GREAT BRITAIN

TEXTS FOR READING
AND DISCUSSION

FORMS

~11

Russky Yazyk ~ I rrt'"" Drofa
Publishers ~ ..", Publishers
Moscow
1997

ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИЯ ТЕКСТЫ для УСТНЫХ ОТВЕТОВ И ПИСЬМЕННЫХ РАБОТ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ So11 KA~CCIII Издательство .РусскиЙ язык. ~ I -tf J" Издательскийдом •Дрофа. Москва 1997 .~ .

2 А н г л .0 ББК 74. — 160 с: ил. 5—11 кл.2. И. 1997. традициями и обычаями. + 81. административно-территориаль­ ной структурой. Баканова. / Авт.1 Англ.-сост.1 А н г л .8+373.1]:802. Пособие поможет школьникам подготовить ответы к устным темам. по­ литической системой. ISBN 5—7107—1062—8 («Дрофа») ISBN 5—200—02453—6 («Русский я з ы к » ) В пособии представлены различные тексты о Вели­ кобритании. Тек­ сты сопровождаются грамматическими упражнениями. Русский язык. 1997 ISBN 5—200—02453—6 («Русский я з ы к » ) . выполнить различные письменные ра­ боты на английском языке. Баканова В е л и к о б р и т а н и я : Тексты для устных В27 ответов и письменных работ на англий­ ском языке.1]:802.—922 В27 Серия «Английский для школьников» основана в 1997 году А в т о р .0 ББК 74. Ю. ее географическим положением.8+373. Англ. которые знакомят школьников со страной изучаемого языка.268. У Д К [372. — М.+ 81. — (Серия «Английский для школьников»).167.с о с т а в и т е л ь учитель английского языка гимназии № 1514 г.268. Д л я учащихся общеобразовательных учебных заве­ дений и учителей английского языка. историей. Ю.: Дрофа.УДК [372.167. Москвы И. — 9 2 2 ISBN 5—7107—1062—8 ( « Д р о ф а » ) © « Д р о ф а » .

CONTENTS От автора 8 Part 1 THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND The History of Britain 11 Location 16 England 19 Scotland 20 Wales 22 Northern Ireland 23 The Weather 24 System of Government 28 5 .

Parliament 31 The Press in Great Britain 37 Television in Great Britain 41 Part 2 LONDON AND ITS PLACES OF INTEREST The British Museum 60 Covent Garden 65 The Museum of Transport 67 The Royal Academy 71 The Channel Tunnel 74 The Thames 76 Part 3 EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Education in Great Britain (continued) 89 Oxbridge 95 6 .

Part 4 THE BRITISH PEOPLE The English Language 102 Holidays and Festivals 106 The Weekend 115 Holidays in Britain 120 "An Englishman's Home is His Castle" 124 Meals 129 Pubs in Britain 135 Sport in Britain 138 Traditions and Customs 143 Key to Exercises 150 .

историей. Пособие содержит тек­ сты различной степени сложности. включает систему упражнений для от­ работки различных видов чтения. географические. Фрагменты отдельных тем по «Великобри­ тании» находятся практически в каждом из действующих учебных комплексов по англий­ скому языку. админист­ ративно-территориальной структурой. традициями и обычаями. ОТ А В Т О Р А Данное пособие предназначается для учащих­ ся. Пособие может быть использовано в качест­ ве дополнения к любому традиционному учеб­ нику английского языка. политиче- 8 . вы­ полнить различные письменные работы. ее политической системой. культурологические. В силу того что климатические. Тексты знакомят учащихся с климатически­ ми и географическими особенностями Велико­ британии. Оно представляет собой сборник текстов по страно­ ведению. изучающих английский язык в общеобразо­ вательных учебных заведениях. развития мо­ нологической и диалогической речи на англий­ ском языке. и учителей. Оно поможет школь­ никам подготовить ответы к устным темам.

«Соедините две части предложения». 2) проверку понимания прочитанного мате­ риала. 9 . знания учащихся име­ ют отрывочный. а так­ же навыков монологической и диалогической речи в рамках изложенного материала. 3) активизацию использования в монологи­ ческой и диалогической речи учащихся пред­ ставленных в тексте языковых единиц и рече­ вых оборотов. «Выберите пра­ вильный вариант ответа». дополнение их интересны­ ми и актуальными фактами. Оно не только знакомит учащихся со страной изучаемого языка. культурой.ские особенности. ее географией. Подборка текстов с соответствующими грам­ матическими упражнениями направлена пре­ жде всего на: 1) более глубокое знакомство с особенностя­ ми страны изучаемого языка. не представле­ ны в едином комплексе. «Закончите предло­ ж е н и я » . но и способствует совершенствованию навыков чтения (просмот­ рового. ознакомительного и поискового). учитель легко может проверить понимание прочитанного текста. а также расшире­ ние лингвистических возможностей при по­ следующей аудиторной и л и самостоятельной работе. Ц е л ь ю данного пособия является систематизация ранее полученных знаний. С помощью упражнений. политикой. которые приводят­ ся после каждого текста. К таким упражнениям можно отнести следую­ щие: «Ответьте на вопросы». системой образования. хаотичный характер. как правило.

Ц е л ь данного упраж­ нения — выработать у учащихся умение быст­ ро находить нужную информацию и точно ее изложить в сжатом виде. обычаями. Пособие содержит иллюстративный матери­ ал. После заполнения таб­ лицы ее можно использовать для краткого пе­ ресказа прочитанного. как «Найдите эквиваленты данным словам» и «Выберите правильное зна­ чение с л о в а » . Поскольку основной сложностью д л я уча­ щихся общеобразовательных школ по-прежне­ му остается пересказ страноведческого текста с малознакомыми для них культурой. то с целью помочь обучению тако­ му виду работы предлагаются следующие уп­ ражнения: «Заполните таблицу». который носит прежде всего познавательный характер и позволяет более подробно познако­ миться со страной изучаемого языка. которые содержат незначительное расхождение с текстом. Упражнение «Расположите предложения в соответствующем порядке» подводит учащих­ ся к составлению плана текста и пересказу его. Д л я расширения лексического запаса школь­ ников и развития чувства языка предлагаются такие упражнения. и поэтому нацелено на детальную проверку по­ нимания текста. 10 . Упражнение «Верно ли данное утвержде­ ние?» включает в себя предложения. традициями. Д л я отдельных видов упражнений (они от­ мечены звездочкой *) в конце пособия даются ключи.

and language. Even most of temples. In the country (where most people l i v e d ) Celtic speech dominated. roads and cit- ies were later destroyed. The Romans im- posed their own way of living. mixed with the peoples who were already in Brit- ain Isles. The Roman province of Britannia covered most of the territory of present- day England and W a l e s . there isn't much they left behind. The Romans influenced mainly the towns. Lancaster. Part 1 OF GREAT BRITAIN The History of Britain wo thousand years ago the Celts. Gloucester remind us of the Romans. The farming meth- 11 . culture. But inspite of their long occupa- tion of Britain. who had been arriving f r o m Europe. But such place- names like Chester.

Only in the west of the country K i n g A r t h u r and his army halted the tribes.ods remained there unchanged. But in the 6th century the way of life of these tribes predominated in England. But this invasion wasn't a large- 12 . Christianity came f r o m R o m e in 597. The Celtic Brit- ons' culture and language survived in South- w e s t Scotland. They settled in the N o r t h and W e s t of Scotland and in some regions of Ireland. when they arrived in Britain. Later they were defeated by K i n g A l f r e d . There new methods of farming were introduced and a number of villages were founded. Normans invaded Britain in the 11th cen- tury (1066). Wales and Cornwall. We can't speak about Roman's occupation as a large- scale settlement. In the 8th century Britain was invaded by the Vikings. the Anglo-Saxons influenced the coun- tryside. who came f r o m Scandina- via. The Anglo-Saxons were pagans. Later (during the 5th century) two tribes (the A n g l e s and the Saxons) settled in Brit- ain. They settled on a v e r y vast t e r r i t o r y . If the Romans had great influence on towns.

The Anglo-Norman king- dom was the most powerful political force at that time. The peasants were the English- speaking Saxons. The House of Lords consisted of the a r i s t o c r a c y and the leaders of t h e 13 . lords — to a baron. Parliament was split into t w o Houses. Under them were peas- ants. In the 13th century Parliament included elected representatives f r o m urban and ru- ral areas. L o r d s and barons w e r e French-speaking Normans. During the 16th century the power of the English monarch increased. the W e l s h lan- guage and culture dominated there. In this period the Germanic language (Middle English) dominated in England. That was the beginning of the En- glish class system.scale one. As Northern and Central W a l e s was never set- tled by Saxons and Normans. Still this invasion influenced the life of Britain greatly. At that time a feudal system was imposed. The Tudor dynasty (1485—1603) established a system of government which strongly depended on the monarch. Barons w e r e responsible to the k i n g .

Australia. The population of Lon- don was close to a million at that time. India and large parts of A f r i c a . The leader of the parliamentary army was Oliver Cromwell. During the 17th century Parliament es- tablished its supremacy over the monarchy in Britain. but rec- ognized the authority of the British gov- ernment. The Empire was made up of Ireland.Church. which ended with the victory of Parliament. But after his death his system of government became unpopular. The British spread their culture and civilization around the world. Canada. 14 . The House of Commons consisted of representatives from the towns. Britain was the greatest economic power. In the 19th century Britain controlled the biggest Empire in the world. People from rural areas moved to towns. The son of the executed king was asked to take the throne. These coun- tries had internal self-government. In that century the increased trade led to the Industrial Revolution. The conflict between the monarchy and Parliament led to the Civil W a r s . In the 18th century the Scottish Parlia- ment joined with the English and the W e l s h Parliaments.

1. 1. the Labour party replaced the Liber- als. Who invaded Britain in the 8th century? 4. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. The situation in Ulster wasn't sta- ble. The beginning of the 20th century can't be called stable. What reminds people of the Romans? 2. In Parlia- ment. to halt the tribes 15 . Answer the questions. At the beginning of this century the working class became stronger. W o m e n struggled for their rights. Until 1980s the Trades Union Congress was the most powerful political force outside the institutions of government. When was a feudal system imposed? 5. Who was the leader of the parliamentary army in the Civil Wars? 7. When was Parliament split into two Hous- es? 6. Trade unions o r g a n i z e d themselves. How did the Anglo-Saxons effect the coun- tryside? 3. EXERCISES I. In what century was the Britain the great- est economic power? II. a large-scale settlement 2.

T h e . 6. and . . . . . . . Location Britain forms the greater part of the Brit- ish Isles. . century the increased trade led to . . .* 1. Fill in the gaps. Lords were responsible to . . . 3. to be responsible to the king 5. . dynasty established a system of g o v e r n m e n t . which depended o n the . In the . 8. . . . . which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. During the 5th century the tribes of . century Britain was invaded by the V i k i n g s . . . The Roman province of Britannia covered the territory of present-day . . In the . . pagan 4. . . party replaced the Liberals. . 9. . 2. . Great Britain is sepa- rated f r o m the Continent by the English 16 . internal self-government III. 4. T h e . . 10. 7. . 5. .3. settled in Britain. . T h e beginning of the 20th century can't be called . The conflict between the monarchy and Par- liament led t o . . . . The British empire was made up of . .

.

W a l e s had become part of the English administrative system by the 16th century. The population of the United K i n g d o m is 57 million people. Britain is just under 1. Scotland was 18 . with its capital in Dublin. Scotland and W a l e s . The smaller of these is the Republic of Ireland.000 km long from the south coast of England to the extreme north of Scotland. The island of Great Britain contains three "nations" which were separated at earlier stages of their history: England. with London as its capital. The total area is 242. W a l e s and Scotland. This long title is the result of a complicated history. Great Britain comprises En- gland. "Great B r i t a i n " is a geographical expression but " T h e United K i n g d o m " is a political expression.Channel.534 sq. Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the group of islands which lies between the N o r t h Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- ern Ireland. and just under 500 km across in the widest part. km. The British Isles today are shared by two separate and independent states. The full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- ern Ireland. The larger.

the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The last invasion of England took place in 1066 when Duke W i l l i a m of Normandy defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings. which is the largest city in Britain. The capital of England is London. 43. the Irish Sea. Roman rule lasted f o r over 300 years from A.not completely united with England until 1707. The United K i n g d o m is a name which was introduced in 1801 when Great Britain became united with Ireland. England is washed by the N o r t h Sea. England is mostly a lowland country. 837 million peo- ple. D. the longest is the Severn. There are many rivers in England. England The largest and most densely populated part of the United K i n g d o m is England. The population of England is 47. Upland regions are in the 19 . The name " E n g l a n d " is de- rived f r o m the A n g l e s . It is situated on the R i v e r Thames (the most important one). At that time the English language was v e r y much transformed.

which is in the N o r t h e r n England. The main industries in England are the wool industry (with its centre in Leeds and Bradford). Its population is over 5 million people. the cotton industry (the centre is Manchester). In 1603 James VI of Scotland be- 20 . the Scots f r o m Ire- land (or Scotia) settled in what is now A r - g y l l . the vari- ous parts of Scotland united in defence against the Vikings. In the 6th century. Northern England. The English like to spend their holiday in Lake District. Midland and South England — each part is different but v e r y picturesque. The powerful monar- chy which existed in England threatened Scottish independence throughout the M i d - dle A g e s . heavy machinery. g i v i n g their name to the present-day Scotland. Scotland Scotland is the most northern part of the island of Great Britain. Scotland was inhab- ited mainly by the Picts. During the 9th century. shipbuilding.north and the south-west.

But other industries such as iron and steel. Shipbuilding is the leading industry. 21 . The greater part of Scotland is surrounded by sea. agreed on a single parliament f o r Great Britain. Most of the population of Scotland is con- centrated in the Lowlands. It is bounded by the N o r t h Sea on the east. realizing the benefits of closer political and econom- ic union. both countries. There are a lot of valleys and lakes in this region. The biggest city is Glasgow. although Scotland kept its own par- liament. the best known lake is Loch Ness. The Highlands are among the old- est mountains in the world. In 1651 Scotland was united with En- gland. It is an industrial city and an important port in the U n i t e d K i n g d o m . the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands. The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary be- tween England and Scotland. Scotland is divided into three parts: the Highlands. In 1707.came also James I of England when Queen Elizabeth I of England died without chil- dren. Scot- land includes the Hebrides off the west coast and the Orkney and Shetland Islands off the north coast.

The capital of Wales is Cardiff (an industrial city and a p o r t ) . In 1536 Wales was brought into the English system of national and local gov- ernment by A c t of Union. N o r t h Wales is a country of moun- tains and deep valleys. W a l e s is a highland country of old. The population of W a l e s is over 3 mil- lion people. South Wales is a land of high hills. W e l s h and English are both official languages in W a l e s now. Wales In 1301 after defeating the native princ- es of W a l e s . The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. K i n g Edward I of England named his son Prince of W a l e s . Since then the eldest son of the K i n g or Queen of En- gland has traditionally been given this ti- tle. About 7 5 % of the people of W a l e s live in urban districts. hard rocks. Most of Britain was inhabited by Celts until the 4th century. Such 22 .e n g i n e e r i n g and coal-mining are h i g h l y developed too. Cardiff is an administrative and educational centre. It is the cultural centre of Scot- land.

Northern Ireland A number of kingdoms had emerged in Ireland before the Christian era. sing- ing and poetry. Ireland didn't escape the invasion of the V i k i n g s . During the 18th century var- ious efforts were made by British Govern- ment to achieve stability. The W e l s h are fond of folk music. In 1800 an A c t of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was signed. The " I r i s h question" continued as one of the major problems of British politics dur- 23 . steel production. W e l s h literature is one of the oldest in Europe. who dominated the country during the 10th c e n t u r y . The English Civil W a r s (1642—1651) led to uprisings in Ireland which were crushed by Cromwell. I n 1169 H e n r y I I o f E n g l a n d launched an invasion of Ireland. He had been granted its overlordship by the English Pope A d r i a n IV who wanted to bring the Irish church into full obedience to R o m e . electrical engineering are de- veloped in this part of the country.industries as coal-mining. electronics.

the capital of Northern Ireland. As a re- sult snow falls occasionally and doesn't re- main f o r long (except in the Scottish moun- tains). The wind brings rain f r o m the A t l a n t i c to the hills of the west. The Weather Britain is as far north as Canada's Hud- son Bay or Siberia. Rainfall is well distributed through- out the year. T h a t ' s because of the Gulf-stream w h i c h b r i n g s w a r m water and air across the Atlantic f r o m the Gulf of Mexico.ing the 19th century. 5 3 % of the population live in urban areas. the same latitude as Moscow. The main indus- trial centre and a large port is Belfast. In 1985 the A n g l o - Irish Agreement was signed in Belfast. The larg- est industry is agriculture. The population of Northern Ireland is about 1. 5 million people. This means that the 24 . yet its climate is generally mild and temperature rarely exceeds 32°C or fall be- low 10°C. Edinburgh is 56 degrees north of the equator. It occupies one sixth of the territory of the United Kingdom.

.

g. 26 . Where does this title come from? 3. Prince Charles is Prince of Wales. When was an Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland signed? 6. Why is Britain warmer than other coun- tries on the same latitude? 8. the United Kingdom. Its weather may be unpredictable. 1. What are the Welsh fond of? 7.western parts of Britain are wetter than the eastern. Explain the difference between these ex- pressions: Great Britain. Answer the questions. H a m b u r g ) . the Republic of Ireland. When did Scotland and Wales start being governed from London? 2. London is much drier than the continen- tal cities (e. Why is the south of Great Britain better suited to farming than the west or the north? II. What are the main industries in England? 4. What regions is Scotland divided into? 5. which are sheltered. How can you explain that London is drier than continental cities? 9. EXERCISES I. but not too wet. the British Isles.

. a) the Thames. . . mark the boundary between England and Scotland. . 4. . 6.. is an administrative and educational centre of Wales. . . . . "Great Britain" is a . 1. c) the Cheviot Hills. . . . IV. . . . 8. . b) the Severn. Fill in the gaps* 1. The total area of Great Britain is . Great Britain is a group of islands which lies between . . . 2. 3. and . expression. England is separated from Scotland by . Choose the right answer. . . Roman rule in England lasted for over . 27 . 10. The name of the United Kingdom was in- troduced in . 7. . In 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed i n . . . . . years. c) the Avon. The capital of the Republic of Ireland is . . The longest river is . b) the Southern Uplands. . 9. dominated Ireland during the 10th cen- tury. .III. . . . 5. . a) the Pennines. . 2.

" In law the Queen is head of the executive. The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional ceremonies. the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the Supreme Gov- ernor of the established Church of England. head of the judiciary. they are involved in the work of many charities. Defender of the F a i t h . Head of the Common- wealth. the monarch reigns but doesn't rule. The royal title in Britain is: "Elizabeth the Second. They visit different parts of Britain. by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of H e r other Realms and Territories Queen. Parliament is the supreme l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y in B r i t a i n and the 28 . an integral part of the legislature. Queen's power is limited by the Parliament. System of Government Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch — Queen Eliza- beth II — as a head of State. In practice the monarch has no actual power: they say. Today the Queen is not only head of State but also an important symbol of national unity.

but really 29 . and the oth- er is the Opposition. The Queen must see all Cabinet doc- uments. The Commons has 651 elected Members of Parliament ( M P s ) . It is her duty to make appointments to all important state offices. The party which has ma- j o r i t y of the seats in the House of Com- mons is called the Government. The Lords is made up of 1. Parliament comprises the House of Com- mons.P r i m e Minister is the virtual ruler of the country. She opens each session with a speech. prorogues and dissolves Parliament. The Queen summons. A l l the affairs of the State are conduc- ted in the name of the Queen. The Government may hold office f o r f i v e years. She has the power to conclude trea- ties. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Com- mons. The leader of the party that obtains a majority in the House of Commons is the P r i m e Minister. to declare war and make peace.185 heredi- tary and life peers. and the two archbishops and the 24 most senior bishops of the estab- lished Church of England. the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role.

As a head of the Government the P r i m e Minister ap- points about 100 ministers. Who is the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown? 3. 1. The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an al- ternative programme. Is Britain a monarchy? 2. EXERCISES I. 1. What are the duties of the Queen? 4. Answer the questions. The leader of the party — 30 . The power is limited — 3. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. Ministers are responsible for government decisions and individually responsible f o r their own de- partments. of whom about 20 are in the Cabinet (the senior group which takes major policy decisions).the P r i m e Minister is responsible f o r every measure submitted to Parliament. What is the supreme legislative authority in Britain? 6. How is the Government formed? II. Who rules the country? 5. The head of State — 2.

4. True or false?* 1. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons. 7. The Parliament is the supreme legislative authority. Majority of the seats — 5. All affairs of the State are conducted in the name of the Queen. 10. 6. The Prime Minister is head of State. 8. The Lords are elected members of Parlia- ment. 4. 9. Queen's power is limited by the Parlia- ment. Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Parliament The British Parliament works in a large building called the Palace of Westminster 31 . Ministers are responsible for their own de- partments. To present an alternative programme — III. To be responsible for — 7. The Queen only takes part in traditional cer- emonies. 3. To hold office for five years — 6. The Prime Minister declares war and makes peace. 5. 2.

.

libraries and even some places of residence. so nowadays MPs address her "Madam Speaker". officially. Traditionally. The British Parliament is divided into two Houses and its members belong to one or other of them. the Speaker is. committee rooms.) The Commons is more important of the two Houses. In 1992 f o r the first time a woman was appointed Speaker. He (or she) decides which MP is going to speak next and makes sure that the rules of procedure are followed. In fact. MPs were not supposed to be professional politicians. It also con- tains two large rooms.(The Houses of Parliament). restaurants. The person who chairs and controls dis- cussion in the House of Commons is the Speaker. the second impor- tant "commoner" in the K i n g d o m after the P r i m e Minister. They were supposed to be doing a 32 . They were sup- posed to be ordinary people. One is where the House of Lords meets. (Only mem- bers of Commons are known as M P s — Mem- bers of Parliament. bringing their experience into Parliament. the other is where the House of Commons meets. They were not even paid until the beginning of this cen- tury. It contains of- fices.

M P s ' mornings are devoted to committee work. The first two rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both parties ( f r o n t - benches). W h e n the Lords agree it is taken to the Queen for Royal assent. Each session lasts for 160—175 days. The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members. It starts its business at 2. m. Most M P s are full- time politicians and do another job (if at all) only part-time. But that meant that only rich people could be M P s . it is sent to the House of Lords. A proposed law (a bill) has to go through three stages (readings) to become an A c t of Par- liament. If the majority of M P s v o t e f o r the bill. (only on Friday it starts in the m o r n i n g ) . one side f o r the g o v e r n i n g party and the other for the opposition.30 p. M P s sit on two sides of the hall.public service. research. Politics in Britain in the last f o r t y years has become professional. preparing speeches. Traditionally the House doesn't sit in the morning. W e e k - ends are not free for M P s . members of the House of Lords 34 . Unlike MPs.

W h o is the second important person in the K i n g d o m after the P r i m e Minister? 3. The division of P a r l i a m e n t i n t o t w o Houses dates back as 700 years. The House of L o r d s i s t h e r e f o r e a relic o f e a r l i e r t i m e s .000 m e m - b e r s . EXERCISES I. T h e p o w e r t o r e f u s e a p r o p o s a l f o r a l a w ( w h i c h has b e e n agreed by the Commons) is limited. Answer the questions. T o d a y the elected House of Com- m o n s has real p o l i t i c a l p o w e r . T h e y are holders of an inherited aristocratic title. a l t h o u g h m e m - bers of the House of Lords occupy impor- tant posts. The modern House of Lords is a f o r u m f o r public discussions. W h e n was a woman appointed Speaker f o r the first time? 4. W h o has more real power: the House of Lords or the House of Commons? 35 . 1. T h e H o u s e o f L o r d s has m o r e t h a n 1. The House of Lords has l i t t l e real p o w e r n o w a d a y s . but o n l y about 250 t a k e a n a c t i v e p a r t i n the work of the House.("peers") are not elected. W h a t is the official name of the Houses of Parliament? 2.

. . 10. .* 1. members. The British Parliament is divided into two . T h e House of Commons is made up of . T h e British P a r l i a m e n t works in a l a r g e building. . H o w are the f i r s t t w o rows of seats in the House of Commons called? 6. a woman was appointed . Today the . 5. 7. . . I n . . 6. 36 . 9. . . . . f o r . Full-time politicians — 6. . . called .5. 3. The Speaker makes sure that the rules . . . . . . Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. R o y a l assent — 5. . . T h e Speaker — 3. MPs — 2. T h e division of P a r l i a m e n t into t w o Houses dates back as . T h e House of Lords has more than . A relic of earlier times — III. . . . . . 8. members. . 4 . Complete the sentences. 1. . Members of the House of Lords are holders of . . . 2. frontbenches — 4. W h e n the L o r d s a g r e e the b i l l is taken to . . H o w many readings has the bill to pass? II. has real political power.

of people of art. The Daily Star) pay much atten- t i o n to sensational news. 2 0 0 . private lives of royalty and nobility. with the world of poli- tics and business and with the arts and sport. Popular papers use many photographs and cartoons. On the other hand. The Daily Express. catastrophes. there are "quality" news- papers: The Times. P o p u l a r papers (The Daily Mail. On the one hand. It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than i n f o r m them. of music and movie stars. The tabloid press is far more popular than the quality press. These papers report major national and interna- tional news stories. e x t r a o r d i n a r y events. there are "populars" or "tabloids". The Sun. The Press in Great Britain In Britain newspapers differ greatly from each other in the type of news they report and the way they report it. accidents. The Daily Telegraph. The Financial Times. The a v e r a g e d a i l y circulation f o r The Daily Mirror i s a l m o s t 3 . The Guardian. The Daily Mirror. so called because of their small s i z e . 0 0 0 w h i l e f o r 37 .

Read- ing a Sunday paper. is an important tradition in many British families. like having a big Sun- day lunch. In addition to 12 national daily newspa- pers there are 9 national papers which are published on Sundays.The Times it is 450.170. It is estimated that t w o out of every three adults regularly read a national daily newspaper. sports and a lot of advertisements of consumer goods. Most of the Sundays papers contain more reading material than the daily papers. T V . The most popular quality paper is The Daily Telegraph with a circulation of around 1.000. Local newspapers report local news and ad- vertise local business and events.000 per day. N e a r l y every area in Britain has one or more local newspapers — in England alone there are around 90 daily papers and o v e r 850 which are published once or twice a week. compared with The Sun's circulation of over 4. Newspapers in Britain are privately owned and the editors of the papers are usually 38 .100. and several of them include colour supplements — separate colour maga- zines which have special supplements w i t h articles on music.000.

W h i c h newspapers include colour supple- ments? 6. b) false. Is the " q u a l i t y " press more popular than the " t a b l o i d " press? 5. a) true. British p a p e r s a r e b o u g h t and r e a d n o t o n l y i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m .allowed considerable freedom of expression. W h a t newspapers present important politi- cal news? 3. W h a t information do local newspapers pub- lish? 7. 1. The "quality" papers try to entertain rather than i n f o r m . W h e r e are the offices of most papers situ- ated? II. . 39 . Answer the questions.* 1. W h a t news do " p o p u l a r s " pay attention to? 4. which is the centre of British journalism. A r e B r i t i s h newspapers p r i v a t e l y owned? 8. but also i n m a n y o t h e r countries. Choose the right answer. T h e offices of most papers are situated in Fleet Street in the City of London. . EXERCISES I. H o w do newspapers differ from each other? 2.

. The most popular "quality" newspaper is . . or . . . b) bought separately from the Sunday papers. . T h e popular press aims to . M o s t colour supplements are published on Sundays and are . . . 4. A special colour magazine which is published on Sundays — 40 . A serious newspaper — 3. . A newspaper which is published every day — 2. . which are pub- lished on . . .2. 5. . Find the words and expressions that mean: 1. . . 3. which usually entertains its readers — 4. . Newspapers in Britain are owned by . British newspapers are v e r y much different from each other in the way they . 7. . a) the Government. which pay attention to sen- sational news and extraordinary events. . a) The Times. news. Fill in the gaps* 1. There are . R e a d i n g a Sunday newspaper is an impor- tant . its readers. 3. III. . . a week.. . . b) individuals and publishing companies. . A newspaper. . Local newspapers are published . 6. IV. i n many British f a m i l i e s . T h e r e are 9 national papers. T h e centre of British journalism is . b) The Daily Telegraph. . 4. a) bought w i t h Sunday papers. 2.

. . The BBC is financed by pay- ments which are made by all people who have TV-sets. entertains its readers rather . e) than i n f o r m them. d) considerable freedom of expression. In 1932 the BBC W o r l d Service was set up with a licence to broadcast first to Em- 41 . 5. c) news. a) to extraordinary events.5. 2. 3. to report . . ITV=Independent Television (Chan- nel I I I ) and Channel I V .* 1. . Television in Great Britain Television is the most popular entertain- ment in British home life today. . . . pay attention . . newspapers are . A newspaper which reports local news — V. the editors are allowed . The BBC is known for its objectivity in news reporting. Match the two halves. . In Lon- don people have four TV channels: BBC I. b) p r i v a t e l y owned. 4. People have to pay the licence fee. BBC I I . .

I T V news programmes are not made by individual television companies. Commercial televi- sion gets its money f r o m advertising. In the afternoon and early evening TV stations show special programmes f o r children. So it has been protected f r o m commercial influence. BBC and I T V start early in the morning. One can watch news programmes. There are different types of TV programmes in Great Britain. The programmes on this channel are financed by different companies. different children's programmes. all kinds of chat shows. Indepen- dent Television News is owned jointly by all of them. soap op- eras. There is no advertising on any BBC pro- gramme. dra- mas. 42 .pire and then to other parts of the w o r l d . News is broadcast at regular intervals and there are panel discussions of current events. Broadcasts for schools are produced on f i v e days of the week during school hours. quiz shows. comedies and different programmes of entertainment on these channels. which do not have anything to do with the content of these programmes. I T V started in 1954.

B r i t a i n has t w o channels ( B B C I I and Channel I V ) f o r presenting p r o g r a m m e s o n serious topics. which are watched w i t h g r e a t interest by a lot of people. W h a t programmes are v e r y popular in Great Britain? 4. Operas. which g i v e the BBC its special position in Britain? 2. These channels start working on early weekday mornings. W h a t is the difference between BBC and ITV? 3. 1. Only about a f i f t h of households receive satellite or cable. These are the main channels in Great B r i t a i n . A large part of TV t i m e is occupied by serials. music concerts and shows are pre- sented at various time. B u t t h e y t r a n s l a t e m o s t l y all kinds of edu- cation programmes. EXERCISES I. Answer the questions. W e e k e n d afternoons are devoted to sport. Can you describe some characteristics. W h e n was the BBC W o r l d Service set up? 5. Sport events are usually broadcast in the evening. W h i c h channels don't have advertising? 43 .

4. . Commercial television gets its money from . 3. . . Fill in the gaps. 7. BBC is a commercial television. BBC is famous f o r its . . Independent Television N e w s is owned by a p r i v a t e company. People have t o pay . . 6. in Great Britain. . I T V started in . 3. English people are not fond of soap operas. . . . III. Television is the most popular . M o s t people in Britain receive satellite. 4. . 5. . In London there are . . 6. 2. . . channels. True or false?* 1. 2. A l l T V channels have advertising. 5. .II.* 1. . W e e k e n d afternoons are devoted to . . . . TV stations show d i f f e r e n t programmes f o r children. . 7. Channel IV is famous f o r its o b j e c t i v i t y .

Then in 1665 and 1666 two catastrophes occurred: the first 45 . economic and commer- cial centre. Its population is about 9 million people. The Roman town. Part 2 LONDON AND ITS PLACES OF INTEREST ondon is the capital of G r e a t Britain. P a u l ' s Cathedral and Cornhill. its political. D. The city became extremely prosperous dur- ing the 16th century. not far f r o m the T o w e r of London. g r e w up on the t w o hillocks near St. It is the chief port of Great Brit- ain. The English are v e r y proud of the long history of their capital.. when a tribe of the Celtic family settled near the Thames. L O N D I N I U M . It is one of the greatest cities of the world. The o r i g i n of the city may be dated as the beginning of the 1st century A.

.

.

48 . The City has within its square mile such famous insti- tutions as the Bank of England. includ- ing St. W e s t - minster and the East End.Paul's Cathedral. London is a real mu- seum of architecture. the Royal Courts of Justice and Guildhall.000 citizens. During Queen Victoria's long reign (1837— 1901) the construction of the Underground began. the W e s t End. The City is one part of London. the Stock Exchange. and the second was the Great Fire which destroyed the whole of the City. At the same time the City became exclu- sively a commercial centre. Traditionally London is di- vided into: the City. its f i - nancial and business centre. The City was de- scribed as a "busy emporium for trade and traders" as early as Roman times. Few people live in this part of Lon- don but over a million come here to work. At the beginning of the 19th centu- ry England was at the height of her power. A n d the first line between Padding- ton and Farringdon was opened. Most of the finest build- ings date from the second half of the 17th century. The City has its own L o r d Major and Corporation as well as its own police force. The City is the heart of London.was epidemic of plague which killed 100.

Sir Christopher W r e n ' s masterpiece. The City of Westminster is one of the most famous historic areas in London as it contains both the seat of Government and the crowning place of kings and queens. The most striking of them is St. But nothing is left of this church. The work went on until the 18th century when Nicho- las Hawksmoor altered the facade and added the towers. In the 11th century Edward the Confessor founded a great Norman A b - bey. 50 . Westminster was the first important inhab- ited area outside the City.Paul's Cathedral. Henry I I I wanted a brighter and bigger build- ing. Master Henry. John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverly succeeded in the work of constructing Westminster Abbey. It was built between 1675 and 1710 to replace the 13th-century cathedral which had been destroyed by the Great F i r e . The Houses of Parliament and Westmin- ster Abbey face each other across Parliament Square. There's a lot of famous ancient buildings within the City. Almost all the monarchs since W i l l i a m the Conqueror have been crowned in Westminster and many are buried there. Westminster Abbey is a beautiful Gothic building.

The Houses of Parliament — the seat of British Parliament. royal property. theatres and concert halls in this part of London. There are memorials of many statesmen. museums. One of the most beau- tiful palaces is Buckingham Palace. which is officially known as the Palace of Westminster. The W e s t End is the centre of London. beau- tiful parks. It is a " R o y a l Peculiar". The Houses of Parliament com- prise the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are historical palaces. The Palace takes its name f r o m Buckingham House which was built in 1703 as the home of the 51 . The f i r s t building was constructed as early as the 11th century (the magnificent Westminster Hall was built between 1097— 1099 by W i l l i a m R u f u s ) . Most of the old palace was destroyed in a f i r e in 1834. The present Houses of Parliament were complet- ed in 1865. scientists and writers in Westminster. large department stores. hotels. restaurants. It is de- pendent directly on the monarch. West- minster Abbey is not a Cathedral. the of- ficial residence of the Queen. The division of Parliament into t w o Houses goes back as 700 years.

The oldest of all the royal residences in London is the Tower of London. which houses the na- 52 . The Tower today bears the official t i t l e of " H e r Majesty's Palace and fortress of the Tower of London". A l t h o u g h the main palace is not open to the public items f r o m the R o y a l Collection can be seen at the Queen's Gal- lery. N o w it is a museum. Today the Queen lives at the Palace for only part of the year and when she is in her residence the Royal Stan- dard is flown. Founded by W i l l i a m the Conqueror in 1078 the fortress was enlarged several times.Duke of Buckingham and then bought by George I I I in 1762.

tional collection of armour and the Crown Jewels. the Royal M i n t . But it is perhaps most famous for being a prison. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress. the first Royal Observatory. 53 . the Royal residence.

.

The Yeomen of the Guard (Beefeaters)
were originally formed to be a body-guard
for H e n r y V I I . They still wear the Tudor
uniform chosen by the K i n g and now g i v e
guided tours of the Tower.
The ravens whose forefathers used to live
in the Tower still live there. The Y e o m e n
Raven Master is responsible for feeding and
caring f o r the ravens at the Tower. There
is a legend that if the ravens disappear the
Tower will fall.
The broad Mall leads f r o m Buckingham
Palace to Trafalgar Square. Trafalgar Square,
named to commemorate Nelson's great naval
victory of 1805, is dominated by the Nelson's
Column. On its pedestal there are four bronze
reliefs cast from captured French cannon, rep-
resenting scenes from the battles of St. Vin-
cent, the Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar. The
bronze lions at the corners of the pedestals
are the work of Landseer.
From Trafalgar Square it is only a short
way to Piccadilly Circus. In the centre of
Piccadilly Circus is a bronze fountain. It
was designed by Sir A l f r e d Gilbert in 1893.
Downing Street, 10 is the official resi-
dence of the P r i m e Minister.

54

London is v e r y rich in art galleries. The
National Gallery is one of the most impor-
tant picture galleries in the world. The Tate
Gallery is the right and necessary comple-
ment to the National Gallery as it contains
modern and contemporary works particu-
larly by English and French masters.
Cultural life of London would be impos-
sible without the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal
Festival Hall, the National Theatre and a great
number of museums: the British Museum,

56

the Victoria and A l b e r t Museum, the Geo-
logical Museum, the Museum of Mankind,
Natural H i s t o r y Museum and others.
If you go to the east of the City, y o u ' l l
find yourself in the East End. This is an
industrial part of London. The P o r t of Lon-
don is also in the East End.
A great amount of space in London is
devoted to parks and gardens. Most of them
used to be private gardens or hunting for-
ests of kings and queens. Later they were
transformed into their present design. To-
day nothing could be more relaxing and
peaceful than a walk in a beautiful park.

EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions.
1. W h a t is the population of London?
2. W h a t parts does London consist of?
3. W h a t part of London can be called its centre?
4. W h a t masterpieces of architecture in Lon-
don do you know?
5. W h o is the architect of St. Paul's Cathedral?
6. W h a t is the historical value of the T o w e r
of London?
7. W h a t is the residence of the Queen?
8. W h a t does a legend about the ravens in the
T o w e r say?

57

T h e heart of London is . 58 . b ) the W e s t End. . . c) the T o w e r of London. . T h e official residence of the Queen is . c) the 18th century. a) Westminster. . 2. . b) the 13th century. a) the 10th century. c) during Queen V i c t o r i a ' s reign. London became e x t r e m e l y prosperous dur- ing . . W h a t gallery has a vast collection of mod- ern and contemporary works by English and French masters? II. W e s t m i n s t e r ' s construction was completed in . . . 3. T h e construction of London U n d e r g r o u n d began . c) the City. Choose the right answer* 1. W h a t events does T r a f a l g a r Square com- memorate? 10. b) in the 20th century. b) the 16th century. a) in the 18th century. 4. . b) Buckingham Palace. 5.9. . a ) the reign o f K i n g A l f r e d . c) the 19th century. a) K e n s i n g t o n Palace.

b) the T o w e r of London. D o w n i n g Street. T h e oldest royal residence is . T h e M a l l leads to . W h e n the Queen is in residence . a) the height of her power. . c) Westminster Abbey. i) the first R o y a l Observatory. b) they are v e r y rare.. . 4. 5.. a) they are v e r y old. g) destroyed the whole of the City. .. 7. c) of a legend. A l m o s t all the monarchs h a v e been crowned . 2. . III. .. .* 1. . . 59 . 3. 10 is the residence of . . . . h) in W e s t m i n s t e r . 7. T h e c i t y became e x t r e m e l y .6. T h e Great F i r e . 9.. e) the P r i m e Minister. . In the 19th century England was at . T h e seat of the British P a r l i a m e n t is . . d) T r a f a l g a r Square. T h e ravens in the T o w e r of London are tak- en care of because . 8. . a) Buckingham Palace. b) the Houses of Parliament. Match the two halves. f) prosperous in the 16th century. .. T h e T o w e r of London used to be . . 6. c) the R o y a l Standard is f l o w n .

. . Complete the sentences. . 4. and . . which tells people that f o r near- ly 50 years this was the home of Sir Hans Sloane. The early building of Westminster was built . i n W e s t m i n s t e r and many are . On one of the houses in Bloomsbury there is a plaque. .IV. Sir Hans Sloane was an Irishman. He ar- rived in London nearly 300 years ago w i t h 800 species of plants collected in W e s t In- 60 . . The Museum is situated in London (in Bloomsbury district). 3. . 2. The British Museum The British Museum is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. This Muse- um comprises the National Museum of A r - chaeology and Ethnography. the benefactor of the British Mu- seum. . and the Nation- al Library. t h e r e . . . The residence of the P r i m e M i n i s t e r is . . . .* 1. A l m o s t all the monarchs have been . . . T h e C i t y of W e s t m i n s t e r contains both . It was built in the middle of the last century.

A l l his long life Sir Hans Sloane remained a collector.dia. periodical or newspaper published in Britain must be pre- 61 . His particular specialities were natural history specimens and books. Later on the Govern- ment bought his collection. Two important libraries were added to the collection of natural history specimens and books. By law a copy of every book. At first. The present building was built in 1852. his collections were on view to the public in a large house not far f r o m the present museum. In his will he offered his vast collection to the people of Britain.

he occupied the position of principal librarian at the British Museum.served in the British Museum. Y o u just ask f o r a book and in a moment it is placed in front of you. Anthony Panizzi. The Reading Room has an unusual shape. Being a lawyer. A l l printed matter is kept in a separate building in another part of London. The British Museum is closely connected with the name of an Italian. A n y person who comes into the Reading R o o m is greatly impressed by the efficiency of the staff there. Visitors to the Museum who want to enter the Reading Room. must have a ticket of admission. It is a perfect circle. 62 . engaged in serious study and who can't obtain the books they require else- where. The catalogues are kept behind them. Today there're millions of volumes in the library. can use the Reading R o o m . Only people over the age of 21. He also designed the plans for the construc- tion of the famous circular Reading Room at the British Museum. Only a highly quali- fied specialist can cope with the work in this library. The superintendent and his assistants sit in the centre of the room and issue and collect books.

W h o m was Sir Hans Sloane's collections of- fered to? 5. . Sir Hans Sloane offered his collection to . W h o can use the Reading R o o m of the B r i t - ish Museum? II. The British Museum contains books and manuscripts: Greek. 3. W h e r e is the Museum situated? 3. T h e B r i t i s h Museum is situated in . The Museum comprises . medals and philate- ly. B r i t i s h and oriental antiquities. W h o was the benefactor of the Museum? 4. . 4. Every year the British Museum is visited by 2 million people. EXERCISES I. . R o m a n . W h e n was the British Museum built? 2. 2. It has a department of ethnography. Match the two halves. Those who come to the British Museum can see a fascinating array of clocks and watches. . . There are departments devoted to maps. This collection is so vast that only a v e r y small percentage is on show to the public. . . 63 . coins. T h e benefactor of the Museum was ..* 1. Answer two questions: 1. There is also a department of prints and drawings.

. . Fill in the gaps.. . . . . 5. . .* 1. T h e Museum comprises . . E v e r y year the British Museum is v i s i t e d by . h) in London. can use the Reading Room. 6. . . 7. A l l his l i f e S i r H a n s S l o a n e r e m a i n e d a . . c) designed the plans f o r the construction of the Reading R o o m . 3. T h e British Museum is connected w i t h the name of . . 8. . . people. 64 . T h e Reading R o o m has an unusual . . Only people over the age of . e) issues and collects books. f) clocks and watches. T h e Reading R o o m has an unusual shape. . . 4. III. . . . 7. . . . Sir Hans Sloane a r r i v e d i n London . The present building was constructed in . . b) the British people. Anthony Panizzi . 6. There is a fascinating array of . T h e superintendent . . .. d) shape.5. g) the National Museum of A r c h i t e c t u r e and Ethnography and the National L i b r a r y . a) Sir Hans Sloane. it's a .. 8.. . 2. .

V i s i t o r s are g r e a t l y impressed by the e f f i - ciency of the staff. 5. Cars. A. True or false?* 1. y o u ' l l see hun- dreds of people buying and selling vegeta- bles. 3. 6. By L a w a copy of every book is preserved in the P a r l i a m e n t L i b r a r y . you'll only see enormous build- ings and a few tourists. please". lorries are everywhere. Some people are carrying heavy boxes of fruit and vegetables. Covent Garden Covent Garden is the biggest market-place in Britain.IV. P a n i z z i was a lawyer. Sir Hans Sloane was an architect. 2. They are crying: " M i n d your backs. all the cars and vans will have arrived at the shops all over Lon- 65 . If you come to Covent Garden in the afternoon. Before the businessmen arrive at their offices. 4. People over 21 years old may enter the Read- ing Room. But if you come here early in the morning.000 people. E v e r y year the British Museum is v i s i t e d by 200. vans. fruit and flowers. There are voices everywhere.

W h a t is Covent Garden? 2. restaurants and t h e a t r e and an open P i z z a and covered Central M a r - ket. I t ' l l be ready to meet tourists. C o v e n t G a r d e n has been t h e m o s t i m p o r - t a n t m a r k e t . a n d used o n l y b y L o n d o n e r s . N o w a d a y s it serves the whole of Britain. T o d a y . W h e n was Covent Garden established? 66 . C o v e n t G a r d e n has been e x t e n s i v e - ly r e s t o r e d and is n o w a l i v e l y s h o p p i n g area. EXERCISES I. porters and d r i v e r s w i l l h a v e gone home. 1. Answer the questions. They'll have delivered everything f o r c u s t o m e r s .don. w i t h w i n e bars. shopkeepers. At that time it was v e r y s m a l l . The market-place will have been cleaned by the dustmen.p l a c e i n L o n d o n f o r 300 y e a r s . Those w h o w o r k t h e r e say: " I f t h e r e i s any kind of fruit or vegetable which we haven't g o t — n o b o d y has g o t i t " . B y t h e a f t e r n o o n all t h e f a r m - ers. I t w a s called C o v e n t G a r - den because it was the g a r d e n of the m o n k s of W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey. It was officially established by K i n g Charles I I i n 1 6 7 0 .

It was drawn by three hors- es and looked like a carriage. . . . W h a t can you buy at Covent Garden? 4. . 2. 6. . 5. T h e market-place w i l l have been cleaned by . . W h y was this place o r i g i n a l l y called "con- vent garden"? II. Nowadays it . . . Covent Garden was established by . o f W e s t - minster A b b e y . the whole of B r i t a i n .3. o f . an Irishman (Shillibeer by name) started the first bus-service in London. . H i s b u s w a s v e r y d i f f e r e n t t o t h o s e y o u can see in London today. Covent Garden i s the biggest . . .* 1. In 1829. Covent Garden was . Fill in the gaps. 4. T h e first dou- ble-decker bus was built in 1 8 5 1 . . By the midday e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be delivered for . . It tells the story of public trans- port in Britain. The Museum of Transport The Museum of British Transport is in L o n d o n . . . 3. . B u t t h e 67 . i n B r i t - ain. . 7. In the afternoon y o u ' l l see . . . there.

But in 1842 people had to ac- cept the railway. Lots of people were afraid of the rail- ways and trains. In 1829. the company offered a prize of 500 pounds f o r the best steam train. herself. But they were not passen- ger trains. driven by a petrol engine were used in London. like the first buses. The first steam train was used in an iron-works in South Wales. They tried to stop their construction. It could travel 29 miles per hour. travelled in a train from Slough to Padding- 68 . in 1804.upper deck didn't have a roof until about 1936. which was v e r y fast at that time. The first trains. the first buses. They were used in mines and factories to carry materials f r o m one place to another. were drawn by horses. Queen Victoria. In 1885. W h e n it was raining the passengers were g i v e n raincoats. w i t h his famous train " T h e R o c k e t " . The first passenger railway in England (and in the world) was the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The speed of the first petrol engine bus was 12 miles per hour. It was built by Richard Trevithick. The prize was won by George Stephenson.

. in London. A special r a i l w a y c a r r i a g e was built f o r her in 1869. T h e first trains were used i n . . 6. W h e n was the first double-decker bus built? 2. . . W h a t was the name of the first steam train? 5. . EXERCISES I. . W h a t was w o r l d record speed f o r a steam train? II. Shillibeer started the first . . It t r a v e l l e d at 126 miles per hour.t o n .* 1. N o w a d a y s this t r a i n can be seen in t h e M u - seum of Transport. . . 5. 2. In . . T h e M u s e u m of B r i t i s h T r a n s p o r t is in . . . . . Fill in the gaps. . Answer the questions. W h e r e were the first trains used? 4. . W h a t was the speed of the f i r s t petrol en- gine bus? 3. 69 . T h e f i r s t passenger r a i l w a y in E n g l a n d was . 3. 1. . and looked like . 4. . T h e f i r s t bus was drawn by . In 1938 a train ( " M a l l a r d " ) was built. Stephenson's train was called . and that w a s w o r l d r e c o r d speed f o r a steam t r a i n . . . .

7. . T h e f i r s t bus appeared in 1829. T h e prize f o r the best steam train was won by G. 5. T h e w o r l d record speed f o r a steam engine was . " M a l l a r d " travelled at 126 miles per hour. . 6.* 1. . True or false?* 1. . . 8. IV. 7. t o . 2. 8. T h e first train was built by G. A special carriage was built f o r Queen V i c - toria. Queen Victoria travelled from . 3. T h e first double-decker was built in 1 8 5 1 . Stephenson. 4.7. . 4. T h e world record speed f o r a steam train was 12 miles per hour. T h e f i r s t trains were to carry passengers. T h e first trains were drawn by horses. In 1842 people had to accept the r a i l w a y . In 1885 the first buses. 8. " T h e R o c k e t " could travel 29 miles per hour. d r i v e n by a petrol engine were used in London. 70 . . 5. 3. III. . T h e first double-decker d i d n ' t have a roof. 6. In 1842 the construction of the railway f r o m Slough to Paddington was stopped. Stephenson. 2. In 1829 an Irishman started the f i r s t bus- service. T h e speed of the first train was 12 miles per hour. Arrange the sentences in the proper or- der.

This is Burlington House. The Royal Academy There is a house of great beauty and co- lour in London. A l l succeeding Sovereigns have ac- cepted the style of " P a t r o n . Protector and Supporter" of the Royal Academy. T h e first trains were used in mines and fac- tories. 71 . Since 1869 it has been the R o y a l A c a d e m y of A r t s . The mon- arch formally sanctions the elections of new Royal Academicians.9. 10. protection and support. sculp- tors and architects presented a memorial to K i n g George I I I . The young art-loving mon- arch declared his patronage. The first President of the Academy was Sir Joshua Reynolds. In 1768 a group of leading painters. whose statue (palette and brush in hand) surveys the forecourt of Burlington House. He was President for 24 years and created in the Academy a body of highly skilled professional artists. T h e f i r s t railway in England was the L i v e r - pool and Manchester R a i l w a y .

Sculp- ture and Architecture.000 artists and archi- tects have been trained free of charge in the School of Painting and Drawing. The Summer Exhibition has been held 72 . In 1771 the A c a d e m y established its headquarters at Somerset House and re- mained there until 1837 when it moved to the east w i n g of the National Gallery. Several stu- dents in recent years have won major inter- national awards. The students study the main "classic disciplines". They're selected by examinations from those who have spent two or more years at London or provincial art schools. orga- nized by the Academy: the W i n t e r Exhibi- tion and the Summer Exhibition. The exhibitions of the students' work in June and November attract attention of many people: teachers. There are two annual exhibitions. The Academy also organizes special exhi- bitions in its Diploma Gallery. art critics and gal- lery owners. A b o u t 100 students attend the A c a d e m y School. The prime purpose of the Academy is the teaching of art to the most talented students. Since 1768 about 7.

The A c a d e m y believes that it is impor- t a n t t o g i v e all artists a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x h i b i t a n d sell t h e i r w o r k s . EXERCISES I. H o w long does the Summer Exhibition stay open? 73 . A b o u t 10. T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r k s are f o r s a l e . W h a t Exhibition is the largest annual open show in the world? 7. Different s t y l e s and t r a d i t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e E x h i b i t i o n . T h e r e a r e n o o t h e r such e x h i b i t i o n s .since 1 7 6 9 . W h o was the first President of the A c a d e - my? 4. Answer the questions. I t i s t h e l a r g e s t annual o p e n a r t show in the world. W h o was the f i r s t to declare his support of the A c a d e m y ? 3. 1. I t i s o p e n f o r 3.000 works are judged by the Royal Academicians. W h a t is the primary purpose of the A c a d e - my? 5. H o w often does the A c a d e m y organize the exhibitions? 6. Since what time has Burlington House been the home f o r the R o y a l A c a d e m y of A r t s ? 2.5 m o n t h s .

T h e R o y a l A c a d e m y o f A r t was f o r m e d in 1869. T h e prime purpose of the A c a d e m y is teach- i n g the most talented students. That was the biggest project in which B r i t a i n took part. They were the first to t r a v e l u n d e r t h e sea. K i n g George I I I was the f i r s t President of the A c a d e m y . 6.II. T h e W i n t e r Exhibition is the largest annu- al open show in the w o r l d . 5. 3. 1994 the Channel tunnel be- tween Calais and Folkstone was opened by Queen Elizabeth II of B r i t a i n and President Mitteran of France.000 artists and architects have been trained in the A c a d e m y . A b o u t 7. 2. T h e process of the con- 74 . On M a y . True or false?* 1. In 1837 the A c a d e m y m o v e d to the N a t i o n - al Gallery. 7. 6. E v e r y year t w o exhibitions are organized by the A c a d e m y . 4. The Channel Tunnel Great Britain is separated f r o m the Con- tinent by English Channel.

struction was v e r y difficult and not always a successful one. The price of construction was very high (£ 9 billion). they simply were afraid of travelling under the sea. T h e f i r s t to t r a v e l through the tunnel were the w o r k e r s . People didn't reveal great enthusiasm. A n d besides. But the authors of the project are rather optimistic. Peo- ple got used to travelling on comfortable ferries. and the start of service was several times postponed. because the d i r e c t t r a i n services b e t w e e n P a r i s and London o f f e r a great reduction of trav- el time. The saving in travel time didn't com- pensate for the discomfort of travelling. True or false?* 1. 2. 75 . But that will be only in the 2 1 s t century. EXERCISES I. several people were killed during the construction. There is a project to use a high- speed train between London and the British end of the Channel tunnel. T h e project was a success f r o m the v e r y be- ginning. At first the tunnel was opened only f o r private cars.

. T h e tunnel was the biggest . 7. . 5. L e t ' s look back into history. A great reduction of travel time didn't com- pensate f o r the discomfort of t r a v e l l i n g . by . 5. P e o p l e w e r e not e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e project.. 6. II. A high-speed train w i l l take people f r o m P a r i s to London in the 21st century. T h e tunnel was opened between London and Paris. . In fact the r i v e r isn't just a part of the scenery. . People were afraid of . A t first the tunnel was opened t o . W i t h o u t the riv- er London wouldn't exist. . . 4. . At first the tunnel was opened to p r i v a t e cars. 3.. .* 1. 6. . T h e Channel tunnel was opened in . . The Thames The R i v e r Thames is one of the sights of London. . 76 .3. b i g Ben and the Houses of Parliament. Complete the sentences. . 2. Tourists come to admire the beau- ty of Cleopatra's N e e d l e . . . T h e direct train services o f f e r . T h e construction price was . . . 4.

A l l foreign traffic and goods had to cross the Roman bridge. The 16th century brought new horizons in exploration and conquest by sea. D. thus increasing trade with the Continent. The trades- men formed guilds. The twenty arches o f L o n d o n B r i d g e disturbed the r i v e r ' s current. Over the next five hundred years. In 77 . But there appeared some problems. That was the beginning of the City of London. To solve this problem the first docks were built in the 17th century at Rotherhithe. cattle and im- ported fine clothes from Flanders. that's why the nearby land g r e w into a key port. T w o thousand years ago. wine from France. furs f r o m Scandinavia. The Thames connected the settlements of the Romans at K e n t and at Colchester. London exported the nation's wool. 43 a Roman army decided to cross the Thames at a point where a bridge could be built. which protected their interests and strengthened London's posi- tion as a commercial centre. pay- ing small boats to take their goods up- streams. in A. causing "rapids". The ships were forced to stop below the bridge.

Here are the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben. In 1908 the P o r t of London A u t h o r i t y was formed to look after them. At the riverside itself there is a row of charming Victorian lamp-posts decorated with ferocious- 78 . From this point all along the embank- ment run the Embankment Gardens. This house was built in the 18th century by Sir Christo- pher W r e n . This area contains facto- ries and offices. On the South bank there is Battersea pow- er station. memorials and flowers. built in the 19th century in the gothic style. built to provide electricity f o r Londoners. The importance of the Thames was great. the r i v e r flows on past the Victoria flower gardens towards Westminster Bridge.the 18th and 19th centuries the docks were also built on the Isle of Dogs. If we move downstream. At Chelsea B r i d g e t w o periods of his- tory stand facing each other. w e ' l l come to Vauxhall Bridge. Under Lambeth Bridge. On the N o r t h bank is the Royal Hospital. London has changed greatly over the years. with their tramps.

concrete buildings. It was placed by the river in 1878. which leads to Southwark Cathedral ( i t is as beautiful as W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y ) . and a "time box". W a t e r l o o Bridge is concrete and modern. These include the Royal Festival Hall. Queen Elizabeth Hall. The first stone bridge wasn't built until 1176. a huge obelisk carved in Ancient Egypt and given to Queen Victoria and Great Britain in 1820. but it replaces an older bridge built to mark the anniversary of the Battle of W a t e r l o o . The next bridge is Southwark B r i d g e . Even the public benches are decorated with winged sphinxes. The lampstandards along the bridge were made from guns captured at the battle. As you pass the widest of London's brid- ges — Blackfriars Bridge — you see the dome of St. and the new Na- tional Theatre. Y o u can also admire Cleopatra's Needle. on the South bank of the r i v e r is a group of modern. P a u l ' s . A new Lon- 79 . Near W a t e r l o o Bridge.looking dolphins. Original- ly it was made of wood. Then you come to London Bridge. containing objects typical of that time was buried beneath it.

taking summer visitors to Greenwich and Hampton Court. Palace. Since the 1950s. The British have a modern replacement now. 80 .don B r i d g e replaced it in 1831. Much of London's wealth has been gen- erated by the trade and industry brought by the river. but you w o u l d n ' t f i n d this L o n d o n B r i d g e now either. new laws have controlled industrial waste and sewage levels in the Thames. Fish have returned to the cleaner water. The river became badly pollut- ed in V i c t o r i a n t i m e s . But the bridge that symbolizes London to most people is Tower Bridge. N o w the river is much less polluted. To protect London from tide the Greater London Council decided to built a barrier across the river at Woolwich. as it was sold to America in 1972. It was taken there stone by stone to be reas- sembled as a tourist attraction. Industrial waste flowed freely into it. but can be raised to shut off dangerously high waters. The floodgates lie on the river bed in normal weather. Plea- sure boats sail from Westminster and Char- ing Cross piers. A l l the fish died. There was a terrible smell.

. T h e f i r s t W a t e r l o o B r i d g e was b u i l t t o mark . 81 . . W h o was the architect of the R o y a l Hospi- tal? 3. . To protect London f r o m tide a . EXERCISES I. W h e r e can you see London B r i d g e ? 6. . . . 5. W h a t anniversary does W a t e r l o o B r i d g e mark? 4. W h y were the first docks at R o t h e r h i t h e built? 2. . W h i c h b r i d g e is the widest? 5. .* 1. w e r e built on the Isle of D o g s . . 6. years ago the Romans decided to cross the Thames. . 3. T h e area of Vauxhall B r i d g e contains . London could never have lived without the Thames. 1. . 4. and . In 1972 a new London B r i d g e was sold to . . In the 18th and 19th centuries the . . . W h i c h b r i d g e symbolizes London? II. Answer the questions. The bridge that symbolizes London is . . . . Fill in the gaps. . 7. . 2. across the r i v e r was built. . .

Part 3

EDUCATION IN GREAT
BRITAIN

England schooling is compul-
sory f o r children of 5 to 16 years of age.
A n y child may attend a school without pay-
ing fees. Over 9 0 % of children of compul-
sory school age go to state schools. The most
important changes in Britain's educational
system were introduced under the Educa-
tion R e f o r m A c t 1988. It led to the com-
pulsory National Curriculum for pupils aged
5 to 16 in state schools. The A c t also aims
to g i v e parents a wider choice of schools
for their children. Local educational aut-
horities finance most school education at
local level. They also employ teachers. Ev-
ery state school in England and W a l e s has a
governing body, responsible for the school's

82

main policies. Parallel reforms are intro-
duced in both Scotland and N o r t h e r n Ire-
land.
Full-time education is compulsory up to
the middle teenage years. There are three
stages in education. The first stage is pri-
mary education; the second is secondary ed-
ucation; the third is further education at
university or college.
Before going to a primary school chil-
dren receive nursery education (some children
attend pre-school p l a y - g r o u p s ) . I t ' s the
first age of education. Around half of 3—4
years old in Britain receive nursery educa-
tion. Children of nursery age need care as
well as education. Social, emotional and phys-
ical needs must be taken into consideration.
Compulsory primary education begins at
the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland
and at 4 in Northern Ireland. Children start
their education in an infant school and move
to a junior school at 7 years old. Primary
schools vary in size and location. Pupils study
different subjects (English, mathematics, sci-
ence, history, geography, music, art, physical
education). Over 80% of all primary schools
are mixed.

83

In Britain most children of compulsory
secondary school age ( 1 1 — 1 6 ) receive free
education financed from public funds. The
large majority of schools are mixed.
The school year in England and W a l e s
begins in September and continues into July.
In Scotland it is from August to June. In
N o r t h e r n Ireland — f r o m September to
June. At this level children start to learn a
modern f o r e i g n language. The course of
study at secondary school may lead to Gen-
eral C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary Education
(GCSE) qualifications. At 16 years old chil-
dren take different examinations and have
quite a lot of coursework, only after which
they're awarded GCSE.
Those who stay at school after GCSE,
study f o r 2 more years f o r A ( A d v a n c e d )
level exams in two or three subjects.
A small proportion of children (about
8 % ) attend private, or independent schools,
which are not financed by the state. To un-
derstand this phenomenon a little history is
needed.
The British government payed little at-
tention to education until the end of the
19th century. Schools had existed in Brit-

84

Its aim is to realize the potential of all for the good of the individ- ual and society as a whole. These schools are not at all luxurious or comfortable. in business. A small group of schools admitted only the sons of the upper and upper middle classes. 85 . A typical example of such a school is Eton. These were "boarding- schools" (as the pupils lived in t h e m ) . Such school is a boarding one. It admits fee-paying pupils. civil service and poli- tics. Each school is divided into houses w i t h its housemaster. The pupils w o r e d i s t i n c t i v e clothes and the schools had their own traditions. At these public schools much m o r e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to "character-building" and the develop- ment of "team s p i r i t " rather than to aca- demic achievements. Public school place great emphasis on team sports. The aim of those schools was to prepare young men to take up positions in the higher ranks of army.ain long before the g o v e r n m e n t took an interest in education. B r i t i s h education has many d i f f e r e n t faces but one goal. A typical public school is for boys f r o m 13.

t e r m . School Life N e a r l y all schools w o r k f i v e days a w e e k . and s u m m e r t e r m . S u m - m e r h o l i d a y is about 6 w e e k s . m . The School Year T h e school year is usually d i v i d e d into three terms. T h e lunch break usually lasts an hour-and-a-quarter. I n a d d i t i o n all s c h o o l s h a v e a h a l f . M o s t 86 . T h e n spring t e r m — till Easter holiday (also 2 w e e k s ) . which is about 2 weeks. T h e y are closed on Saturdays and Sundays. w h i c h lasts a f e w days or a w e e k in t h e m i d - dle of each t e r m . T h e school day starts at 9 o'clock and f i n - ishes b e t w e e n 3 and 4 p . A u t u m n t e r m lasts f r o m September ( o r A u g u s t ) till Christmas holiday. w h i c h lasts t i l l J u n e ( o r J u l y ) .

Once the examining boards decided to include certain popular televi- sion programmes on their literature sylla- bus. Other chil- dren either go home f o r lunch or have a snack at school. N e a r l y all pu- pils do exam in English. Usually exams have nothing to do w i t h school years. 87 . Maths and Science. Some pupils take exams in 3—4 additional subjects. They are not usually set up by the government (rather by independent examining boards). The boards publish sylla- bus f o r each subject.pupils have lunch provided by the school. The lunch is paid by parents. Most do exams in technology and in a for- eign language. There is no single school-leaving exam or school-leaving cer- tificate. Usually a vast range of subjects is offered for school children. Exams At 15—16 years old school children take public exams. Each school or Local Ed- ucation Authority decides which exams their pupils are to take.

Scotland and N o r t h e r n Ireland go to school at the same age. Answer the questions. W h a t is the aim of p r i v a t e schools? 8. 88 . W h a t subjects do pupils learn at secondary school? 6. 3. Is there any difference between state and independent schools? 7. Quite a large number of children attend pub- lic schools. 4. W h a t exams do children have to take at 16 years old? 5. Is schooling compulsory for pupils of 17 years old? 10. W h e n does the academic year begin? II. 2. Children in England. W h a t is the goal of education in Britain? 2. W h a t types of school do you know in B r i t - ain? 3. W h a t school do children at 6 years attend? 4. Can you give an example of a private school? 9. 1. W a l e s . T h e first stage of education is secondary education. True or false?* 1. Schooling is compulsory f o r c h i l d r e n of 5 to 16 years of age. EXERCISES I.

p r i v a t e education — 2. Only a small part of schools are m i x e d . GCSE — 6. boarding schools — 5. But quite a lot of them want to continue their education. 1. 89 . Only 1/3 of all leave school at 16 and look for a job. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. A f t e r finishing secondary school children are awarded GCSE. academic year — 7. 6. mixed schools — 4. 7. At public schools much attention is paid to character-building. nursery education — Education in Great Britain ( continued ) At the age of 16 pupils can leave school. I I I . compulsory education — 3. (The general level of unemployed is high today. Some of them find job immediately and many take part in training schemes (which means job com- bined with part-time college courses).5.

they receive a state grant. By 1980 there were already more than 40. Those who have better A-level results are usually accepted. U n i v e r s i t i e s take the better students. that's why nearly all students complete their studies. and by 1995 there were over a hun- dred institutions with university status. These academic exams are set by the same examining boards that set GCSE ex- ams.l e v e l exams (Advanced Level). who wish to continue their education. Unless their parents are rich. 90 . Universities usually select students on the basis of A-level results and an interview (stu- dents who wish to enter Oxford and Cam- bridge have to take certain exams). The normal course of study lasts 3—4 years. In 1960 there were less than 25 universities in Britain. H i g h e r education has become more avail- able in the second half of the 20th century. In England and W a l e s those who stay at school study just three subjects in prepara- tion f o r taking A . Students are not supposed to take a job during the term. T h e y ' r e taken by pupils at the age of 18 years old.

which covers most of their expenses. First of all. These Universities consist of semi-inde- pendent colleges. However. Quite a lot of students live on campus (or in college) or in rooms nearby. Oxbridge. 91 . This system is unique in the w o r l d and known as tutorials in Oxford and supervi- sions in Cambridge. includ- ing the cost of accomodation. in addition. The " F e l l o w s " teach the college students either one-to one or in v e r y small groups. There are no great distinctions between different types of universities in Britain. the number of students from low-income fami- lies has been greatly reduced. nowadays the government re- duces the amount of the students and en- courages a system of top-up loans. each of them having its own staff ( " F e l l o w s " ) . But still there are some categories of them. but this reduc- es the traditionally high quality of British university education. Oxford and Cam- bridge were founded in the medieval peri- od. A n d . That's why quite a lot of students can't afford to live in college and many more of them are forced to do a part-time job.

Aberdeen and St. Edin- burgh. During the 19th century various insti- tutions of higher education (usually tech- nical ones) w e r e founded in the indus- trial towns and cities such as Birmingham. These universities are financed by local authority. There is less special- ization than at Oxbridge. but later they were given the right to award their own de- grees. Andrews. They became universities themselves. so they got the name "redbrick" universities. A n - drews resembles Oxbridge very much. they prepared students f o r London University degrees. Manchester and Leeds. They contrasted chiefly with Oxford and Cam- bridge. Then. At first. The process of study at these universities is v e r y close to the continental one. N o w they accept students from all over the country. One of the developments in education in Britain is certainly the Open U n i v e r s i t y . By 1600 Scot- land had 4 universities — Glasgow. It was founded in 1971. Some people don't have 92 . Their buildings were of local brick. St. Scotish universities. In the other three most of the students live at home or find their rooms in town.

EXERCISES I. Do pupils at 16 prefer to continue their ed- ucation or to find job? 2. 1. to whom they send their papers. H o w do universities select students? 5. W h y has the high quality of B r i t i s h uni- v e r s i t y education been reduced recently? 7.l e v e l exams? 4. Its stu- dents work individually and with tutors. radio and coursebooks. W h y do all students usually complete their studies? 6. training schemes — 93 . H o w many subjects are studied by pupils in preparation f o r taking A . Answer the questions. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.l e v e l exams? 3.an opportunity to study full-time. W h e n was the Open U n i v e r s i t y founded? II. The university's courses are taught through television. and this university allows them to study f o r degree. W h e n do pupils take their A . In summer t h e y attend short courses. The students discuss their work at meetings or through correspondence. 1.

loans. 94 . of all pupils leave school and look f o r a job. . on campus — 3. a part-time job — 4. . . . . The government encourages a system of . staff — 6. . 8.. At the age of . sub- jects. Fill in the gaps. . 7. 10. . 2. . univer- sities in Britain. 4. years. Those who stay at school study . years old. .. . low-income families — 5.* 1. . pupils can leave school. a t O x f o r d and .l e v e l exams are taken at . By 1986 there were more than . . . at Cambridge. Only . O x f o r d and C a m b r i d g e w e r e f o u n d e d in the . Universities select students on the basis of exams. . 3. One of the developments in education in Britain i s . period. 6. " r e d b r i c k " universities — III. . 1 1 . A . T h e unique system of education in B r i t a i n i s known a s . . . .2. The course of study at universities lasts . 9. . . 5.

They are cal- led Oxbridge to denote an elitarian educa- tion. and is appointed annually by the Chan- cellor) and two proctors. Oxbridge O x f o r d and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Great Britain. each self-gov- erning and independent. Before 1970 most of all Oxbridge universities were single-sex (mostly for men). The administrative body of the University consists of the Chancellor (who is elected f o r l i f e ) . the vice-chancellor (who is in practice the head of the Universi- ty. after which the students take the degree of Bachelor of A r t s . Only rich people send their children to these universities. Some cours- es may be a year or two longer. Oxford and Cambridge universities con- sist of a number of colleges. whose job is to maintain discipline and who are appointed 95 . But now the majority ad- mit both sexes. The main characteristic feature of these universities is the tutorial (that means the individual t u i t i o n ) . The normal length of the degree course is three years.

Each col- lege has its name. The end of the 12th century saw the real beginning of the University. The first group of scholars at Oxford may have been joined by others from Paris.annually. grants degrees. which organizes lectures. the smallest have less than 3 0 . from other parts of B r i t a i n . A l l the lectures are organized by the University. Oxford had existed as a city f o r at least 3 0 0 years before scholars began to re- sort to it. In every college there are students of various specialities but each stu- dent follows his own course of study. The University is merely an administra- tive body. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of O x f o r d i s that many t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e Middle A g e s are still current there. library and chapel. Most colleges have their own dining hall. The largest colleges have more than 4 0 0 students. One of 96 . arrang- es examinations. Each college has its staff called "Fellows". Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. The University has laboratories and re- search institutes and other educational fa- cilities. It didn't come into being all at once.

them is that the students have to wear gowns. They expanded as the need f o r more room arose (the Queen's College). N e w College had the first regular quad- rangle. 97 . The earliest college buildings seem to have no definite plan.

It is a l i v i n g entity and its historic buildings are the homes of masters and students whose learn- ing. In 1871 the first women's college was 98 . Oxford is a place of great beauty. science and politics. Until 1871 the University was only f o r men. but it is not just a shrine to the past. Nowadays there are 29 colleges f o r men. The building is the real example of English 15th century architecture. Cambridge University dates back as the 13th century. thinking and ideas have a profound in- fluence on culture. The colleges line the r i g h t bank. But the most fa- mous is the K i n g ' s College. The oldest university is Peterhouse (founded in 1284) and the most recent is Robinson College (1977). University College and A l l Souls. Perhaps the most famous colleges are Christ Church. The University is situated on the R i v e r Cam. Many eminent world-known schol- ars and scientists have been educated at Oxford. A l l the graduates of Oxford never f o r g e t "spirit of O x f o r d " . Today there are more than 30 colleges. education. 5 f o r women and another 5 have both men and women members.

opened. Every year at the end of March (or in 99 4* . In 1970s most colleges admitted both men and women. Students at Oxbridge have different so- cieties and clubs. Different sports are v e r y popular. But the most popular sports are rowing and punting.

. . 6. . which . . By 1966 C a m b r i d g e had w o n 61 times. W h a t does Oxbridge mean? 2. students.. . . .early A p r i l ) a contest between O x f o r d and C a m b r i d g e universities take place on the R i v e r T h a m e s . Oxford as a city had existed for at least . . 5. O x f o r d — 50 t i m e s . P r o c t o r ' s job is to . . 7. . Fill in the gaps. people send their children to Ox- bridge. W h a t makes these universities quite dif- ferent f r o m any other? 4. .* 1. T h e c o u r s e i s t h e 4 1/4 m i l e stretch of r i v e r . and . years. 3. . T h e race usually starts at m i d d a y or at 3 o'clock. 4. W h i c h of them is older? 3. . Only .. .. . 1. 100 . H o w long is the course of study? 5. Answer the questions. T h e U n i v e r s i t y is an administrative body. Each college is . EXERCISES I. W h a t is the function of the U n i v e r s i t y ? II.. 2. Chancellor is elected f o r . . T h e largest colleges have .

III. . . T h e first regular quadrangle had . . Col- lege. . 9 . 10. . T h e most popular sports are . . . . A l l the students have t o wear .8. Fill in the table. .

A n d nowadays m o r e and m o r e people in the L o w l a n d areas of Scotland. Part 4 THE BRITISH PEOPLE The English Language ntil f e w centuries ago there w e r e m a n y natives o f w h a t w e call t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . Irish Gaelic. w h e r e Gaelic 102 . In Scotland the Gaelic L a n g u a g e Society has e x i s t e d f o r e i g h t y y e a r s . as well as the islands. and a similar language. was spoken in Ireland. T h e w e s t - ern land of W a l e s spoke W e l s h . v e r s e and prose. I t ' s d e d i c a t e d to preserving the traditions of the Gaelic songs. w h o d i d n ' t speak E n g l i s h . in the far- thest n o r t h and the islands of Scotland the language was Gaelic. M a n x was the language of the Isles of M a n x and Cornish that of the south-western tip of Britain.

most of them living in N o r t h America. g. many Irish and W e l s h speak the Celtic language). In W a l e s some of the programmes of the I V t h channel are broadcast in W e l s h . In about 25 countries English has been used as an official language (either it is the sole official language there. In 1967 W e l s h was recognized as an equal language for use in law courts. Australia. or it shares that status with other languages). social or educational activities in the countries where native lan- guage isn't English. Gaelic can be chosen f o r the final exam. commercial. Since 1970s many people g o t o evening classes and learn Gaelic. 103 . now want to learn the lan- g u a g e . But English is the second language for govern- mental. In several of these countries English isn't the sole language (e.is still spoken. In W a l e s the W e l s h Language Society was founded in 1962 and since that time it has been t r y i n g to restore W e l s h to an equal place with En- glish. English is spoken as a native language by more than 300 million people. the Caribbean and South A f r i c a . the British Isles. N e w Zealand. in Can- ada — French is also spoken.

Most of these countries are former Brit-
ish territories. Even more widely English is
studied and used as a foreign language. It
has already acquired international status.
It is used for communication, listening, read-
ing, broadcast, in commerce and travel.
H a l f of the world's scientific literature
is in English. It is the language of automa-
tion and computer technology. It is not only
the universal language of international avia-
tion, shipping and sport, it is also the univer-
sal language of literacy and public communi-
cation. It is the major language of diplomacy
and it is the most frequently used language
in the general conduct of UN business.
Only in the course of the last hundred
years English has become a world language.
In Shakespeare's time it was " p r o v i n c i a l "
language of secondary importance. Only
6 million people spoke English.
From the British Isles English spread all
over the world, but English hasn't always
been the language of the people of those is-
lands. W h e n the Romans colonized England
(the 1st century of our e r a ) , the country
was inhabited by the Celtic tribes. U n t i l the
5th century only the Celtic languages were

104

spoken by the people of Britain. A b o u t the
m i d d l e of the 5th century the B r i t i s h Isles
began to be invaded by the A n g l e s , Saxons
and J u t e s , w h o spoke dialects o f t h e l a n g u a g e
which was the ancestor of the present-day
E n g l i s h . N o w w e call i t O l d E n g l i s h . D u r -
i n g f i f t e e n hundred years that have passed
s i n c e t h e A n g l o - S a x o n i n v a s i o n E n g l i s h has
changed considerably. It was influenced by
the language of the Danish ( V i k i n g ) invad-
ers (in the 8 — 1 0 t h c e n t u r y ) .
Between the 12th and 14th century En-
glish was influenced (both in g r a m m a r and
vocabulary, and in its pronunciation) by
N o r m a n French. In the 1 4 t h — 1 6 t h century
q u i t e a number of L a t i n and Greek w o r d s
were introduced into English.
English belongs to the Germanic branch
of the Indo-European family of languages.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.
1. W h a t languages are spoken on the B r i t i s h
Isles?
2. W h a t language is widely spread in Scotland?
3. Since what time has English become a world
language?

105

4. W h a t branch of languages does English be-
l o n g to?
5. In what countries is English considered to
be the official language?
6. W h e r e is it spoken as the second language?
7. W h a t languages have influenced English
since the 8th century?
I I . Complete the sentences.*
1. English is* spoken in . . . .
2. English has become the language of . . . .
3. T h e W e l s h Language Society was f o r m e d
to . . . .
4. English is spoken as a native language by
more than . . . .
5. E n g l i s h is used as an o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e
in . . . .
6. M o s t of the countries where English is spo-
ken are . . . .
7. In Shakespeare's time English was a lan-
guage o f . . . .
8. U n t i l the 5th century only . . . languages
w e r e spoken by the people of B r i t a i n .

Holidays and Festivals

There are eight holidays a year in Great
Britain. On these days people don't go to

106

there are other festivals. Good Friday. they're ordinary working days. Easter. A l l the public holidays (except New Year's Day. New Year In England N e w Y e a r is not as widely observed as Christmas. The most common type of celebration is a N e w Y e a r party (either a family party or one arranged by a group of young people). Late Summer Bank Holiday. on which certain traditions are observed. Boxing Day. M a y Day.work. T h e y don't fall on the same date each year. N e w Y e a r ' s Day. Spring Bank Holiday. Christ- mas and Boxing Day) are movable. visit their friends. But nowadays they have lost their religious significance and are simply days on which people relax. 107 . Besides public holidays. Some people just ig- nore it. Most of these holidays are of religious origin. They are: Christmas Day. but others celebrate it in one way or another. anniversaries. But if they don't fall on Sunday.

There is usually a buffet supper of cold meat. C H R I S T M A S D A Y is observed on the 25th of December. a big bowl of punch. Though religion in Britain has been loosing ground Christmas is still the most widely celebrated festival. pies.This usually begins at about 8 o'clock p . It is the most colourful and merry holiday. dance and welcome the N e w Y e a r . cakes. People sing. Most hotels and dance halls hold a special dance on N e w Y e a r ' s Eve. They send cards and g i v e presents. A n o t h e r popular way of celebrating N e w Y e a r is to go to a N e w Y e a r ' s dance. Peo- ple don't work. Someone usually falls into the foun- tain. January 1st is a public holiday. m . and goes until the early hours of the morn- ing. sandwiches. In Britain this day was a festival long before the conversion to Chris- tianity. The most famous celebration is round the statue of Eros in P i c c a d i l l y Circus. At midnight people listen to the chiming of B i g Ben and sing " A u l d L a n g S y n e " (a song by Robert Burns "The days of long ago"). 108 .

They also arrange Christmas cards on shelves. A n o t h e r popular festival is Guy Fawkes Night (November. mashed potatoes to be followed by plum pudding. On returning from church the fam- ily gather round the Tree and open the par- cels. In the homes people decorate Christmas trees and hang a bunch of mistletoe under which the boys kiss the girls. Children believe that Father Christmas will come down the chimney and fill the stock- ings with presents. On Christmas E v e e v e r y t h i n g is rush. 5 ) . Most cities are decorated with coloured lights and enormous Christmas trees. On Christmas Day many people go to church. mantel- pieces. Over the end of the bed people hang stock- ings. boiled ham. tables. It commemorates the 109 . Christmas meal is really traditional — stuffed turkey. Offices close at one o'clock but the shops stay open late. People travel from all parts of the coun- try to be at home for Christmas. A carrot for the reindeer is usually left on the mantelpiece. The housewife is busy cooking a tur- key and baking Christmas cakes. Everyone gets something. mince pies. tea or coffee and cakes.

But on October. In May 1604 the conspirators rented a house adjoining the House of Lords f r o m which they dug a tunnel to a vault below the house. The truth is so deeply buried that we are not likely to discover it. Fawkes was hanged. when the latter opened Parliament on November. 5. one of the conspirators wrote to Lord Monteagle and warned him to stay away from the House of Lords. an English Roman Catholic. a search was made and the gun- powder was found together with Guy Fawkes. 4.discovery of the so-called Gunpowder P l o t and is w i d e l y celebrated throughout the country. On November. Conspiracy was g o i n g to d e s t r o y the E n g l i s h Houses of Parliament and K i n g James I. 110 . There they stored 36 barrels of gunpowder.1605. According to another theory the plot nev- er existed at all. 26. Fawkes had been commissioned to set o f f the e x p l o s i o n . It was planned that when K i n g and Parliament were destroyed the Roman Catholics should attempt and seize power. The Government just want- ed to blacken the Catholics and tighten the laws against them.

sweethearts. Valentine's Day thou- sands of people travel to a small village on Scotland's border with England to get mar- ried. Valentine's Day is celebrated on Feb- ruary. However. In that times in England marriage for the people under the age of 21 without parents' per- mission was banned. St. On November. W e d d i n g s for St. 14. On this day boys and girls. Many young couples came to Gretna Green to get married there. straw and a hat. Gretna Green was the first stop across the border. in this place. Nowadays. in Scotland this permission was not required. Its romantic reputation began in 1754. friends and neighbours exchan- 111 . children are allowed to let off fireworks to make a bonfire and burn on it the f i g u r e of a " g u y " made of old clothes. Valentine's Day St. Valentine's Day have to be booked 3 months in advance. 5. The village is called Gretna Green. Every St. at least one cou- ple gets married every day of the year. husbands and wives.

It is celebrated either as the start of spring or a religious festival. a Christian martyr who before he was put to death by the Romans sent a note of friendship to his jailer's blind daughter. People send each other greeting cards. Valentine's cards are v e r y co- lourful.ge greetings of affection and love. But they haven't been used before the middle of the last century and they haven't displaced the true Easter eggs. In England presents traditionally take the form of an Easter egg. Easter eggs are usually made of chocolate. 112 . In the last century. Easter eggs are often artificial. chocolates and flowers. with a couple of human hearts on them. sweethearts would spend hours fashioning a home-made card or a present. There is a version of the first Valentine. Easter Easter is a time when certain traditions are observed. It was a bishop. Nowadays.

H o w do people celebrate N e w Y e a r ? 3. There are some Easter games like egg- r o l l i n g and egg-shackling. H o w does London greet spring? 10. E a s t e r e g g s a l w a y s g r a c e b r e a k f a s t tables on Easter Day. E v e r y y e a r L o n - don greets the spring with Easter Parade in Battersea P a r k on Easter Sunday. W h a t is the usual Christmas meal? 6. importance — 2. EXERCISES I. H o w are the homes decorated on Christmas Eve? 4. W h a t holiday is celebrated on November. to pay no attention — 113 . 1. W h e n is St. m. The p a r a d e b e g i n s at 3 p. W h a t graces breakfast tables on Easter Day? II. Answer the questions. 5? 7.* 1. Valentine's Day celebrated? 8. W h e r e do usually people put their presents on Christmas Eve? 5. Sometimes they are hidden about t h e house f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o f i n d t h e m . W h a t is Gretna Green famous for? 9. W h a t holidays are celebrated on the same date each year? 2. Give synonyms to the following words.

. . 2. 5. to let smb. . . 4. 3. 2. v e r y big — 4. are observed. 5 the Catholics planned to seize power. . Christmas Day became a festival after the conversion to Christianity. True or false?* 1. . Fill in the gaps* 1. know about smth. . T h e most widely observed holiday is N e w Y e a r ' s Day. On N e w Y e a r E v e people hang a bunch of mistletoe. 5. . 7. M o s t hotels hold a special dance on N e w Year's Eve. IV. and goes on until . . 114 . A N e w Y e a r party usually begins at . 3. . On N o v e m b e r . T h e most famous celebration of N e w Y e a r i s round the . English people celebrate Christmas at home. A l l the public holidays are . . Father Christmas puts all his presents un- der the Christmas T r e e . all o v e r the country — 5. o r i g i n . M o s t of the holidays in Great B r i t a i n are of . . 6.3. in advance — III. A t midnight people listen t o the . . T h e r e are a lot of festivals on which . . a house next to — 6. . 4. . 6. . o f B i g Ben.

sewing and gardening. W o m e n usually do housework. People who stay at home at the weekend try to relax. washing the car. . On Friday night people like to go to a bar for the happy hour. the Catholics. .7. Some people go away for the week- end. col- leges and universities are closed on Satur- day and Sunday. doing the laundry. 9. . enjoy themselves. 8. Those who work away f r o m home may go home. . Saturday morning is the time for cleaning the house. or the theatre. Christmas meal is usually traditional . . . . They stay in a hotel or boarding house in the country or at the sea. Schools. Christmas Day is observed on . T h e Government wanted an excuse to . The Weekend Most people in Britain work f i v e days a week from Monday to Friday. Weekend starts on Friday evening when people leave work and wish each other a nice weekend. Nowadays it is not " i n " to go to all-night parties. 115 . . they get up early on Saturday morning.

A f t e r breakfast most people go for a walk or to the local pub. cricket and other sports. Saturday morning is a busy time for shop- ping. Reading Sun- day papers is one of numerous traditions in Britain.Usually men go to the pubs alone and their wives and children pre- pare f o r brunch. dances or theatre. horse-rac- ing. Church bells are a typical feature of an English Sunday morning.) The shops in the centre of big cities usually close at one in the afternoon. Some people like to go to watch a band. People either go and watch or sit and watch the sports programmes on television. m. rugby. There are quite a number of papers which are published weekly on Sundays. 116 . maybe pictures.30 and 6 p. On Saturday afternoon sport- ing events take place — football. On weekdays shops close between 5. At about one o'clock people go out f o r lunch. A f t e r lunch they go f o r a walk or do some sports. They look through the newspapers. On Sunday morn- ing most people stay in bed till 9 o'clock. Saturday evening is the favourite time for going out: parties. Then they have a cup of tea or coffee. (They're closed on Sundays.

2. W h a t does brunch mean? 7. . A t o n e o r 1. chicken. pudding. cold meat. Match the two halves. coffee.* 1. W h a t do people usually have f o r brunch? II. People work . So t h e y usually have an early night. I t i s a g o o d t i m e f o r all the f a m i l y . parents and children go out to some restaurant and spend an hour or t w o o v e r brunch. w h e n g r a n d - parents. Most people prefer to stay at home and watch television or just get ready f o r Monday. 3. pies. T h e y have all sorts of salads. 1. vegetables. Brunch is a huge meal.30 p e o p l e h a v e b r u n c h . Answer the questions. . EXERCISES I. W h a t do people usually do on Saturday af- ternoon? 5.. W h e n do the shops close on Saturday in Brit- ain? 4. . Sunday evenings are rather quiet. H o w long is a week in Britain? 2. Some people go away f o r . W h a t is the favourite time f o r g o i n g out? 6. W h e n does the weekend start in Britain? 3. 117 . . . fruit. W e e k e n d starts on .

6. III. 3. . Church bells are a typical feature of . W e e k e n d starts on Saturday. h) g o i n g out. True or false?* 1. On Sundays people g e t up . On Sunday afternoon sporting events take place. . c) cleaning the house and doing shopping. . 118 . Saturday morning is the time f o r . b) because they get up early on Saturday. i) Friday evening. On Sundays people have . e) an English Sunday morning. 6. Those who stay at home t r y to . Brunch is . 2. . 9.. . 11. W o m e n do housework on Sunday. . Saturday evenings is the time f o r . 5. f) days a week. 5. People d o n ' t go to all-night parties .4. Saturday morning is a busy t i m e f o r shop- ping.. a) the weekend. . d) at 9 o'clock. People work 6 days a week. . . On weekdays shops close at 2 o'clock. k) an early night. 7. 10. . 4. . g) a huge meal.. . 8. j) relax and enjoy themselves. .

m.7. 1 1 . On weekdays shops close at 5. Arrange the sentences in the proper or- der. m. people go out f o r lunch. 12. 8. At 1 p. T h e y have an early night. 8. 5. m. On Saturday people usually do housework. On Sunday evenings people watch televi- sion. On Sunday morning people stay in bed till 9 o'clock. 6. People have brunch at 5 p. 10. W e e k e n d starts on Friday n i g h t . Brunch is a snack between meals. 12. 13. 9.30 or 6 p.* 1. A f t e r lunch they do some sports. People have tea or coffee f o r brunch. 4. On Sunday people have brunch in a restau- rant. 10. 1 1 . 9. 2. A f t e r breakfast most people go to the local pub. 119 . IV. M o s t men go to the pubs alone. On Sunday people get up at 9 o'clock. On Saturday afternoon people either go and w a t c h or sit and w a t c h the sports p r o - grammes. Sunday evenings are usually quiet. 7. 3. On Friday people like to go to a bar f o r the happy hour. Saturday evening is the f a v o u r i t e time f o r g o i n g out.

A n d soon i t b e c a m e pop- ular to spend a w e e k or t w o at t h e seaside resort towns. I n t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y t h e B r i t i s h u p p e r class s t a r t e d t h e f a s h i o n f o r seaside h o l i d a y s . A l l the f a m i l y spend an hour or t w o o v e r brunch. M o s t o f f i c i a l h o l i d a y s occur just b e f o r e o r j u s t af- ter a weekend. E v e n N e w Y e a r ' s D a y w a s n ' t a public h o l i d a y i n E n g l a n d and W a l e s u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y . B u t n o t all p u b l i c h o l i d a y s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s celebrations. Holidays in Britain T h e r e are f e w e r public holidays in B r i t - a i n t h a n i n any o t h e r c o u n t r y i n E u r o p e . People g e t ready f o r Monday.14. These towns h a v e m a n y hotels. T h e a v e r a g e e m p l o y e e gets f o u r w e e k s ' paid holiday a year. T h e r e are practically no ex- t r a local holidays in particular places. T h e w o r d holiday m e a n s holy day. I n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y the w o r k i n g class g o t such a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o o . A b o u t 4 0 % of the population do not go away f o r their holidays. 16. 120 . 15. O v e r a cup of tea or coffee people read Sun- day papers.

121 . Camp- ing holidays are not so popular in England nowadays. theatres. but one of the traditional ways of spending a holiday is in a boarding house. Caravan holidays have become more pop- ular nowadays. but they are v e r y popular in France. In the 1950s and 1960s camping holi- days were v e r y popular. which are usually situated on the pier. where children make sandcastles. If the weather is fine people go to the beach. eat ice-creams or go swimming. Quite a lot of people like just to relax and sunbathe. These houses offer "bed and breakfast" or " f u l l board" (that means that all meals are provided). peo- ple go to discos. A caravan pulled by the fam- ily car can provide good opportunity f o r holiday. dance halls. Many people like the friendly at- mosphere in an organized caravan site. In the evening and when it's raining. but rooms are not. Few English people rent houses or flats for their holidays. Food in British hotels and restaurants is reasonably cheap. People stayed in chalets and had food and all kinds of en- tertainment in the holiday camps.

f o r B a n k h o l i d a y weekend most people go to the most popu- lar seaside resorts. R i c h people go to t h e i r cottages in the countryside where they pre- fer to spend the weekend. W h a t are people offered at boarding houses? 122 . 1. F o r e i g n t o u r i s m has b e c o m e e x t r e m e l y popular these days. H o w long is an annual holiday f o r the av- erage employee in Britain? 2. Most f o r e i g n holidays are package holidays. F o r e x a m p l e . Spain is a v e r y popular package-holiday place today. EXERCISES I. M i l l i o n s of people spend their holidays away from home. W h a t was a popular type of holiday in the 18th century? 4. W h a t does the word holiday mean? 3. S o m e h o l i d a y s i n B r i t a i n last o n l y t h r e e o r less d a y s . Y o u book transport and accomodation and pay for everything in advance ( t h r o u g h a travel agent). Traditionally people start planning their summer holidays on Boxing Day. Answer the questions.

2. Y o u book . and . o f the population d o not g o away f o r their holidays. . package holiday — 5. 12. quite recently. 4. 1 1 . . N e w Y e a r ' s Day wasn't a . . . 1. . F e w people . flats or houses f o r their holidays. a boarding house — 2. 10. . 6. If the weather is fine people go to the . W h a t ' s the difference between the camp- i n g holiday and a caravan holiday? 6. N o t all public h o l i d a y s are connected with . 9. a caravan — 3. . to book in advance — 4. 3 . M a n y people like . . Day. .* 1. 123 . by the f a m i l y car. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. 5. . . . . . 8. . A caravan is . . . . . . Food in hotels and restaurants is . . . P e o p l e start planning t h e i r h o l i d a y s on . H o w do people spend their Bank holiday weekend? II. . . . . In a camp people stay in . in a caravan site. in advance. . to book accomodation — III. 7. tourism has become v e r y popular. . . .5. . Fill in the gaps. .

But even a small house with a garden is v e r y dear to the hearts of many people in Britain. Flats are usually much cheaper. Every Englishman wants privacy.) Peo- ple who live in them cannot afford to have a house of their own. An Englishman's Home is His Castle" Everyone in Britain dreams of l i v i n g in a detached house. Their dislike of l i v i n g in flats is v e r y strong. A detached house is of "non-classi- cal" shape with a lot of little corners. Such a house is a dream for most people. In 1950s. millions of poor people lived in old. but i t ' s also a status symbol. It is usually built of brick and slate. cold. The garage is hidden away so it doesn't spoil the rural feeling. 124 . f o r exam- ple. In front of the house there's always a beautiful garden with smooth lawn. Most people don't like blocks of flats. they're the cheapest kind of home. which means a separate building. A n d a large. which make the house v e r y cosy. (In fact. be- cause they provide the least amount of pri- vacy. detached house not only ensures pri- vacy.

They felt lonely without their gardens and neighbours.uncomfortable houses of the 19th century. because they didn't suit British attitudes. with cen- tral heating and bathrooms. more comfort- able and cosy they hated their new homes. w i t h no bathroom. In Britain these "tower blocks" (or "high- rise blocks") were a complete failure. But when they were g i v - en new blocks of flats to live in. while in 125 .

other countries people are v e r y happy in modern flats. English people usu- ally have flowerbeds with paths in between. To emphasize this division. This way they can have a garden in front of the house. But it is not so. set back f r o m the road. or just patches of grass to express their in- dividuality. peo- ple prefer to live in a house. This area may not be v e r y big. Flats don't g i v e people enough privacy. Law and custom in Britain support a clear separation between what is public and what is private. even if the outside territory is v e r y small. N o t h a v i n g a separate entrance to the outside world doesn't suit British tastes. which separates them from the world. but it allows people to have a low fence or a hedge round it. maybe the coldest in Europe. Nowadays only 4 0 % of the population live in high-rises. British houses are thought to be very cold. Besides. About 3/4 of houses now have central 126 . they can have a small garden of their own in front of the house. Such a fence announces that here the private property begins. People like to choose the colour of their own front door or window frames.

hidden from public view. if necessary and if the price is attractive. The house can be easily sold. Usually people borrow 8 0 % of the price 127 . then there is a hall into which the front door opens. but house prices are very high. The most important thing f o r Brit- ish people is to feel cosy — that is to create a warm atmosphere (even if i t ' s not warm in the house). P r i v a t e houses usual- ly have the back door f o r family or close friends.heating. A fire- place is a traditional symbol of warmth. Nowadays. Most houses are sold on the open market by the "property developers" (they are private companies). About 70% of all the houses are occupied by their own- ers. Most older houses have t w o living rooms. In spite of peoples' great desire to have a house of their own they're not so much at- tached to the house itself. It allows the front room to be used for formal visits while the fami- ly spend their time in the back room. If there is one living room in the house. it may be an imitation of open fire with plastic coal. The desire to have a private house is great. In Britain many people have a great desire to have a "real f i r e " .

1. property developers — III. W h y d o n ' t English people like blocks o f flats? 3. 2. . . . H o w can an Englishman express his indi- viduality? 5. . tower blocks — 3. W h a t does a "detached house" mean? 2. N o r m a l l y they pay the m o n e y back over the period of 2 0 — 2 5 years. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. 1. f o r an En- glishman. I.and then pay the m o n e y back m o n t h by m o n t h . than houses. A detached house means .* 1. a detached house — 2. Flats are usually much . Fill in the gaps. W h y is it so important f o r English peo- ple to have a garden in front of the ho- use? 4. Answer the questions. 128 . W h y do British people tend to have t w o liv- i n g rooms? II. W h a t is a traditional symbol of a cosy home in Britain? 6.

129 5 1468 . and . Many visitors to Britain find English coffee just horrible. . . years. . % o f the price. jam or honey. is a symbol of w a r m t h in a British home. A . Only . A detached house is usually built of . Some people have coffee. . . 9. . eggs. % of the population l i v e in high- rises. 6. for family and friends. which is made with just hot water. Meals The usual meals are breakfast. . . often instant coffee. . 4 . bacon. P r i v a t e homes have the . T h e y pay money back during . . . . . juice or yoghurt. 5 . i n f r o n t o f the house. . 10. . a toast with marmalade. But many people just have cere- al with milk. Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made f r o m other fruit. vegetables. tea and dinner. . Usually people borrow . . 8 . . T h e y usually have a . . 7. Flats d o n ' t g i v e people . A traditional English breakfast is a v e r y big one — sausages. . lunch. The traditional breakfast drink is tea which people have with cold milk.3.

some crisps. There is nothing like an En- glish party. white. English pubs often serve good. salad and pickles generally grace the table. some fruit. or a roll — and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars. At lunch. where of- fice workers can choose the kind of bread they want — brown. cold mutton. which is about one o'clock. Salad is a little different from ours. Lunch is a quick meal. but tea rooms and luncheon rooms are in abundance. pepper and mayonnaise. vinegar. 130 . at home or in the open air. salt. Lunch isn't small either. That's why there are no "coffee hous- e s " . though tea is the favourite beverage in En- gland. Tea means two things. It is a drink and a meal. a drink. cheap food. Y o u only get the clean green leaves and the so-called "salad dress- i n g " . both hot and cold. fish with potatoes. English mutton is a treat. School children can have a hot meal at school but many just take a snack from home — a sand- wich. A f t e r lunch most people take c o f f e e . a mixture of oil. that you may take accord- ing to your taste. and it is prepared in such a way that you wouldn't know it is mutton.

T h e supper m i g h t consist of an o m e l e t t e . and. T h e r e in the basket y o u would likely f i n d .00 and 8. v e g e t a b l e s a n d g r a v y . which is considered to be the chief meal. the English load their lun- c h e o n b a s k e t s w i t h all s o r t s o f s a n d w i c h e s m a d e of t h i n slices of bread and b u t t e r w i t h m e a t . h a m . at midday — dinner. coffee or cocoa. between 6. bacon. w i t h sand- wiches. I n s i m p l i e r homes the schedule is somewhat d i f f e r e n t . a cup of tea. T h e y usually have it quite early. chicken or pork w i t h potatoes. In the m o r n i n g they have breakfast. T h e y have roast meat either beef. r a w tomatoes o r cucumbers. v e g e t a b l e and dessert. tea in the afternoon and supper in the e v e n i n g . W h e n eating out. Y o u h a v e scones (a kind of cake) w i t h cream and j a m . cakes. On Sundays many families have a tradi- tional lunch. C r e a m t e a s a r e p o p u l a r . T h e evening meal is the main meal of the day f o r many people. G r a v y i s a sauce m a d e f r o m the meat juices. besides 131 .S o m e people have afternoon tea. on a picnic. and o f t e n the w h o l e f a m i l y eat together.00. of course. lamb. followed by a clear soup. Dinner begins w i t h some salad. f i s h . sandwich and a cup of tea. that is.

Is English breakfast big or small? 3. too. 2. some bottles of g i n g e r beer. especially Italian. Do British people have soup f o r lunch? 5. Answer the questions. Chine- se and Indian. W h a t do people have f o r breakfast? 4. The British like food f r o m other coun- tries. i s n ' t it? 9. W h a t are the usual English meals? 2. 1. 132 . EXERCISES I. People often have cereal or toast for break- fast. True or false?* 1. W h a t do foreign people think of English coffee? II. M a n y British people have a big breakfast. Sunday lunch is something special. French. W h a t ' s the difference between English and Russian salad? 6. People often get takeaway meals — you buy the food at the restaurant and then b r i n g it home to eat. W h a t do British people load their luncheon baskets with? 10. W h e n do the English have dinner? 8. W h a t does " t e a " mean? 7.cakes and biscuits. E a t i n g in Britain is quite international.

8. 7. you eat it at home. 10. British people eat dinner late in the evening. 6. M a n y f o r e i g n visitors love English c o f f e e . Pubs are good places to go f o r lunch. Sunday lunch is a special meal.3. A l l British people have a hot lunch. Marmalade is made f r o m any f r u i t . W h e n you get a takeaway meal. There are seventeen words connected with food.* 133 . People drink tea with hot milk. 5. 4. 9. III. find them and write here.

good. 4. milk. People have tea w i t h . M a n y children take a . . 6. meal. 2. 3. . . w i t h milk or juice. . . Fill in the gaps* 1.IV. . f r o m home. 5. . . English breakfast i s a big . People have . . . Pubs . 134 . . . Dinner in some homes is considered to be the . cheap f o o d . 7. . T h e English . . their baskets w i t h all sorts of sandwiches. .

Tea is usually drink w i t h . . b) lemon. fish. English mutton i s a . . i n England. pickles general- ly . c) a sauce. a) a special dish.. b) a drink. salt. c) a special beverage. a) kind of dessert. . 4. .8. . 9. . At lunch cold mutton. a) hot milk. In England it is beer. . Choose the right answer* 1. . b) a sauce made from meat juices. "Salad-dressing" is . . V. . vinegar. consisting of d i f f e r e n t vegetables. . T e a i s the f a v o u r i t e . mayonnaise. and the " p u b " is a pecu- liarly English institution. . Pubs in Britain Most countries have a national drink. 10. c) a mixture of oil. c) cold milk. the table. A scone is . 135 . 2. b) a salad topping. . G r a v y is . a) a kind of biscuit. 3. .

A l l pubs h a v e one d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e : t h e r e i s n o w a i t e r ser- vice there. 136 . In cafes people drink coffee and g e t out. e t c . c o f f e e and some food in them. b u t t h e same t e r m i s used f o r t h e great counter of wood. T o d a y y o u can g e t w i n e . called t h e " b a r " . E v e r y p u b has a s i g n o u t s i d e w i t h i t s n a m e . The atmosphere is rather formal. T h e p u b i s t h e place w h e r e people can m e e t and t a l k i n a f r i e n d l y a t m o s p h e r e . ( " T h e P i g and W h i s t l e " . T h e cus- tomers may play different games (the most popular is the game of darts) or just watch TV. If you want something you have t o g o and ask f o r i t a t t h e b a r . ) . P e o p l e u s u a l l y sit at tables and chat in a small r o o m . " T h e D u k e o f C a m b r i d g e " . where people stand and have their drinks. English people are proud of their tradi- t i o n s . But in pubs t h e r e is a general a t m o s p h e r e of w a r m t h and cosiness. The staff of the bar usually know the reg- u l a r c u s t o m e r s and chat w i t h t h e m . " T h e B u l l " . In earlier times people w e r e served only drinks in pubs. I t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m bars or cafes in other coun- tries. t h a t ' s w h y e v e n m o d e r n pubs l o o k as if they were several hundred years old.

T h e r e are t w o important peculiarities about pubs. The difference between them is that the saloon bar is less uncomfortable. Children are not allowed inside a pub if the pub has no children's certificate. A r e pubs p r i v a t e l y owned? 3. A r e children allowed inside a pub? 5. One is that they have strictly limited hours of opening. W h o is the owner of the pub? 4. and people could stay there f o r the night. Answer the questions. The person who runs a pub (he is called " l a n d l o r d " ) is employed by the brew- ery. W h a t is the difference between a pub and a typical cafe? 2. H o w do people usually spend time in a pub? 137 . 1. EXERCISES I. Each local gov- ernment authority has power to f i x its own "licensing hours". The second peculiarity is that most pubs are divided into at least two separated bars: the public bar and the saloon bar. But in earlier times all pubs were pri- vately owned (they were called " i n n s " ) . Nowadays nearly all pubs are owned by brewery.

In earlier times pubs w e r e called . III. 3. d) inns. . W a l k i n g is the most pop- 138 . A pub means .II. . a) meet and talk. T h e pubs used t o serve only . A pub is the place where people . b) waiter service in pubs. . . Complete the sentences. . . . T h e r e ' s no . . . . . . Match the two halves. A b o u t 29 million peo- ple o v e r the age of 16 regularly take part in sport or exercise. . 2. 2. . . . in a pub. . . 5. Each pub has its own . Y o u must order a drink at . . . . and . e) bars and cafes. c) name. . 1. Today you can get . . . . . . 6. 4. N e a r l y all pubs are owned by . . . 3. . 5. outside t h e pub w i t h its . . 4. A pub is different f r o m . . There is a . Sport in Britain Sport plays a v e r y important part in peo- ple's lives in Britain.* 1. . .

The importance of sport is recognized by the Government. It means summer fash- ions. These annual sporting occasions are available to all TV channels. For example. Wimbledon is not just a tennis tournament. and British tennis fans would never allow them- selves to be treated like football fans. Every local authority has a duty to provide and maintain playing fields and other facilities. They are watched on television by millions of people. Every tennis player dreams of playing at Wimbledon. garden par- ties. the Derby. the Boat Race are regarded as the event. Every news- paper devotes several pages to sport. strawberries and cream.ular recreation. rather than the sport itself. 139 . as football player dreams of W e m b l e y . For many people sport is the main form of entertainment. The British are one of the best in the world in different sports. which are v e r y cheap to use (sometimes they are f r e e ) . There are a lot of sport programmes on T V . Wimbledon is a middle-class event. Such sporting occasions as the Cup Fi- nal. and every cricketer dreams of playing at L o r d ' s . Sometimes such events are accompanied by strong tra- ditions.

decided it would be better to pick up the ball and run w i t h i t . w h i l e p l a y i n g f o o t - ball. the favourite sports of the B r i t i s h u p p e r class a r e h u n t i n g . It is much m o r e than just a s p o r t . Cricket is English in ori- g i n a n d has b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y a c c e p t e d i n t h e Commonwealth. w h e n a teacher at R u g b y school. T h e y are v e r y similar. R u g b y union is the older of the t w o . s h o o t i n g 140 . it s y m b o l i z e s a w a y of l i f e — a s l o w and peaceful rural w a y of life. In the 19th century it was played by most of B r i t a i n ' s public schools. Traditionally. R u g b y league split o f f f r o m r u g b y union at the end of the century. T h e g a m e peculiarly associated w i t h En- gland is cricket. w h i l e r u g - by union is mainly f o r the m i d d l e class ( t h o u g h i n r e c e n t y e a r s i t has b e c o m e less exclusively middle class). R u g b y f o o t b a l l has e x i s t e d i n B r i t a i n since the beginning of the 19th century. It is played by w o r k i n g class. T h e r e are t w o v e r - s i o n s o f this f a s t b a l l g a m e : r u g b y u n i o n and r u g b y league. It is the national English game. Cricket is associated w i t h l o n g s u m m e r a f t e r n o o n s . but the real difference between t h e m is a mat- t e r of social history. t h e smell of new-mown grass.

Does the Government pay any attention to sport? ( P r o v e i t . Hockey. The only kind of hunting which is associ- ated with the working class is hare-coursing. It is confined largely to the higher social classes. EXERCISES I. Shooting means killing birds w i t h guns. Horse racing is a v e r y popular sport in Britain. The most widespread form of hunting is fox-hunting. 1. A l m o s t every sport is played in Britain. Today some members of the royal family own race horses and attend certain annual race meet- ings. This sport became known as " t h e sport of k i n g s " in the 1 7 t h century. ) 141 . H o w can you prove that sport is the main f o r m of entertainment? 2. which is popular among all social classes is fishing. The one kind of hunting. Shooting in Britain is allowed only dur- ing certain specified times of the y e a r . basketball.and fishing. Answer the questions. some are active participants in the sports of polo and show-jumping. netball (for women) are becoming v e r y popular.

10. 2. . R u g b y f o o t b a l l has e x i s t e d i n B r i t a i n since . W h a t game symbolizes English way of life? 6. 3. . W h a t are favourite English sports? 8. . . III.* 1. W h a t sport is known as " t h e sport of kings"? II. . There are a lot of sport programmes .* 1. . . . 8. 4. . . E v e r y football player dreams of p l a y i n g at . 5. 3.3. . . rather than the sport itself? 4. . 7 . W a l k i n g i s the most popular . . . . Some members of the royal f a m i l y are ac- t i v e participants i n the sports o f . . . . 2 . . 6. Complete the sentences. . Match the two halves. . W h a t sporting occasions are regarded as the event. T h e game associated w i t h England is . . . W h a t game was originated in England? 5. . . people take part in sport or exercise. . i t means . . W h a t ' s the difference between rugby union and rugby league? 7. . 9. . W i m b l e d o n isn't just a tennis tournament. T h e difference between r u g b y union and rugby league is . . . E v e r y local authority . 142 . E v e r y local authority has a duty to . A b o u t . . F o r many people sport is .. . T h e most popular f o r m of hunting is .

4. A n n u a l sporting occasions are .. .
5. E v e r y cricketer dreams of playing at . . .
6. Cricket is . . .
7. R u g b y union was played by . . .
8. R u g b y league is played by .. .
9. T h e f a v o u r i t e sports of the British upper
class are .. .
10. T h e one kind of hunting which is popular
among all social classes is . . .
1 1 . Horse-racing became known as " t h e sport
of k i n g s " in . . .

a) on T V .
b) available to all TV channels.
c) the national game.
d) most public schools.
e) hunting, shooting, fishing.
f) Lord's.
g) the main f o r m of entertainment.
h) provides playing fields.
i) w o r k i n g class.
j) the 17th century,
k) fishing.

Traditions and Customs

E v e r y n a t i o n and e v e r y c o u n t r y has i t s
own traditions. In Britain traditions play a

143

more important part in the life of the peo-
ple than in other countries.
T h e English are v e r y proud of their tra-
d i t i o n s and c a r e f u l l y keep t h e m . W h e n y o u
come to E n g l a n d y o u ' r e struck at once by q u i t e
a n u m b e r of c u s t o m s . S o m e c e r e m o n i e s a r e
r a t h e r f o r m a l , such a s t h e C h a n g i n g o f t h e
Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the
Colour, the State opening of Parliament, the
C e r e m o n y o f t h e K e y s . S o m e t i m e s y o u will
see a g r o u p of c a v a l r y m e n r i d i n g on b l a c k
horses t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f L o n d o n . T h e y
w e a r red u n i f o r m s , shining helmets, l o n g black
b o o t s and l o n g w h i t e g l o v e s . T h e s e m e n a r e
L i f e G u a r d s . T h e i r special d u t y i s t o g u a r d
the K i n g or the Queen of Great Britain, and
v e r y important guests of the country.
One of the most impressive and popular
d i s p l a y s o f r o y a l p a g e a n t r y i s t h e Chang-
ing of the Guard, w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e at B u c k -
ingham Palace every day including Sunday
a t 1 1 . 3 0 . T h e t r o o p s w h o t a k e p a r t a r e se-
lected f r o m the five regiments of F o o t
Guards. Their numbers depend on w h e t h e r
the Queen is in residence or not. T h e m e n
of the duty guard march f r o m either W e l l -
i n g t o n or Chelsea Barracks to B u c k i n g h a m
Palace w i t h a band.

144

The guard to be relieved forms at the
south end of the forecourt under the com-
mand of the Captain of the Queen's Guard.
The N e w Guard enters the forecourt by the
north gate. As it approaches, the Old Guard
i s called t o a t t e n t i o n . T h e N e w G u a r d i s t h e n
halted to be f o r m e d i n t o files b e f o r e it ad-
vances to position at a slow march. W h i l e
this is t a k i n g place, the band plays. L a t e r
t h e band leads the Old G u a r d back to t h e i r
barracks.

The Ceremony of the Keys

E v e r y n i g h t at 9.53 the Chief W a r d e r of
the yeomen warders (Beefeaters) of the Tow-
er of L o n d o n lights a candle lantern and
t h e n m a k e s his w a y t o w a r d s t h e B l o o d y T o w -
e r . I n t h e A r c h w a y his E s c o r t a w a i t s h i s
arrival. The Chief W a r d e r , carrying the keys,
m o v e s o f f w i t h his Escort t o the W e s t G a t e ,
which he locks, while the Escort "presents
a r m s " . Then the Middle and B y w a r d T o w -
ers are locked.
The party then returns to the Bloody
T o w e r A r c h w a y , and there t h e y are halted

145

" W h o s e keys?" "Queen Elizabeth's k e y s " . " T h e keys". com- mands the sentry. the Chief W a r d e r proceeds to the Queen's House. E v e r y y e a r a l a r g e n u m b e r o f a n c i e n t m o t o r cars d r i v e f r o m L o n d o n t o B r i g h t o n . replies the Chief W a r d e r . and m o s t of the cars come to B r i g h t o n ( w h i c h is 60 miles f r o m London) only in the evening. " H a l t " . A p p l i c a t i o n t o see i t m u s t b e m a d e a t least f o r t y . The sentry demands. P e o p l e are dressed i n t h e c l o t h e s of those times. " W h o goes there?" The Chief W a r d e r answers. where the keys are g i v e n into the custody of the Resident Gov- ernor and M a j o r . At 10 p.e i g h t hours in advance at t h e Constable's office in the T o w e r . all's w e l l " . It is not a race.by the challenge of the sentry. S o m e o f t h e s e cars l o o k v e r y f u n n y . T h e Ceremony of the K e y s dates back 700 y e a r s a n d has t a k e n p l a c e e v e r y n i g h t d u r - ing that period. A new tradition has been born in Brit- ain. " A d v a n c e Queen Elizabeth's keys. T h i s r u n f r o m London to Brighton is a colourful dem- o n s t r a t i o n . he commands. 146 . m. Only a limited number of visitors are admitted to the ceremony each n i g h t .

. III. H o w often does the Ceremony of the K e y s take place? 5. . 6. . .* 1. W h a t are the English so proud of? 2. H o w f a r is B r i g h t o n f r o m London? II. ancient — 147 . Foreigners coming to England are struck by . .. 4. . Give the opposites. . The men of the duty guard march from . . 3. T h e Ceremony of the K e y s dates back . . T h e special duty of L i f e Guard is . A r e tourists admitted to the Ceremony of the K e y s ? 6. . at . . . T h e C e r e m o n y o f t h e K e y s takes p l a c e at . 7. o'clock. W h a t formal ceremonies do you know? 3. . 2. . . to . .* 1. W h a t is the route of the duty guard? 4. T h e c h a n g i n g of the G u a r d takes place at . . . Answer the questions. years. . EXERCISES I. 1. . . . 5. . W h a t new tradition has been born in B r i t - ain? 7. Complete the sentences. Great Britain has v e r y many .

b) guard the Queen of Great Britain. The English are very proud . to be on duty — 3. The Chief Warder replies: . . Some of them look . to answer 5. Find the words and expressions that mean:* 1. . 1 1 . to be greatly surprised 2. . . to go along the streets 3. 148 . Every nation has . . . Cavalrymen wear .. . . . . to open — 4. Their duty is to .. The number of the troops depend on . . . 4. . . ..* 1. 7. to reply — IV. The Chief Warder of the yeomen warders makes his way towards . The sentry demands: . 6. . old (cars) V. A large number of ancient cars drive . a) of their traditions. 3. 12.2. . 8. . . Match the two halves. 9. Application to see the ceremony must be made . . to close the door 4. . 2. Changing of the Guard takes place . 5. 10.

j) whether the Queen is in residence or not. 2. True or false?* 1. T h e C e r e m o n y o f t h e K e y s dates b a c k 700 years. i) "Queen Elizabeth's k e y s " .c) at Buckingham Palace. k) f r o m London to B r i g h t o n . f) its customs and traditions. 3. m. E v e r y night the Chief W a r d e r of the yeo- men warders makes his way towards the Bloody T o w e r . T h e men of the duty guard march f r o m Buckingham Palace to the T o w e r of Lon- don. .e i g h t hours in advance. e) red uniforms and shining helmets. VI.30. 5. E v e r y year a large number of motor cars take part in a race London — B r i g h t o n . 1) funny. 4. d) the Bloody T o w e r . T h e Changing of the Guard takes place ev- ery Sunday at 11. the keys are g i v e n into the custody of the Resident Governor and Ma- jor. 6. At 10 p. g) "Whose keys?" h) at least f o r t y .

10. 9. 300. 4.T. 5. F. 5. 1801. the Cheviot Hills.1. c. stable. 242.T. 3. the monarch.T. IV. The Angles and Saxons. F. the North Sea.. the La- bour party. 2. Dublin.F. LOCATION Ill. km. Cardiff. England and Wales. 1. the Tudor.6. 5. geographical. 2.F. 7. the Civil War. Australia. 8.2. 1. 8.T. Bel- fast. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT I11. KEY TO EXERCISES THE HISTORY OF BRITAIN Ill. the Atlantic Ocean. 6. b. 150 . 4. 7.T.4. T. the Industrial Revolution.3. 6. 2. a baron. 9. 10. 10. 7. Ireland. 8th century. 3.534 sq. 1. the Vikings. 18th century. 9. Canada. In- dia and large parts of Mrica. 8.

the li- cence fee. 4. 6. 5. b.000. en- tertain. 2. sport. a. 2. 5. report. 4. 5. 4. 6. 4. popular papers. b. T. 9. THE PRESS IN GREAT BRITAIN 11. 700 years. b. local newspaper V. 2. 7. 1. F. tradition. the Queen. 1. an inherited aristocratic title. 650. 7. 5. 1. 1954. F. colour supplement. b. 5. once. Fleet Street. 3. 7. 6. 4. a daily newspaper. are followed. 1. 2. T. 5. e. twice. 3. F. elected House of Commons. the Houses of Parliament. a "quality" paper. 4. 2. IV. Ill. 3. advertising. 1992. F. Royal assent. 1. 10. 3. 8. 1. a. Sundays. entertainment. 3. 2. d.. F. "tabloid". 6. 1. Hous- es. 151 . PARLIAMENT Ill. objectivity in news reporting. 3. 3. 7. TELEVISION IN GREAT BRITAIN 11. Speaker. four. 1. 4. c. Ill. 2.

h. enormous build- ings and a few tourists. 7. customers. b. 1852. Anthony Panizzi. 4. f. serves.F.T. the National Museum of Archae- ology and Ethnography and the National Library. c. 5.F. 8. c. c. c. b. the monks. b. 3. 1. 2 million. 3. Down- ing Street. f.T. 4. a. 7. 6. 2. Ill. a collec- tor. d. IV. d. 4. e. COVENT GARDEN 11. the dustmen.T. 6. i. h. THE BRITISH MUSEUM 11. LONDON AND ITS PLACES OF INTEREST 11. 1. 2. 21. 1. 3. 5. 4. 4. the seat of Government. e: IV. a.6. 300 years ago. 2. b. the garden. 5. 152 . 6. 1. 3. 5. 1. g. circle. market-place. c.F. 1. the crown- ing place of kings and queens. 2. 5. b. 10. 2. 1. g. 2.4. King Charles II. 8. 7. 9. buried. 2. 6. Ill. 3. 4. 6. 7. 3. 7. 5. c.3. in the 11th century. 8. crowned.

6. 5.T. F. 8.4. 7. 126 miles per hour. 153 . 11.F. 2. 1. 7. 3. Queen Elizabeth II of Britain and President Mitteran of France. F. T. T. travelling under the sea. THE CHANNEL TUNNEL L 1. F. 1. 3. 7. £ 9 billion.T. 7. 4. 6.F. 7. F. mines and factories.2. Ill. 1I. 4. a great reduction of travel time.6. 4. THE MUSEUM OF TRANSPORT 11.5. 2. 6. 3. 5. 8. 5. project. 1. Slough to Paddington.T. T (T). IV.1. 6. "The Rocket".T. F. 2. F. private cars. 10. 5. T. 8. T (T). 6. THE ROYAL ACADEMY . the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.4. London. 2. F. F. T. 2.3. a carriage. 3. 5. bus-service. 9. T. 3.T.1829. 1994. 1. three horses. 4.

5.F. 16. 4. 18.6. 3. maintain disci- pline. "top-up". 3-4 years. 1.000. 4. barrier. arranges exams. A-level results and interview. EDUCATION (continued) Ill. 9. 5. 40. EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN 11. 154 . organizes lectures. 2. 1/3. 9. 6.2. the Open University. 7. 2. 300 years before scholars began to resort to it. 1. 11. the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo. 6.3. three. 7.T. 1. 5. self-governing. 2.T. life. 5. rowing and punting. THE THAMES 11. 6.F. docks. factories and offices. OXBRIDGE 11. New. 4. America. 10. rich. 1. 3. 8. 8. gowns.F.T. grants degrees. 2. Tower Bridge. more than 400. 7. 3. indepen- dent. 10. "tutorials". 7.4. "su- pervisions". Medieval.F.

4. University College. 25 countries. 5. Australia. 2. the British Isles. communication. commerce and travel. Univer. North America. 155 . 300 mil- lion people. 8. New Zealand. broadcast. 1. 6. 7. 3.colleges college famous teristic tion college feature the New Christ "tutor- Oxford 12th 39 College Church ials" century College. Ill.The Number The The The rnaiIl sity time of of oldest most charac- founda. the Peter. All Souls College Camb. former Brit- ish territories. restore Welsh to an equal place with English. secondary importance. the Caribbean and South Africa.The "super- ridge 13th 30 house King's vision" century College THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 11. Celtic.

certain tra- ditions. 6. h. 1. 6. 1. enor- mous. 2.T. IV.2. statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus.T. boiled ham.1. 8.T. to ignore. the early hours of the morning.m. THE WEEKEND 11. from all parts of the country. religious.5. 11. 5. 2.9. 11. 8. 4. to warn. stuf- fed turkey.4. 15. 3. 7. j.F. reasonably cheap. 10.. 3. d. significance. adjoining.T. e. F. HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS 11. 3. 2. 7. mince pies. b. 11. 6. movable.F. i. IV. 7.F. mashed potatoes. 156 . 2. 4.3. blacken. 1. about 40% .F. to be followed by plum pudding. 1. a. 12. HOLIDAYS IN BRITAIN Ill. 9. religious cele- bration.2.6. 8. g. 5. 5.T. 5. 10.4. 4. 1. 4. 7.F. 16. 4.F. 9.3. chiming.6. 2. 6. k. 3. 9. pud- ding. 3.F. 7.T. c.F. about 8 o'clock p. 12. F. 14. 13. 10.F. public holiday. tea or coffee and cakes.5.F. the 25th of December. f.T. 1I1. 8. IILI.

7. brick. accomodation. 5. MEALS 11. F. 6. 10. 9. 80%. "AN ENGLISHMAN'S HOME IS HIS CASTLE" Ill. T. T. 8. 11. F. marmalade crisps bread potato steak jam bacon rice vegetable egg banana lamb 157 . 9. enough privacy. trans- port. 1. 8. 9. cheaper. back door. Foreign. 10. 5. Ill. 4. 1. 2. rent. slate. 7. 3. 2. beach. F. 4. a separate building. the friendly atmosphere. garden. 6. 7. T. T. 40%. chalets. 10.5. F. 6 pulled. 12. Boxing. 20-25. 8. F. fireplace. T. 3.

4. 5. 11. SPORT IN BRITAIN 11. c. coffee. e. k. serve. 10. the bar. 7. 3. 2. 2. cereal. name. c. Wemb- ley. 10. 1. recreation. 2. 4. meal. 29 million. 1. a. cold. fox-hunting. sign. Ill. j. b. c. the beginning of the 19th century. "public house". d. 3. cricket. 6. some food. 2. 5. 10. cereal fish yoghurt grape honey IV. polo and show-jumping. a matter of so- cial history. wine. g. beverage. e. 8. V. c. h. 3. treat. 8. 3. PUBS IN BRITAIN 11. 2. 4. 5. 9. beer. b. load. 6. 4. a. 4. 1. grace. 1. summer fashions. 8. 6. 2. b. 1. 9. Ill. 4. 7. snack. 158 . f. brewery. i. 9. 7. pro- vide and maintain playing fields and other facilities. a. d. 5. 1. main. 3. 6. 5. 3.

to march. 11. 1. 3. 2. 1. F. T. ancient. i. T. 5. 9. k. V. IV. Buckingham Palace.. 1. to demand. 4. Ill.30 a. e. b. f. 2. the Tower of London. T. F. to reply. 10. to guard the King or the Queen of Great Britain and import- ant guests of the country. 4. h. VI. 5. 8. d. a. 3. modern. to lock. quite a number of customs. to be struck. 4. to be relieved. c. TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS 11. 11. 3. l. 5. 2. 2. 700.m. 6. 7. 3. . either Wellington or Chelsea Barracks to Buckingham Palace. 12. F. 6. g. 7. 4. 6. 3. 1. customs and traditions. to close. 5. 1. j. 2. 4.

97. Старопанский пер. 49.04. .92.01. Печать высокая. Учеб ное издание Великобритания Тексты для устных ответов и письменных работ на английском языке 5-11 классы Автор-составитель Баканова Ирина Юрьевна Ответственный редактор Т. г. Тираж 20000 ЭКЗ. Кузьмина Компьютерная верстка Г. Издательство «Русский языю> Комитета Российской Федерации по пе'шти. 8. Заказ N2 1468.4. С. 127018. Мира. лиц. Можайск. ул. Формат 70 х 100'/32' Бумага типографская. Анощенкова Художественныйредактор М. 103012.92. Гаркитура «Школьная». Мицкевич Технический редактор В. С. (<<Дрофа») Изд. пе'l. Ф. Михеева Изд. Усл. 93.. 143200. (<<Русский ЯЗblК») ПОДГlИсаllО к печати 08. Г. м! 061622 от 23. Головачева Редактор В. л. А. Москва. лиц. Из ательский дом «Дрофа». 1/5 Отпечатано в полном соответствии с качеством предоставлегшых диапозитивов в ОДО «Можайский полиграфический комбинап>. Козлова Корректор Г. Н. Москва. м! О 1О 155 от 04. Сущевский вал.09.