# 7/10/2013

ABE 70
FUNDAMENTALS OF SURVEYING

The tape is not necessarily limited to
the measurement of distances

 Determine an unknown length
 Layout a required/specified length

Situations where it would be necessary to erect on
the ground a perpendicular to an established line
 erecting perpendicular to a line
 measuring angles  Laying out floor dimensions
 laying off angles  Laying out road intersection
 determining obstructed distances  Constructing new road perpendicular to the existing
 locating irregular boundaries
 determining areas of different shapes

1

Procedure (Option 2) 3. 3-4-5 Method  measure two equal length on each side of a point (e.g. pt X)  12:16:20 2 . 7/10/2013 1. pt X) The lengths of the sides can be common multiples of this ratio  select convenient radius (same length) and make an arc of a circle  3:4:5  locate the intersection of the two arcs  6:8:10  draw the line from the intersection of the arcs  9:12:15 and the point (e. Swing Offset Method  select convenient length as radius METHODS  describe arc that produces only 1 point of contact with the line  Swing Offset Method (Good for short distances only)  Chord Bisection Method  3 – 4 – 5 Method 2.g. Chord Bisection Procedure (Option 1)  select convenient length as radius  A chord on a circle is a line segment that  describe arc on the line connects two points that are on the outside  find the midpoint edge (circumference) of the circle.

To determine the different field methods of constructing offsets (perpendicular lines) using taping equipment only b. To learn the various methods of measuring obstructed distances c. the students should be able to: a. To compute the most probable values of measured quantities 3 . 7/10/2013  accomplished by the application of very basic geometric and trigonometric principles  employs simple principle of trigonometry  the accuracy of measuring angles with tape  the accuracy depends on the care taken in depends on the care taken in laying out laying out lengths and in establishing the lengths and in establishing the needed points needed points on the ground on the ground angle angle  uses basic geometric and trigonometric principles Pythagorean Theorem Sine Law Cosine law B Similar triangles A OBJECTIVES At the end of the exercise. To learn how to measure horizontal angles with a tape d. To determine the area of a rectilinear field with tape e.

Computations Objective of the exercise 4. Sketch Date and Time Weather condition 2. Summary and Conclusions 4 . 7/10/2013 EXPECTED OUTPUT Exercise No. Title of the Exercise 1. Tabulations Name and Designation Signature 3. Results and Discussion List of Equipments 5.