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the majority of workers did not come that workers in the county formerly living in rural from contiguous states. average than those who continued their employ- 1. un- Hughes. A considerable portion of this study was devoted * Read before the nineteenth annual meeting of the to exploration of the dimensions of Junker's role- conceptions and their controlling effects on the Southern Sociological Society. insight regarding processes of interaction learning but nearer the former. Following this. In this case instead expect now the trend of behavior in most activities of age decreasing as distance increased. et al. and this study indicated that only ten percent of immigrant workers were over to urban and a decided change in occupational 45. The University of Chicago. Georgia. I theoretically possible roles for sociolo. is the participant-as-ob. It was found in this study that the majority ment. Atlanta. Between these. We would age and distance of migration. shared in the thinking which led to conceptualiza- gists conducting field work. It was found as expected that those SUM-MARY workers with previous records of termination were Following the location of a major steel plant most likely to terminate their employment and in a rural Utah county. product of field study. than with rural life.2 server. 5.113. This content downloaded from 128. areas moved into closer urban communities as cies and other factors drew workers to Utah from they obtained employment in the steel plant. age. After the work of the from the complete participant at one extreme to team was completed. It was also evident expectations. As workers migrated into the industrial area. dissertation. Part III-A. Within the rural county itself there was a 2. workers the trend was to seek residence on accessible roads migrated into the county from contiguous counties to the work plant in communities close to the plant in the state. 1954.' These range tion of these research roles. contrary to agreement with other studies. more distant states than from adjoining states.26. some were from out of state and. From found that the more educated were more likely to previous studies in the field of labor mobility. FIELD OBSERVATIONS* ROLESIN SOCIOLOGICAL RAYMOND L. Methodology for Sociological Field Observation. is a function of migratory tendencies. This is in Utah. there was in the county to be more consistent with urban a positive correlation between age and distance. While it is generally true that it is the younger marked shift in population composition from rural men who migrate." in Everett C. April 13. FIELD OBSERVATIONS ROLES IN SOCIOLOGICAL 217 base of the county has shifted from agriculture 3. thousands of new people move on. GOLD MontanaState University UFORD JUNKER has suggested four pant. Evidently recruiting poli. of industrial workers came from the local labor 4. University of Chicago. market within the county. nearer the latter is the observer-as-partici. Cases on Field Work (hectographed by published Ph. Also as expected the younger workers came into the area to seek industrial employment had a higher termination record than older work- and many more people living in the county mi- ers.88 on Wed. "Some Suggestions for the Design 2Raymond L. 1 Buford Junker. in field observation in a special study of my own. three studies had grated occupation-wise into industry. While most of the workers were from with adequate community services. 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . there was no direct inverse correlation between trends from agriculture to industry. This study found that this situation showed trends in agreement with the terminated workers had less education on the other such situations. As a member of Junker's research team. Toward a Social Interaction of Field Work Learning Experiences. Gold. D. In the case of education. 1956. a series of hypotheses were set up and tested to see if be occupationally mobile. and education. 1952). It was also hypothesized that labor turnover to industry as shown by occupational trends. I continued the search for the complete observer at the other.

role of the other as an informant. defines success in the role partly in terms of doing It is axiomatic that a person who finds a role everything he can to remain in even threatening natural and congenial. acute self-consciousness. corporated the role into his self-conceptions. new behaviors to protect role. he can balance role-demands and self-demands in virtually all field situations. Because he mands of the role. However. that is. no matter how congenial the two sets of behaviors.a matter of dimin- Every field work role is at once a social inter.113. and are then restored hitherto strange or only generally understood uni. since his role requires taking the 3 To simplify this presentation. If. If need be he can subordinate than fruitful. ishing over-sensitivity to role-demands by intro- action device for securing information for scientific spectively indicating that they are dispropor- purposes and a set of behaviors in which an ob. self-demands are out of balance with each other as ant.218 SOCIAL FORCES My aim in this paper is to present extensions of that he is performing inadequately in the role he Junker's thinking growing out of systematic inter. countless things he would like to say and do to he uses role to protect self. the more successful he must be in taking the inform. Through At the extreme of nearly overwhelming self-con- this incorporation. a person who plays a role in less questions about the informant and the de. In other words.26. tionately larger than those of self. as a person and as a sociologist plying his trade. it is instructive to examine the field playing requires success in blending the demands worker's role-taking and role-playing in situations of self-expression and self-integrity with the de. All of these field role to protect self from perceived threat is one of workers had gathered data in natural or nonexperi. Once out and in the company of un- except those to be discussed shortly. He continually introspects. I am assuming that the field worker is an experienced observer who has in. I would like in this paper to ana- over-sensitivity to self-demands by introspectively lyze generic characteristics of Junker's four field noting correspondingdemands of role. someone with subordinate self-demands to those of role. of perceived. one of acute role-consciousness. He suc- whom he is interacting attacks anything in which ceeds to the extent of refraining from "telling off" he has self-involvement.3While playing a field work represent situations in which role-demands and role and attempting to take the role of an inform. but unresolved. and who acts convincingly situations to secure desired information. greatly varied situations (and this is especially veloping field relationship. the field worker may still protect his feels that self is at stake in it. but fails in that he is too self-con- is to subordinate (or defer) self-expression to allow scious to play his role effectively. Both cases server's self is involved. field work. a matter of diminishing mental settings. A periences threats which markedly impair his effec- sociological assumption here is that the more suc- tiveness as an interactor in the situation. When cessful the field worker is in playing his role. role by getting out of the situation while the get- perienced in the role. being ex. can indicate to himself that he can do better by views with field workers whose experience had changing tactics. the field observer often attempts to master a result of perceived threat. self-demands in the interest of the role and role. all of which are dysfunctional to role-demands. threat. he is self-involved in the role and sciousness. when he perceives the informant. He may think of successful performance in the role. verses of discourse relating to many attitudes and Yet. Success in both role-taking and role. The situation may be one in which he finds the demands in the interest of self whenever he per. informant an almost intolerable bigot. The case of using searcher-subject relationship. not as a bigot. Also. he will finally be able to This content downloaded from 128.88 on Wed. while playing the role. all ting is good. 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . derstanding colleagues. to balance by appropriate introspection. he can point out to him- self that the best way to protect self at the moment the informant. he may in it. raising end. attempting to assess informational products of ant's role. with a view to playing true of a sociologist field observer) sometimes ex- the field work role as successfully as possible. The field ceives that either self or role is in any way threat- worker decides to stick it out by attempting to ened. The case of observer roles and to call attention to the demands using self to protect role from perceived threat is each one places on an observer. has in fact found how to balance role-demands find that persevering is sometimes more heroic with those of self. demands seem to be. Here he uses self as a source of been cast in one or more of these patterns of re.

of the observer teracts with local old ladies as a "nice man.). ful answers.etc.5 While a field than in his surface role-behaviors as he initiates worker cannot be all things to all men.e. In this situation he becomes attitudes but also in the intimate life of the work- acutely role-conscious. finally air his views of situations in which he can play. 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in the self-orientation of the complete participant relationships with informants. For this reason. arouse suspicion of the kind that would lead others covers that old ladies ascribe him "irresistible" char. But an experienced field even when a person is in the act of learning to play worker would leave such a situation as gracefully as a role. to do so would almost of developing a field relationship with an informant. and he alone. league. as naturally as possible in whatever areas of their In effect. develops norms of such workers.e.e. that he knows that he is pretending to be a col- The following discussion utilizes these concep. the complete participant operates con- living interest him and are accessible to him as tinually under an additional set of situational de- 4 An inexperienced field worker might "explode" on mands. or learn to play.. he may decide to persevere acceptance at least as a novice. He must pretend tionships with informants in his master role (i. are but inform- COMPLETE PARTICIPANT ants. that his real self is represented by the role.) other social cues representing the observer's pre- This content downloaded from 128.113. the informant) without damaging the field role. feeling that role and self are not congenial in narily tend to correspond closely.4 requisite day-to-day roles successfully. After gaining a "bad" informant). ROLESIN SOCIOLOGICAL FIELD OBSERVATIONS 219 achieve self-expression (i. since he is hypersensitive ers outside the factory.. The complete participant realizes that tries to fit himself into as many roles as he can. fourflush- are not congenial in this situation only. At the extreme.e. he routinely his study. feeling that role and self have achieved this correspondence (i. to role-demands. ground quite divorced from factory work and the convincingly that the informant.hyposensitive to self. I mean to suggest by this that the crucial tions of role and self to aid in analyzing field work value as far as researchyield is concerned lies more roles as "master roles" for developing lesser role. any experienced large variety of overt and covert mannerisms and community researcher. a role-conscious field or whether he has an upper-middle class back- worker may play his role so mechanically and un. He must bind the participant in field research are not known to mask of pretense to himself or stand the risk of those whom he observes. he may become the "nice man that old invariably preclude successful pretense. At the very ladies can't resist" as part of his over-all role-reportoire least. But the complete observer ascribed roles which the field worker plays in the act simply cannot "be himself". or roles. he might choose not ing sensitive to the set of demands accompanying to engage in this role-relationship. breakdown of his self-process thwarts his drawing It matters little whether the complete participant on past experiences and current observations to in a factory situation has an upper-lower class raise meaningful questions and perceive meaning. and of the momentarily pretended role. and this implies an interactive construction The true identity and purpose of the complete that has deep ramifications.88 on Wed. ing) will be unnecessary when he can actually "be 5Lesser role-relationships include all achieved and himself" in the role. He must acteristics. background and perhaps some factory experience. work in a factory to learn about finds the informant practically inscrutable (i... Whether he deliberately sets out achieve self-realization in pretended roles-would to achieve such relationships with old ladies or dis. Be- not there to study the community. (Cf. Situational role-and-self demands ordi- the spot. For example. he. He interacts with them exposure and research failure. to him. knows that he is in reality other so long as playing them helps him to develop rela. this or any other situation. inner-workings of informal groups.26. he may be per- despite inability to meet role-taking and role. This partial Role-pretense is a basic theme in these activities. especially if being irresistible to old ladies is not helpful in whatever master role-pretense is a matter of being sensitive to a role(s) brought him to town. than the person he pretends to be. Should the situation be such that the field worker for example. to in a community study. participant-as-observer. mitted to share not only in work activities and playing demands. attempting to "be himself"-that is. be sensitive to demands of self. too. he is likely to believe that pretending to possible to protect the role. What really matters is role-and-self problems. he plays in and out of the factory situation in rela- tionships with people who. to remain aloof in interacting with him. he is still a participant-as-observer who in. He may." Were he role.

colleagues."they do one of two things. is almost impossible to report his findings." in the conceptions and achieve self-expression in the role. his primary role. it to themselvesby thinking. Conse- The following illustration of the pretense of a quently. or to demands of self-expression and self-integrity.They may make PARTICIPANT-AS-OBSERVER it knownto the guy that they arenot a cab driver. continuation in a pre. A com- role. Instead of being himself in the pre. "go native. When he can defer self- driveracts differentlythan the part-timecab drivers. but at other times he observes informally-when at- that he has done it in ways which are difficult to tending parties. it places indicating continually to himself that certain ex.88 on Wed. he may become so self. role to find opportunities for congenial interaction Whensomebodythrowsa slam at men who drive only with those who are. informants may be his mandate to get information in a role where he somewhat uneasy about him in both formal and pretends to be a colleague in moral.113. I've noticed that the cab driver who is a cab function as an observer. an introspec. becausethe customercomes back with. During early stages justify. This content downloaded from 128. all he can be is a "not self. numerous opportunities for compartmentalizing "You'rejust a goddamn cab driver!"he's going to mistakes and dilemmas which typically bedevil take you out of the back seat and whip you. part of the year. but their uneasiness is likely other social. the field worker needs cooling-off periods complete participant comes from an interview during and after complete participation. the role carries with it siderthe sourceand dropit. problems of role with one or the other. sibilities of learning about aspects of behavior that tive attitude. in fact. if you make a crack at him. he may field roles in at least two important ways. Playing the role of potential where he is apt to spend more time and energy convert to study a religious sect almost inevitably participating than observing. to disappear when they learn to trust him and All complete participant roles have in common he them. He just doesn't understand. In short. and mentioned above.they mostlyjust rationalize ant are aware that theirs is a field relationship. But as a rule. where an observer develops or less of a challenge to the field worker than those relationships with informants through time. he can no longer Well. At times he observes leads the field worker to feel not only that he has formally.this is not my role This mutual awareness tends to minimize problems or the real me.they are somethingelse. the pretended role (or roles). the participant-as-observer role differs you'renot a cab driverwhat the hell are you driving significantly in that both field worker and inform- this cab for?"So. as in scheduled interview situations. Probably the most frequent use of this role is in Other complete participant roles may pose more community studies.you'rejust a goddamn cab driver!. as a rule. Or two. sense of perceiving that his actions are meaningful but find he has so violated his observer role that it in a contrived role. that doesn't work Although basically similar to the complete ob- out. These indications serve as self-assurance that plete participant must continually remind himself customers are not really treating him as they seem that. expression no longer." But a cab driverwho is a cab driver. Here a field field behavior dispassionately and sociologically. the complete participant. he is there as an observer: this is to do. suchas. as well as in informal situations." incorporate the role into his self- tended role. since he is actually someone else.26. First. because of the sheer necessity of might otherwise escape a field observer. him in pretended roles which call for delicate bal- periences are merely part of playing a pretended ances between demands of role and self. worker reveals how a pretended role fosters a While the complete participant role offers pos- heightened sense of self-awareness. Should field worker and conscious about revealing his true self that he is informant begin to interact in much the same way handicapped when attempting to perform con. for example. two potential problems. if server role."Well. "Well. such as. respects. he steps out of the pretended who don't think of themselves as real cab drivers. namely. and "taken" the people who belong to the sect. But just when the research atmosphere seems tended role ultimately leads the observer to reckon ripe for gathering information. 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and self are apt to arise. One. If he succumbs to demands of a field worker. at which with a field worker who drove a cab for many times he can "be himself" and look back on his months to study big-city cab drivers.Just con- of role-pretending. "Well. he may suffer severe qualms about of his stay in the community. they tend to jeopardize their vincingly in the pretended role. above all.220 SOCIAL FORCES tended self.as ordinary friends. yet.

because the the informant to the point of friendship. tions which set up communication barriers the as in that of the complete participant.. in some sense. H. ternal situations or moods may move us to make very being who he is. It is sometimes used as one of the subordinate roles Illinois: The Free Press. roles. 127. Continuing relationships with apparently defined by informants as more of a colleague than he feels capable of being. This varieties of people for shorter periods of time than is the interaction of sociological strangers.. certain ex. Brief relationships with continuation of the relationship (which is no longer numerous informants expose an observer-as-par- merely a field relationship) may become more im- portant to one or both of the interactors than con. the field worker may over-identify with the informant and start to The observer-as-participant role is used in stud- lose his research perspective by "going native. and serving as his informants. al- take him into account. To a field worker (as to other human beings). usually reserved for our closest friends only. but formal observation or participation of any kind. It also entails less risk of "going native" than Although the field worker in the participant-as. he is more sufficient elements of "the stranger" to avoid actu. the observer-as-participant inclines more to feel threatened. This content downloaded from 128.113. for they do not know he though we have perhaps never revealed it before and thus limit it entirely to this particular relationship. but such is not the fortune of a field worker he is. However. to the observer-as-participant's contact with an inform- point of intimate form. informant. These frustratingly brief encounters with the relationship. he is only pretending. while searching to discover how to make the in this role. The Sociology of Georg Simmel (Glencoe. It calls for Should this occur the field worker may still con. Inversely. they are does nevertheless not become the basis of its form. un. either the complete participant role or the par- observer role strives to bring his relationship with ticipant-as-observer role. In this event the informant becomes OBSERVER-AS-PARTICIPANT too much of an observer. when form of interaction is intimate. For in its basic significance. an observer-as-participant. Second." K. secrets may be shared without either self-expression becomes a problem at any time he perceives he is threatened. On the either the complete participant or the participant- other hand.26. Wolff (ed. ple in ways which make it unnecessary for them to individual ingredients. the demands of pretense in this role. this alone is almost never the dominant one. relatively more formal observation than either in- tinue going through the motions of observing. But in such cases we nevertheless feel that this The complete observer role entirely removes a 'intimate' content does not yet make the relation an field worker from social interaction with inform- intimate one. likely than the other two to misunderstand the informant. and perhaps superficial. Since he meets more of the interactors feeling compelled to maintain the relationship for more than a short time. to relatively strange COMPLETE OBSERVER people. intimacy is not based on the the other two. Consequently. ants. are continu- ing and great. informants also contribute to mistaken percep- In general. That 'intimate' content." ies involving one-visit interviews. ally reaching intimate form.6 When content of interaction is intimate. Here a field worker attempts to observe peo- relation to these people is based only on its general. 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the par. can leave the field almost at will content of the relationship. it behooves him to retain ant is so brief. must regain. and to be misunderstood by him. personal statements and confessions. more easily than 6"In other words. ticipant to many inadequately understood uni- verses of discourse that he cannot take time to tinuation of the roles through which they initiated master. using his prerogative pretense appear natural and convincing.). for here the field worker is often field worker may not even be aware of until too late. is observing them or that. p. Of the four field work thus leaves it outside the sphere of intimacy. employed to implement the dominant ones.88 on Wed. He tries to pretend that threatening informants offer an opportunity to re- define them as more congenial partners in inter- he is as much of a colleague as they seem to think action.. When- to break off relationships with threatening inform- ever pretense becomes too challenging. to regain the kind of role-and-self balance that he. the whole ants. 1950). as-observer. FIELD OBSERVATIONS ROLESIN SOCIOLOGICAL 221 the informant may become too identified with the ticipant-as-observer leaves the field to re-clarify field worker to continue functioning as merely an his self-conceptions and his role-relationships. to field observation. Simmel's distinction These misunderstandings contribute to a prob- between intimate content and intimate form con- tains an implicit warning that the latter is inimical lem of self-expression that is almost unique to this role.

these very questions are obviously develops relationships and frames of important starting points for subsequent observa. he will be well on the way to dealing meaningfully ethnocentrism may be considered a logical oppo. Yet. an inform- The complete observer role is illustrated by sys. willy-nilly. for he takes that they can maximize their take of information no self-risks.7 any kind of social setting as preparation for more Experienced field workers recognize limitations intensive study in another field role. ances" they need to fit into their role. 169. "The quality and quantity of the informa- cussed above. with problems of controlling his interactions with site of "going native. Certainly a cause a complete observer remains entirely outside field worker has mastered his role only to the ex- the observed interaction. feeling the fact that degree of success in securing the level comfortably detached. field worker in structuring the field relationship. He concludes. Cf. although the pos. also the studies by Junker and Gold. Theodore observations have long been concerned with the Caplow also recognizes the key role played by the kinds of interactional problems and processes dis. CONCLUSIONS Each of the four field work roles has been shown to offer advantages and disadvantages with respect Those of us who teach field work courses or su- pervise graduate students and others doing field 7In a recent article on interviewing. he faces the greatest tent that he can help informants to master theirs. to offer informants whatever kinds of "reassur- server. respect to achieving rapport in a field relationship. although 1956). 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ant is likely to play his role only as fruitfully or as tematic eavesdropping. roles and situations. For the Learning this fact (and doing something about it!) same reason. can first "case" the town of information which a field role makes available before committing himself to casing by the town. or by reconnaissance of fruitlessly as a field worker plays his. This content downloaded from 128. Once a without ever getting to the point of understanding field worker learns that a field relationship in them. adjust their own role-repertories to research ob- sentatives of the observed world to qualify what jectives. but for obviously opposite reasons. reference which yield a somewhat different per- tions and interactions in appropriate roles. in their ability to develop relationships in various ing the rest of the world roll by. or to answer other questions his expedient device for securing a given level of in- observations of them have brought to mind. With on his own assets and shortcomings in the field. case of "going native" becomes much op. there by selecting a field role which permits them to are many times when he wishes he could ask repre.113. cit.222 SOCIAL FORCES It is generally true that with increasingly more more understandable to the beginner when we observation than participation. the chances of have analyzed it for him sociologically." "The Dynamics of Information Interviewing." Ethnocentrism occurs when. While watch. since. a selected role is simply an they have said. sophistication in meaningfully with an informant. For formation. He then seem. a complete participant some purposes. Be. he is in a position own. This limited." him compassionately after others have refused to American Journal of Sociology. informants. When he "going native" become smaller. can begin utilizing theory of role and self to reflect sibility of ethnocentrism becomes greater. These a prelude to using the participant-as-observer role subjective and objective factors come together in in community study. however. field observation requires manipulating informants ingly or actually rejects the informant's views to help them play their role effectively. At the other extreme. participates not one whit. Both are cases of pretending to be an ob. We find such common "mistakes" tion secured probably depend far more upon the as that of the beginner who over-identifies with competence of the interviewer than upon the respond- an informant simply because the person treats ent. a field worker who process of being structured creates role-and-self "goes native" passes the point of field rapport by problems for informants that are remarkably simi- literally accepting his informant's views as his lar to those he has experienced. danger of misunderstanding the observed. It is spective of the subject matter than that which any not surprising that reconnaissanceis almost always of the other field work roles would yield. For instance." "inept" informants.88 on Wed. to a field worker is largely a matter of his skill in playing and taking roles. LXII (September grant him an interview. very real.26. Objectively. ever a field worker cannot or will not interact Beyond this level of control. They have also discovered server may feel comfortably detached. his role carries the least chance of will eliminate nearly all excuses about "bad" or ''going native. The field worker. a complete ob.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE VALIDITY OF HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRES* EDWARD A. Logical Aid to Systematic conducting the statistical tabulations. and mental health in human behavior. Medical Diagnosis.. pp. The medical profession has also evidenced in- vidual's choice of activity and color his general terest in recent years in the utility of question- outlook on life. STREIB Cornel University S OCIAL researchershave long recognized and testing of reliable and valid health self-ratings.. SUCHMAN AND BERNARD S. raise important meth. 5 (April. of human activity. and Todd H. 152-157. for example. Learning to take and play formation. Bernard America. various screening techniques have been developed odological problems concerning the measurement to serve as aids in psychiatric diagnosis. "Morale of the Retired. Cornell University.' Disease. Harris. p.. Jr. Inc. p. can best study those field interaction is in no sense limited to that area aspects of society in which he is interested. a researcherhas recourse to actual medical examina- preliminary appraisal of an individual's health tion of his subjects.4 conducted by the Department of Sociology and 2 See." Journal of the American Trouble (New York: King's Crown Press. Obviously. although dramatized in the field. Zubin et al. Wayne E. Medical Association. 19 Feb 2014 14:08:02 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . thus becomes an essential step in the progress of LJ terminant of an individual's attitudes and the social scientist's investigation of the role of behavior. physical disability. J. and the National Institute of Mental Health. esp. "The Cornell Anthropology. Erdmann. is essen- port to show how a sociological conception of field tially the same kind of social learning people en- work roles can do more than provide lines of gage in throughout life. Attempts to determine the extent naires as aids to medical diagnosis.2A method of the health status of an individual. Albert J. of Dr." Annual Meeting. unpublished paper presented at the I See. The investigation Selectee Index: An Aid in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Koos. For an Lorge. Operations Research Society of Social Problems. H. 128 ff. For example. 46 (1946). 593-605. J. 63. thought and action for dealing with problems and In any case. Ledley. June 1951). pp. Thompson who collaborated in setting 342-355. disorder often set restrictive limits upon the indi. 270-276. The development may serve this purpose has been developed at the * This paper is a part of a larger research project Cornell University Medical College. This content downloaded from 128. 1946).3Hence. gested that a field worker selects and plays a role a theory of role and self growing out of study of so that he. May 10-11. the importance of physical health as a de. Families in a Diagnostic Instrument. of Psychological Tests as Prognostic Instruments in The authors are pleased to acknowledge the assistance Mental Disorders. Streib. Harold G. AN ANALYSIS OF THE VALIDITY OF HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRES 223 to both demands of role and self and level of in. Gordon F. however. example of the importance of health as a variable in "The Cornell Medical Index-Health Questionnaire As family adjustment see Earl L. 1956. No attempt has been made in this re. A questionnaire which symptoms or his general health. Vol. Wolff. the foregoing discussion has sug- processes of field interaction. 1956). 3 (1956).. pp. roles.113. Irving Russell Sage Foundation. "Retrospective Evaluation United States Public Health Service (Grant M-1196). much more often he must based on questionnaire responses could be used as rely upon the subject's own reports of his medical an aid to medical diagnosis. pp.26. PHILLIPS CornellUniversity Universityof North Carolina GORDON F.88 on Wed." Journal of Personality (1953). Broadbent. Kutner et al. of this influence. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. up the design for the analysis and the procedures for 3Robert S. May." was supported by grants from the Lilly Endowment. being who he is. Five Hundred Over Sixty (New York: 4Keeve Brodman. There are has been suggested whereby diseases may be matched with their respective sets of symptoms in relatively limited opportunities when the social the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. however.