# Introduction : Multiplexing and Multiple Access

Definition:

Multiplexing is a technique by which several
signals are combined together to share the
same transmission medium
When the signals to be multiplexed originate
at different locations, the system is often
described by using the term multiple
access.
Both are used in wireless communication.

Hartley’s Law:

Hartley’s law demonstrates the theoretical limit to how much information can be
delivered over a medium. Hartley’s law shows that time and bandwidth are
equivalent A communications medium can be shared equally by dividing either
quantity among users

Concept of multiplexing

Multiplexing to refer to the combination of information streams from multiple
sources for transmission over a shared medium

Multiplexor is a mechanism that implements the concept
Demultiplexing to refer to the separation of a combination back into separate
information streams – Demultiplexor to refer to a mechanism that implements
the concept

In Figure 11.1
illustrates the
concept – each
sender

communicates with a single
receiver – all pairs share a single transmission medium – multiplexor
combines information from the senders for transmission in such a way that the
demultiplexor can separate the information for receivers

Orthogonal Division Multiplexing (ODM) c. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) 3. Code Division Multiplexing (CDM) / Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA) a. Polarization Division Multiplexing (PDM) / Polarization Division Multiple Access (PDMA) Application of FDM A 1. GPS system units 3. Single Carrier FDM 2. Asynchronous CDMA b. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) i. waveform audio file format (WAV)) Application of CDMA mathematical approach used in cell phone mechanisms 1.Two types of combining signals are: Multiplexing . 2. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) / Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) a. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) / Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA) a. 3G 4. 2. DWDM b. 5. 3.combining signals from the same sources Multiple-access .combining signals from multiple sources Types of Multiplexing / Multiple Access 1. Application of TDMA 1. FDM is used in television broadcasting. synchronous optical networking (SONET) network 4. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system 2. Collaborative CDMA 4. Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) / Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 5. Application of WDMA -is a form of FDM used for optical fiber which combining multiple signals on laser beams at various infrared (IR) wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic media. high-speed 4G or LTE internet services. . The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). FDM is used for FM & AM radio broadcasting. broad band devices such as wireless laptop modems. CWDM ii. First generation cellular telephone also uses FDM. Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing b. Statistical Time Division Multiplexing 3.

Difference of Multiple Access & Multiplexing References: Digital Communications – Fundamentals and Application by Bernard Sklar Data and Computer Communication by William Stallings Electronic Communication Systems 2nd Edition – Chapter 13 .by Roy Blake Multiple Access Techniques for wireless communication systems by Schaffner Harald .