cardboard cards on which are printed the numbers 1 to 10 and Working Mat Presentation:  Invite the child. asking the child to trace and name the Cypher 3. introduce the material and help her bring it to a Working Mat. while placing them randomly on the mat  Introduce the child to the card with the symbol for ten (ensure that the child is familiar with this before proceeding)  Ask the child to find the ‘rod of ten’ and place the card on the last partition  Show the child another card. Impressions of taking away (subtraction)  Build the Number Rods and cards to the place where impressions of addition was completed. placing the Number Rods at random  Ask the child to collect the Cards and name them. another ‘rod of five’ from a different set or use the corresponding Red Rod to give the impression that the ‘rod of five’ twice is equal to the ‘rod of ten’  The same activity can be done with totals of the ‘rod of nine’ etc. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816  Give there names in a Three Period Lesson. at random and ask her to find it’s pair  Continue to do this till all the rods are labeled a.

take one spindle with your right hand. The Spindle Boxes Spindle Boxes provide practice in associating quantity and symbol for the numbers 0-9. one at a time.  Continue up till nine  Point to 0 and explain to the child. Sand Paper Cypher for 0. place it in the corresponding compartment  Then take two spindles. and Working Mat Presentation:  Invite the child. and introduces zero as no quantity. introduce the material and help her to bring the Spindles and Spindle Boxes to a Working Mat  Point to the symbols and ask the child to identify them  Skipping zero. each exactly the same. counting them in her hand and then puts them on the mat and places a green band around them before putting them in the compartment. Eight green coloured ribbons or bands. where loose quantities are associated with loose symbols form the second half of the Maths Materials for Group 1. At the interior back of each compartment is a painted symbol of the numbers 0 to 9. where the symbols are fixed and Cards and Counters and Memory Game . (This shows they have been grouped together counting them on to the mat in front of you and then transfer them as a group into the corresponding compartment). place it in your left and aloud count “one”. The Spindle Boxes are presented after the child has had sufficient experience with the ‘Arithmetic of Variable’ an is mentally prepared for the abstraction required for the ‘Arithmetic of Groups’ Material Description: Two boxes. divided into five compartments or one box divided into ten compartments. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 The Spindle Boxes. in which the ‘Arithmetic of Groups’ takes place 1. 45 spindles in a basket or box. “zero means not anything”  Show the Sand Paper Cypher for 0 and ask the child to trace it and associate it with the symbol on the first compartment .

A basket for these cards. if less children. 55 identical counters and A mat for each child Presentation:  With a group of children take the cards and explain the game . Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Games to reinforce the concept of Zero With either one child or a small group ask children to perform actions a number of times. Memory Game of Numbers The memory game. when you ask for zero times pause expectantly and see if the child can explain why she hasn’t performed an action 2. and counters serve as practice for the child as he is required to remember and associate quantity to symbol. Cards and Counters Material Description: Small Number Cards 1 to 10 and 55 identical counters in a box Presentation:  Invite the child. cards. use less cards but ensure that 0 is always in circulation Material Description: Folded Cards. Can be played with up to ten children. The cards and counters provide practice for the sequence of numbers and also introduce odd and even numbers. introduce the material and help her to bring the Cards and Counters to a Working Mat  Place the Number Cards at random on the Working Mat  Ask the child to place them in sequence horizontally leaving a gap between them the width of her palm  Place the correct number of counters in pairs under each symbol if the number is odd put the remaining counter centrally beneath the last pair 3. with a number from 0 to 10 written.

More knowledge at this stage (such as knowledge of the teens and words used to describe the tens) distracts from the enjoyment of the minimalist aesthetic. simply. reads the number silently. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816  Each child chooses a card. refolds it and puts it on her mat or chowki  One at a time each child is asked to collect the amount of counters corresponding to the number on her card  The child with zero will not move however much the Director entices her  When all of the children have their objects they count them to verify to themselves and the Director hat they have understood QUESTION 02 What do you know about the decimal system? How would you enable children to count any quantity and identify numerals till 9999? ANSWER: The Decimal System The decimal system is a numeral system which organizes and classifies numerical quantities into different hierarchies of units. A tray containing Golden bead materials for introducing the decimal quantities of 1. 100 and 1000 Geometrical entities are used by Montessori as Material Abstractions for the decimal system of numeration  1 Golden Bead is a unit (point)  10 Golden Beads make a ‘bar of ten’  10 ‘bars of ten’ make a ‘hundred square’  10 ‘hundred squares’ make a ‘thousand cube’ .) The young child’s Sensitive Period for Order and Classification ensures a greater thrill for handling large quantities at this stage. 10. memorises it. with the knowledge of the symbols 1-9 and can recognize zero. The child is given the total decimal system – clearly. harmoniously and with its unlimited. universal applicability. In the Casa it is offered when the child can count to ten with complete understanding. At this stage the child knows what is necessary and sufficient to see and apply the laws governing the decimal system (that ten units can be dynamically exchanged for one of the category above etc.

directress should point to quantity and ask. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Golden Bead Material The golden bead material introduces the child to the decimal system with concrete representations of the hierarchy of numbers. This excersice is for age 4 and above. Quantity and place value of the decimal system are explored by the child in activities in the operations of addition. And in period three. In period two. Excersice1 : Presentation of the decimal system (Introduction to Beads (Quality): This excersice requires a single golden bead. one ten. one ten and one thousand using above materials. In period one teacher introduce the students with each one unit. subtraction. This is 3 period excersice. directress should ask the student about the above three that which of them are what. one unit. multiplication and division. This excersice is conducted to introduce decimal system. . a thousand cube and a dark green table mat. a ten bar. ahundred square. one hundred and one thousand.

000. This exercise is for age 4 and above. 10. 9 hundred and 1 thousand. arrange the beads vertically in categories along the top. 1 thousand cube. Formation of Large Numbers This portion contains a tray containing cards that differ in length and color to introduce the values of 1. and to give the idea that after every nine progression. and to enable a child count any quantity till 9999. In this exercise teacher should ask student to unroll the mat. Exercise 1: Introduction to Decimal Symbol This exercise requires a tray with golden beads: 9 units. placing the bars of then beneath in a vertical row to the left of the units. a set of Large number Cards from 1 to 1. one below the other until she have a vertical row of nine. the tens printed in blue.000. Indicate the cube of 1. and a dark green table mat. 9 hundred squares. 9 ten bead bars. and other students should watch him/her. we must go to one of the next hierarchy. and indicate the bar of ten. 100 and 1. Teacher should indulge every student in the game and the who is not taking part.000. The new hierarchy should also b introduced after few instances so that student is able to count every number from 1 to 9999. In this exercise teacher should invite a group of 4 to 5 students and she herself should stand at the back. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Exercise 2: Presentation Passing Nine game: This exercise requires 9 unit beads. All the materials should be arranged in an order. the units printed in green. 9 ten bead bars. she should call her name and ask that this student will count now. This exercise is conducted to introduce complete decimal system. 1 thousand cube. This exercise is conducted to introduce complete decimal system.000. Directress should put a quantity in the tray and ask who could count. This exercise is for age 4 to 5 years. Teacher could also reverse the game by asking a quantity to place in the tray. Then ask what comes next. a tray and a dark green table mat. count the units as directress place them. 9 hundred squares. . Exercise 3: Group counting game: This exercise requires 9 unit beads. 9 tens. Continue doing this with the hundreds and acknowledge that after we have 900 we have 1. count with the child in tens.

and place the cards in sequence to ‘9’. Lay the other cards out as for the beads.000. At ’90’ ask her/him what comes next. a set of Large number Cards from 1 to 1. the tens printed in blue. At nine ask. and then where ‘100’ is. Complete the exercise as above but without golden beads. ‘ten tens’ ask her what ‘ten tens’ is. Put them in order with the units on the farthest right. Continue to count in tens while placing the cards vertically. Do the same for 900 and indicate the final card of 1. “what comes after ‘1’?’. she should call her name and ask that this student will tell now. if she says. Unroll a second mat at a distance. Teacher should indulge every student in the game and the one who is not taking part. Exercise 3: Group game identifying numerals: This exercise requires complete set of number cards and a tray. 9 tens. Three small trays with small dishes and two mats placed at a distance.000. and other students should watch him/her. In this exercise teacher should invite a group of 4 to 5 students and she herself should stand at the back. Ask the child to identify the card of ‘1’ then ask her. 9 hundred and 1 thousand. The main purpose of this exercise is to introduce students to numeric symbols and to give the idea of progression to next hierarchy after every nine. Exercise 2: Complete layout of large number cards: This exercise requires a tray with golden beads: 9 units. All the materials should be arranged in an order. what comes next and where the ’10’ card can be found. Directress should put a quantity in the tray and ask who could tell what number is this. The new hierarchy should also b . Three small trays with small dishes and two mats placed at a distance. Build the beads and cards in this pattern with the child on mats spread at a distance. and to enable a child read and compose any quantity till 9999. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 the hundreds printed in red and the thousand printed in green. the hundreds printed in red and the thousand printed in green. the units printed in green. arrange the top categories of the Large Cards along the top of the mat. This exercise is conducted to introduce complete decimal system.

45 ten bars.000. Teacher could also reverse the game by asking a quantity to place in the tray. . 45 hundred squares. In this exercise teacher should invite a group of 4 to 5 students and she herself should stand at the back. a set of Large number Cards from 1 to 1. Repeat the process with all unit beads in the bank of beads till unit beads are left less than 10. In this exercise teacher should ask the student to arrange unit beads one after the other in rows till he/she reach 10. Teacher could also reverse the game by asking a quantity to place in the tray. In this exercise teacher should place unit cards and ask the student which number is this. This exercise is conducted to associate numerals with the quantities and to provide further practice in decimals system. trays ad pots and a floor mat. Repeat the same exercise using bars of 10 to form square of hundred and so using square of hundred to form cube of thousand. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 introduced after few instances so that student is able to tell every number from 1 to 9999. 9 hundred and 1 thousand. This exercise is conducted to enable a child to have a bird’s eye view of the decimal system. Exercise 4: Group game Matching Numbers and Quatity: This exercise requires a tray with golden beads: 9 units. a felt lined tray and a large green mat. 9 tens. All the materials should be arranged in an order. the hundreds printed in red and the thousand printed in green. Exercise 5: Exchanging Game: This exercise requires a enough quantity of golden beads. Teacher should repeat the same exercise with tens and hundreds and try to tell the student different digits and numbers up to 9999. she should ask who would like to put the numerals with the quantity. After the student counts. Then ask her to exchange it with the 10 bead bar. Three small trays with small dishes and two mats placed at a distance. a thousand cube. Directress should put a quantity in the tray and ask who would count what number is this. a set of large number cards. the units printed in green. Exercise 6: The Bird’s Eye View This exercise requires 45 bead units. teacher should tell the student to place the number of beads corresponding to number. the tens printed in blue. After correct answer. This exercise is conducted to count any number and to make child familiar with the process of exchanging.

In this exercise we require golden bead material consisting of units. The teacher can stand at the back. We make the addends with small number cards and the sum with large ones to reinforce this understanding.addition. This exercise is for children 4 years and older. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 QUESTION 03 Explain addition and multiplication exercises in your own words? ANSWER: Exercise 1: Addition without Exchanging: In addition. and 9 thousand cubes.). smaller quantities (addends) are put together to make a larger quantity (the sum). The large number cards are laid out on another table. This child is sometimes called the banker. In all the group exercises with the golden beads. or several small tables could be pushed together. hundreds. the number cards in the middle. Often one large table is used for the entire set up of the bank games. 3 sets of small number cards (These are exactly like the large ones. She needs to be able to work fluently and simply. and the problems are worked on the right. The golden bead material is arranged in order on the mat. This is a group exercise for a few children. The bank (golden bead material) is on the left. Her duties are to keep the material in order and to give change as necessary. in columns. tens. Large number cards. so that they can all be seen. the teacher is in control. and sum. One child is in charge of the large cards and another is . 3 felt lined trays and 2 green felt table mats. This exercise is conducted to help children understand addition and learn the vocabulary involved . only smaller. addend. The small number cards are also laid out so that they can all be seen. A child is chosen to sit at this table.

Instead of two groups of golden beads." More problems can be worked in this way. She takes the second tray. five and one thousand. She hands a tray to each of two children. "I will add the hundreds. "This is called an addend. both at once. four hundred. one." off his tray and places them at the top of the mat. The small cards are placed to look like a written problem. four tens. The teacher makes the addends in small number cards and puts one on each of two trays. but the sum of the numbers in any hiercrchy (units." She does so. three tens. you have brought one thousand. The teacher recaps the procedure saying." The teacher will decide on a problem which will not involve exchanging. "John." She pushes the two quantities together as she says this. The teacher can use the terminology without comment in working problems. "This is the sum. "This is another addend. two hundred. four hundred. They bring their trays back to the teacher. These children keep the cards in order and hand the teacher cards as necessary during the working of a problem. The teacher superimposes the large number cards and places them under the small cards at the top of the table. "2435. "We have added two thousand." She points to each numeral as she says this." She points to 3676 and says. five. five. "Jen." The addition is done. four hundred. and here we have one thousand. such as. I will add the units. one. The teacher will stand at this table. These children stand. two hundred. The area on which the problems will be worked is covered with a green mat. We added them together and made 3676. three tens. "I will add the tens. There can be more than two addends. The teacher does not check the material they have brought. I will add the thousands. to the material they need. First. tens. "We had 2435 and 1241. They put cards back in place when a problem is finished. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 in charge of the small ones. "We are going to work addition problems. so they can easily reach the cards. The teacher tells the children. The children go together to the bead table and help themselves." She points to 1241 and says. 2435 plus 1241. The teacher now says. hundred. The teacher now draws the group's attention to the quantities on the mat. and asks them each in turn to read the numeral on their tray. or thousands) cannot be greater than 9. one. you have brought two thousand. She takes a tray and while taking the material off the tray and arranging it on the mat she says. The teacher points to 2435 and tells the children. four tens. two hundred. I am going to add them together. We will count the sum and see how much there is. "Here we have two thousand. . There is a felt lined tray for each child who will be collecting an addend. While taking the quantity off the tray and arranging it under the first she says. four tens." She takes the small number cards off her tray and places them under the first ones at the top of the mat. three tens. there is one group." She takes the small number cards." She asks one of the children to count the material.

making each addend from a separate set of small number cards. She asks the number card person to make the addends 3465. the teacher asks him to take the ten units to the banker and exchange them for a ten bar." She takes the golden beads off the tray and places them under the other quantities on the mat. another of the large number cards. the sum must not be more than 9999. She takes a tray and says. the limit of the material. she asks one of the children to count the units. she asks them to collect the golden beads which correspond to the numeral on their tray. The teacher takes the next tray and says. and 1389. 3465 +1876 +1389 = The teacher takes three trays. She does not stop to check the quantities. She takes the addend and places it at the top of the mat. and a third child is responsible for the small number cards. She is careful always to place the hierarchies under each other. She places the addend under the first addend at the top of the mat. This is a group exercise for a few children. This problem will include three addends. to read the numeral on his or her tray.) The child counts the units and when he reaches ten. We will add them together and see how much we have all together. where a carrying figure would be recorded in a written problem. When they have all done so. She asks each child." She takes the golden beads off the tray and places them on the mat." She takes the golden beads off the tray and places them beneath the first quantity. The children help themselves to material and bring it back to the teacher. "You have brought 1389. "Here we have 3465. The ten bar is placed above the ten bars on the table. She places the addend under the other two addends at the top of the mat. She can do the addition herself or ask a child to add the quantities by pushing them together. in order to involve more children in the activity. 1876. Again. and 1389 in small number cards and place one addend on each tray. (It is wise always to get the child to count the units into the lid of the unit box. The material is arranged as for the previous addition exercise. 1876. The teacher indicates the material and says. The child does so. There is less likelihood of a mistake and the units do not get lost. One child is put in charge of the golden bead table. The teacher takes the third tray and says. It is found that units can be exchanged . e assumes the children have brought the right amount. in turn. The teacher hands a tray to each of three children. "You have brought 3465. When the quantities have been added (placed together). Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Exercise 2: Addition with Exchanging: This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging. "You have brought 1876.

The thousands are counted. e. The material is arranged as for addition. When we added them together. The thousand is placed above the thousands on the mat. She takes the bead material off each tray. One child is in charge of the golden bead material. One child is in charge of the small number cards. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 for ten bars twice. (Note: The problem involves exchanging in at least one hierarchy. She stresses the fact that each has the same amount by commenting on the fact. "We took 3465. and 1389." More problems are worked in this way. The product may not be greater than 9999. on the mat. The large number card "700" is placed beside them. There must be at least as many sets of small number cards set out as the multiplier in the problem to be worked. The teacher repeats the problem. They collect the material from the bead table and return to the teacher. one under the other. She takes the small number cards off each tray and places one under the other at the top of the mat. The . 1345 x 3. The hundreds are counted. She asks each child in turn to read the numeral on his or her tray. The large number card "30" is placed beside them. She chooses three children and gives one tray to each of them. we got 6730. The rest of the hundreds are counted. She asks the three children to collect 1345 each. This exercise is for children 5 years onwards This is a group exercise for a few children. The tens are counted. The teacher thinks of a problem. There are enough to exchange for 2 hundred squares and to have 3 ten bars left. There are seven.) 1345 multiplicand x 3 multiplier 4035 product The teacher tells the children they will be doing multiplication. Exercise 3: Multiplication with or without Exchanging: This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging. The teacher superimposes the number cards to get 6730. The purpose of this exercise is to understand multiplication.g. 1876. There are six thousand so the large number card "6000" is placed beside them. She puts them below the addends at the top of the mat. She arranges the three quantities. One child is responsible for the large number cards. Ten hundred are changed for one thousand at the bank. She asks the child in charge of the small number cards to put the cards "1345" on each of three trays. There are no units left over. The teacher points out to the children that there are two ten bars resulting from changing units for tens and that these must be counted with the tens. The teacher takes each tray in turn.

" One child counts the units. She places the hundred square over the hundreds on the mat. The child counts the hundreds. When she has ten." More problems are worked in this way. she exchanges them for a hundred square. Our multiplicand is 1345. The child counts the thousands. . The thousand cube is placed over the thousands on the mat. She counts the rest of the units. There are no hundreds remaining. "We multiplied 1345 times three. The large number card "30" is placed beside them. We will add them together. The teacher superimposes the large number cards and re-caps. so she changes them with the child in charge of the bank for a thousand cube. There are 4. When she has ten. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 teacher stresses that the quantities are equal. There are 5. she exchanges them with the banker for a ten bar. "Today we are doing multiplication. She counts the rest of the tens. We multiplied this by 3. The product is 4035. The child counts the tens. represented by our three students. so the large number card "5" is placed beside them. She places the ten bar over the tens on the mat. She says. There are three. our multiplier. We have 1345 three times. There are 10. so the large number card "4000" is placed beside them.

" Student continues until she has subtracted 2112 in golden beads. 4326. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 QUESTION 04 Explain how would you give the concepts of subtraction and division? ANSWER: Exercise 1: Subtraction without Exchanging: This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging. "Today we are going to work subtraction problems.1103 subtrahend difference The teacher tells the children. 2122 and 1103. she guides them through the process. The material is arranged as for addition. and places them on the mat. You can take two of these units. She gives a tray to each of two children. Below is how the following problem would be worked. She makes the subtrahends." "Yes. "How many tens do you need?" "One. The teacher may choose to use one or two subtrahends (the number being subtracted). other is of the large number cards. Mary and John. These subtraction problems will not involve exchanging. How many units will you take?" Other student continues until he has subtracted 1103 in golden beads. and difference. The purpose of this exercise is to give an understanding of subtraction and to give the vocabulary: subtraction. other student may subtract 1103. in small number cards and puts them on two trays. 4326 minuend . . subtrahend. One child is in charge of the golden bead material. "How many units do you want?" "Two." Student does so.2112 subtrahend . The teacher takes the small number cards 2112 off student's tray and puts them under the large ones which form the minuend at the top of the mat. They do so in turn. in golden bead material and the large number cards." "You can take one ten then. minuend. She asks the children to read the numbers on their trays. "Now. and another the small number cards." The teacher makes the minuend. This exercise is for children 4 and half years and onwards This exercise requires a small group of children. As the children have not worked subtraction before.

with the large number cards and the golden bead material. 3273 minuend . the difference. she reviews. The teacher thinks of a problem. saying. from the small number cards and places them in the upper right hand corner of the felt lined ." She superimposes the small number cards. the teacher may tell the children. 3273 . and places them on the dark green mat. e. The purpose of this exercise is to give an understanding of subtraction.487. We have 1111 left." Pointing to each set of numbers.487 subtrahend -------------------- 1248 difference One child is in charge of the golden bead material. and places them underneath the subtrahends at the top of the mat to form the answer of the written problem. difference.1528 ." She puts it under 1st student's subtrahend at the top of the mat.1538 subtrahend ." She further clarifies the terminology by continuing with the three period lesson. she asks the students. 1538 and 487. "Point to the minuend. This exercise is for children 5 years and onwards. She makes the subtrahends. "Today we did subtraction.g. and place the corresponding small number cards underneath. The material is arranged as for addition." Introducing the specialized vocbulary. and 1st student subtracted 2112 from it. "We have 1111 left. The teacher then asks a child to count the bead material remaining on the mat. "We had 4326. 3273. 2112 and 1103. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 The teacher takes the subtrahend off other student's tray. Exercise 2: Subtraction with Exchanging: This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging. and other one subtracted 1103. We call the answer to our problem. "Minuend. Which one is the difference? Is there another subtrahend?" Pointing to each set of numbers in turn. From that we subtracted our two subtrahends. The teacher then reviews the problem. "What do we call this?" The teacher will use this vocabulary when working additional subtraction problems with the children. 1111. "You have subtracted 1103. One child is in charge of the large number cards and another of the small number cards. subtrahend. 4326 was the amount we started with-- our minuend. subtrahend. She makes the minuend.

"I do not have enough units. She gives a ten bar to one of the children. "Now we have 10 units and 3 units. There is 1 thousand left. He exchanges it at the bank for ten units. The teacher tells the children that they are going to work division problems. so we have twelve hundred. says to the children. There are only two hundred. indicating the minuend. The Second child subtracts her subtrahend from the quantity remaining on the mat. Tim?" Tim says. How many units will you subtract. The teacher. There are seven ten bars so one of them could be exchanged for ten units. The purpose of this exercise is to give an understanding of division. What can we do?" She pauses and then explains that a ten bar equals 10 units. These are brought back to the teacher. Tim is going to subtract 1538. "We have ten hundred and two hundred. There are 2 thousand on the table. Another is in charge of the small number cards. Exercise 3: Division with Exchanging: This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging.g. One child is in charge of the golden bead material. Tim needs five hundred." The teacher says. This exercise is for children 5 years and onwards. What can be done? The teacher explains that a thousand equals 10 hundred. She gives a tray to each of the children who will be doing the subtraction and asks them to read their numerals. 5672 ÷ 2. One of the children takes a thousand to the banker who gives 10 hundred squares in exchange. The teacher makes 5672 in golden bead material and the large number cards and places them on the mat on the table. They do so." Tim does so. The teacher thinks of a problem that will require exchanging: e. The teacher puts the 10 hundred squares above 2 hundred on the table. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 trays. "Here is 3273. One child is in charge of the large number cards. Tim subtracts 1 thousand. and that one of the thousands could be exchanged for ten hundred. When necessary." Tim does so. The material is arranged as for addition. now Tim can subtract 5 hundred. . The material is arranged as for addition. There are 7 hundred left." "Tim you can subtract 8. I only have three units. "Eight units. She takes them and puts them above the golden beads on the table. She says. one of a hierarchy is exchanged for ten of the next lower hierarchy. so we have 13 units. She says.

The teacher says. They will each get exactly the same amount. The teacher explains that there are not enough tens and that the ten must be exchanged for units." Each child gets 6 units and is given a small number card 6. I will divide 12 units between the two children. "I have 5672." She gives each child a thousand. The teacher says. "We have 10 hundred and 6 hundred which make 16 hundred." She divides the hundreds one by one. The teacher asks the children to superimpose their small number cards. "We have 10 units and 2 units. He takes the ten bar to the child in charge of the golden beads and receives 10 units in exchange. and can be changed for ten hundreds." She gives a tray to each of the two children. She says. "Now. I will divide them between you. Each child gets 8 hundred and is given a small number card 800. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 She tells the children. "Here are five thousand. the teacher explains that a thousand is the same as ten hundred. I will divide the tens between you. She gives a ten bar to a child who is watching and asks him to change it for 10 units. The teacher says. I am going to divide the 16 hundred between you two. Each child has 2836. The teacher takes the small cards off one tray and puts them above the large number cards on the table. You each must have the same amount. Otherwise. The child does so and brings the hundred squares back. "I cannot give this thousand to either of you. The teacher takes them and puts them above the hundreds on the table. I divided it between two children. He brings them back to the teacher. The teacher puts the 10 units above the units on the table mat and says. They each got 2836. Each child gets three tens and there is 1 ten left. and then a second thousand. They stand in front of her holding their trays. so we have 12 units altogether. She re-caps." There are 7 tens. She asks a child to take the thousand to the child in charge of the golden bead material and exchange it for 10 hundred squares. Each child tells her how much he has." More problems are worked in this way. because then the other would not get one. Exercise 4: Division without Exchanging: . indicating that these are hundreds obtained by exchanging. I am going to divide it between two children. "I had 5672. There is one thousand left. What can I do with this thousand?" Occasionally a child will suggest changing the thousand for ten hundreds.

The teacher asks the children to superimpose the small cards on their trays. then. forming the quotient. There are as many children to do the division as the divisor (for example. "I have 4862. dividend." She gives a tray to each of two children. The teacher stresses the fact that the division will be an equal one. . I am going to divide it between two children. This is partition (equal sharing). Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 This exercise requires the same material as required in addition without exchanging. I have six tens. Each child is given the small number card 1. She divides the hundreds. "You each have four hundred. Now I will divide the tens between you. "You each have three tens. There are four thousand. The teacher tells the children that they are going to work division problems. Each reads 2431." She divides the tens. a second thousand on each tray. one by one. There are no hundreds left. Another child is in charge of the large number cards. One child is in charge of the golden bead material. The teacher says. The teacher makes 4862 in golden bead material and the large number cards and places them on the mat on the table." More problems are worked in this way. "You each have 2431. "You each have two thousand. Note: Large number cards are used for the dividend and small number cards for the quotient to give the impression that a larger quantity is broken down into smaller equal quantities. two if the divisor is 2. The answer is what one person gets. one by one. There is nothing left." There are eight hundred. Each child has four hundred. three if the divisor is 3. The teacher re-caps. The material is arranged as for addition." She puts a thousand on each tray. The teacher says. I divided it between two children. There are no more thousands. etc. 4862 ÷ 2. divisor. You each have the same.). She puts one unit on each tray. The teacher thinks of a problem that does not involve exchanging: e. Each child gets three tens and is given the small number card 30. The teacher gives them each a small number card 400. She says." She takes the small cards off one tray and places them over the large number cards at the top of the table. She asks each in turn to read his or her number. The teacher says. The purpose of this exercise is to give an understanding of division and to teach the vocabulary division. They do so. You each have the same. Now I will divide the hundreds between you. They stand in front of her holding their trays. We will see how many you each get." There are 2 units. and another is in charge of the small number cards. The teacher puts a small number card 2000 on each tray. She tells the children. They each got 2431. "I will divide the thousands between you first. I have no tens left. because one can divide unequally. "I had 4862. She says. They will each get exactly the same amount. Each child has two thousand. and quotient.g. This exercise is for children 5 years and onwards. so I will divide the units between you. There was nothing left.

multiplication and division. the child explores the number names of the tens and the sequence of numbers 11-99. ANSWER: Stamp Game After being introduced to the processes of the decimal system using the golden bead materials. Hundred Board . Bead quantities are created from the ten bars and unit beads in the Tens Bead Box and are associated with the corresponding numeral on the Tens Board. subtraction. the Stamp Game provides opportunities for individual practice in the operations of addition. the quantity and symbols of the decimal system are combined and are represented by each "stamp". In a step towards abstraction. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 QUESTION 05 What are teens and tens board? Explain their Purpose and Usage. Tens Boards With the Tens Boards.

These aid the child in practice and memorization of the unit addition combinations. It prepares the child for later activities in multiplication. The Hundred Board is used by placing the wooden chips in sequence on the board. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 An enjoyable counting activity that reinforces the sequence of numbers from 1-100. . as well as base number work. squaring and cubing. one set with equations printed on them and one set with the answers to be used with the addition working charts. Bead Material This extensive set of bead material is used for the exercises of linear and skip counting the quantities of the squares and cubes of the numbers 1-10. Addition Equations and Sums Box This two-compartment box with lid contains plastic chips.

subtraction and multiplication. Andleeb javed Module 5 Roll # D10816 Colored Bead Stairs The colored bead stairs are used for activities of addition. . Addition Snake Game The addition snake game introduces the child to addition combinations of the unit numbers.