Bones of the Wrist
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cannot Handle
Slowly Lower Tilly's Pants To The Curly Hairs

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Brachial Plexus
Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer

Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches
Branches of the Brachial Plexus (In order from most lateral to most medial)
My Aunt Raped My Uncle

Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar
Cranial Nerves
Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Virgin Girls Vaginas And Hymens
You have 1 nose. You have 2 eyes. (The first "O" is Olfactory, second "O" is Optic)

To remember what cranial nerve is Motor, Sensory, or Both use this ( In order from CN I
to CN XII):
Some Say Marry Money, But My Brother Says Big Bras Matter Most
Extraocularmotor muscles
LR6 (SO4) LR6: Lateral rectus --> VI abductens
SO4: Superior Oblique --> IV Trochlear
All other extraocularmotor muscles are CN III
Branches of the Facial Nerve
Ten Zebras Bought My Car
Ten Zebras Bit My Cock
Two Zulus Buggered My Cat
To Zanzibar By Motor Car

Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical
Miscelaneous Anatomy Mnemonics

Innervation of phrenic nerve
c345 keeps the phrenic alive
c345 keep the diaphragm alive

Long thoracic nerve innervates serratus anterior
c5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven

Relationship of Thorasic duct to Esophagous and Azygous


The duck is between two gooses.
duck = thoracic duct 2 gooses = azyGOUS and esophaGOUS

Attachments of Pectoralis Major, Teres Major and Latissimus Drosi
A lady between tow majors.
Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of bicipital groove, the teres major attaches to
medial lip of bicipital groove, and the latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of bicipital
groove. The "lati" is between two "majors."

Innervation of the Penis
Parasympathetic puts it up; sympathetic spurts it out.
Point Shoot Score
Parasympathetic, sympathetic, somatomotor

Lateral and Medial Pectoral Nerve
Lateral is less, medial is more.
Lateral pectoral nerves goes through pectoralis major while medial pn goes though both
pectoral major and minor.

Layers of the epidermis
Granpa Shagging Grandma's Love Child.
Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander
Germinativum or Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum

Things going through Orbital Fissure
Seven French Tarts Sit Naked In Anticipation

Brachial plexus subunits"Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer": Roots Trunks Divisions Cords
Branches · Alternatively: "Real Texans Drink Coors Beer".

Tarsal bones

"Tall Californian Navy Medcial Interns Lay Cuties":
· In order (right foot, superior to inferior, medial to lateral): Talus Calcanous Navicular
Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneifrom Cuboid
Atrioventricular valves"LAB RAT": Left Atrium: Bicuspid Right Atrium: Tricuspid
Tarsal tunnel: contents
"Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters":
· From superior to inferior:
T: Tibialis posterior F: flexor Digitorum longus A: posterior tibial Artery N: tibial Nerve
H: flexor Hallucis longus


Vagal nerve: path into thoraxVagus nerve, unlike phrenic, continues through diaphragm
with esophagus--it is "Not Left Behind": · The left vagus is anterior, right is posterior
Inguinal canal: walls"MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T":
· Starting from superior, moving around in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2
Muscles: · internal oblique Muscle · transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2
Aponeuroses: · Aponeurosis of external oblique · Aponeurosis of internal oblique Lower
wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: · inguinal Ligament · lacunar Ligament Posterior wall: 2Ts: ·
Transversalis fascia · conjoint Tendon
Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung
"A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm":
· In order from superior to inferior: Apical Posterior Anterior Lateral Medial Superior
Medial basal Anterior basal Lateral basal Posterior basal
Tarsal bones
"Traverse City (is) Noted (for) MIchigan's Lovely Cherries": Talus Calcaneus (new row)
Navicular (new row) Medial Intermediate cuneiforms Lateral cuneiform Cuboid
Aorta vs. vena cava: right vs. leftAorta and right each have 5 letters, so aorta is on the
right. Vena and cava and left each have 4 letters, so vena cava is on the left.
Hip: lateral rotators"Play Golf Or Go On Quaaludes": · From top to bottom: Piriformis
Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus
femoris · Alternatively: "P-GO-GO-Q".
Facial bones"Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!": Vomer Conchae Nasal Maxilla
Mandible Palatine Zygomatic Lacrimal
Scalp layers
SCALP: · From superficial to deep: Skin Connective tissue Aponeurosis Loose areolar
tissue Pericranium
Thoracoacromial artery branches"CAlifornia Police Department": Clavicular Acromial
Pectoral Deltoid
Ankle: anterior compartment of leg contents
"The Hamptons Are Never Dull Parties": · From medial malleolus: Tibialis anterior
tendon (Extensor) Hallacus longus Artery (anterior tibial) Nerve (deep peroneal)
(Extensor) Digitorum Peroneus tertius
Erector spinae muscles
"I Love Sex":
· From lateral to medial: Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
· Alternatively:

Leg: anterior muscles of leg"The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places": T: Tibialis anterior H: extensor Hallucis longus A: anterior tibial Artery N: deep fibular Nerve D: extensor Digitorum longus P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius] Nasal cavity components "Never Call Me Needle Nose!": Nares [external] Conchae Meatuses Nares [internal] Nasopharynx · Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related. · Erection and Ejaculation (Emission). he SITS out for the rest of the game.8 = triceps Penis autonomic innervation actions "Parasympathetic Puts it up. Rotator cuff muscles"The SITS muscles": · Clockwise from top: Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis · A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. proximal to distal: Triceps Anconeus Brachioradialis ext. two-. As a result. Seven. Sympathetic Spurts it out".6 = biceps and brachioradialis C7. Radial nerve: muscles innervated "Try A Big Chocolate Chip Sundae. notice that the longer word in the mnemonic.Digiti minimi ext. four-. Digitorum ext. Alternatively: "Point and Shoot": Parasympathetic Points it. P poll.kick the door. Sympathetic Shoots out the semen. eight-.2 = ankle jerk L3. brevis ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferably Included": · In order of their innervation. longus ext.ANATOMY "I Long for Spinach" · "Sex" helps you think of "Erector". six-. longus ext. but "Long" and "Spinach" help you remember the muscles' names. Carpi ulnaris Abductor poll.buckle my shoe.shut the gate. Five. S1. Carpi radialis longus ext.pick up sticks. and then gets sent to the minor leagues. Three. corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. Indicis · For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and chip). Carpi radialis brevis Supinator ext. Poll.4 = knee jerk C5. Internal iliac artery: anterior branchesWhat Bill admitted to Hilary: "I Milked Our Insatiable Intern's Udders Under the Desk": Inferior gluteal Middle rectal Obturator Inferior vesical artery Internal pudendal artery Umbilical U/D=Uterine artery (female)/ Deferential artery (male) . carpi radialis brevis) Deep tendon reflexes: root supply · God designed body reflexes according to a nursery rhyme: One.

Supine vs. Scrotum layers "Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testis": · From superficial to deep: Skin Dartos External spermatic fascia Cremaster Internal spermatic fascia Tunica vaginalis Testis Femoral triangle: contents NAVY: · In order from lateral to medial: Nerve Artery Vein Y of the groin · Alternatively: Y = Y- fronts [male underwear]. · See diagram. Alcohol.e. Your face follows where your palm is facing [i. lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform · Distal row. Put a handpuppet on your hand while hand is in supination and the puppet will be the supine position. To Permit Profundus Passing through.ANATOMY Muscles: potentially absent ones· Muscles which may be absent but may be important: 5 P's: Palmaris longus [upper limb] Plantaris [lower limb] Peroneus tertius [lower limb] Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall] Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall] Carpal bones"Stop Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver's Hand": · Proximal row. Vagus nerve: path into thorax"I Left my Aunt in Vegas": Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior descending into the thorax. prone body position Know SUPination is your hand while carrying a bowl of SOUP. Try To Catch Her". Flexor digitorum muscles: how they insert onto fingers· A little rhyme: Superficialis Splits in two. both lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate · Alternatively: "She Likes To Play. Serratus anterior: innervation SALT: Serratus Anterior = Long Thoracic. Hip: lateral rotators "Piece Goods Often Go On Quilts": Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus femoris . up]. Try To Catch Her": · Proximal row then distal row. Axillary artery branches "Suzy Thompkins Loves Sex. and Pot": · From proximal to distal: Superior thoracic Thoracacromial Lateral thoracic Subscapular Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex humeral Horner's syndrome componentsSPAM: Sunken eyeballs/ Symphathetic plexus (cervical) affected Ptosis Anhydrosis Miosis Voicebox: names of parts in sagittal cross-section "There's 3 V's in your Voicebox": Vestibular fold Ventricle Vocal fold · Note: Vestibular and Vocal cord also known as false and true cords respectively. lateral-to-medial: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Carpal bones"She Looks Too Pretty.

one relation. Internal jugular vein: tributaries"Medical Schools Let Confident People In": · From inferior to superior: Middle thyroid Superior thyroid Lingual Common facial Pharyngeal Inferior petrosal sinus Genu valgum vs. so knees are far apart. Aortic arch: major branch order "Know your ABC'S": .ANATOMY Thigh: innervation by compartment" MAP OF Sciatic": Medial compartment: Obturator Anterior compartment: Femoral Posterior compartment: Sciatic · So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve. Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital fossa. Erector spinae muscles"I Like Standing": · From lateral to medial Illiocostalis Longissimus Spinalis Cubital fossa contents "N-MAN": · From lateral to medial: Nerve Muscle Artery Nerve · Specifics are radial Nerve. median Nerve.8. or Far rhymes with Var. flexes elbow. brachial Artery. Trigeminal nerve: where branches exit skull"Standing Room Only": Superior orbital fissure is V1 foramen Rotundum is V2 foramen Ovale is V3 Dermatome C7 locationC7 gives the finger to heaven (as in middle finger).4. one attachment BrachioRadialis: Function: Its the Beer Raising muscle. (Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for brachioradialis). External carotid artery branches"Suzy Always Lays Flat On Pillows Making Sex Terrific": Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Maxillary Superificial Temporal Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axillaThe Median nerve is the Middle of a giant capital "M" formed by the musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves. · Varum (bowleg) is the other by default. genu vargum Genu valGUM (knock-knee): knees are GUMmed together. biceps Muscle tendon. innervation. But Radial.12 show its route": Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart Rib6: both diverge laterally Rib8: midclavicular line Rib10: midaxillary line Rib12: the back · See diagram.10. Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a flexor muscle. Pleura surface markings"All the even ribs. in order: 2. strongest when wrist is oriented like holding a beer.6. Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius. External carotid artery branches"Some Angry Lady Figured Out PMS": Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Maxillary Superificial temporal Brachioradialis: function.

Lingual. VII-Facial.) Which cranial nerve is Sensory. V3 -foramen Ovale For the order of nerves that pass through the superior orbital fissure: "Lazy French Tarts Lie Naked in Anticipation. Lateral. X- Vagus. II -. Nosociliary. IX-Glossophrayngeal. XII-Hypoglossal On Old Olympus Towering Tops. Buccal. Abducens) 2 Muscle of mastication. amongst you!) You have I nose. Maxillary Some Anatomists Like makin loveg. it's the coronary arteries.D. You have II eyes. Superficial temporal..Some Say Marry Money." (Lacrimal. Trochlear.lateral pterygoid is the one that opens the jaw 4 Muscles of Mastication MTPP( which could be read as "Empty Peepee") -masseter.Lateral Lowers. Internal. II-Olfactory. V-Trigeminal. (I .ANATOMY Aortic arch gives rise to: Brachiocephalic trunk left Common Carotid left Subclavian · Beware though trick question of 'What is first branch of aorta?' Technically. Others Prefer S & M .Olfactory. lateral and medial pterygoids -- Arteries as they come off the external carotid: Superior thyroid.. Occipital. well . Post Auricular. Motor. or Both. A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops (older and cleaner) Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel A Girls Vagina And Hymen (newer and. Facial. V3 innervated muscles (branchial arch 1 derivatives) "M. My TV": Mastication [masseter.Optic) Standing Room Only -Exit of branches of trigeminal nerve from the skull S V1 -Superior orbital fissure. temporalis. But My Brother Says Big Breasts Matter More BRANCHES OF FACIAL NERVE: Temporal. VIII-Acoustic (Vestibulocochlear). Ascending pharyngeal. III-Oculomotor. V2 -foramen Rotundum. Frontal. IV-Trochlear. XI-Spinal Accessory. Mandibular. Cervical Ten Zebras Beat My Cock Two Zulus buggered my cat –(for the sicker. VI-Abducens. pterygoids] Digastric [anterior belly] Mylohyoid tensor Tympani tensor Veli palatini Foramen ovale contents MALE: Mandibular nerve Accessory meningeal artery Lesser petrosal nerve Emissary veins Head & Neck CRANIAL NERVES: I-Optic. temporal. Zygomatic.

Branches Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer. sympathetic spurts it out Point . Cords. Divisions. 4 keep the penis off the floor" Innervation of the penis by branches of the pudental nerve. derived from spinal cord levels S2-4 Structures perforating the esophagus .. Somatomotor "S2.. Shoot.Temporal. Arytenoid.ANATOMY Some Angry Lady Figured out PMS Innervation of Extraocularmotor Muscles: LR6 SO4 3 LR6--Lateral rectus--> VI abductens SO4--Superior Oblique--> IV Trochlear 3--The remaining 4 eyeball movers = III Oculomotor ABC'S of the aortic arch! Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk. 3. Score! (erection. aren't they? The cranial bones are the PEST OF 6. CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES: c345 keeps the phrenic alive (innervation of phrenic nerve) c345 keep the diaphragm alive (innervation of diaphragm) c5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven (nerve roots of long thoracic nerve innervate serratus anterior) Cranial Bones Annoying.6 ? (6-the number of bones!) ( another one) Old People From Texas Eat Spiders. Trunks.Sphenoid. and the left Subclavian artery BRACHIAL PLEXUS: Roots. Epiglottis. emmision . Ethmoid.Occipital. Thyroid.ejaculation) Parasympathetic. Parietal. the left Common Carotid.There are 4 cartilages in the larynx whose initial letters are TEAC (also the brandname of a home stereo). LOCATION OF THORACIC DUCT: The duck is between two gooses (duck = thoracic duct) 2 gooses = azyGOUS and esophaGOUS Cartilages of the Larynx . Cricoid Abdomen-Pelvis INNERVATION OF PENIS: Parasympathetic puts it up.Frontal. Sympathetic .

thoracic duct. Branches Bones of the wrist -Scaphoid. Slowly Lower Tilly's Pants To The Curly Hairs 2. (the risque version) 3. Swifty Lower Tilly's Pants to try coitus here. Pisiform.azygous vein) Femoral Sheath (lateral to medial) order of things in thigh -NAVEL Nerve. and ductus deferens) Carotid Sheath-. Vein. Divisions. Triquetrum. Trunks. perforates the IVC" (inferior Vena Cava) the "EsoVagus" pierce T10 (esophagus. Capitate. Artery. Cords. Hamate 1.ANATOMY "At T8 you see. (Classic version) Pelvic Diaphragm PICOLO(A) -Posterior to anterior PIriformis COccygeus . Scared Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle. innervates the BEST!!!! Brachioradialis Extensors Supinator Triceps Course of Ureters Water runs under the bridge (uterine a. Trapezium. Lymphatics Radial n. Space. Trapezoid.VAN Internal Jugular Vein Common carotid Artery Vagus Nerve Dermatomes C3 is a high turtleneck shirt T4 is at the nipple L1 is at the inguinal ligament (or L1 is IL -Inguinal ligament) Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer--Brachial plexus Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer Empty. Lunate. white and blue (aorta. vagus nerve) T12 .

XII-hypoglossal • On Old Olympus Towering Tops.four abdominal muscles -. Layers of the epidermis-Germinativum or Basale. Oddi. V-trigeminal. Corneum Grandpa Shagging Grandma's Love Child. You have II eyes. and Profunda Brachii. dab. Cords. rectus abdominus.the 5 F’s.Feeding. Dorsal ABduct. (Bridge is the ligament. Lower Esophogeal. VIII-acoustic (vestibulocochlear).interosseous muscles of hand/foot. TIRE. II-olfactory. • Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer. Feeling. Posterior Circumflex Humeral.ANATOMY Levator Ani Pelvic Splanchic-Parasympathetic Sacral Splanchic-Sympathetic Armies travel over bridges. XI-spinal accessory. A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops • You have I nose. II -- Optic) • Innervation of Extraocularmotor Muscles: • LR6 (SO4) 3 • LR6--Lateral rectus--> VI abductens • SO4--Superior Oblique--> IV Trochlear • 3--The remaining 4 eyeball movers = III .. and Ileocecum. Thoracoacromial. Fighting.. X-vagus..) Pad. III-oculomotor. Lateral Thoracic. Subscapular. Spinosum. Branches • Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers.Glomerular. Divisions. (I . VII-facial.. • CRANIAL NERVES: I-optic.reference to suprascapular artery and nerve.. IV- trochlear. Granulosum. The branches of the Axillary Artery are: Superior Thoracic. Fascicular.transversus. Trunks. Lucidum. Sally Thompson Loves Sex And Pot pie..Olfactory. Reticular • BRACHIAL PLEXUS: Roots. and external oblique GFR -Layers of the adrenal:-. Pyloric. Flight and makin loveg The 5 sphincters found in the Alimentary Canal are APE OIL: Anal. internal oblique.Palmar ADduct. Anterior Circumflex Humeral. IX-glossophrayngeal. the Navy travels under. VI-abducens. Limbic System.

Sensory." • Lateral pectoral nerves goes through pectoralis major while medial p. Zygomatic. 4 keep the penis off the floor" • Innervation of the penis by branches of the pudental nerve. sympathetic spurts it out • "S2. goes though both pec major and minor • AORTIC BRANCHES: • ABC'S . derived from spinal cord levels S2-4 • "Lateral is less.n.ANATOMY • Some Say Marry Money. 3. • Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of bicipital groove. medial is more. • Latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of bicipital groove. • Teres major attaches to medial lip of bicipital groove. But My Brother Says Big Bras Matter More (what cranial nerve is Motor. Cervical • Ten Zebras Bought My Car • To Zanzibar By Motor Car • CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES: • c345 keeps the phrenic alive (innervation of phrenic nerve) • c345 keep the diaphragm alive (innervation of diaphragm) • c5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven (nerve roots of long thoracic nerve innervate serratus anterior) • LOCATION OF THORACIC DUCT: • The duck is between two gooses (duck = thoracic duct) • 2 gooses = azyGOUS and esophaGOUS • ATTACHMENTS OF CHEST MUSCLES: • A lady between two majors. Masseteric. Buccal. • The "lati" is between two "majors. or Both) • BRANCHES OF FACIAL NERVE: Temporal." • INNERVATION OF PENIS: • Parasympathetic puts it up.


• Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk, the
left Common Carotid, and the left Subclavian artery
• nerve, artery, vein, empty space, lymphatics

Pterygoid muscles: function of lateral vs. medial

"Look at how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of 'Lateral' or 'Medial' ":
"La": your jaw is now open, so Lateral opens mouth.
"Me": your jaw is still closed, so medial closes the mandible.
Supine vs. prone body position"Supine is on your spine.
Therefore, prone's the "other" one. · Also, prone to suffocate in prone position.
Meckel's diverticulum details
2 inches long. 2 feet from end of ileum. 2 times more common in men. 2% occurrence in
population. 2 types of tissues may be present. · Note: "di-" means "two", so diverticulum
is the thing with all the twos.
Perineal vs. peroneal
Perineal is in between the legs. Peroneal is on the leg.
Anterior forearm muscles: superficial groupThere are five, like five digits of your hand.
Place your thumb into your palm, then lay that hand palm down on your other arm, as
shown in diagram. Your 4 fingers now show distribution: spells PFPF [pass/fail, pass/
fail]: Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Your thumb
below your 4 fingers shows the muscle which is deep to the other four: Flexor digitorum
Carpal tunnel syndrome causesMEDIAN TRAP: Myxoedema Edema premenstrually
Diabetes Idiopathic Agromegaly Neoplasm Trauma Rheumatoid arthritis Amyloidosis
Pregnancy · Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped.
Lumbar plexus "I, I Get Laid On Fridays":
Iliohypogastric [L1]
Ilioinguinal [L1]
Genitofemoral [L1, L2]
Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3]
Obtruator [L2, L3, L4]
Femoral [L2, L3, L4]


· Alternatively: "I twice Get Laid On Fridays". · Alternatively: "Interested In Getting Laid
On Fridays?"
Elbow: muscles that flex itThree B's Bend the elBow: Brachialis Biceps Brachioradialis
Cavernous sinus contents O TOM CAT:
O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior. CA are the
components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O
TOM. · See diagram. Occulomotor nerve (III) Trochlear nerve (IV) Ophthalmic nerve
(V1) Maxillary nerve (V2) Carotid artery Abducent nerve (VI) T: When written, connects
to the T of OTOM.
Bronchi: which one is more vertical"Inhale a bite, goes down the right": Inhaled objects
more likely to lodge in right bronchus, since it is the one that is more vertical
Carotid sheath contents "I See 10 CC's in the IV":
I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery
10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)
CC = Common Carotid artery
IV = Internal Jugular Vein

V3 innervated muscles "My A$$ Meets The Toilet":
Anterior digastric
Muscles of Mastication
Tensor veli palatini
Tensor tympani

Inferior vena cava tributaries "I Like To Rise So High":
Hepatic vein.
· Think of the IVC wanting to rise high up to the heart.

Spleen: dimensions, weight, surface anatomy "1,3,5,7,9,11":


Spleen dimensions are 1 inch x 3 inches x 5 inches.
Weight is 7 ounces.
It underlies ribs 9 through 11.

Heart valve sequence "Try Pulling My Aorta":

Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with quadrate lobe/
ligamentum teres "VC goes with VC":
The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior]. Therefore, quadrate
and teres must be on anterior by default.
· See inferior-view diagram.

Cranial bones "PEST OF 6":
· The 6 just reminds that there's 6 of them to remember.

Thyroid: isthmus location "Rings 2,3,4 make the isthmus floor":
Isthmus overlies tracheal rings 2,3,4

Cervical plexus: arrangement of the important nerves "GLAST":
· 4 compass points: clockwise from north on the right side of neck:
Great auricular
Lesser occipital
Accessory nerve pops out between L and S
Transverse cervical
· See diagram.

L3. · Notes: secondary cartilaginous is also known as symphysis. 2 from 2.L3). joints are Secondary Cartilaginous and usually have a diSC. below Second Cervical. The one that doesn't have a disc is xiphi-sternal. 2 from 3": 2 nerves from 1 root: Ilioinguinal (L1). Lateral Femoral (L2.L4). 2 nerves from 2 roots: Genitofemoral (L1. 2 nerves from 3 roots: Obturator (L2.ANATOMY Lumbar plexus roots "2 from 1. Femoral (L2.L4). Iliohypogastric (L1).L2). 71 Joints in the midline "SC": In medial line.L3. Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group "Pimps F*ck Prostitutes For Fun": Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longous Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis External carotid artery branches "Some Aggressive Lovers Find Odd Positions More Stimulating": Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occiptal Posterior auricular Maxillary Superficial temporal Axillary artery branches "Screw The Lawyer Save A Patient": Superior thoracic Thoracoacromiol Lateral thoracic Subscapular Anterior circumflex humeral .

ANATOMY Posterior circumflex humeral Descending abdominal aorta branches from diaphragm to iliacs "Prostitutes Cause Sagging Swollen Red Testicles [in men] Living In Sin": Phrenic [inferior] Celiac Superior mesenteric Suprarenal [middle] Renal Testicular ["in men" only] Lumbars Inferior mesenteric Sacral Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg Second letter rule for inversion/eversion: · Eversion muscles: pErineus longus pErineus brevis pErineus terius · Inversion muscles: tIbialis anterior tIbialis posterior External carotid artery branches "Sister Lucy's Powdered Face Often Attracts Silly Medicos": · Before entering the parotid gland: Superior thyroid Lingual Posterior auricular Facial Occipital Ascending pharyngeal · Ends as: Superficial temporal and Maxillary bifurcating in the in the parotid gland .

3 other things": 3 arteries: testicular. 3 nerves: genital branch of the genitofemoral. can see this makes an "L" shape.ANATOMY Spermatic cord contents "3 arteries. medial "Lateral Less. autonomics. palmar in hand "PAd and DAb": The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal Abduct. Fibula vs. Pectoral nerves: path of lateral vs. Lumbricals action Lumbrical action is to hold a pea. cremasteric. or a "little fib": Therefore. · Note some argument about this: Moore doesn't put in cremasteric nerve. Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface) "A OF A OF A": · Thenar. lymphatics. 3 other things: ductus deferens. azygous and esophagus. big fat TIB". Thoracic duct: relation to azygous vein and esophagus "The duck between 2 gooses": Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2 gooses. · Alternatively: TIBia is the Thicker Inner Bone. ductus deferens. pampiniform plexus. the fibula is smaller.. 3 nerves. Medial More": Lateral pectoral nerve only goes through Pectoralis major. When look at hand in this position. · Alternatively: "Little lat FIB. Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal vs. tibia: which is the bigger one People talk of telling just a "little white lie". but Medial pectoral nerve goes though both Pectoralis major and minor. since L is for Lumbrical. that is to flex the metacarpophalangeal joint and extend the interphalangeal joints. · Use your hand to dab with a pad. cremasteric.. Lumley puts in inguinal. lateral to medial: .

5 keeps the diaphragm alive": Diaphragm innervation is cervical roots 3. lateral to medial: Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi Abductor digiti minimi Diaphragm innervation "3. 4. · Hypothenar. and 5.ANATOMY Abductor pollicis longus Opponens pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis. Others Prefer S & M": Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal . Lingual nerve course The Lingual nerve Took a curve Around the Hyoglossus. "Well I'll be f*#ked!" Said Wharton's Duct. 4. Femoral triangle: arrangement of contents NAVEL: · From lateral hip towards medial navel: Nerve (directly behind sheath) Artery (within sheath) Vein (within sheath) Empty space (between vein and lymph) Lymphatics (with deep inguinal node) · Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral. "The bastard's gone and crossed us!" External carotid artery branches "Some Anatomists Like F*#king.

ANATOMY Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Superficial temporal Maxillary · Alternatively: As She Lay Flat. between the 2 majors. Oscar's Passion Slowly Mounted".." · Alternatively: "Senior Lecturers. . both lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate · Alternatively: "Scared Lovers. Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove. Abdominal muscles "Spare TIRE around their abdomen": Transversus abdominis Internal abdominal oblique Rectus abdominis External abdominal oblique Bicipital groove: attachments of muscles near it "The lady between two majors": Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove.. Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove."... Carpal bones "Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle": · Proximal row then distal row.

if you first come to a complete stop. since it is more vertical. Others Prefer Manual Stimulation": · From inferior to superior: Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Maxillary Superficial temporal . L4 landmark: 2 items "B4U" [before you]: Bifurcation of aorta L4 Umbilicus Retroperitoneal structures list SAD PUCKER: Suprarenal glands Aorta & IVC Duodenum (half) Pancreas Ureters Colon (ascending & descending) Kidneys Esophagus (anterior & left covered) Rectum External carotid artery branches "Some Aberdeen Ladies F#ck. A child swallowing a red penny is more likely to get it stopped down the right bronchus.ANATOMY Bronchi: which is more vertical "Right on Red": Many places allow making a right hand turn at a red light.

ANATOMY Superior mediastinum: contents PVT Left BATTLE: Phrenic nerve Vagus nerve Thoracic duct Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (not the right) Brachiocephalic veins Aortic arch (and its 3 branches) Thymus Trachea Lymph nodes Esophagus Retroperitoneal organs (major) "AC/DC Rocker Kids Party Down": Ascending Colon Descending Colon Rectum Kidneys Pancreas Duodenum Bell's palsy: symptoms BELL'S Palsy: Blink reflex abnormal Earache Lacrimation [deficient. . excess] Loss of taste Sudden onset Palsy of VII nerve muscles · All symptoms are unilateral.

Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Obturator canal: relations of structures "Who's flying in the top of Obturator canal? Obviously Not A Vein!": Obturator Nerve Artery Vein Thoracoacromial artery branches ABCD: Acromial Breast (pectoral) Clavicular Deltoid Diaphram aperatures: spinal levels "Come Enter the Abdomen: Vena Cava [8] Esophagus [10] Aorta [12] . it's fortunate that it's the divider for blood halves). Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation "LR6SO4 rest 3": Lateral Rectus is 6th Superior Oblique is 4th rest are all 3rd cranial nerve Femoral hernia: epidemiology FEMoral hernias are more common in FEMales. vascular divisions There's a Hepatic "H" on inferior of liver.ANATOMY Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs.

Pregnant women have biggest breasts of all. Kidney hilums at transpyloric plane [L1] L-1 goes through hilum of only 1 kidney. so they have the biggest thyroids. Breasts are bigger in women. · See diagram. Therefore. so thyroid bigger in women. and it’s the Left one. Navicular contacts 3 of 5 cuneiform bones "Navicular is like the Navigator logo": There are 3 things coming off each. cuboid has to contact 2 of the 5. Radial nerve: muscles supplied (simplified) "BEST muscles": Brachioradialis Extensors Supinator Triceps Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through "Lazy French Tarts Lie Naked In Anticipation Of Sex": Lacrimal nerve Frontal nerve .ANATOMY Cubital fossa contents "My Bottoms Turned Red": · From medial to lateral: Median nerve Brachial artery Tendon of biceps Radial nerve Thyroids: relative sizes Thyroid looks like a bra (see picture).

Horizontal: Someone coming over the horizon has their abdomen cut in the horizontal plane. Sagittal: the remaining one by default. Your hand should now look like a 6 shape. horizontal. Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through"Lonely Fat Teenage Virgins Rarely Like Swallowing And Never Ingest": Lacrimal nerve Frontal nerve Trochlear nerve Vein: ophthalmic Ring: tendinous · From the ring. So C6 dermatome is your thumb and top of arm (reason for crucifix stance). Curl your thumb and forefinger into an "OK" symbol while keeping your other fingers straight. fibula: which is lateralThe FibuLA is LAteral. arises: Lateral rectus Superior division III Abducent nerve Nasociliary nerve Inferior divison III Brachial plexus: branches of posterior cordSTAR: Subscapular [upper and lower] Thoracodorsal Axillary Radial Dermatome C6 location Stick arm out like crucifixion stance. sagittal Coronal: A classic painting/stained glass window of a saint/angel has a corona radiating around the person's head. The plane of the glass/page is cutting their head in the coronal plane.ANATOMY Trochlear nerve Lateral nerve Nasociliary nerve Internal nerve Abducens nerve Ophthalmic veins Sympathetic nerves Cranial bones"Fraternity Parties Occasionally Teach Spam Etiquette": · The first two letters of each bone: Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Sphenoid Ethmoid Internal iliac artery: posterior branchPILS: Posterior branch Iliolumbar Lateral sacral Superior gluteal Foramen ovale contentsOVALE: Otic ganglion (just inferior) V3 cranial nerve Accessory meningeal artery Lesser petrosal nerve Emisary veins Anatomical planes: coronal. Heart valves "Toilet Paper My A$$": · From right to left: Tricuspid Pulmonic Mitral Aortic 121 . Brachial plexus branches"My Aunt Raped My Uncle": · From lateral to medial: Musculocutaneous Axillary Radial Median Ulnar Tibia vs. · See diagram.

trapezoid location · Since there's two T's in carpal bone mnemonic sentences. to recall there's 2 lumbricals. TrapeziUM is by the thUMB. TrapezOID is by its SIDE. Interossei muscles: number of palmars vs. gastrocnemius muscle function "Stand on your Soles. dorsals "3 on the P. think "Meat LOAF". · Clinically important.ANATOMY Median nerve: hand muscles innervated "The LOAF muscles": Lumbricals 1 and 2 Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevis · Alternatively: LLOAF. with 2 L's. Carpal bones: trapezium vs. · Alternatively. need to know which T is where: TrapeziUM is by the thUMB. are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery. and 4 Dorsal interossei. Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract SEVEN UP: Seminiferous tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Nothing Urethra Penis Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation "Water under the bridge": The ureters (which carry water). Soleus vs. Explosive gas": . 4 on the Dor": There are 3 Palmar. since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus. · To remember that these are the Median nerve muscles. TrapeziOID is inSIDE.

· Test C567 roots clinically by ability to raise arm past 90 degrees. Dick ANd Harry". ulnar side Make a fist with your thumb up in the air and say "Rad!". Dick. Flexor Digitorum Longus. Your thumb is now pointing to your Radius. · Note: 'Rad!' was a late 80's catchphrase. Things that were good were called 'Rad'. azygous vein. thoracic duct. Wrist: radial side vs. Esophageal hiatus: esophagus. so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement. · Alternatively: "Tom. · Note: car accidents are 131 Diaphragm apertures "3 holes. Flexor Hallicus Longus. Caval foramen: inferior vena cava. · Alternatively: "Tom. so Soleus is for posture. so hip is flexed. Serratus anterior: innervation and action "C5-6-7 raise your arms up to heaven": Long thoracic nerve roots (567) innervate Serratus anterior. vagal trunks. And Nervous Harry": · From anterior to posterior: Tibialis Digitorum Artery Nerve Hallicus · Full names for these are: Tibialis Posterior. Medial malleolus: order of tendons. short for 'Radical'. left gastric vessels. lymph nodes. Hip posterior dislocation: most likely arrangement for one "Hitting the brake pedal before the accident": You are sitting. artery. Posterior Tibial Artery. Gasoline is explosive. right phrenic nerve. Dick And Not Harry". . each with 3 things going through it": Aortic hiatus: aorta. Posterior Tibial Nerve. nerve behind it "Tom. and adducted and medially rotated so can move your foot away from the gas pedal over to the brake pedal.ANATOMY You stand on soles of your shoes.

2.3. · See diagram. Superior thyroid artery branches "May I Softly Squeeze Charlie's Girl?": Muscular Infrahyoid Superior laryngeal Sternomastoid Cricothyroid Glandular Deep tendon reflexes: root supply "1.4. Cubital fossa contents MBBR: · From medial to lateral: Median nerve Brachial artery Biceps tendon Radial nerve Ear: bones of inner ear Take a Hammer: Malleus .5.7.8": S1-2: ankle L3-4: knee C5-6: biceps.ANATOMY Buttock quadrant safest for needle insertion "Shut up and butt out": The Upper Outer quadrant of the Buttock safely avoids hitting sciatic nerve. Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar area.6. supinator C7-8: triceps Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar Examine vertebral body shape: Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your thorax.

CN VII innervated muscles (branchial arch 2 derivatives) "Imagine someone making the facial expression to say 'PSS. to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is on Top. Semimembranosus and Semitendonosus. Biceps Femoris has to be lateral.. Of the semi's. and relative position (from out to in) of the inner ear bones. Therefore.' ": Facial expression muscles Posterior belly of digastric Stapedius Stylohyoid Carpal bones "Scottish Lads Take Prostitutes To The Caledonian Hotel": · Proximal row. Bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung "Astute Anatomists Share Inside Secrets About Lungs": Apicoposterior (S1+2) Anterior (S3) Superior (S4) Inferior (S5) .ANATOMY Hit an Indian Elephant: Incus It puts its foot in a stirrup: Stapes · Describes the shape. · Alternatively: "Mailing Includes Stamps". Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement The two Semi's go together.. The Membranosus is Medial and since the two semis go together. Semitendonosus is also medial. then distal row: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate · Alternatively: "Students Like Taking Prostitutes To The Carelton Hotel".

You ride longer on a superhighway. · The "V" words go together: Verted is for the cerVix (therefore flexed must be uterus). left Tricuspid heart valve and tri-lobed lung both on the right side. Germain's Hour": Palatoglossus Styloglossus Genioglossus Hyoglossus · PSG is a French soccer team (foreign). . hence extrinsic comes to mind.": · Short head originates from coracoid process. anteverted: what bodypart each describes "Anteflexed and Anteverted both bend toward Anterior". Bicuspid and bi-lobed lung both on the left side. Lung lobe numbers: right vs. Axillary artery branches "Send The Lord to Say A Prayer": · From proximal to distal: Superior thoracic Thoracacromial Lateral thoracic Subscapular Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex humeral Foramen spinosum: location on base of skull Foramen spinosum is adjacent to the spine of sphenoid.ANATOMY Superior (S6) Anteromedial basal (S7+8) Lateral basal (S9) Biceps brachii muscle: origins "You walk shorter to a street corner. Extrinsic muscles of tongue [for pro soccer fans] "Paris St. Anteflexed vs. · Long head originates from the supraglenoid cavity.

ANATOMY Tonsils: The three types "PPL (people) have tonsils": Pharyngeal Palatine Lingual Palmaris longus: location. · Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Constricter (middle) Hyoglossus Digastric Stylohyoid Geniohyoid Myloyoid Thyrohyoid Omohyoid Sternohyoid 151 Lung lobes: segments of right middle lobe "ML=ML": Segments of Middle Lobe are Medial & Lateral. Bladder: superior vesical. . inferior rectal [inferior rectal is the end of pudendal]. He Didn't Screw Girls Much. relative to wrist nerves "The Palmaris between two Palmars": Palmaris longus is between the Palmar cutaneous branch of Ulnar nerve and Palmar cutaneous branch of Median nerve. That's Obvious. Stupid": · The first sentence is for 6 muscles attaching superiorly. Female pelvic organs' blood supply "3 organs. the second sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly. inferior vesical. Rectum: middle rectal. Hyoid bone: muscle attachments "Christ. vaginal. each get 2 blood supplies": Uterus: uterine.

vein VAN: · From medial to lateral: Vein Artery Nerve · Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral. Femoral triangle: arrangement of nerve. 4 Psoas gets sore! Ansa cervicalis nerves "GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene": Geniohyoid Thyrohyoid Superior Omohyoid Sternothyroid Sternohyoid Inferior omohyoid . Psoas major: innervation If you hit L2. Facial nerve: Facial expression. artery. Cranial bones "Old Pygmies From Thailand Eat Skulls": Occipital Parietal Frontal Temporal Ethmoid Sphenoid · Note: 'skull-eating pygmies' helps remind that mnemonic is for the skull.ANATOMY Face muscles: large muscle groups' cranial innervation Mandibular nerve: Mastication. · Alternatively: "Old People From Texas Eat Spiders". · Alternatively: "Prostitutes Offer Free Sex To Everyone". 3.

fingers now lie on top of external obliques and fingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards midline. · Note: "oblique" tells that must be going at an angle. Ulnar nerve to ulnar artery and radial nerve to radial artery relationsThink "peripheral nerves": The ulnar nerve is "ulnar" to the ulnar artery. . · Internal obliques are at right angles to external. Radial nerve is "radial" to the radial artery. eversion direction in the foot Little INtroVERted boys roll their feet in when talking to girls. "Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report". Inversion vs. can just watch which way the sole of the foot goes: does it face in or out? · See diagram. Carpal bones "Her C#nt's Too Tight So Lubricate The Penis": · Anticlockwise: Hamate Capate Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Lunate Triquetral Pisiform Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. Also. Superior oblique: Medial eye rotation. Bowel components "Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report": · From proximal to distal: Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Appendix Colon Sigmoid Rectum · Alternatively: to include the cecum.ANATOMY Leg: anterior muscles of leg "Tom's Hairy ANd Dirty Penis": T: Tibialis anterior H: extensor Hollicis longus AN: anterior tibial Artery & deep fibular Nerve D: extensor Digitorum longus P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius] Eye rotation by oblique muscles "I Love S&M": Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation. internals "Hands in your pockets": When put hands in your pockets.

Mediastinums: posterior mediastinum structures There are 4 birds: The esophaGOOSE (esophagus) The vaGOOSE nerve . so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial side. Each enters forearm through two heads [ulnar: heads of flexor carpi ulnaris. Duodenum: lengths of parts"Counting 1 to 4 but staggered": 1st part: 2 inches 2nd part: 3 inches 3rd part: 4 inches 4th part: 1 inch Elbow: which side has common flexor originFM (as in FM Radio): Flexor Medial. Each supplies 2 lumbricals.ANATOMY Murphy's point organ [for Irish]"Murphy was an Irishman (and Murphy is a classic Irish surname). 171 Bowel components "Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal": · 2-4 letters of each component: Duodenum Sigmoid Cecum Rectum Colon Jejunum Appendix Ileum Thoracic duct: which half of upper body does it drain Know drains all of lower body. Carpal bones "She Licks Toms Prick. and Ireland=green": Green organ in body is gallbladder. so Murphy's point is the gall bladder. Each supplies an eminence group of muscles [ulnar: hypothenar. median: thenar]. Turning right-hand to the right is supination. but was it the right or the left part of the upper body? Answer: its Lymph from the Left of the upper body. Her Cu*t's Too Tight": Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium Supination vs. Median and ulnar nerves: common featuresEach supply 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus. Majority of people are right-handed. pronation: which is more powerfulScrews were designed to be tightened well by majority of people. median: heads of pronator teres]. "Righty tighty": to tighten screws you turn to the right. Each has no branches in upper arm. Each makes two fingers claw when cut at wrist. Each has a palmar cutaneous nerve that pops off prematurely. Each supplies a palmaris [median: palmaris longus. ulnar: palmaris brevis].

Vetebrae subtypes "Certain Doctors Luv Saddling Coeds": · From superior to inferior: Cervical Dorsal Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx External carotid artery branches StApLE OPIS: Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual External maxillary (facial) Occipital . Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous": Deep auricular Anterior tympanic Middle meningeal Inferior alveolar Accessory meningeal Masseteric Pterygoid Deep temporal Buccal Sphenopalatine Descending palatine Infraorbital Posterior superior alveolar Middle superior alveolar Pharyngeal Anterior superior alveolar Artery of the pterygoid canal Ulna bone: quick recognition in oral exam The Ulnar bone has a "U" at the end where it goes over the trochlea.ANATOMY The azyGOOSE vein The thoracic DUCK (duct) Maxillary artery branches "DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer.

3 is triquetrum. then Lets communicating branch join in. Captain is capitate. Row is trapezoid (stressing the O for trapezOid). 4 make a mess on the floor". 181 Thoracic cage: relations to the important venous structures Behind the sternoclavicular joints: the brachiocephalic veins begin. derived from spinal cord levels S2-4. Moon is lunate. Behind the 2nd costal cartilage on the right the azygos vein ends. 3. Peas is pisiform (stressing the E sound for trapezium). then supplies Lacrimal gland.ANATOMY Posterior auricular Internal maxillary Superficial temporal Carpal bones "The boat sailed to the moon with 3 pEas in a rOw. Coelic trunk: branches Left Hand Side (LHS): Left gastric artery Hepatic artery Splenic artery Penis: spinal level innervation "S2. at the wheel was Captain Hook": · Carpal bones in order of occurrence: Boat is scaphoid. then Leaves it and supplies Lateral upper eye Lid! . Penis innervated by pudendal nerve branches. 4 keep the penis off the floor": · Alternatively: "S2. 3. Hook is hamate (hamate has the hook). Lacrimal nerve course "Lacrimal's story of 8 L's": Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral rectus. Behind the 1st costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava begins. Behind the 3rd costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava ends.

kyphosis Lordosis: Lumbar. small at malleolus "MAGdelaine has varicose veins" [The saphenous veins are important for varicose veins]: Medial maleolus. and Great saphenous go together. Leino. Then the opposites of these go together: Small saphenous is posterior to the lateral maleolus. Anterior to maleolus.means something to do with the spleen.definition "Leino" rhymes with "spleen-o": Therefore leino. KYphosis is HY up on the spine. Carpal bones "Happy Cat Tom Took Pie To Little Sister": Hamate . Spermatic cord contents "Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life": Pampiniform plexus Ductus deferens Cremasteric artery Testicular artery Artery of the ductus deferens Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve Sympathetic nerve fibers Lymphatic vessels Brachial plexus organization "The Castrated Dog Turns Rabid": · From lateral to medial: Terminal branches Cords Divisions Trunks Roots Lordosis vs.ANATOMY Saphenous veins: path of great vs.



Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion Plantar flexion occurs when you squish a Plant with your

Autonomics to the gut "The PARAsympathetics follow a rule of TWO" [pair = two]:
· The vagus does the top, the sacral splanchnics the outflow tract.
"The sympathetics follow a rule of threes":
· Greater, lesser, least splanchnic nerves go to the celiac,superior and inferior mesenteric

Adductor magnus innervation "AM SO!":
Adductor Magnus innervated by Sciatic and Obturator.

Carpal tunnel syndrome: causes TRAMP:
Trauma (occupational)
Rheumatiod arthritis
· Alternatively: ARMPIT to include Idiopathic.

Musculocutaneous nerve: muscles innervated BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation):
Biceps brachii

Descending abdominal aorta: seven divisions "Sometimes Intestines Get Really Stretched
Causing Leakage":


Suprarenals [paired]
Inferior mesenteric
Gonadal [paired]
Renals [paired]
Superior mesenteric
Lumbar [paired]

Menisci attachments in knee "Each meniscus has something attached to it":
The medial meniscus has the medial collateral ligament.
The lateral meniscus is attached to the popliteal muscle.

Carpel bones "So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb":
· Proximal row, lateral-to-medial, then distal row, medial-to-medial:

Cruciate ligaments: insertions PAMS APPLES:
Posterior [passes] Anterior [inserts] Medially.
Anterior [passes] Posteriorly [inserts] Laterally.

Sperm: path through male reproductive system "My boyfriend's name is STEVE":
Seminiferous Tubules
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct

Femoral artery deep branches "Put My Leg Down Please":
Profundus femoris (deep femoral artery)
Medial circumflex femoral artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
Descending genicular arteries
Perforating arteries


Lower limb peripheral nerve injurys "Drop into a DEeP PIT and shuffle your way out":
Foot Drop results from Dorsiflexors and Evertors paralysis, due to common Peroneal
nerve lesion.
Plantarflexion and Inversion impairment due to Tibial nerve lesion, results in a shuffling

Supination vs. pronation "SOUPination": Supination is to turn your arm palm up, as if
you are holding a bowl of soup.
"POUR-nation": Pronation is to turn your arm with the palm down, as if you are pouring
out whatever is your bowl.
· Alternatively, Pronation donation: Pronation is palm facing downward, as if making a

Subclavian artery branches "Very Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Daily":
Vertebral artery
Thyrocervical trunk
---Inferior thyroid
---Superficial cervical
---Superior intercostal
---Deep cervical

Scalp: nerve supply GLASS:
Greater occipital/ Greater auricular
Lesser occipital

Tibia: muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia's medial side) "A Girl
between Two Sargeants":

Carpum and tarsum "SCIT": (Artum) Superior Carpum (Artum) Inferior Tarsum 211 . Iliocostalis is on the ribs (most lateral).ANATOMY Gracilus is between Sartorius and Semitendonosus Rib costal groove: order of intercostal blood vessels and nerve VAN: · From superior to inferior: Vein Artery Nerve Internal pudendal branches "I Pee Pee But Don't Dump!": Inferior rectal Posterior scrotal (or labial) Perineal Bulb Deep artery Dorsal artery Spinal cord: length in vertebral column SCULL: Spinal Cord Until L2 (LL). Erector spinae muscles: order Spinalis is on the spine (most medial). And it's a Long (Longissimus) way between the spine and the ribs! Portal-systemic anastomoses: main 2 places that retroperitoneals connect into systemic RetroPeritoneals hook up with Renal and Paravertebral veins.

· Alternatively: "I Am Pretty Smart". · Alternatively: "Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx". Orbit: bones of medial wall "My Little Eye Sits in the orbit": Maxilla (frontal process) Lacrimal Ethmoid Sphenoid (body) Facial nerve branches "Two Zombies Buggered My Cat": · From superior to inferior: Temporal branch Zygomatic branch Buccal branch Mandibular branch Cervical branch · Alternatively: "Two Zulus Bit My Cat". · Alternatively: "To Zanzibar By Motor Car".ANATOMY Brachial artery: recurrent and collateral branches "I Am Pretty Sexy" Inferior ulnar collateral artery goes with Anterior ulnar recurrent artery. · Alternatively: "Tall Zulus Bear Many Children". Cartilage derivatives of 1st pharyngeal arch (mandibular) "I'M A Super Sexy Guy" (or Girl): Incus Malleus Anterior ligament of malleus Spine of sphenoid Sphenomandibular ligament Genial tubercle of mandible Facial nerve: branches after Stylomastoid foramen "Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat (Painfully)": · From superior to inferior: Temporal branch . Posterior ulnar recurrent artery goes with Superior ulnar collateral artery.

ANATOMY Zygomatic branch Buccal branch Mandibular branch Cervical branch (Posterior auricular nerve) · Alternatively: "PAssing Through Zanzibar By Motor Car" (PA for Posterior Auricular). Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract "STaRT DEEP--VD!": · Sperm duct system progression. from smallest to largest: ST: Seminiferous Tubules RT: Rete Testes DE: Ductus Efferentes EP: Epididymis VD: Vas Deferens Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through "Live Free To See Absolutely No Insult": Lacrimal nerve Frontal nerve Trochlear nerve Superior branch of oculomotor nerve Abducent nerve Nasociliary nerve Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve Vertebrae: number of facets a typical thoracic has Typical Thoracic has Ten facets. External carotid artery branches "So Long For Acting Old Parenting Means Stability": Superior thyroid Lingual Facial Ascending pharyngeal Occiptal Posterior auricular Maxillary Superficial temporal Horner's syndrome components "HORNy PAM" .

ANATOMY · Horner's is: Ptosis Anhidrosis Miosis 221 Superior mediastinum contents "BATS & TENT": Brachiocephalic veins Arch of aorta Thymus Superior vena cava Trachea Esophagus Nerves (vagus & phrenic) Thoracic duct Scrotum layers "Some Days Eddie Can Irritate People Very Thourougly": Skin Dartos layer External spermatic fascia Cremaster muscle Internal spermatic fascia Parietal tunica vaginalis Visceral tunica vaginalis Tunica albuginea External carotid artery branches "Sally Ate Lots Of Fresh Produce March Through September": Superior thyroid Ascending laryngeal Lingual Occipital (O before F is an extremely common variation) Facial Posterior auricular Maxillary Transverse facial Superficial temporal .

Lateral therefore is adduct by default. Extensor expansion location in the hand The eXtensor eXpansion is on the proXimal phalynX. External carotid artery branches "She Lay Flaccid As Olaf's Penis Slipped In": · From caudal to cephalad: Superior thyroid Lingual Facial Ascending pharyngeal Occipital Posterior auricular Superficial temporal (Internal) maxillary Brachial artery is medial to biceps tendon "BAMBI": Brachial Artery is Medial to Biceps In elbow. adductor When aliens abduct you. in order of increasing year: Elbow: 16 years Pelvis. Ossification ages "Every Potential Anatomist Should Know When" · When they ossify. Posterior cricoarytenoids abduct. Ankle: 17 years Shoulder.ANATOMY Cubital fossa contents "Really Need Booze To Be At My Nicest": · From lateral to medial: Radial Nerve Biceps Tendon Brachial Artery Median Nerve Cricoarytenoids: abductor vs. Knee: 18 years Wrist: 19 years . they Probe you. Carpal bone having the hook The Hamate has the Hook.

": Navicular Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform greater Multangular (trapezium) lesser Multangular (trapezoid) Capitate Hamate V3: sensory branches "Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists": Buccal Auriculotemporal Inferior alveolar Lingual BEHAVIORAL MNEMONICS Premature ejaculation: treatment 2 S's: SSRIs [eg: fluoxitime] Squeezing technique [glans pressure before climax] · More detail with 2 more S's: Sensate-focus excercises [relieves anxiety] Stop and start method [5-6 rehearsals of stopping stimulation before climax] Keober-Ross dying process: stages "Death Always Brings Great Acceptance": Denial Anger Bargaining Grieving Acceptance .ANATOMY 231 Carpal bones (multangular names) "Never Lower Tillie's Pants. Mother May Come Home.

tertiary Primary: Patient's Psyche improved. SSRI. Tertiary: Therapist's gain. Secondary: Symptom Sympathy for patient.ANATOMY Male erectile dysfunction (MED): biological causes MED: Medicines(propranalol.) Ethanol Diabetes mellitus Male Erectile Dysfunction (MED): drugs causing it "STOP erection": SSRI (fluoxtine) Thioridazone methyldOpa Propranalol Gain: primary vs. Depression: major episode characteristics SPACE DIGS: Sleep disruption Psychomotor retardation Appetite change Concentration loss Energy loss Depressed mood Interest wanes Guilt Suicidal tendencies Depression: symptoms BAD CRISES: Behavioural change (slowing down or agitation) . etc. secondary vs. methyldopa.

waking up at night. hence "chap". sleeping early. Cluster personality disorders Cluster A Disorder = Atypical. epidemiology CHAP: Cataplexy Hallucinations Attacks of sleep Paralysis on waking · Usual presentation is a young male. . waking up feeling tired) Energy change (fatigue) Suicide Autistic disorder: features AUTISTICS: Again and again (repetitive behavior) Unusual Abilities Talking (language) delay IQ subnormal Social development poor Three years onset Inherited component [35% concordance] Cognitive impairment Self injury Sleep stages: features DElta waves during DEepest sleep (stages 3 & 4. slow-wave). Narcolepsy: symptoms. Uncontrolled wildness.ANATOMY Appetite change (weight loss or weight gain in the young) Depressed look (looking down) Concentration decrease (does not do serial 7s well) Ruminations (constant negative thoughts. dREaM during REM sleep. Unusual and eccentric. hopelessness good indicator of suicidality) Interest (reduced interest in what is normally pleasurable) Sleep change (insomnia or hypersomnia. Cluster B Disorder = Beast.

Impotence causes PLANE: Psychogenic: performance anxiety Libido: decreased with androgen deficiency. Compulsive [obsessive-compulsive type]. decreased blood pressure Erectile reserve: can't maintain an erection . Middle adolescence (14-17 years): characteristics HERO: Heterosexual crushes/ Homosexual Experience Education regarding short term benefits Risk taking Omnipotence · And there is interest in being a Hero (popular). or Clingy [dependent type]. Reinforcement schedules: variable ratio SLOT machines show SLOwesT extinction.ANATOMY Cluster C Disorder = Coward [avoidant type]. AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC): features AIDS: Atrophy of cortex Infection/ Inflammation Demyelination Six months death HM: this classic patient's lesion HM had Hippocampus Missing. drugs Autonomic neuropathy: impede blood flow redirection Nitric oxide deficiency: impaired synthesis.

Fumarate. Thiamine and are one ring structures. • DNA expression into mature mRNA • Exons expressed." In the Phasted State • Phosphorylate Phosphorylation cascade active when blood glucose low. • Pyrimidines are Cytosine. Careless Crappers. Lys Urea Cycle • Ordinarily. Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's: Pain in abdomen Polyneuropathy . • Purines are double ring structures. metaphase. His. Arginosuccinate. telophase.ANATOMY REM: features REM: Rapid pulse/ Respiratory rate Erection Mental activity increase/ Muscle paralysis BIOCHEMISTRY MNEMONICS Essential Amino Acids • PriVaTe TIM HALL • Phe. Introns in the trash. Met. Arg. Uracil. Cell division • Prophase. Arginine. Urea. Ile. Citrulline. • "People Meet And Talk. Thr. Trp. Val. anaphase. • Ornithine. Leu. • Pyrimidines are CUT from purines. Aspartate. Carbamoyl. Are Also Frivolous About Urination.

Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters. Cori's=Debranching enzyme. · Otherwise. so 3 Na+ are pumped out Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Nitric oxide: amino acid precursor When the dentist works on your teeth.ANATOMY Psychologial abnormalities Pink urine Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates. but not aspirin or acetaminophen) Vitamin B3 (niacin. · Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis. Ca++. you say. Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity K+ and in each consist of 2 characters. · Other players necessary for NO synthesis: NO synthase. sulpha drugs) BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD: Azotremia (pre-renal) Bleeding (GI) Catabolic status Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition) G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia AAA: Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole) Antimalarial (eg: primaquine) Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid. oral contraceptives. NADPH. so so 2 K+ are pumped in. "AAArg! (Arginine)" before he administers Nitric Oxide (NO) to take the pain away. nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra The 3 D's of pellagra: Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia · Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D's. Tangier's disease: hallmark "Tangierene tonsils": Hallmark is large orange tonsils. Cori's (III) enzyme defect ABCD: Anderson's=Branching enzyme. can't really distinguish clinically. Pompe's disease: type "Police = Po + lys": . just like eating tangerenes.

ANATOMY Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1. · There is an assay called the Galiput test for this. Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes · With hyperkalemia: RAISE K+: RTA type 4 Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency Iatrogenic: NH4Cl.4 glucosidase). HCl "Stenosis": obstructive uropathy Early uremia · With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+: Renal TA type 1 and 2 Diarrhoea Urine diversion into gut Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor Ex-hyperventilation Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency GALIPUT: Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase. Citric acid cycle compounds "Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice": Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Succinate Fumarate Malate Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP: Alcoholism Folic acid antagonists Oral contraceptives Low dietary intake Infection with Giardia Celiac sprue Dilatin Relative folate deficiency Old Pregnant .

3-DPG (aka 2. mt stands for: Maternal Transfer Mutates Tremendously (high mutation rate) Vitamins: which are fat soluble "The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)": Fat soluble vitamins are A.D. Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs.ANATOMY Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties "mt DNA".3 BPG) Exercise . no change in Vmax.K. Vmax decreases. Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test) "Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin": Both start with vowels. Gluca has Gone to the cAMP to bring out some Glucose": · Glucagon elevates glucose by cAMP mechanism. Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right "CADET. face right!": CO2 Acid 2. Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI "Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardon": Von Gierke's Pompe's Cori's Anderson's McArdle's Her's Sickle cell disease pathophysiology SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain. non-competitive inhibition With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases. With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km. Glucagon function "Mr. so they go together: Indirect & Unconjugated.E.

whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds. and a band that was "out" was "Sha Na Na Na": So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out. a band that was "in" was Kris Kross. Officer?": Citrate Isocitrate alpha Ketogluterate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Malate Oxaloacetate Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target "CO blocks CO": Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO) Metabolism sites "Use both arms to HUG": Heme synthesis Urea cycle Gluconeogenesis · These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. number of molecules moved HIKIN': There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell. strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds).ANATOMY Temperature G proteins for respective receptors "QISS & QIQ" (Kiss and Kick): · G-proteins and their respective receptors (alphabetical order): Q: alpha 1 I: alpha 2 S: beta 1 S: beta 2 & Q: M1 I: M2 Q: M3 Adrenaline mechanism "ABC of Adrenaline": Adrenaline--> activates Beta receptors--> increases Cyclic AMP Citric acid cycle compounds "Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money. · Sadly. From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell. K on inside/outside of cell. . · This is relevant to DNA replication. DNA bond strength (nucleotides) "Crazy Glue": Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine. as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break. Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as "in". as infectious as their debut album was. pump action. Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992). Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs.

AcetylCoA and acetacetylCoA: amino acids forming them "A Lighter Lease" (A LyTr LeIs): A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA Ly=Lysine Tr=Tryptophan Le=Leucine Is=Isoleucine Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles "Muscles LIVe fast": Leucine Isoleucine Valine Glycolysis steps "Goodness Gracious.ANATOMY Dicarboxylic acids (alpha. Restless. Sweet As Sugar!": Oxalic Malonic Succinic Glutaric Adipic Pimelic Suberic Azelaic Sebacic Infantile Beriberi symptoms Restlessness Sleeplessness Breathlessness Soundlessness (aphonia) Eatlessness (anorexia) Great heartedness (dilated heart) · Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted.6-diP Dihydroxyacetone-P Glyceraldehyde-P 1. 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-. omega) C2 through C10: common names "Oh My. Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies": Glucose Glucose-6-P Fructose-6-P Fructose-1. Such Good Apple Pie. and py-. Insomnia. bi-. Eatless. .3-Biphosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate (to) Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] Pyruvate · 'Did'.

Fabry's disease FABRY'S: Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys Renal failure YX genotype (male.ANATOMY · 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process. X linked recessive) Sphingolipidoses B vitamin names "The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious": · In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12) Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one. Citric acid cycle compounds "Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?": Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate Ketoglutarate Succinyl coA Succinate Fumarate Malate Citric acid cycle compounds "Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule": Oxaloacetate Citrate Aconitate Isocitrate Oxalosuccinate Alpha-ketoglutarate SuccinyL- CoA SuccinaTe Fumarate Malate · SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe Type 1 glycogen storage disease Type 1 = one (Von). · Alternatively: "MATT VIL PHLy". Citric acid cycle compounds "Can I Ask Sharon Stone For My Orgasm?": . is short for Private in the military. TIM HALL: Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Leu Lys · Pvt. ie Von Giereke's disease Essential amino acids PVT. · Arg and His are considered semiessential.

ANATOMY Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Maleate Oxaloacetate Golgi complex: functions "Golgi Distributes A SPAM": Distributes proteins and lipids from ER Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine Proteoglycan assembly Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation "4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guy": · Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields: 4 NADH FADH2 3 CO2 1 GTP Catabolism steps of branched chain amino acids "Truck hit the Ox to Death": Transamination Oxidative decarboxylation Dehydrogenation Niacin deficiency: signs and symptoms The famous 4 D's: Diarrhoea Dermatitis Dementia Death (if untreated) Creatine phosphate: amino acid precursors "Nice GAMs!": Glycine Arginine Methionine · Gam is slang for a person's leg. such as in MS Dx. Enzymes: classification "Over The HILL": Oxidoreductases Transferases . especiallay an attractive female's leg: "Nice gams = nice legs!" · Creatine phosphate is a muscle energy store. and spontaneously converts to creatinine which is excreted in the urine in direct proportion to muscle mass: clinically useful.

GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea. sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions · Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases Essential amino acids "PVT. · 'Never tires': T is not Tyr. Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms "Increased Vitamin A makes you HARD": Headache/ Hepatomegaly Anorexia/ Alopecia Really painful bones . but is both Thr and Trp.ANATOMY Hydrolases Isomerases Ligases Lyases · Enzymes get reaction over the hill. not Asp. Insulin: function INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose. last biosynthesis step) Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains (postranslational modification) Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose. TIM HALL always argues. never tires": Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Lue Lys · Always argues: the A is for Arg. Collagen concisely covered COLLAGEN: C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor (Covalent Cross linking) Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/ Osteogenesis imperfecta Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links.

Pyrimidines are Cytosine. Introns in the trash--DNA expression into mature mRNA Pyrimidines are CUT from purines. velocity remains same but Km increases Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose "In the Phasted State. Exons expressed. Enzymes: competitive inhibitors "Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity": With competitive inhibitors. Uracil. Valine is present instead of Glutamic acid. Malate-aspartate shuttle "MAD commute": Malate in.ANATOMY Dry skin/ Drowsiness Heme synthesis: amino acid precursors to basic unit of porphyrins. tRNA (Transfer RNA) is shaped like a capital T. Sickle cell anemia: mutation "HbS isn't Very Good": At Sixth position of HB beta chain. Vitamins: which are fat soluble KADE: Vitamin K Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient PHenylketonuria is caused by a deficiency of: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase In the Phasted State Phosphorylate Phosphorylation cascade active when blood glucose low. Amino Acids:The ten essential amino acids: . Purines are double ring structures. which is the basic unit of porphyrins and heme. Alpha-ketoglutarate and D (Aspartate) out. Thiamine and are one ring structures. Phosphorylate": The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low. heme (pyrrole ring) "Dracula wants to Suck a Co-ed's blood [think heme] with his Glystening teeth!": Succinyl CoA and Glycine are precursor amino acids to pyrrole rings. · See diagram. tRNA: molecular shape Fortunately.

Trapezoid. Phenylalanine. Anti-diruetic(Vasopressin).ANATOMY "These Ten Valuable Amino Acids Have Long Preserved Life In Man. Tryptophan. Valine. Histidine.) GOAT FLAP. Triquetrum. Arginine. Capitate. Lunate. :^) O V E S A L I U S Osteomyelitis Vertebral Fracture Extraspinal Tumour Spondylolisthesis Ankylosing Spondylitis Lumbar Disk Increase Intraspinal Tumour Unhappiness Stress Carpal (Wrist) Bones "Scared Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle. and Hamate.. as knife and bullet wounds aren't mentioned. Leutinizing hormone (interstitial cell stimulating hormone in males). Isoleucine.. Oxytocin. Adenocorticotropin.Eight hormones: Growth hormone. Pisiform. Leucine. triquetrum has "tri/ .The Romans noticed bees attracted to the urine of diabetics and coined the term "diabetes" to describe the overflow of sugar. and Prolactin BONES Back Trouble? This uses the name of a famous Flemish physician to list off the different factors causing back troubles. Trapezium. To tell the three T's apart. Methionine) INsulin gets sugar INto cells. Thyroid stimulating hormone. It's pretty old. the eight carpal bones are Scaphoid." Starting from the thumb. Follicle stimulating hormone.(Excess sugar is removed via urine." (Threonine. Lysine. though.


try" in it, and trapezium and trapezoid are in alphabetical
CARPenters use their hands. The CARPAL bones are of the
hand, and not the foot.

Cranial Bones
Annoying, aren't they? The cranial bones are the PEST OF 6...


the six? the number of bones!

Try this one as well: Old People From Texas Eat Spiders.

Cranial Sutures
Sutures have CLASS...


Facial Bones


"Con Man Max and Pal Ziggy Lack Nasty Voices". Not the
most intuitive acrostic in the world, but it works...


Fontanels (Infant Skull)
A baby's first words might be "PAPA!"...


Star Wars fans (hi, Inderpal!) use "Go C3PO" to recall the
seven types of bone fractures...




Lower Leg Bones
Can't tell your tib from your fib? The TIBia is the Thick, Inner
Bone. The FibuLa is Finer, Fluted, and Lateral.

Orbital Bones
This one's a bit silly. It relies on the belief that a species called
the FLEZMS are in ORBITaround the earth.

Two Zulu's Bruised My Cervix
This one is used to remember the branches of the facial
nerve...a (Sent to me by

T emporal nerve
Z ygomatic nerve
B uccal nerve
M arginal mandibular nerve
C ervical nerve

To Zanzibar By Motorcar

· Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide. M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block. Motor. Hamate. Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Breasts Matter Most For the Cranial Nerves 1 through 12. in determining whether they are Sensory. or Both (starting with Cranial Nerve 1) CARDIOLOGY MNEMONICS Cardiology Aortic stenosis characteristics SAD: Syncope Angina Dyspnoea MI: basic management BOOMAR: Bed rest Oxygen Opiate Monitor Anticoagulate Reduce clot size ECG: left vs. Pericarditis: causes CARDIAC RIND: Collagen vascular disease Aortic aneurysm Radiation Drugs (such as hydralazine) Infections . right bundle block "WiLLiaM MaRRoW": W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block. Trapezium. Pisiform. Lunate.ANATOMY Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle For the order of the bones in the wrist : Scaphoid. Capitate. Triquetral. Trapezoid.

· Similarly. MI: signs and symptoms PULSE: Persistent chest pains Upset stomach Lightheadedness Shortness of breath Excessive sweating Heart compensatory mechanisms that 'save' organ blood flow during shock "Heart SAVER": Symphatoadrenal system Atrial natriuretic factor Vasopressin Endogenous digitalis-like factor Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system · In all 5. . it's common sense that if it is aortic and pulmonary stenosis it could also be mitral and tricusp regurgitation]. system is activated/factor is released Murmurs: right vs.ANATOMY Acute renal failure Cardiac infarction Rheumatic fever Injury Neoplasms Dressler's syndrome Murmurs: systolic types SAPS: Systolic Aortic Pulmonic Stenosis · Systolic murmurs include aortic and pulmonary stenosis. left loudness "RILE": Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.

contusion) Osborne waves (hypothermia) Non-occlusive vasospasm Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade) 3 D's: Distant heart sounds Distended jugular veins Decreased arterial pressure 11 MI: therapeutic treatment ROAMBAL: Reassure Oxygen Aspirin Morphine (diamorphine) Beta blocker Arthroplasty Lignocaine CHF: causes of exacerbation FAILURE: Forgot medication Arrhythmia/ Anaemia Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection . · If get confused about which is which. ST elevation causes in ECG. ELEVATION: Electrolytes LBBB Early repolarization Ventricular hypertrophy Aneurysm Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis) Injury (AMI. remember LIRE=liar which will be inherently false.ANATOMY Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration.

supraclavicular Intra-Thoracic pressure increase Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST: Drooping valve (MVP) Enlargement of LV with strain Potassium loss (hypokalemia) .) and it is male predominant. Murmurs: systolic vs. · The famous people with those surnames are Mr. diastolic PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic Stenosis=Systolic. Jane Arden. Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes HOLT: Grab Harold Holt around the neck and throw him in the ocean: Heart failure Obstruction of venea cava Lymphatic enlargement . ST elevation. ASner". diastolic Systolic murmurs: MR AS: "MR. Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. Pericarditis: EKG "PericarditiS": PR depression in precordial leads. MR is a male title (Mr.ANATOMY Lifestyle: taken too much salt Upregulation of CO: pregnancy. ARden". Diastolic murmurs: MS AR: "MS. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology MS is a female title (Ms. PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic. Ed Asner and Ms.) and it is female predominant. hyperthyroidism Renal failure Embolism: pulmonary Murmurs: systolic vs.

.depression (in I/W AMI) Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism) Subendocardial ischemia Subendocardial infarct Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage) Dilated cardiomyopathy Shock Toxicity of digitalis. are obviously diastolic. EKG) Standing/ Sitting (vary with position) Sternal depression Murmur attributes "IL PQRST" (person has ill PQRST heart waves): Intensity Location Pitch Quality Radiation Shape Timing Murmurs: locations and descriptions "MRS butt": MRS: Mitral Regurgitation--Systolic butt: Aortic Stenosis--Systolic · The other two murmurs.ANATOMY Reciprocal ST. quinidine 22 Murmurs: innocent murmur features 8 S's: Soft Systolic Short Sounds (S1 & S2) normal Symptomless Special tests normal (X-ray. Mitral stenosis and Aortic regurgitation.

Pericardial effusion Dextrocardia MI: treatment of acute MI COAG: Cyclomorph Oxygen Aspirin Glycerol trinitrate Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST: Depressed ventricular function Unstable angina Stenosis of the left main stem Triple vessel disease . causes are COPD: COPD Obesity Pleural.ANATOMY Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers "Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium" · Cardioselective betablockers are: Betaxolol Acebutelol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation. causes of impalpable HILT: Heaving Impalpable Laterally displaced Thrusting/ Tapping · If it is impalpable.

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment ABCDE: Adenosine Beta-blocker Calcium channel antagonist Digoxin Excitation (vagal stimulation) . MSD": hARD: Aortic Regurg = Diastolic ASS: Aortic Stenosis = Systolic MRS: Mitral Regurg = Systolic MSD: Mitral Stenosis = Diastolic 33 Mitral regurgitation When you hear holosystolic murmurs.ANATOMY Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria SICVD: Symmetry of leg musculature Integrity of skin Color of toenails Varicose veins Distribution of hair Heart murmurs "hARD ASS MRS. Parasympathetic acts on Potassium channels (PS). think "MR-THEM ARE holosystolic murmurs". Sino-atrial node: innervation Sympathetic acts on Sodium channels (SS).

ANATOMY Ventricular tachycardia: treatment LAMB: Lidocaine Amiodarone Mexiltene/ Magnesium Beta-blocker Pulseless electrical activity: causes PATCH MED: Pulmonary embolus Acidosis Tension pneumothorax Cardiac tamponade Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia Myocardial infarction Electrolyte derangements Drugs Sinus bradycardia: aetiology "SINUS BRADICARDIA" (sinus bradycardia): Sleep Infections (myocarditis) Neap thyroid (hypothyroid) Unconsciousness (vasovagal syncope) Subnormal temperatures (hypothermia) Biliary obstruction Raised CO2 (hypercapnia) Acidosis Deficient blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Imbalance of electrolytes Cushing's reflex (raised ICP) Aging Rx (drugs. such as high-dose atropine) Deep anaesthesia Ischemic heart disease Athletes Rheumatic fever: Jones criteria · Major criteria: CANCER: .

so atrial filling Maximal atrial filling Emptying of atrium · See diagram.ANATOMY Carditis Arthritis Nodules Chorea Erythema Rheumatic anamnesis · Minor criteria: CAFE PAL: CRP increased Arthralgia Fever Elevated ESR Prolonged PR interval Anamnesis of rheumatism Leucocytosis JVP: wave form ASK ME: Atrial contraction Systole (ventricular contraction) Klosure (closure) of tricusps. Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST: Depressed ventricular function Unstable angina Stenosis of the left main stem Triple vessel disease 41 Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP: Recent MI Aortic stenosis MI in the last 7 days Pulmonary hypertension ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT: .

CAD Thyroid: hyperthyroid Endocarditis Sick sinus syndrome . pericarditis. endocarditis or valvulits) Nodes (subcutaneous nodules) Erythema marginatum Sydenham's chorea Myocardial infarctions: treatment INFARCTIONS: IV access Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine. COPD Iatrogenic Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation Atherosclerotic: MI. pancarditis.ANATOMY Ischemia Normality [esp. young. black] Ventricular hypertrophy Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques] RBBB. LBBB Treatments [digoxin] Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria JONES: Joints (migrating polyarthritis) Obvious. pethidine) Facilities for defibrillation (DF) Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin) Rest Converting enzyme inhibitor Thrombolysis IV beta blocker Oxygen 60% Nitrates Stool Softeners Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES: Pulmonary: PE. the heart (carditis.

ANATOMY Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD: Anti-coagulate Beta-block to control rate Cardiovert Digoxin Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes "Do Block AV": Digoxin B-blockers Adenosine Verapamil Murmurs: systolic MR PV TRAPS: Mitral Regurgitation and Prolaspe VSD Tricupsid Regurgitation Aortic and Pulmonary Stenosis Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat DOPES: Dextrocardia Obesity Pericarditis or pericardial tamponade Emphysema Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence CLINICAL MNEMONICS .

diuretics) ! A-P-G-A-R: •A. activity (muscle tone) •R . • MEN I is a disease of 3 P's (pituitary.grimmace (reflex. Trauma. ! CAGE--alcohol use screening • Have you ever felt it necessary to CUT DOWN on your drinking? • Has anyone ever told you they were ANNOYED by your drinking? • Have you ever felt GUILTY about your drinking? • Have you ever felt the need to have a drink in the morning for an EYE OPENER? ! P-Q-R-S-T--eliciting and HPI and exploring symptoms • P--palliative or provocative factors for the pain • Q--quality of pain(burning. therefore when you have Takayasu's. stabbing. pulse (heart rate) •G .respiratory effort ! Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: Each of the MENs is a disease of three or two letters plus a feature. Drugs(azathioprine. irritability) •A. parathyroid. and pancreas) plus adrenal cortex • MEN II is a disease of 2 C's(carcinoma of thyroid and catacholamines [pheochromocytoma]) plus parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIB(aka MEN III) ! Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria--PMN infiltrate ! Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes--Mononuclear infiltrate ! Takayasu's diz = pulseless diz. Mumps. Scorpion bites. Steroids. Autoimmune(PAN). Ethanol. etc. Hyperlipidemia.) • R--region of body affected . I can't Tak'a yu pulse.ANATOMY ! CAUSES OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS: • "GET SMASH'D" • Gallstones. aching. appearance (color) •P.

then ask him/her specific questions ! Argyll-Robertson Pupil--syphilitic pupil: Accommodation reflex present. quality • L--location • A--associated sx • S--setting • T--timing • note: ASCLAST means let the patient talk first.) ! A-S-C-L-A-S-T--eliciting and HPI and exploring symptoms • A--aggravatiing and alleviating factors • S--severity • C--character.-after meals. Pupillary reflex absent due to damage at pretectal area. Also called the "prostitute's pupil" (accommodates but does not react).ANATOMY • S--severity of pain(usually 1-10 scale) • T--timing of pain(eg. pregnancy. atelectasis • Wound--wound infections • Water--urinary tract infection • Walking--walking can help reduce deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolus • Wonderdrugs--especially anesthesia ! Predisposing Conditions for Pulmonary Embolism: TOM SCHREPFER • T--trauma • O--obesity • M--malignancy • S--surgery • C--cardiac disease • H--hospitalization • R--rest (bed-bound) • E--estrogen. etc. in the morning. post-partum • P--past hx . ! The five W's--post-operative fever • Wind--pneumonia.

↓ Acetylcholine." • Type I Anaphylaxis • Type II Cytotoxic-mediated • Type III Immune-complex • Type IV Delayed hypersensitivity ! WBC Count: "Never Let Mom Eat Beans" and "60. 6. occipital sparing.Free Association Proud Dead Guys and Other Diseases Addison’s Disease • primary adrenocortical deficiency Addisonian Anemia • pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells → ↓IF → ↓Vit B12 → megaloblastic anemia) Albright’s Syndrome • polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. tau proteins. neurofibrillary tangles. precocious puberty.ANATOMY • F--fracture • E--elderly • R--road trip ! ARTERIAL OCCLUSION: • pain • pallor • pulselessness • paresthesias ! HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS: "Anna Cycled Immediately Downhill--Gell & Goombs" or "ACID. 3.accommodates but does not react • Pathognomonic for 3°Syphilis Arnold-Chiari Malformation • cerebellar tonsil herniation Barrett’s • columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (* risk of adenocarcinoma) . Type 4 collagen defect (basement membranes) Alzheimer’s • progressive dementia. plaques in hippocampus and cortex. apolipoprotein E4 allele. hydrocephalus ex vacuo. short stature. 30. 1" • Neutrophils 60% • Lymphocytes 30% • Monocytes 6% • Eosinophils 3% • Basophils 1: Clinical . young girls Alport’s Syndrome • hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness. Hiramo bodies (inrtacellular inclusion bodies in hippocampal cells) Argyll-Robertson Pupil • loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral) • “Prostitute’s Eye” . narrow gyri and wide sulci (atrophy). café au lait spots.

salt loss. * colon cancer risk) Croup Parainfluenza Curling’s Ulcer • acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns Cushing’s • Disease: hypercorticism 2* to * ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma) • Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1* adrenal or ectopic) Cushing’s Ulcer • acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma de Quervain’s Thyroiditis • self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis) DiGeorge’s Syndrome • thymic hypoplasia * T-cell deficiency • hypoparathyroidism Down’s Syndrome • trisomy 21 or translocation Dressler’s Syndrome • Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune Dubin-Johnson Syndrome • congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) • striking brown- to-black discoloration of the liver Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy • deficiency of dystrophin protein * MD X-linked recessive Edwards’ Syndrome • trisomy 18 • rocker-bottom feet. achlasia Chediak-Higashi Disease • Phagocyte Deficiency: neutropenia. heart disease Ehler’s- Danlos • defective collagen Eisenmenger’s Complex • late cyanotic shunt (R→L) pulmonary HTN & RVH 2° to long-standing VSD. albinism. ASD. hypotension 11- hydroxylase deficiency: virilism. mucosa & submucosa. lymphocytic infiltrate. skip lesions. recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face) Berger’s Disease • IgA nephropathy Bernard-Soulier Disease • defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein) Berry Aneurysm • circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) • often associated with ADPKD Bowen’s Disease • carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (* risk of visceral ca) Briquet’s Syndrome • somatization disorder • psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology Broca’s Aphasia • Motor Aphasia intact comprehension Bronchiolitis RSV Brown-Sequard • hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch.ANATOMY Bartter’s Syndrome • hyperreninemia Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy • similar to Duchenne. transmural. UMN) Bruton’s Disease • X-linked agammaglobinemia Budd-Chiari • post-hepatic venous thrombosis Buerger’s Disease • acute inflammation of small. no cortisol. but less severe (deficiency in dystrophin protein) Bell’s Palsy • CNVII palsy (entire face. cranial & peripheral neuropathy • repeated infections Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism. crypt abscesses. salt retention. cardiomegaly with apical atrophy. hypertension Conn’s Syndrome • primary aldosteronism Cori’s Disease • glycogen storage disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) Creutzfeldt-Jakob • prion infection * cerebellar & cerebral degeneration Crigler-Najjar Syndrome • congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) • glucuronyl transferase deficiency Crohn’s • IBD. low ears. ileocecum. medium arteries * painful ischemia * gangrene Burkitt’s Lymphoma • small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV • 8:14 translocation Caisson Disease • gas emboli Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Median nerve entrapment Chagas’ Disease • Trypansoma infection sleeping disease. pseudopolyps. granulomas (contrast to UC: limited to colon. or PDA Erb-Duchenne Palsy • trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip Ewing Sarcoma • . no cortisol.

arachnodactyly. cystic medial necrosis. miosis. self-mutilation Letterer-Siwe • acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis Libman-Sacks • endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets • associated with SLE Lou Gehrig’s • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons Mallory- Weis Syndrome • bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2* to wretching (alcoholics) Marfan’s • elastin defect. sterility Kawasaki Disease • mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (lips. situs inversus. Hapooh poohoxicosis • initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism Henoch- Schonlein purpura • hypersensivity vasculitis • hemmorhagic urticaria (with fever. hyperphosphaturia. may contain ectopic tissue (gastric. putamen & frontal cortex. Hurthle cells. AD Hunter’s Decreased iduronosulfate sulfatase Hurler’s Decreased alpha-L-iduronidase Jacksonian Seizures • epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4) Job’s Syndrome • immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli Kaposi Sarcoma • malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men) Kartagener’s Syndrome • immotile cilia 2° to defective dynein arms infection. 2 feet from the ileocecum. arthralgias. retardation. in 2% of the population • embryonic duct origin.ANATOMY undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat • carcinoma in situ on glans penis Fanconi’s Syndrome • impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2* to lead poisoning or Tetracycline (glycosuria. most commonly spectrin Hirschprung’s Disease • aganglionic megacolon Horner’s Syndrome • ptosis. splenomegaly Gardner’s Syndrome • adenomatous polyps of colon plus osteomas & soft tissue tumors Gaucher’s Disease • Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency • hepatosplenomegaly. anemia Crinkled tissue paper cells in marrow Gilbert’s Syndrome • benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) GIST Tumor arising in cells of Cajal (pacemakers of gut) Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia • defective glycoproteins on platelets Goodpasture’s • autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes. oral behavior) Krabbe Disease Beta- galactosidase deficiency Krukenberg Tumor • adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to the ovaries Laennec’s Cirrhosis • alcoholic cirrhosis Lesch-Nyhan • HGPRT deficiency • gout. neutropenia. subluxed lens McArdle’s Disease • glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency) Meckel’s Diverticulum • rule of 2’s: 2 inches long. usually self-limiting) Hamman-Rich Syndrome • idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Hand-Schuller-Christian • chronic progressive histiocytosis Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis • autoimmune hypothyroidism (antimicrosomal or antithyroglobulin). XXY Kluver-Bucy • bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality. . systemic acidosis) Felty’s Syndrome • rheumatoid arthritis. aminoaciduria. GI & renal involvement) • associated with upper respiratory infections Hereditary Spherocytosis RBC cytoskeletin defect. thyroid germinal centers. linear immunofluorescence Grave’s Disease • autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI) Guillain-Barre • idiopathic polyneuritis (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis. femoral head & long bone erosion. oral mucosa) Keratoconjunctivitis adenovirus Klinefelter’s Syndrome • 47. anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2* to a Pancoast tumor) Huntington’s • progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus. floppy mitral valve.

conjunctivitis.). nodular goiter. woven and lamellar bone mosaic Pancoast Tumor • bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement * Horner’s Syndrome Parkinson’s • dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts. but no discoloration of the liver Sezary Syndrome • leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) Shaver’s Disease • aluminum inhalation → lung fibrosis Sheehan’s Syndrome • postpartum pituitary necrosis Shy-Drager • parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension Simmond’s Disease • pituitary cachexia Sipple’s Syndrome • MEN type IIa (pheochromocytoma.eye signs) Plummer-Vinson • esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia. arthritis ↑ risk of B-cell lymphoma Spitz Nevus • juvenile melanoma (always benign) Stein-Leventhal • polycystic ovary Stevens-Johnson Syndrome • erythema multiforme. thyroid medulla. mouth. genitalia plus hamartomatous polyps of small intestine Peyronie’s Disease • subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis Pick’s Disease • progressive dementia similar to Alzheimer’s. whorls of cells Mesothelioma Asbestos exposure Nelson’s Syndrome • 1* Adrenal Cushings * surgical removal of adrenals * loss of negative feedback to pituitary * Pituitary Adenoma Niemann-Pick • Lysosomal Storage Disease sphingomyelinase deficiency • “foamy histiocytes” Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Osteogenesis imperfecta Type I collagen defect Paget’s Disease • abnormal bone architecture (thickened. malaise. etc. can't climb a tree" • urethritis. polyarticular Reye’s Syndrome • microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy • 2* to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness Riedel’s Thyroiditis • idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid Rotor Syndrome • congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) • similar to Dubin-Johnson. mucosal ulceration (often 2° to infection or sulfa drugs) Struma Ovarii Thyroid teratoma of ovary Still’s . ascites. defects in extremities Raynaud’s • Disease: recurrent vasospasm in extremities • Phenomenon: 2* to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma) Reiter’s Syndrome • "Can't see. dry mouth. absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s . plasma protein loss) Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis • calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa. hydrothorax Menetrier’s Disease • giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae. pipestem arteries Munchausen Syndrome • factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms.ANATOMY pancreatic. can't pee. fever. but doesn’t know why) Meningioma Arachnoid cap cells.) Meig’s Syndrome • Triad: ovarian fibroma. arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections). Cogwheel rigidity Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome • melanin pigmentation of lips. hand. HLA-B27. parathyroid) Sjogren’s Syndrome • triad: dry eyes. numerous fractures * pain) . ↑ SCCA of esophagus Pompe’s Disease • glycogen storage disease (acid maltase deficiency) * cardiomegaly Pott’s Disease • tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae Potter’s Complex • renal agenesis * oligohydramnios * hypoplastic lungs. knife-edged gyri Plummer’s Syndrome • hyperthyroidism.

radial or ulnar pulses Tay-Sachs • gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency * GM2 ganglioside) Tetralogy of Fallot • ÊVSD. leads to obstructive hydrocephalus Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation • Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count) AFP increase Neural tube defects. Ìpulmonary artery stenosis. Íright ventricular hypertrophy Tourette’s Syndrome • involuntary actions. Weil’s Disease • leptospirosis Wermer’s Syndrome • MEN type I (thyroid. increased bleeding time and PTT Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia • proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells Wallenberg’s Syndrome • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome” • Ipsilateral: ataxia. parathyroid. facial pain & temp. both motor and vocal Turcot’s Syndrome • adenomatous polyps of colon plus CNS tumors Turner’s Syndrome • 45.acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis von Gierke’s Disease • glycogen storage disease (G6Pase deficiency) von Hippel-Lindau • hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma) • adenomas of the viscera. Ëoverriding aorta.&T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema) Wolff-Chaikoff Effect • high iodine level (*)’s thyroid hormone synthesis Zenker’s Diverticulum • esophageal. especially renal cell carcinoma defect in VHL tumor suppressor von Recklinghausen’s • neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodule (iris hamartomas) von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone • osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2* to hyperparathyroidism von Willebrand’s Disease • defect in platelet adhesion 2* to deficiency in vWF.ANATOMY Disease • juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor) Takayasu’s arteritis • aortic arch syndrome • loss of carotid. ophthalmoplegia) Whipple’s Disease • malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis Wilson’s Disease • hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation & decrease in ceruloplasmin) Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome • immunodeficiency: combined B. DIC) • often 2* to meningiococcemia Weber’s Syndrome • Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain • Ipsilateral: mydriasis. pituitary) Wernicke’s Aphasia • Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome • thiamine deficiency in alcoholics. XO Typhoid Fever Bradycardia and in white people rose spots on abdomen Vincent’s Infection • “trench mouth” . yolk . etc. kidneys. cricopharyngeal muscles above UES Zollinger- Ellison • gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) * * acid * intractable ulcers Hallmark Findings (and a few odd items mixed in) Adhesive arachnoiditis Caused by bacterial meningitis. bilateral mamillary bodies (confusion. adrenal cortex. Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body) Wegener’s Granulomatosis • necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses. hepatocellular carcinoma. pancreatic islets. lungs. ataxia. Contralateral: body pain & temp Waterhouse-Friderichsen • catastrophic adrenal insufficiency 2* to hemorrhagic necrosis (eg.

esp. can’t kill catalase positive bugs Chvostek’s Sign • Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany Clear nuclei Thyroid papillary carcinoma (Orphan Annie’s eyes) Clue Cells • Gardnerella vaginitis Codman’s Triangle • osteosarcoma Coin Lesions in Lung Pulmonary Hamartoma Cold Agglutinins • Mycoplasma pneumoniae • infectious mononucleosis Cold thyroid nodules Colloid cyst or thyroid adenoma Concentric laminar intimal fibrosis of small arteries of lung Primary pulmonary hypertension Condyloma Lata • 2* Syphilis • new coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis Polycystic Kidney Disease. painful soft ulcers Charcot Triad • multiple sclerosis (nystagmus. in diabetics Anasarca Minimal change disease Aneurysmal nodules Polyarteritis nodosa Angiomyolipoma Tuberous sclerosis Anosmia Kallman’s syndrome Anterior vermian atrophy alcoholism Anti-centromere antibody Limited scleroderma (CREST) Anti-DNA topoisomerase antibody Diffuse scleroderma Anti-endomysial antibody Celiac sprue Anti-jo antibody polymositis Anti-mitochondrial antibody Primary biliary cirrhosis Antiplatelet Antibodies • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Anti- sacharommyces cervisiae antibody Crohn’s Anti-Smith antibodies Specific for SLE. a deficiency of NADPH oxidase. intention tremor. edema and necrosis of globus Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy • Chagas’ Disease Central Nuclei in Muscle Muscular dystrophies Chancre • 1* Syphilis. Hemophilus aegyptius Basophilic Stippling of RBCs • lead poisoning Bence Jones Protein • multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda) • Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia Bilateral breast cancer Lobular carcinoma Bilateral renal cell carcinoma Von Hippel-Lindau Birbeck Granules • histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma) Bladder trabeculation BPH Bloody nipple discharge Intraductal papilloma Blueberry muffin baby Rubella Blue Bloater • Chronic Bronchitis Blue Sclera Osteogenesis imperfecta Boot-Shaped Heart • Tetralogy of Fallot Bouchard’s Nodes • osteoarthritis (PIP) Boutonniere’s Deformity • rheumatoid arthritis Bronze Diabetes Hemochromatosis Brown Tumor • hyperparathyroidism Brudzinski sign meningitis Brushfield Spots • Down’s. on iris Call-Exner Bodies • granulosa cell tumor Carbon monoxide poisoning Hyperemia. aureus. 50% of Niemann-Pick Cheyne-Stokes Breathing • cerebral lesion Chocolate Cysts • endometriosis Cholesterol clefts atherosclerosis Chordae tendinae short and fused Rheumatic heart disease Chronic staph infections Chronic granulomatous disease.ANATOMY sac and embryonal carcinoma AFP decrease Down’s Amnion nodosum Renal agenesis Amyloid in thyroid Thyroid medullary carcinoma (calcitonin) Analgesic abuse Papillary necrosis. painless firm ulcers Chancroid • Haemophilus ducreyi. pneumo. strep. anti- ribonulceoprotein Anti-smooth muscle antibody Autoimmune hepatitis type I Arachnodactyly • Marfan’s Aschoff Bodies • rheumatic fever Ashleaf spots (skin) Tuberous sclerosis Atypical lymphocytes EBV Auer Rods • acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3) Autosplenectomy • sickle cell anemia Babinski • UMN lesion Bacterial conjuntivitis S. scanning speech) Charcot-Leyden Crystals • bronchial asthma Cherry-red spot on macula Tay-Sachs. juvenile autosomal recessive form Contraction Band Necrosis MI Cotton Wool Spots • HTN Councilman Bodies • dying hepatocytes Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule • rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis) Crushed ping pong balls .

Phos. primary Gold Pneumonia Lipid pneumonia. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis Joint Mice • osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes) Kaussmaul Breathing • acidosis Keratin Pearls • SCCA Kernig’s sign meningitis Keyser-Fleischer Ring • Wilson’s Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules • diabetic nephropathy Koilocytes • HPV Koplik Spots • measles Lacunar cells Variant of Reed-Sternberg cell seen in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s Disease Lacunar infarct Chronic hypertension Lamellar bodies Contain surfactant in Type II pneumocytes Langhans giant cells Tuberculosis.ANATOMY Pneumocystis carinii Crypt abscesses Ulcerative colitis Currant-Jelly Sputum • Klebsiella Curschmann’s Spirals • bronchial asthma Cystathioine synthase deficieny homocystinuria D-dimers DIC Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra • Parkinson’s Dew drop on rose petal Chicken pox Diaphragmatic pleural plaques Asbestosis Donovan Bodies • granuloma inguinale (STD) Double bubble sign on ultrasound Down’s syndorme – duodenal atresia Duret Hemorrhages Uncal herniation Eburnation • osteoarthritis (polished. hemosiderin-laden macrophages in lungs Heberden’s Nodes • Osteoarthritis (DIP) Heinz Bodies • G6PDH Deficiency Hemarthrosis Coagulation factor deficiency Hemorrhagic Temporal Lobe Lesion HSV Hemorrhagic Urticaria • Henoch-Schonlein Heterophil Antibodies • infectious mononucleosis (EBV) Hirano Bodies • Alzheimer’s HLA B27 Ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis (dark pigment of fibrous tissue) Alkaptonuria –homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency Honeycomb lung Pulmonary fibrosis Howell Jolley Bodies Splenectomy. thrombocytopenia. Treponema pertenue (non-STD tropical infection) Ferruginous Bodies • asbestosis Fish-mouthed mitral valve Rheumatic heart disease Flea-bitten Kidney Malignant Hypertension Frontal bossing Sickle cell anemia Fungus ball in lung Apergillus galactosemia Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency or galactokinase deficiency Garlic odor on breath Arsenic (or lasagna) Ghon Complex • Tuberculosis. neuro problems) Fatty Liver • Alcoholism Fecalith Acute appendicitis False positive VDRL SLE. Positive . ivory-like appearance of bone) Eccentric intimal fibrosis with medial hypertrophy Chronic transplant rejection Ectopia Lentis • Marfan’s Embolizing endocarditis Infectious. anemia. and common variable immunodeficiency Index finger overlapping 3rd and 4th Edward’s (Trisomy 18) Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction • Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. marantic (fibrin deposits in hypercoagulable states) Erythema Chronicum Migrans • Lyme Disease Excavation of Optic Cup Glaucoma Exopthalmos hyperthyroid FAT RN TTP (fever. other including coccidioides Lemon yellow skin color Pernicious anemia Lemon sign Ultrasonographic finding in Neural Tube Defects Leukocoria Retinoblastoma Lewy Bodies • Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells) Leukocyte alk. exogenous (aspiration) or endogenous (obstruction Gower’s Maneuver • Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand Gray discoloration of skin Argyria (silver poisoning) Hat size increase Paget’s disease of bone Heart Failure Cells CHF. renal failure. remnant of nuclear DNA H shaped vertebrae Sickle cell anemia Human placental lactogen increase Placental site trophoblastic tumor Hyaline thrombi TTP Hydrosalpinx Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease Hypersegmented PMNs • Megaloblastic anemia Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs • iron-deficiency anemia IgM against IgG Rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor) ↓ Immunoglobulins X-linked Brutons agammaglobulinemia.

Libman-Sacks (with SLE) Non-pitting Edema • Myxedema • Anthrax Toxin Notching of Ribs • Coarctation of Aorta Nutmeg Liver • CHF. primary biliary cirrhosis Microsatellite instability HNPCC (right-sided colon cancer). DiGeorge. right heart Onion skin kidney arterioles Malignant nephrosclerosis (malignant hypertension) Oligoclonal band Multiple sclerosis Osteoid production osteosarcoma Painless Jaundice • pancreatic CA (head) Palatal Petechaie Strep pharyngitis Palpable purpura Hypersensitivity vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein. alcoholic. but also possible in other cancers Mid-systolic click Mitral prolapse Monoclonal Antibody Spike • multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA) • MGUS Mousy / musty odor PKU Mucosal bleeding Platelet problem (qualitative or quantitative) Myxedema • hypothyroidism Necrolytic migratory erythema dermatitis α-cell islet tumor Negri Bodies and hydrophobia • rabies Neuritic Plaques • Alzheimer’s Neurofibrillary Tangles • Alzheimer’s Night pain relieved by aspirin Osteoid osteoma Non-embolizing endocarditis Rheumatic.α1-antitrypsin deficiency Podagra • gout (MP joint of hallux) Porcelain gallbladder Chronic cholecystitis (scarring) Porcelain gallstones Associated with gallbladder adenocarcinoma Port-Wine Stain • Hemangioma Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign • tearing of the ACL Proliferating bile ducts Obstructive jaundice Psammoma Bodies • Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid • Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary • Meningioma • Mesothelioma Pseudohypertrophy • Duchenne muscular dystrophy Pseudopoyps Ulcerative colitis Pulmonary atherosclerosis Cor pulmonale Punched-Out Bone Lesions • multiple myeloma Punched-out esophageal lesions herpes . serum sickness) Pancarditis Rheumatic fever Pannus • rheumatoid arthritis PAS positive macrophages Whipple’s disease Patent ductus arteriosus Maternal rubella and prematurity Pautrier’s Microabscesses • mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Periductal edema Gynecomastia Periventricular Calcifications Congenital CMV (brain ventricles. foamy lung exudate Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pink Puffer • Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar . leucine and isoleucine build up (branched) McBurney’s Sign • appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine) Meconium ileus Cystic Fibrosis Mees lines Arsenic (parallel lines on fingernails) Melanosis coli Laxative abuse Mental probs. viral hepatitis. alpha-1-antitrypsin Malignant pustule Anthrax (black skin lesion) Mallory Bodies Alcoholic liver disease: intermediate filaments of hepatocyte cytoskeleton Maple syrup/burnt sugar urine Alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency. with heart defect Mitral prolapse Michealis-Gutmann Bodies • Malakoplakia. valine. hemochromatosis. that is) Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency PKU Philadelphia Chromosome • CML Pick Bodies • Pick’s Disease Piecemeal Necrosis Chronic active hepatitis (periportal hepatocytes) Plexiform lesions Pulmonary HTN (aneurysmal expansion of vessel wall) Pink. Lines of Zahn • arterial thrombus Lisch Nodules • neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease) Loss of grey-white junction Tuberous sclerosis Low set ears Downs.ANATOMY Leukemoid rxn. an abnormal tissue response to kidney infection Microglial nodules HIV Micrognathia DiGeorge Micronodular cirrhosis Wilsons. Trisomy 18 (Edwards) Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli • poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Machine-like murmur Patent ductus arteriosus Macronodular cirrhosis Wilson’s.

type IV Wrinkled glomerular basement membrane ischemia ↑ AFP in amniotic fluid or mother’s serum • Spina Bifida • Anencephaly ↑ Uric Acid • Gout • Lesch Nyhan • Myeloproliferative Disorders • Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides) ↓ FEV1/FVC • COPD ↓ glucose. staining pattern with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies Rockerbottom feet Patau (Trisomy 13). PDA) • Mitral Regurg • LV Failure S4 Heart Sound • Pulmonary Stenosis • Pulmonary HTN Scalloped colloid Grave’s disease Schwartzman Reaction • Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs Shagreen patches Tuberous sclerosis Simian Crease • Down’s Smith Antigen • SLE (also anti-dsDNA) Smudge cells CLL (delicate cells easily destroyed on peripheral smear) Soap Bubble on X-Ray • giant cell tumor of bone Soldiers plaque Clinically insignificant remnant of healed pericarditis Spider telangiectasia Hyperestrinism: liver faillure. Kawasaki’s Strawberry cervix Trichomonas vaginalis Strawberry gallbladder cholesterolosis String Sign on X-ray • Crohn’s bowel wall thickening Sugar icing on spleen Portal hypertension Sulfer granules Collection of actinomyces or nocardia organisms in chronic abscessing bronchopneumonia Swiss cheese brain Clostridia (gas forming) Syncitia RSV.7) damage. TSI > TGI Grave’s TGI > TSI Hashimoto’s Tyrosinase deficiency Albinism Virchow’s Node • supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach VMA and metenephrins in urine Pheochromocytoma Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells • Measles Waterhammer pulse Aortic regurgitation WBC Casts • pyelonephritis White matter petechaie Fat emboli Winged scapula Long thoracic nerve (C5. PKU Thymidine dimers Xeroderma pigmentosum Thymus. Edward’s (Trisomy 18) Rose thorns Sporotrichosis Rouleaux Formation • multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips Rugae loss Pernicious anemia (atrophic gastritis) S3 Heart Sound • L→R Shunt (VSD. pregnancy Spike & Dome Glomeruli • membranous glomerulonephritis Splinter hemorrhages Infective endocarditis Strawberry tongue Scarlet fever. classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis) • hypocalcemia (carpal spasm) These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs. but they unfortunately have the same name. parathyroid agenesis Digeorge (3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch) Thyroidization of Kidney • chronic pyelonephritis TIBC increase Anemia of chronic disease Tingible Bodies Macrophage in lymph node germinal centers Tophi • gout Tram-Track Glomeruli • membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Tree bark aorta Syphilis Trousseau’s Sign • visceral ca. measles Tamm-Horsfall protein Hyaline casts (non-specific) Target Cells • Thalassemia Teardrop RBCs Myelofibrosis Temporal lobe encephalitis Herpes Tendinous Xanthomas • Familial Hypercholesterolemia Tethered cord Arnold-Chiari malformation (tonsilar herniation) Tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor def. ↑ protein in CSF Bacterial meningitis ↑ dopamine receptors Schizophrenia ↓ dopamine receptors Parkinson’s .ANATOMY Rash on Palms & Soles • 2° Syphilis • RMSF RBC poikilocytosis Beta-thalassemia Rectangular RBC’s Hemoglobin SC Red hyalin globules Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (in liver) Red Morning Urine • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Reed-Sternberg Cells • Hodgkin’s Disease Reid Index Increased • chronic bronchitis Reinke Crystals • Leydig cell tumor Rhomboid crystals Pseudogout Rim pattern SLE.6. common with radical mastectomy Wire Loop Glomeruli • lupus nephropathy.

• Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative) Cause of Dementia • Alzheimer’s Cause of Dementia (2nd most common) • Multi-Infarct Dementia Cause of food poisoning • Staph aureus Cause of mental retardation • Down’s Cause of mental retardation (2nd most common) • Fragile X Cause of preventable blindness • Chlamydia Cause of Pulmonary HTN • COPD Cause of SIADH • Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Chromosomal disorder • Down’s Congenital cardiac anomaly • VSD (membranous > muscular) Congenital early cyanosis • Tetralogy of Fallot Coronary Artery thrombosis • LAD Demyelinating Disease • Multiple Sclerosis Dietary Deficiency • Iron Disseminated opportunistic infection in AIDS • CMV (Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall) Esophageal cancer • SCCA Fatal genetic defect in Caucasians • Cystic Fibrosis Female Tumor • Leimyoma Form of Amyloidosis • Immunologic (Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain) Form of Tularemia • Ulceroglandular Gynecologic malignancy • Endometrial Carcinoma Heart Murmur • Mitral Valve Prolapse Heart problem in AIDS Pericarditis Heart tumor in adults myxoma Heart tumor in kids rhabdomyoma Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis • Mitral Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users • Tricuspid Heart Valve involved in Rheumatic Fever • Mitral then Aortic Hereditary Bleeding Disorder • Von Willebrand’s Disease Liver 1° Tumor • Hepatoma. Ectopic ACTH) Cause of death in Alzheimer pts • Pneumonia Cause of death in amyloidosis Chronic renal failure Cause of death in Diabetics • MI Cause of Death in SLE pts. 11-) Cause of Cushings • Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then. coli Bacterial Meningitis – toddlers • Hib B cell defect (genetic) Isolated IgA deficiency Bone Tumors • Metasteses from Breast & Prostate Brain Tumor – Child • Medulloblastoma (cerebellum) Brain Tumor –Adult • Astrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets. seen in women on oral contraceptives Liver Disease • Alcoholic Liver Disease Location of Adult brain tumors • Above Tentorium Location of Childhood brain tumors • Below Tentorium Location of GI tuberculosis Ileocecal Lysosomal Storage Disease • Gaucher’s Motor Neuron Disease • ALS Myocarditis cause Coxsackie B Neoplasm – Child • Leukemia Neoplasm – Child (2nd most common) • Medulloblastoma of brain . hospitalized pneumonia pt • Klebsiella Bug in Epiglottitis • Hib Bug in GI Tract • Bacteroides (2nd – E. Gonnorrhoeae Bug in Subacute Endocarditis • Strep Viridans Cardiac 1° Tumor – Adults • Myxoma “Ball Valve” Cardiac 1° Tumor – Child • Rhabdomyoma Cardiac Tumor – Adults • Metasteses Cardiomyopathy • Dilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy Carpal bone fractured scaphoid Cause of 2° HTN • Renal Disease Cause of Addison’s • Autoimmune (2nd – infection) Cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia • 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (then.ANATOMY Most Common… 1° Tumor arising from bone in adults • Multiple Myeloma Adrenal Medullary Tumor – Adults • Pheochromocytoma Adrenal Medullary Tumor – Children • Neuroblastoma Arteries of stroke Lateral striate Bacterial Meningitis – adults • Neisseria meningitidis Bacterial Meningitis – elderly • Strep pneumoniae Bacterial Meningitis – newborns • E. Schwannoma Breast Carcinoma • Invasive Duct Carcinoma Breast Mass • Fibrocystic Change (Carcinoma is the most common is post-menopausal women) Bug in Acute Endocarditis • Staph aureus Bug in debilitated. coli) Bug in IV drug user bacteremia / pneumonia • Staph aureus Bug in PID • N. meningioma. Adrenal Adenoma. 1° ↑ ACTH.

Chlorpromazine) Fanconi’s Syndrome • Tetracycline Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis) • Valproic Acid • Halothane • Acetaminophen Gingical Hyperplasia • Phenytoin Gray Baby Syndrome • Chloramphenicol Gynecomastia • Cimetidine • Azoles • Spironolactone • Digitalis Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiency • Sulfonamides • Isoniazid • Aspirin • Ibuprofen • Primaquine Hepatitis • Isoniazid Hepatocellular carcinoma Polyvinyl chloride. dizziness upon re-exposure Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Haloperidol Orange Body Fluids • Rifampin Osteoporosis • Heparin • Corticosteroids Positive Coombs’ Test • .Adult over 60 / AML . With Hodgkin’s • Young Male (except Nodular Sclerosis type – Female) Pt. tach.ANATOMY (cerebellum) Nephrotic Syndrome • Membranous Glomerulonephritis Opportunistic infection in AIDS • PCP Osteomyelitis in IV drug user Pseudomonas Osteomyelitis in sickle cell Salmonella Ovarian Malignancy • Serous Cystadenoma Ovarian Tumor • Hamartoma Pancreatic Tumor • Adeno (usually in the head) Patient with ALL / CLL / AML / CML • ALL . halothane Monday Disease • Nitroglycerin Industrial exposure → tolerance during week → loss of tolerance during weekend → headache.Adult over 60 / CML . lymphocytic depletion. then carcinoma) Pt. small cleaved Vasculitis (of medium & small arteries) • Temporal Arteritis Viral Encephalitis • HSV Worm infection in US • Pinworm (2nd – Ascaris) Signature Drug Toxicities Agranulocytosis • Clozapine Aplastic Anemia • Chloramphenicol • NSAIDs • Benzene Arrhythmia Tricyclic antidepressant (wide QRS) Cardiac glycosides.Child / CLL . Haloperidol.Adult 35-50 Patient with Goodpasture’s • Young male Patient with Reiter’s • Male Pituitary Tumor • Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma) Primary Hyperparathyroidism • Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia. especially with hypokalemia Atropine-like Side Effects • Tricyclics Blindness Methanol (Formic Acid) Cardiotoxicity • Doxorubicin • Daunorubicin Cartilage Damage in children • Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin) Cinchonism • Quinidine Cough • ACE Inhibitors Diabetes Insipidus • Lithium Disulfiram-like effect • Metronidazole • Sulfonylureas (1st generation) Extrapyramidal Side Effects • Antipsychotics (Thioridazine. Flushing • Niacin • Tamoxifen • Ca++ Channel Blockers Induce CP450 • Barbiturates • Phenytoin • Carbamazepine • Rifampin Inhibit CP450 • Cimetidine • Ketoconazole Interstitial Nephritis • Methicillin • NSAIDs (except Aspirin) • Furosemide • Sulfonamides Lupus like Procainamide. anaphylatoxins Hot Flashes. hydralazine Malignant hyperthermia Succinyl choline. With Minimal Change Disease • Young Child Secondary Hyperparathyroidism • Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure Sexually transmitted disease • Chlamydia Site of Diverticula • Sigmoid Colon Site of metastasis • Regional Lymph Nodes Site of metastasis (2nd most common) • Liver Sites of atherosclerosis • Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid Skin Cancer • Basal Cell Carcinoma Stomach cancer • Adeno Testicular Tumor • Seminoma Thyroid Cancer • Papillary Carcinoma Tracheoesophageal Fistula • Lower esophagus joins trachea / upper esophagus – blind pouch Tumor of Infancy • Hemangioma Type of Hodkin’s • Mixed Cellularity (versus: lymphocytic predominance. nodular sclerosis) Type of Non-Hodgkin’s • Follicular.

theo.ANATOMY Methyldopa Pulmonary Fibrosis • Bleomycin • Amiodarone Red Man Syndrome • Vancomycin Severe HTN with Tyramine • MAOIs SLE-like Syndrome • Procainamide • Hydralazine Tardive Dyskinesia • Antipsychotics (Thioridazine.] Glaucoma Hyperemesis gravidarum Infection [pyelonephritis. dull. Haloperidol. Assessment: what the examiner thinks is going on. Chlorpromazine) Tinnitus • Aspirin • Quinidine Torsade de pointes Quinidine Vaginal Adenosis and Clear Cell Carcinoma DES Miscellaneous • Fastest growing tumor – Burkitt’s • PE’s are found in half of all autopsies • Courvoisier’s Law: tumors that obstruct the common bile duct cause enlarged gallbladders. duration) Palliative factors for pain Quality of pain (throbbing. • Only DNA virus to replicate in cytoplasm: Pox • Only RNA virus to replicate in nucleus: Influenza • Bacillus anthracis has the only protein capsule • Bordetella pertussis (Whooping Cough) elicits lymphocytosis rather than granulocytosis • Bronchioalveolar carcinomas grow without destroying the normal architecture of the lung • Cryptococcus neoformans often lacks a capsule and. Objective: what the examiner observes. Ever felt it necessary to Cut down on drinking? 2. Has anyone ever said they felt Annoyed by your drinking? 3. looks just like Pneumycistis carinii. Plan: what they intend to do about it. Vomiting: non-GIT differential ABCDEFGHI: Acute renal failure Brain [increased ICP] Cardiac [inferior MI] DKA Ears [labyrinthitis] Foreign substances [Tylenol.) Region of body affected Severity of pain (usually scale of 1-10) . when stained with GMS. etc. meningitis] History: quick EMS medical history checklist SAMPLE: Signs/ Symptoms Allergies Medications Pertinent history Last oral intake Events preceding this incident Pain history checklist OPQRSTU: Onset of pain (time. Ever felt Guilty about drinking? 4 Ever felt a need to have a morning drink as an Eye opener? Abdominal swelling causes 5 F's: Fat Feces Fluid Flatus Fetus Full-sized tumors Patient examination organization SOAP: Subjective: what the patient says. Alcohol abuse screening questions CAGE: 1. etc. except that Cryptococcus lacks the prominent nucleoli. stabbing. but obstructing gallstones do not (too much scarring).

etc. Eyes: abbreviations for the eyes You look OUt with Both eyes. Left eye=OS. Idiopathic. Right eye=OD. symptoms Ign: something I can detect even if patient is unconscious. Diabetes. · Both eyes=OU. sYMptom is something only hYM knows about.) U: How does it affect 'U' in your daily life? · May wish to expand to OPPQRRSTTUVW. with the extra letters representing: Provocative factors Radiation (how does pain spread) Treatments tried Deja Vu: Has this happened before? Worry: What do you think or fear that it is? Differential diagnosis checklist "A VITAMIN C" A and C stand for Acquired and Congenital · VITAMIN stands for: Vascular Inflammatory (Infectious and non-Infectious) Trauma/ Toxins Autoimmune Metabolic Idiopathic Neoplastic · Example usage: List causes of decreased vision: Central retinal artery occlusion. Chronic Gentamycin use. Take the Right dose so you won't OD [overdose]. Any eye tumor. Perforation to gobe. Run A Seven Pace Race": Onset Duration Frequency Location Character Radiation Severity Precipitating factors Relieving factors . Ruematoid arthritis. Myopia. Sign vs. Retinitis pigmentosa. Medical history: disease checklist MJ THREADS: Myocardial infarction Jaundice Tuberculosis Hypertension Rheumatic fever/ Rheumatoid arthritis Epilepsy Asthma Diabetes Strokes Pain history checklist "On Days Feeling Low Character.ANATOMY Timing of pain (after exercise. The only one that is Left is OS. in evening.

· Alternatively: APe To Man.ANATOMY Pain history checklist ASK LAST: Aggravating/ Alleviating Severity Karacter Location Associated symptoms Setting Timing Pain history checklist SOCRATES: Site Onset Character Radiation Alleviating factors/ Associated symptoms Timing (duration. Four point physical assessment of a disease "I'm A People Person": Inspection . · Alternatively: All Prostitutes Take Money. Symptom attributes "FAST LQQ'S": Factors that make it better/worse Associated manifestations Setting Timing Location Quality Quantity Severity Heart valve auscultation sites "All Patients Take Meds": · Reading from top left: Aortic Pulmonary Tricuspid Mitral · See diagram. frequency) Exacerbating factors Severity · Alternatively. Signs and Symptoms with the 'S'.

ANATOMY Auscultation Percussion Palpation Physical exam for 'lumps and bumps' "6 Students and 3 Teachers go for CAMPFIRE": Site. Surface. Scar Tenderness. Size. Shape. Skin. Transillumination Consistency Attachment Mobility Pulsation Fluctuation Irreducibility Regional lymph nodes Edge Surgical sieve VANISHED: Vascular Accident & trauma Neoplastic Inflammatory Septic Haematologic/ Hereditary Endocrinological Degenerative Differential diagnosis checklist "I VINDICATE": Iatrogenic Vascular Infectious Neoplastic Degenerative/ Drugs Inflammatory/ Idiopathic Congenital Allergic/ Autoimmune Traumatic Endocrinal & metabolic Symptom sieve "TIN CAN BED DIP POG": Trauma . Temperature.

Cushing's) Turner syndrome Achondroplasia Respiratory (suppurative lung disease) Down syndrome Hereditary Environmental (postirradiation. etc. postinfectious) IUGR GI (malabsorption) Heart (congenital heart disease) Tilted backbone (scoliosis) Ascultation: crackles (rales )"PEBbles": Pneumonia Edema of lung Bronchitis Pain history checklist CHLORIDE: Character (stabbing. throbbing. and it opened up my eyes". symptom Remember Ace of Base's song that goes like this: "I Saw the Sign. Systems review: systems checklist I PUNCH EAR: Integumental Pulmonary Urogenital Nervous Cardiovascular Hematolymphoid Endocrine Alimentary Reproductive . hypopituitarism.) Location Onset Radiation Intensity Duration Events (associated with. or palliative and provocative factors) Differential diagnosis CIMETIDINE: Congenital Infection/ Inflammatory Metabolic Endocrine Trauma Iatrogenic Degenerative Idiopathic Neoplastic Everything else Sign vs.ANATOMY Infection Neoplasm Cardiac Autoimmune Neurological Blood/ Bone Endocrine Disintegration/ Degeneration Drugs Iatrogenic/ Idiopathic Psychological Paediatric Obstetric Gynaecological Pain history checklist LOST WAR: Location Onset Severity Time Worsening factors Alleviating factors Radiation Short statue causes RETARD HEIGHT: Rickets Endocrine (cretinism. The physician sees the signs.

palpate all 4 quadrants for DR. C T FARADS: Main site Radiation Character Timing Frequency Associated factors Relieving factors Aggravating factors Duration Severity Abdomen assessment To assess abdomen.) Differential diagnosis checklist DIRECTION: Drugs Infection Rheumatologic Endocrine Cardiovascular Trauma Inflammatory Other Neoplasm Pathologic classification NIT DIT FIT: Neoplastic Infectious Traumatic Degenerative/ Drugs Immune Toxic Vascular Inflammatory Totally obscure Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: history taking SIT ON FRAD: Sexual history Immunisation status Travel history Occupational history Nutrition (consumption of dairy products. alcohol. GERM: Distension: liver problems. bowel obstruction Rigidity (board like): bleeding Guarding: muscular tension when touched Eviseration/ Ecchymosis Rebound tenderness: infection Masses Pain history checklist CLITORIS: Character Location Intensity Timing Onset Radiating Irritating and relieving factors Symptoms associated Past medical history (PMH) VAMP THIS: Vices (tobacco. etc.) Family history Recreational habits Animal contacts (including ticks and other vectors) Drug history . other drugs.ANATOMY Pain history checklist MR. sexual risks) Allergies Medications Preexisting medical conditions Trauma Hospitalizations Immunizations Surgeries Patient profile (PP) LADDERS: Living situation/ Lifestyle Anxiety Depression Daily activities (describe a typical day) Environmental risks/ Exposure Relationships Support system/ Stress Family history (FH) BALD CHASM: Blood pressure (high) Arthritis Lung disease Diabetes Cancer Heart disease Alcoholism Stroke Mental health disorders (depression. etc.

Breast history checklist LMNOP: Lump Mammary changes Nipple changes Other symptoms Patient risk factors Pain history checklist COLDER BARS: Character Onset Location Duration Exacerbating factors Radiation Before (ever happened before) Associated symptoms Relieving factors Severity Pain history checklist SO CRAP: Site Onset Character Radiates to Associated symptoms/ Alleviating and exacerbating factors Periodicity History.ANATOMY Health related behavior (HRB) topics: history taking "Healthy SEEDS": Substances (alcohol. tobacco. HCFA components for E+M coding Q LSD MCAT: Quality Location Severity Duration Modifying factors Context Associated signs and symptoms Timing Surgical sieve for diagnostic categories INVESTIGATIONS: Iatrogenic Neoplastic Vascular Endocrine Structural/ Mechanical Traumatic Inflammatory Genetic/ Congenital Autoimmune Toxic Infective Old age/ Degenerative Nutritional Spontaneous/ Idiopathic Mental state examination: stages in order "Assessed Mental State To Be Positively Clinically Unremarkable": Appearance and behaviour [observe state.] Mood [recent spirit] Speech [rate.. but taking a solid HRB history first reassures them that it's all part of good medical care.. content] Thinking [thoughts. perceptions] Behavioural abnormalities . IV drugs?) Environment (hazards at home or work? feel safe?) Exercise (what do you do? how often do you do it?) Diet (any special diet?) Sex (active with m/f/both? >1 partner? safe sex? STD history? difficulty with arousal or orgasm? history of abuse?) · I find this order works well: patients most expect to be asked about alcohol and they least want to talk about their STD history. form. clothing.

. Drugs(azathioprine. Mumps.6: Scale of 4: see so much more Scale of 5: talking jive Scale of 6: feels the pricks (if testing motor by pain withdrawl) Meckel’s diverticulum. place. Autoimmune(PAN). but making no sense) GET SMASH'D--Causes of Acute pancreatitis Gallstones. . concerns] Branham sign: definition BRAnham sign: BRAdycardia after compression or excision of a large AV fistula. Scorpion bites.. Steroids. expectations. 2% of the population commonlly presents in the first 2 years of life may contain 2 types of epithelial tissue Pheochromocytoma-rule of 10s: 10% malignant 10% Bilateral 10% extraadrenal 10% calcified 10% children 10% familial * discussed 10 times more often than actually seen Aphasia "BROKen aphasia" (Broca’s aphasia-broken speech) "Wordys aphasia" (Wernicke’s aphasia. Hyperlipidemia.] Understanding of condition [ideas. 2 feet from the ileocecal valve.5. diuretics) (Multiple endocrine neoplasia) Each of the MENs is a disease of three or two letters plus a feature. Glasgow coma scale: components and numbers · Scale types is 3 V's: Visual response Verbal response Vibratory (motor) response · Scale scores are 4. age. Trauma.rule of 2’s 2 inches long. Ethanol.wordy.ANATOMY Perception abnormalities Cognition [time.

Have you ever felt the need to have a drink in the morning for an EYE OPENER? P-Q-R-S-T--eliciting and HPI and exploring symptoms P--palliative or provocative factors for the pain Q--quality of pain(burning. in the morning. Have you ever felt GUILTY about your drinking? 4.ANATOMY "MEN I" is a disease of the 3 Ps (pituitary.Accommodates. aching. Has anyone ever told you they were ANNOYED by your drinking? 3. Argyll-Robertson Pupil--syphilitic pupil (AKA "Prostitute's pupil" . I can't Tak'a yu pulse. atelectasis Water--urinary tract infection Wound--wound infections Wonderdrugs--especially anesthesia Walking--walking can help reduce deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolus ACID or "Anna Cycled Immediately Downhill" classification of hypersensitivity reactions Type I . etc.-after meals. stabbing. Pupillary reflex absent CAGE--alcohol use screening 1. "MEN II " is a disease of the two Cs (carcinoma of the thyroid and catacholamines [pheochromocytoma]) plus parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIb (aka MEN III). but doesn't react ) Accommodation reflex present. Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria--PMN infiltrate Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes --Mononuclear infiltrate Takayasu's diz = pulseless diz.) The five W's--post-operative fever Wind--pneumonia. therefore when you have Takayasu's. Have you ever felt it necessary to CUT DOWN on your drinking? 2.Anaphylaxis . etc. parathyroid and pancreas) plus adrenal cortex.) R--region of body affected S--severity of pain(usually 1-10 scale) T--timing of pain(eg.

irritability) A .respiratory effort Predisposing Conditions for Pulmonary Embolism: TOM SCHREPFER T--trauma O--obesity M--malignancy S--surgery C--cardiac disease H--hospitalization R--rest (bed-bound) E--estrogen. 30. 3.activity (muscle tone) R .pulse (heart rate) G .Immune-complex Type IV . 6. 1) Neutrophils 60% Lymphocytes 30% Monocytes 6% Eosinophils 3% Basophils 1% A-P-G-A-R: A . post-partum P--past hx F--fracture E--elderly R--road trip The 4 P's of arterial Occlusion: pain pallor pulselessness paresthesias The 4 T's of Anterior Mediastinal Mass:Thyroid tumor.Teratoma.Thymoma.appearance (color) P .grimmace (reflex.Delayed hypersensitivity WBC Count: "Never Let Momma Eat Beans(60. Terrible Lymphoma .ANATOMY Type II . pregnancy.Cytotoxic-mediated Type III .

pericardial)/ Muscle (striated. pleural. cardiac) Embryologic Spleen/ Soft tissue/ Serous linings/ Sarcoma/ Somite Osseous tissue/ Outer layer of suprarenal gland (cortex)/ Ovaries . smooth.ANATOMY EMBRYOLOGY MNEMONICS Vitelline duct: closure time VItelline duct normally closes around week VI of intrauterine life. Potter syndrome: features POTTER: Pulmonary hypoplasia Oligohydrominios Twisted skin (wrinkly skin) Twisted face (Potter facies) Extremities defects Renal agenesis (bilateral) Placenta-crossing substances "WANT My Hot Dog": Wastes Antibodies Nutrients Teratogens Microorganisms Hormones/ HIV Drugs Cranial and spinal neural crest: major derivatives GAMES: Glial cells (of peripheral ganglia) Arachnoid (and pia) Melanocytes Enteric ganglia Schwann cells Mesoderm components MESODERM: Mesothelium (peritoneal.

Weeks 2. Teratogenesis: when it occurs TEratogenesis is most likely during organogenesis--between the: Third and Eighth weeks of gestation. 3. Week Three: Trilaminar germ disc. Angi is pre": Vasculogenesis is new vessels developing in situ from existing mesenchyme. angiogenesis "Vascu is new. Week Four: Four limbs appear.ANATOMY Dura/ Ducts of genitalia Endothelium Renal Microglia Mesenchyme/ Male gonad Vasculogenesis vs. Tetrology of Fallot "Don't DROP the baby": Defect (VSD) Right ventricular hypertrophy Overriding aorta Pulmonary stenosis Lung development phases "Every Premature Child Takes Air": Embryonic period Pseudoglandular period Canalicular peroid Terminal sac period Alveolar period Branchial arch giving rise to aorta . 4 of development: an event for each Week Two: Bilaminar germ disc. Angiogenesis is vessels develop from sprouting off pre-existing arteries.

Producing Gas": Lungs Esophagus Pancreas Duodenum (proximal) Liver Stomach Pancreas Gall bladder EMERGENCY MEDICINE MNEMONICS Emergency Medicine . Neuroectoderm derivatives Neuroectoderm gives rise to: Neurons Neuroglia Neurohypophysis piNeurol (pineal) gland Tetrology of Fallot "IHOP-International House of Pancakes": Interventricular septal defect Hypotrophy of right ventricle Overriding aorta Pulmonary stenosis Woffian duct (mesonephric duct) derivatives.ANATOMY "Aor. cyst · Male: Seminal vesicles Epididymis Ejaculatory duct Ductus deferens Foregut derivatives "Little Embryo People Do Like Swallowing.from Four": Aorta is from fourth arch. Gardener's SEED: · Female: Gartner's duct.

ANATOMY Coma: conditions to exclude as cause MIDAS: Meningitis Intoxication Diabetes Air (respiratory failure) Subdural/ Subarachnoid hemorrhage Resuscitation: basic steps ABCDE: Airway Breathing Circulation Drugs Environment Malignant hyperthermia treatment "Some Hot Dude Better Give Iced Fluids Fast!" (Hot dude = hypothermia): Stop triggering agents Hyperventilate/ Hundred percent oxygen Dantrolene (2.5mg/kg) Bicarbonate Glucose and insulin IV Fluids and cooling blanket Fluid output monitoring/ Furosemide/ Fast heart [tachycardia] Vfib/Vtach drugs used according to ACLS "Every Little Boy Must Pray": Epinephrine Lidocaine Bretylium Magsulfate Procainamide Coma causes checklist AEIOU TIPS: Acidosis/ Alcohol Epilepsy Infection Overdosed Uremia Trauma to head Insulin: too little or or too much .

antipsychotics) Environmental Sensory deficits (eg. or "NH CRAMPS". Shock: signs and symptoms TV SPARC CUBE: Thirst Vomiting Sweating Pulse weak Anxious Respirations shallow/rapid Cool Cyanotic Unconscious BP low Eyes blank Fall: potential causes CLADE SPADE: Cardiovascular/ Cerebrovascular Locomotor (skeletal. SNAP". decreased reaction time) Drugs (esp. muscular.H. neurological) Ageing (increased body sway. C. antihypertensives. visual problems) Psychological/ Psychiatric (depression) Acute illness Dementia Epilepsy .ANATOMY Pyschosis episode Stroke occurred Shock: types RN CHAMPS: Respiratory Neurogenic Cardiogenic Hemorrhagic Anaphylactic Metabolic Psychogenic Septic · Alternatively: "MR.

infant or child seat?) Ejection/ Extrication (eject=25x greater death.?) Restraints (lap & shoulder. obese. t-bone. motorcycle (start @ speed >10mph) Medical history (cardiac. either. immuno. healthy or persistent) MgSO4 (IIb for hypomagnesemic state or torsades) Procainamide (IIb for intermittent/recurrent VF/VT) Trauma: motor vehicle accident considerations I AM SCARED: Impact (head-on. pedestrian. extr>20min) Death (at scene.o. · Therefore. BOYLE: Breathe (as you ascend) Or Your Lung Explodes · Breathe as you ascend after scuba diving. rear-end. so the gas volume in lungs increases. coagulolation.) Auto vs. bike. Pain history checklist OLDER SAAB: . rollover.better for young. prego) Speed (>50 mph?) Compartment intrusion (>12 inches?) Age (<5 or >55 y. liver. since the pressure decreases on surfacing. same vehicle. airbag. rotational etc. Note: sliding scale no longer recommended in the UK) Nasogastic tube (if patient comatose) Glucose (once serum levels drop to 12) Asthma: management of acute severe "O S#!T": Oxygen (high dose: >60%) Salbutamol (5mg via oxygen-driven nebuliser) Hydrocortisone (or prednisolone) Ipratropium bromide (if life threatening) Theophylline (or preferably aminophylline-if life threatening) V-fib/pulseless v-tach (new ACLS as of 2001) "EVAL My Pumper": Epinephrine Vasopressin Amiodarone (class IIb--better for heart failure) Lidocaine (indeterminate . other) Decompression sickness Boyle's law: volume of gas is inversely proportionate to its pressure.ANATOMY Diabetic ketoacidosis management F*¢KING: Fluids (crytalloids) Urea (check it) Creatinine (check it)/ Catheterize K+ (potassium) Insulin (5u/hour.

remember you have the airway and can give the above drugs. AS or myxoma) Rhythm disturbance. RLQ pain: differential APPENDICITIS: Appendicitis/ Abscess PID/ Period Pancreatitis Ectopic/ Endometriosis Neoplasia Diverticulitis Intussusception Crohns Disease/ Cyst (ovarian) IBD Torsion (ovary) Irritable Bowel Syndrome Stones Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes BATS: Berry aneurysm Arteriovenous malformation/ Adult polycystic kidney disease Trauma (eg being struck with baseball bat) Stroke Syncope causes.ANATOMY Onset Location Description (what does it feel like) Exacerbating factors Radiation Severity Associated symptoms Alleviating factors Before (ever experience this before) Asystole: treatment "Have some asystole "TEA": Transcutaneous pacing Epi Atropine Endotrachial tube deliverable drugs O NAVEL: Oxygen Naloxone Atropine Ventolin (albuterol) Epinephrine Lidocaine · If you can't get IV access established. · Drug delivery is enhanced if diluted with 10cc NS and rapid introduced for aeresolization. as above. · Alternatively. ventricular Tachycardia · Vascular causes are VESSELS: Vasovagal Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia) Situational Subclavian steal ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia) Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison's. and have necessity to administer resuscitative meds. bare bone version is ALE. by system HEAD HEART VESSELS: · CNS causes include HEAD: Hypoxia/ Hypoglycemia Epilepsy Anxiety Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA) · Cardiac causes are HEART: Heart attack Embolism (PE) Aortic obstruction (IHSS. diabetic vascular neuropathy) Sensitive carotid sinus .

meningitis.. Ca.. Na+. TONES the GI tract. Mg2+. bring to mind the newspaper headline of the wheelchair bound fellow who left a party right after his ugly girlfriend departed: "QUAD LEFT RIGHT after COW-DATE" Pertoneum Facts The idea is to relate key letters of related parts. GASTROINTESTINAL MNEMONICS Bowel Segments "Dow Jones Industrial Averages Closing Stock Report" is a good one. paracetamol.ANATOMY Coma and signicantly reduced conscious state causes: Causes COMA: CO2 and CO excess Overdose: TCAs. quadrate. extradural. subdural. which prevents the intestines from kinking. etc. ammonia. . coLI is found in the Large Intestine The OMentum covers the stOMach The Lesser OMentum holds the Liver and stOMach The Mesentery holds the sMall intestine The mesoCOLON attaches the large intestine (COLON) to the posterior abdominal wall.. etc. left and right. SAH.. stOMach and OMentum (which lays over the stomach) The bacterium e.. Apoplexy: stroke.. Dow Duodenum Jones Jejunum Industrial Ileum Averages Appendix Closing Colon Stock Sigmoid Report Rectum Liver Lobes The four lobes of the liver: caudate. urea. EtOH. The periTONEa. even though it misses the Cecum. K+. etc. Metabolic: BSL. Sphincters of the Ailmentary Canal APE OIL initials the five of them. insulin. encephalitis. Benzos. cerebral abscess.

Body. Ulcerative colitis: definition of a severe attack A STATE: Anemia less than 10g/dl Stool frequency greater than 6 stools/day with blood Temperature greater than 37. psychogenic Gestation Pancreatitis (acute): causes GET SMASHED: Gallstones Ethanol Trauma Steroids Mumps Autoimmune (PAN) Scorpion stings Hyperlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia ERCP Drugs (including azathioprine and diuretics) · Note: 'Get Smashed' is slang in some countries for drinking. Ingested alcohol Neurogenic. digitalis toxicity) Increased ICP. hypercalcemia) Infections Toxicity (cytotoxic. Fundus. Pylorus.5 Albumin less than 30g/L Tachycardia greater than 90bpm ESR greater than 30mm/hr Vomiting: extra GI differential VOMITING: Vestibular disturbance/ Vagal (reflex pain) Opiates Migrane/ Metabolic (DKA.ANATOMY A Anal P Pyloric E (Lower) Esophageal O Oddi I Ileocecum L iLeocecum Stomach Parts "The CAR is FUN 'til the BODY PILES" relates the four parts of the stomach: Cardiac. The pylorus is where the food piles waiting for the sphincter to open. gastroparesis. and ethanol is an important pancreatitis cause. .

With diarrhea both the pH and food go down. IBD: extraintestinal manifestations A PIE SAC: Aphthous ulcers Pyoderma gangrenosum Iritis Erythema nodosum Sclerosing cholangitis Arthritis Clubbing of fingertips Digestive disorders: pH level With vomiting both the pH and food come up.ANATOMY IBD: surgery indications "I CHOP": Infection Carcinoma Haemorrhage Obstruction Perforation · "Chop" convenient since surgery chops them open. This looks like the ensuing polyps that arise in the colon. Pylori treatment regimen (rough guidelines) "Please Make Tummy Better": Proton pump inhibitor Metronidazole Tetracycline Bismuth · Alternatively: TOMB: Tetracycline Omeprazole Metronidazole Bismuth Bilirubin: common causes for increased levels "HOT Liver": Hemolysis Obstruction Tumor Liver disease Ulcerative colitis: complications "PAST Colitis": . Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) cause is DNA mismatch repair DNA mismatch causes a bubble in the strand where the two nucleotides don't match. H.

AST >200 Albumin below 32 Sugar: Glucose >10 (unless diabetic patient) .ANATOMY Pyoderma gangrenosum Ankylosing spondylitis Sclerosing pericholangitis Toxic megacolon Colon carcinoma Cholangitis features CHOLANGITITS: Charcot's triad/ Conjugated bilirubin increase Hepatic abscesses/ Hepatic (intra/extra) bile ducts/ HLA B8. DR3 Obstruction Leukocytosis Alkaline phosphatase increase Neoplasms Gallstones Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis) Transaminase increase Infection Sclerosing Charcot's triad (gallstones) "Charge a FEE": Charcot's triad is: Fever Epigastric & RUQ pain Emesis & nausea Haemachromatosis complications "HaemoChromatosis Can Cause Deposits Anywhere": Hypogonadism Cancer (hepatocellular) Cirrhosis Cardiomyopathy Diabetes mellitus Arthropathy Pancreatitis: criteria PANCREAS: PaO2 below 8 Age >55 Neutrophils: WCC >15 Calcium below 2 Renal: Urea >16 Enzymes: LDH >600.

000 Enzyme AST > 250 Glucose > 200 Age > 55 LDH > 350 GIT symptoms BAD ANAL S#!T: Bleeding Abdominal pain Dysphagia Abdominal bloating Nausea & vomiting Anorexia/ Appetite changes Lethargy S#!ts (diarrhea) Heartburn Increased bilirubin (jaundice) Temperature (fever) Crohn's disease: morphology.o. state of Georgia): Glucose >200 AST >250 LDH >350 Age >55 y. symptoms CHRISTMAS: Cobblestones High temperature Reduced lumen Intestinal fistulae . WBC >16000 Pancreatitis: Ranson criteria for pancreatitis: initial 48 hours "C & HOBBS" (Calvin and Hobbes): Calcium < 8 Hct drop > 10% Oxygen < 60 mm BUN > 5 Base deficit > 4 Sequestration of fluid > 6L Pancreatitis: Ranson criteria for pancreatitis at admission LEGAL: Leukocytes > 16.ANATOMY Pancreatitis: Ranson criteria for pancreatitis: at admission "GA LAW" (GA is abbreviation for the U.S.

ANATOMY Skip lesions Transmural (all layers. may ulcerate) Malabsorption Abdominal pain Submucosal fibrosis Dysphagia: differential DISPHAGIA: Disease of mouth and tonsils/ Diffuse oesophageal spasm/ Diabetes mellitus Intrinsic lesion Scleroderma Pharyngeal disorders/ Palsy-bulbar-MND Achalasia Heart: eft atrium enlargement Goitre/ myesthenia Gravis/ mediastinal Glands Infections American trypanosomiasis (chagas disease) 21 Dry mouth: differential "DRI": ·2 of each: Drugs/ Dehydration Renal failure/ Radiotherapy Immunological (Sjogren's)/ Intense emotions Liver failure: decompensating chronic liver failure differential HEPATICUS: Haemorrhage Electrolyte disturbance Protein load/ Paracetamol Alcohol binge Trauma Infection Constipation Uraemia Sedatives/ Shunt/ Surgery Cirrhosis: causes of hepatic cirrhosis HEPATIC: Hemochromatosis (primary) Enzyme deficiency (alpha-1-anti-trypsin) Post hepatic (infection + drug induced) Alcoholic Tyrosinosis Indian childhood (galactosemia) Cardiac/ Cholestatic (biliary)/ Cancer/ Copper (Wilson's) .

Liver failure (chronic): signs found on the arms CLAPS: Clubbing Leukonychia Asterixis Palmar erythema Scratch marks Splenomegaly: causes CHIMP: Cysts Haematological ( eg CML. bacterial) . myelofibrosis) Infective (eg viral (IM). like an eyebrow.ANATOMY Hepatic encephalopathy: precipitating factors HEPATICS: Hemorrhage in GIT/ Hyperkalemia Excess protein in diet Paracentesis Acidosis/ Anemia Trauma Infection Colon surgery Sedatives Diabetic ketoacidosis: precipitating factors · 5 I's: Infection Ischaemia (cardiac. mesenteric) Infarction Ignorance (poor control) Intoxication (alcohol) Whipple's disease: clinical manifestations SHELDA: Serositis Hyperpigmentation of skin Eating less (weight loss) Lymphadenopathy Diarrhea Arthritis Celiac sprue gluten sensitive enteropathy: gluten-containing grains BROW: Barley Rye Oats Wheat · Flattened intestinal villi of celiac sprue are smooth.

· Agua pura is spanish for pure water. Purines are Adenine and Guanine. Nucleotides: purines vs. B form is therefore active DNA.ANATOMY Metabolic/ Misc (eg amyloid. Gauchers) Portal hypertension GENETICS MNEMONICS DNA: Z vs. Therefore. with two Rings. with two Wings: G and A are Purines. pyrimidines Guardian Angels are Pure. B form: which is inactive ZZZZ is sleeping (inactive). Hurler Syndrome features HURLER'S: Hepatospenomegaly Ugly facies Recessive (AR inheritance) L-iduronidase deficiency (alpha) Eyes clouded Retarded Short/ Stubby fingers Nucleotides: which are purines Pure Silver: · Chemical formula of Pure silver is Ag. Down syndrome features: complete My CHILD HAS PROBLEM!: Congenital heart disease/ Cataracts Hypotonia / Hypothyroidism Incure 5th finger/ Increased gap between 1st and 2nd toe Leukemia risk x2/ Lung problem Duodenal atresia / Delayed development Hirshsprung's disease / Hearing loss Alzheimer's disease / Alantoaxial instability Squint/ Short neck Protruding tongue/ Palm crease . Nucleotides: purines AGUA PURa: Adenine and GUAnine are PURines.

since there is no Eastern blot. Northern vs.ANATOMY Round face/ Rolling eye (nystagmus) Occiput flat/ Oblique eye fissure Brushfield spot/ Brachycephaly Low nasal bridge/ Language problem Epicanthic fold/ Ear folded Mental retardation/ Myoclonus Blots: function of Southern vs. Western SN0W DR0P: · Match up the 1st word letter with 2nd word letter: Southern=DNA Northern=RNA Western=Protein · The 0's in snow drop are zeros. Down syndrome pathology DOWN: Decreased alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol (maternal) One extra chromosome twenty-one Women of advanced age Nondisjunction during maternal meiosis Pyrimidines nucleotides CUT the PY (cut the pie): Cytosine Uracil Thiamine are the PYrimidines DiGeorge/ Velocardiofacial syndrome: features CATCH 22: Cardiac abnormalities Abnormal facies Thymic aplasia Cleft palate Hypocalcemia 22q11 deletion Marfan syndrome features MARFAN: Mitral valve prolapse Aortic Aneurysm Retinal detachment Fibrillin Arachnodactyly Negative Nitroprusside test (differentiates from homocystinuria) Cell cycle stages .

Why is the cat crying? Missing its P. Proto-oncogenes are opposite (dominant). dominant Recess Suppress: Tumor suppressor mutations are recessive. Nucleotides: class having the single ring· Pyrimadines are CUT from purines · Pyrimidines are: Cytosine Uracil Thiamine They are cut from purines so the pyrimadines must be smaller (one ring).ANATOMY Go Sally Go! Make Children!: G1 phase (Growth phase 1) S phase (DNA Synthesis) G2 phase (Growth phase 2) M phase (Mitosis) C phase (Cytokinesis) Cri-du-chat syndrome: chromosomal deletion causing it is 5p(-) What's another name for a cat that's five letters long and starts with a P? (Answer: kitty). Exon vs. APKD: genetics ADult Polycystic Kidney Disease is Autosomal Dominant · Also. InTrons In Trash. Codons: nonsense mutation Stop talking nonsense!: Nonsense mutation causes premature stop. intron function Exons Expressed. Polycystic kidney has 16 letters and is due to a defect on chromosome 16. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: causes for deviations from it Maggie May Does Not Smoke: Mutations Migration Drift Non-random mating Selection Achrondroplasia dwarfism: inheritance pattern Achondroplasia Dwarfism is Autosomal Dominant. Tumor suppressor vs. proto-onogene mutations: recessive vs. .

so black-filled symbol means an affected/diseased person [so non-filled-in is unaffected]. NEUROLOGY MNEMONICS Dementia: some common causes DEMENTIA: . · Which disease results. Nucleotides: double vs. Imprinting diseases: Prader-Willi and Angelman Pray to an Angel: Prader-Willi and Angelman are the 2 classic imprinting diseases. Keep them straight by: Paternal is Prader-Willi. depends on whether 15q deletion is maternal or paternal. Tay Sach's features SACHS: Spot in macula Ashkenazic Jews CNS degeneration Hex A deficiency Storage disease · Extra details with TAY: Testing recommended Autosomal recessive/ Amaurosis Young death (<4 yrs) Chromosome 15 diseases Chromosome 15 has its own MAP: Marfan syndrome Angelman syndrome Prader-Willi syndrome Bartter syndrome: inheritance BARtter syndrome is autosomal recessive (AR). Affected: Black plague was a disease. triple bonded basepairs TU bonds (two bonds): T-A and U-A have Two bonds. G-C therefore has the three bonds.ANATOMY Pedigree symbols: gender and affected Gender: The cIRcle is a gIRl [so boys are squares].

inguinal freckling Fibroma Eye: lisch nodules Skeletal (bowing leg.ANATOMY Diabetes Ethanol Medication Environmental (eg CO poisoning) Nutritional Trauma Infection Alzheimer's Whipple's disease: features [for neurologists] A WHIPPLES DOOM Arthralgias Whipplei (organism) Hypothalamic involvement Intestinal involvement/ Intestinal biopsy required PAS positive macrophages PCR positivity Lymphadenopathy Extrapyramidal involvement Septran treat with Dementia Ocular abnormalities (vertical gaze palsy) Oculomasticatory myorhythmia Myoclonus Neurofibromatosis: diagnostic criteria ROLANDO: Relative (1st degree) Osseous fibromas Lisch nodules in eyes Axillary freckling Neurofibromas Dime size cafe au lait spots Optic gliomas Visual loss: persistent bilateral sudden onset visual loss differential FLOP: Functional Leber's hereditary neuropathy Occipital infarctions Pituitary apoplexy Neurofibromatosis: diagnositic criteria (type-1) CAFE SPOT: Cafe-au-lait spots Axillary. etc) Pedigree/ Positive family history Optic Tumor (glioma) Babinski and LMN signs: conditions exhibiting them "D MASTS": Diabetes Motor neuron disease Ataxia (friedrichs) Subacute combined degeneration of cord Tabo paresis Syringobulbia Ramsay-Hunt syndrome: cause and common feature "Ramsay Hunt": · Etiology: Reactivated Herpes zoster · Complication: Reduced Hearing Stroke risk factors HEADS: Hypertension/ Hyperlipidemia Elderly Atrial fib Diabetes mellitus/ Drugs (cocaine) Smoking/ Sex (male) Vertigo: differential VOMITS: Vestibulitis Ototoxic drugs Meniere's disease Injury Tumor Spin (benign positional vertigo) .

JC. PortWine stain Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict Bad Metabolism": Galactosaemia . PEDIATRICS MNEMONICS Measles: complications "MEASLES COMP" (complications): Myocarditis Encephalitis Appendicitis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Laryngitis Early death Sh!ts (diarrhoea) Corneal ulcer Otis media Mesenteric lymphadenitis Pneumonia and related (bronchiolitis-bronchitis-croup) Sturge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features Sturge-Weber: 1. Seizures 2.ANATOMY Encephalitis: differential HE'S LATIN AMERICAN: Herpesviridae Enteroviridae (esp. coli Rabies/ Rubella Idiopathic Cryptococcus/ Candida Abscess Neoplasm/ Neurocysticercosis · Neurocysticercosis should be assumed with recent Latin American immigrant patient unless proven otherwise. prions) Syphilis Legionella/ Lyme disease/ Lymphocytic meningoencephalitis Aspergillus Toxoplasmosis Intracranial pressure Neisseria meningitidis Arboviridae Measles/ Mumps/ Mycobacterium tuberculosis/ Mucor E. Polio) Slow viruses (esp.

ANATOMY Cystic fibrosis Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Hypothyroidism Phenylketonuria Biotidinase deficiency Maple syrup urine disease Croup: symptoms 3 S's: Stridor Subglottic swelling Seal-bark cough Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT: Absent Thymus Cerebral palsy (CP): most likely cause CP: Cerebral Palsy Child Premature · The premature brain is more prone to all the possible insults. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla of vater. Vacterl syndrome: components VACTERL: Vertebral anomalies Anorectal malformation Cardiac anomaly Tracheo-esophageal fistula Exomphalos (aka omphalocele) Renal anomalies Limb anomalies Guthrie card: diseases identified with it GUTHRIE: Galactosaemia Urine [maple syrup urine disease] THyRoid [hypothyroidism] Inborn Errors of metabolism [eg: PKU] Duodenal atresia vs. 11 . Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it. Bilirubin: phototherapy BiLirUbin absorbs light maximally in the BLUe range.

ANATOMY Williams syndrome: features WILLIAMS: Weight (low at birth. slow to gain) Iris (stellate iris) Long philtrum Large mouth Increased Ca++ Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses) Mental retardation Swelling around eyes (periorbital puffiness) Russell Silver syndrome: features ABCDEF: Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy) Bossing (frontal) Clinodactyly/ Cafe au lait spots Dwarf (short stature) Excretion (GU malformation) Face (triangular face. micrognathia) Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama Is In Pain. Papa Can Make Medicine": 1st Molar: 6 years 1st Incisor: 7 years 2nd Incisor: 8 years 1st Premolar: 9 years 2nd Premolar: 10 years Canine: 11 years 2nd Molar: 12 years 3rd Molar: 18-25 years Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · Use your five fingers: 1 finger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel) 2 fingers up: Dextroposition of the Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed) 3 fingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3=Tri) 4 fingers up: Tetralogy of Fallot (4=Tetra) 5 fingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (5=5 words) Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's: Truncus arteriosus Transposition of the great arteries Tricuspid atresia Tetrology of Fallot Total anomalous pulmonary venous return .

9. gastroesphageal reflux) Dyskinetic cilia Lung. and vascular malformations (tracheomalacia. hemolytic) Thrombocytopenia Encephalopathy (TTP) Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery. airway. rock the "CRADLE": Cystic fibrosis Rings. slings. salty skin . vocal cord dysfunction) Edema (heart failure) Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS: Chronic cough and wheezing Failure to thrive Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea) Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes Rectal prolapse Electrolyte elevation in sweat. and airway things (tracheal rings)/ Respiratory infections Aspiration (swallowing dysfunction. add 5 kg until 11 yrs) 5 yrs 20 kg 7 yrs 25 kg 9 yrs 30 kg 11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter) 13 yrs 45 kg 15 yrs 55 kg 17 yrs 65 kg Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS): components "Remember to decrease the RATE of IV fluids in these patients": Renal failure Anemia (microangiopathic. TE fistula.ANATOMY Head circumference with age · Remember 3. and multiples of 5: Newborn 35 cm 3 mos 40 cm 9 mos 45 cm 3 yrs 50 cm 9 yrs 55 cm Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg 6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos) 1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr) 3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs.

thicker. jaws. peribronchial thickening. WAGR syndrome: components WAGR: . mouth · Mother: Econmical Fitness: quick return to pre-pregnancy body shape Guards against cancer: breast. tachypnea. weight loss CBC (leukocytosis with left shift) Radiograph (increase overaeration. forming plugs) Pyloric stenosis (congential): presentation Pyloric stenosis is 3 P's: Palpable mass Paristalsis visible Projectile vomiting (2-4 weeks after birth) Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · 5 T's: Tetralogy of Fallot Transposition of the great arteries Truncus arteriosus Tricuspid atresia. unless severe bronchopneumonia is present) Pulmonary function deterioration Appetite decrease Nutrition. ovary. mucus plugging) Exam (rales or wheezing in previously clear areas. uterus Hemorrhage (postpartum) reduced Perez reflex Eliciting the PErEz reflex will make the baby PEE. retractions) Activity (decreased. increased absenteeism) Sputum (becomes darker.ANATOMY Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid) 21 Cystic fibrosis: exacerbation of pulmonary infection CF PANCREAS: Cough (increase in intensity and frequent spells) Fever (usually low grade. pulmonary aTresia Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage Breast feeding: benefits ABCDEFGH: · Infant: Allergic condition reduced Best food for infant Close relationship with mother Development of IQ. and more abundant. impaired exercise intolerance.

growth retardation. sickle cell) Infection (UTI) In Jury (trauma) Kidney stones (hypercalciuria) Vitamin toxicities: neonatal Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic) Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis) Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis) Rubella: congenital signs "Rubber Ducky. Blue: "Blueberry Muffin" rash (extramedullary hematopoesis in skin +purpura) · Also. VSD and pulmonary artery stenosis. Pediatric milestones in development 1 year: -single words 2 years: -2 word sentences -understands 2 step commands 3 years: -3 word combos -repeats 3 digits -rides tricycle 4 years: -draws square -counts 4 objects 31 . deafness. retinopathy. I'm so blue!" (like the "Rubber Ducky" song): Rubber: Rubella Ducky: Patent Ductus Arteriosus.ANATOMY Wilm's tumor Aniridia Gential abnormalities Mental retardation Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHIJK: Anatomy (cysts. etc) Bladder (cystitis) Cancer (Wilm's tumour) Drug related (cyclophosphamide) Exercise induced Factitious (Munchausen by proxy) Glomerulonephritis Haematology (bleeding disorder. and some more. I'm: Eyes (cataracts. glaucoma). micropthalmia.

(Unscramble the letters). mucopolysaccharidoses) Chromosomal (Turner's.ANATOMY Gastroschisis: usual location GasTRoscHIsis usually occurs on the RIGHT side of the umbilicus. Cushing's. scoliosis. cows Woman: Whey (mostly) Cow: Casein (mostly) Short stature: differential ABCDEFG: Alone (neglected infant) Bone dysplasias (rickets. Down's) Delayed growth Endocrine (low growth hormone. hypothyroid) Familial GI malabsorption (celiac. Milk protein: women vs. Crohn's) PHYSIOLOGY MNEMONICS .

genus (orangutan or human). Science Department. only slightly modified from the original. Lower Esophageal. Fundus. digestive. and Pylorus. Piles. Uri must dig into the end. try An Odd Pile Lowers the Ileocecum. I wrote out the first three letter of each and managed to create two phrases which are easy to recall and make remembering the ten systems a cinch! Ergo: Sir: I'm nervous about reproducing with the rest. Also. Z. Kingdom.quadrate. animalia.L.bring to mind the newspaper headline of the wheelchair-bound fellow who left a party right after his ugly girlfriend . monera. immune. C. family (cat. Two others: King Phillip's Class Of Family Geniuses Specializes in Variety and Kind Phillip's Class Orders Family-sized Gino's Special. but had the letters N. Cars. VA) Alimentary and Digestion Ape Oil The 5 sphincters found in the Alimentary Canal spell APE OIL: Anal. offers this hockey mnemonic: Kings Play Calgary On Friday. ape). and endocrine. Mon Ami. and the Bay of Fundy "The CAR is FUN `til the BODY PILES" I remember the 5 layers of the GI stomach: Cardiac. I left over and did not want to suggest MURDER NICI because NICKI is also the name of my favorite ex-girlfriend. I embedded them into neurons by: Protecting Plants is Fun. nervous. Rappahannock Community College Warsaw. anyway). dog. order (carnivore?). Oddi. respiratory. Some are Ugly The 4 lobes of the liver -. Pyloric. For Gosh Sake!! (Hallie Ray. class (mammal?). I strung out the first letters of the 10 and immediately picked out MURDER. caudate -. His system of kingdom (plant or animal). Body. fungi. The fundus looks like the Bay of Fundy (to me. thus giving headaches to many generations of students. left & right.ANATOMY Organs Better than Murder … While working to uncover a hidden acrostic in the list of bodily organ systems. and Ileocecum. plantae. One easy sentence used is King Philip Conquers Our Fifty Grateful States. phylum (backbone?). Finally. species and variety is still used today. and the pylorus is where the food piles waiting for the sphincter to open. Then. The 5 kingdoms (used to be only 2 or 3) are protoctista. Gretzky Scores! Take your pick. which sounds like a slogan for a French environmental activist group. integumentary. Easy now? Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) named and classified the various forms of life as a way of seeking order in diversity. muscle. reproduction. phylum Keep Perverts Cleverly Occupied. urinary. He created taxonomy to do this. The organ system names buried within the phrases are (in order): circulatory. I.

Meatuses.. saying "Adam. Nasopharynx. T Thyroid E Epiglottis A Arytenoid C Cricoid The snake in Garden of Eden spoke with a lisp. Movie Personality Lana Turner's Pretty Sexy Thighs Turn Retinas All Around helps you recall the order of the respiratory tract segments. . Nares (internal). Mouthy Mouth People Pharynx Loud Larynx Talkers Trachea Cartilages of the Larynx There are 4 cartilages in the larynx whose initial letters are TEAC (also the brandname of a home stereo). thry thith apple." This refers to the fact that the THYRoid cartilage is also called the Adam's Apple.ANATOMY RESPIRATORY MNEMONICS Airflow Passages Airflows are prominent in Mouthy People who are Loud Talkers. Respiratory Tract It's a bit of an extended version of the Airflow Passage mnemonic above. Associate the TEAC sound and the vocal cords. and you get the connection. Conchae. Lung Lobes The segments of the (right) Middle Lobe of the lung are Medial and Lateral [ML=ML] Nasal Cavity Never Call Me Needle Nose helps remember the parts of the nasal cavity: Nares (external)..

ANATOMY Movie Mouth Personality Pharynx Lana Larynx Turner's Trachea Pretty Primary Bronchus Sexy Secondary Bronchus Thighs Teritary Bronchus Turn Terminal Bronchiole Retinas Respiratory Bronchiole All Alveolar Duct Around Alveolar Sac Three Tonsils People (or PPL. for short) have three tonsils: Pharyngeal. & WEIRD DRUGS • WATER = urinary tract infections • WIND = atelectasis or pneumonia • WALK = deep vein thrombosis • WOUND = surgucal wound infection • WEIRD DRUGS = drug induced fever F = Foreign bodies E = Epithelization T = Tumors I = infection I = Irradiated tissue I = IBD D = Distal obstruction CT scan indications in trauma setting: Uncle Nelson ARgues ABout Kids • Unconcious pt after head trauma • Neck injury. SURGERY MNEMONICS Surgery Mnemonics The 5 W’s For Remembering Common Causes of Fever Post-Operation: WATER. WIND. to confirm vertebral fracture when Xray is equivocal . WOUND. WALK. and Lingual. Palatine.

. Ann Ascending Pharyngeal See plate 29 in Netter's Atlas of Likes Lingual Human Anatomy. Case Western Philidelphia's Posterior auricular Reserve on 7/22/98... when gloved finger in ER cant say for sure if theres penetration • Kidney injury leading to blood in urine. This is a Main Maxillary good "pimp" question/fact when Street Superficial temporal you are in the OR assisting on a thyroid or a carotid case..ANATOMY • Aortic Rupture (after Xray. Flirting Facial Anatomy Contributed by Calvin Lee.. Before Aortogram) • Abdominal penetrating wound.. On Occipital Surgical Resident. well I'm post- T= hyperThyroid call." . A-fib. (A brick has a GCS of 3) For Causes of A-Fib/Flutter: H= cHf. occurs in the R= Rheumatic heart disease HEART ?? Ok. other cardiomyopathies E= Enlargement of the atria Mnemonic by Chris Cardiology A= Alcohol binge drinking "Get it? . Know this one! Eye opening: 4 eyes (glasses) Motor: 6 cylinder engine How to remember the basic Verbal: Jackson 5 Neurology framework of the Glasgow coma scale? Gives you a total of 15. blunt abdominal trauma Topic Fact Mnemonic Branches of the External Carotid Artery in order starting with the first branch Sally Superior Thyroid (superior thyroid artery).

e. man!" .from dismiss. "Don't 'dis' me.virtually dismembered 'im. *Note: "Dissed" is used here as the slang term "dis" . (amiable British socialite).Lydia's penny Mexican tacos. . .proper Bertha Butt . proper Bertha Butt.ANATOMY Mnemonic for remembering antiarrhythmics submitted by Jed Class Drug Mnemonic Class IA Procainamide Professor Quinidine Quackers Disopyramide "dissed" * Class IB Lidocaine Lydia's Phenytoin penny Mexiletine Mexican Tocainide Tacos Class IC Flecainide feeling Propafenone profaned Class II Propranolol proper Beta Blockers Bertha Butt Class III Amiodarone amiable Bretylium British Cardiology Solatol socialite Class IV Verapamil virtually Diltiazem dismembered 'im Atropine Adenosine Read as: Professor Quackers "dissed" . Feeling profaned.(amiable British socialite) . or Professor Quackers dissed Lydia's Penny Mexican Tacos. virtually dismembered 'im.Feeling profaned.. I.

Also Wonder drugs .ANATOMY M = morphine O = oxygen N = nitrates Proven MI. hold the Nitrates. Whiz: a urinary tract infection is possible if urinary catheterization was required. (added by Calvin Lee) .complex Type IV Delayed hypersensitivity Remember the following mnemonic when determining the possible cause(s) of fever in a patient who has recently undergone a surgical procedure: the 5 W's (or 6 W's) Wind: the pulmonary system is the primary source of fever in the first 48 hours.O.. Causes of post op fever Surgery Water: check intravenous access site for Submitted by Jed signs of phlebitis.mediated submitted by Jed. _________________ ACLS (1997). Wound: there might be an infection at the surgical site. Type III Immune . should be met by A = aspirin M.N. Walk: deep venous thrombosis can develop due to pelvic pooling or restricted mobility related to pain and fatigue.A. Cardiology Caveat: is suspected right ventricular MI submitted by Chris suspected .drug fevers. "ACID" Classification of hypersensitivity reactions Type I Anaphylaxis Pathology Type II Cytotoxic ..

Reduces left ventricular preload. may repeat in 2 Treatment of acute pulmonary to 4 hours. retention I: Infection. which reduces the efficiency of ventilation. This facilitates respiration and reduces venous return. Initial dose. Caution: may cause hypotension. or 40 mg if the patient does not usually take the drug. 5 to 10 ug/min. 100% given to obtain an arterial PO2>60 mm Hg. impaction (fecal) P: Polyuria. Nitroglycerin IV. pharmaceuticals . 4 to 8 mg IV (subcutaneous administration is effective in milder cases). Avoid respiratory depression. The following mnemonic aids in remembering the causes of acute and reversible forms of urinary incontinence - Causes of acute and reversible DRIP: Urology forms of urinary incontinence D: Delirium Submitted by Jed R: Restricted mobility. Morphine sulfate. one to two times the patient's usual dose. inflammation. Increase by 5 ug/min q 3 to 5 minutes.ANATOMY As Easy as 'LMNOP' Remember the mnemonic LMNOP when treating a patient with acute pulmonary edema: Lasix® (furosemide) intravenous (IV). Position patient sitting up with legs dangling over the side of the bed. Oxygen. and relieves Submitted by Jed anxiety. Pulmonary edema lowering left atrial pressure. Morphine increases venous capacity.

ANATOMY Use the mnemonic SITTT as an aid in evaluating the cause of hematuria: S: Stone Causes of hematuria I: Infection Urology Submitted by Jed T: Trauma T: Tumor T: Tuberculosis Remember the following mnemonic when evaluating patients for hyperthyroidism: S: Sweating T: Tremor or Tachycardia Symptoms of hyperthyroidism Endocrine Submitted by Jed I: Intolerance to heat. Temperature (DAT) NEUROANATOMY For the function of the temporal lobes. Truncus. Total Cardiology Sumbitted by Ben Humphreys anomalous. Irregular menstruation. Acidity. think of a helmet which covers the side of the head: HELM: . Transposition. Tricuspid atresia HEMATOLOGY DATs Right! .the oxygen dissociation curve shifts RIGHT whenever there is an INCREASE in any of the following: DPG. and Irritability N: Nervousness G: Goiter and Gastrointestinal (loose stools/diarrhea). 5 T's of early cyanosis: Tetralogy.

decreased) A . Normal anion gap acidosis There's the older mnemonic USED CAR: U : uterosigmoidostomy S : saline administration (in the face of renal dysfunction) E : endocrine (Addisons.Appetite (decreased) S . triamterene.(Colon can refer to bowel complaints as this is a common presentation of depression. primary hyperparathyroidism) . spironolactone.Concentration (difficult. SIG:ECAPS S .Interest G . HUS/TTP HUS/TTP is a CRAFTY syndrome: C : CNS symptoms R : Renal failure A : Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. but not official) E . amiloride.Suicidal ideation RENAL 1.ANATOMY H : hearing E : emotion L : learning M : memory PSYCHIATRY Here's one from one of the psychiatrists on how to remember the symptoms of depression. He said it was like writing a prescription for Energy Capsules. "MAHA") F : Fever T : Thrombocytopenia Y : no one knows "Y" it occurs 2.Sleep I .Energy (decreased) C .Guilt : .

enteroenteric fistula. fibrosis) U : ulcerative colitis (also Crohn's disease less commonly) B : bronchiectasis B : benign mesothelioma I : inherited. ethanol. ureterosigmoidostomy) E : endocrine (same as above endocrine list) 3. IBD . Increased anion gap acidosis The older mnemonic is MUDPIES: M : methanol U : uremia D : diabetes P : paraldehyde I : idiopathic (lactic acidosis) E : ethylene glycol S : salicylates and a newer one called DULSI: D : diabetic ketoacidosis U : uremia L : lactic acidosis S : salicylate poisoning I : intoxicants (methanol. respiratory acidosis A : acetazolamide. ethylene glycol) MISCELLANEOUS Clubbing (by Doog) C : cardiac (R -> L shunt) L : lung (tumor.ANATOMY D : diarrhea C : carbonic anhydrase inhibitors A : ammonium chloride R : renal tubular acidosis and a newer mnemonic RAGE: R : renal tubular acidosis. ammonium chloride G : GI (diarrhea. idiopathic.

UC) also.ANATOMY N : neurogenic tumors G : GI (cirrhosis. which didn't fit in the mnemonic! . crohn's. Hyperplastic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy.