Name: Mark Anthony B.

Rivas JD 2-3 / 2014-08638-MN-0
Subject: Advanced English Grammar
Title: Capitalization in the development of Written and Oral Communication skills through policies and
regulations for the advancement of accounting services in compliance with MRA Framework in ASEAN

Sources Material Annotated

Estelita C. Aguirre.(July 15, 2015). Mutual “ASEAN MRA is a multilateral Association of Southeast Asian
Recognition Agreement: The Challenges and arrangement among ASEAN Nations Mutual Recognition
Opportunities for CPAs. Retrieved July 26 countries or bilateral Arrangement (ASEAN-MRA) is
2015, from arrangement between two a proposed arrangement ASEAN countries to enable among ASEAN member
A_eca.pdf professionals registered in its countries designed to facilitate
signatory countries to be the freer movement and
equally recognized in another employment of qualified and
signatory country” certified personnel between
ASEAN member countries.

“MRA Framework on In the Philippines, the MRA
Accountancy framework on Accountancy
was signed in Chan AM
Signed in Chan-Am Thailand  Thailand. The MRA focuses on
Education  Licenses  the education,
Demonstration of Competency licenses,demonstration of
 Experience  Compliance competency experience, and
with IFAC Standards and compliance with IFAC
Guidelines Feb 26, 2009 standards and Guidelines. The

2009. Philippines is one of the countries that has . memorandum was signed last Competencies February 26. The AMS recognizes the need to require the PPA seeking recognition to demonstrate In order for them to meet the competencies to assure that the objectives of MRA-accountancy. PPA has satisfactory knowledge The Host Country/Philippines of the Domestic Regulations of need to evaluate the following: the Host Country Proper implementation of the international accounting  Proper implementation of the standards international accounting  Effective implementation of standards the International Auditing  Effective implementation of Standards in the conduct of the International Auditing audit Standards in the conduct of  Compliance with CPD. using audit the PICPA CPD Competency  Compliance with CPD. using Framework based on IEAS the PICPA CPD Competency  Production of credible and Framework based on IEAS reliable FSs  Production of credible and  Levelling up to become reliable FSs globally competititve interms  Levelling up to become of language proficiency globally competititve interms of language proficiency” The above-mentioned factors are core values of accounting professionalism.

pids. there are other rules the technical attributes of the and regulations made by the profession especially on different Government agencies business communication and such as BOA and PRC that language need to be harmonized. in negotiations & professional regulatory bodies in charge of Second. Disconnect between national to finalize the concrete government agencies involved programs and approaches. produced globally competitive accounting Aldaba. several factors that prevent and Mutual Recognition Arrangements on core practices to be fully- Professional In this state. ASEAN “Deterring factors in MRA with It was stated that there are Economic Community 2015: Labor Mobility respect to Accountancy. 1. Retrieved July 26 2015. the country has adopted numerous basic operational framework to level up the competitiveness and capability of accounting professionals especially in business communication. (January 2013). BOA . the Government agencies are still in progress and about 2. http://dirp3. Rafaelita M.p leading the establishment of df national systems & mechanism First. Piece-meal approach of established with respect to from national government agencies MRA –Accountancy.

just recently launches a reform 3. Third. Lack of initiatives among in accounting curriculum professional groups. MRA not a enhancing and improving the priority of professional sectors” technical features of accounting profession in business communication and language. Though the framework would allow competency of accounting professionals to become more comprehensive. If the groups would strictly implement reforms aligned with the proposed agenda of MRA. Some groups think that these are less important / priority since the Philippines is known to be English speaking country. some of the government agencies and other accounting professional groups are hesitant in the new developments and suggested operational framework. this would entail finance and funding requirements in order for each program to materialize and for .

will always be a key part of the financial statements and other Retrieved July 26. Moreover. perhaps. 2014). Studies showed that “Increasingly.hudson. communication skills will proficiency of an accountant in key-to. Communication “Detailed. 2015 role. increase their chances of the profession places a pivotal accounting-success success” and important role in the industry. reluctance and lack of priority were some of the key factors why they are not determined to pursue and align there current practices to the developments and plans introduced initially by the government in accordance with the signed bilateral agreement. strong commercial and agreed that technical articles/postid/30/communication-skills-the. (May 24. finance those accountant who have professionals who use their strong commercial and analytical skills to tell a communication compelling story with numbers are likely to become more and influence business successful in their field. Hudson. outcomes will be those who . authors from http://au. technical proficiency Beyond the preparation of skills: the key to accounting success. but those who develop financial reports.

Banderlipe II et. al. and the correspondences and presentation of reports (Maupin presentation of reports. and speaking skills should not be restricted Members. The “Communication skills involve Communication skills Development Of Analytical. Several related studies suggest that Educators and idealists believe communication skills should be that inorder to achieve this an application of the theory in development. in organizing . writing. effective reading. conciseness. 2003). . in observing should include the observance good writing conventions of the “7 C’s of Communication (Danziger. who has have to advance their skills in been in accounting recruitment communicating the relevance for the past eight years.” of numbers and reports to have an impact and influence in business decisions. preparation of business preparation of business correspondences. (Burnett. (April 2005). Additionally. This University Accountancy Students And Faculty listening. Finance consultants and says Nicholas Rogers. 1993). Communication both receiving and transmitting collectively involves And Research Skills In Accounting information and concepts. communication theory. to theories and accounting the skills should not be limited terminaligies but also the to the understanding of the understanding the communication theory. Manager auditors. Education:Perceptions Of De La Salle including effective reading. who have excellent of Accounting and Finance in analytical skills. the program emphasizing ideas. and speaking. should also Brisbane for Hudson. listening. & May.correctness. writing. stand out from the pack. Thesis. 1997).

However. easily to their clients. observance of the “7 C’s of concreteness. This can inclusion of one writing course be attributed to the inclusion of in an accounting curriculum only one writing course in the set by the educational accounting curriculum and the institution and naïve exposure naïve exposure of educators to of the educators to different . concreteness. the clarity. communication skills place a the use of standard English. completeness. conciseness. and the professional. as well Communication skills play a as. Communication (correctness. completeness. These skills are appropriateness of the writing bested to each who could for readers (May and transfer the facts of the reports Menelaides. recent studies in the curriculum without indicate that there is a problem adding value or integrated with regard to the development mechanisms that support the of communication skills of cause. It can be validated that consideration. the pivotal roles in the progress awareness of the purpose of and growth of an accounting writing. development of an accounting professional. clarity. consideration. These skills are However. recent studies shown required of accountants to why there is a typical and slow transfer information easily and pace in development of defend views to clients and communication skills is the peers (Reinstein & Trebby.the flow of thought. One reason is the accounting students. co-workers in the very important role in the professional firm. and courtesy)”. and courtesy in writing. 1993). dependency of some educators 1997).

accounting curriculum by some suggested the inclusion integrating more oral-written of the fifth year in the communication courses and accounting curriculum to meet information technology courses the needs of harnessing towards a more enhanced communication skills of the academic preparation of the students.different types of writing types of writing activities or activities by CPAs (Sriram and programs by CPAs. Coppage. The accounting firms stressed Darayseh. In addition to this. relationship with the belief that Furthermore. & D Ouville (1994). where . Others suggested the inclusion of a fifth year in the Results in the research accounting curricula to meet explained that there the needs of harnessing communication skills communication skills development have a significant (Anonymous. students. written communication. The dissatisfied with the educators’ role should intensify undergraduates because of the accounting curriculum by oral-written communication encapsulating strategies our problems. Al. 1992). 1982). In a related study conducted by Hussain. a the importation in oral and large chunk of firms are written communication. particularly in learning. Apparently. Sutherland communicational skills are (2004) suggests the inclusion of developed more through exercising integrity in experience than classroom communication. courses to prepare students the firms stressed the and eventually graduates in importance of intensifying the this profession.

skills. Faculty require students to resolve an members accounting issue with carefully asking clear and relevant researched arguments. seminars and development. oriented to the best writing that class reporting is the practices in the profession. all items in written communication skills . while students’ writing skills by classroom debates have the requiring them to submit term lowest oral communication papers and cases. verbal communication of the students such as posture and Based on the perceptions of facial impression. number one tool in the Reinstein and Trebby presented development of oral techniques in improving the communication skills. Students were also encouraged The study suggested that in class participations to educators should also take a develop their oral look in improving the non- communication skills. questions the greatest while Students were also required to open forum with lecturers develop from the professors’ and practitioners the least oral own experiences. Term papers skill development. it can be concluded give importance the tool such that alternative as class reporting. previous examinations. course communication skill textbooks.plagiarism can be the last Essentially results clearly resort for students who are not shown in the study conducted. They also students. and essays under oral communication writing. debates. graded hypotheses related to all items recitation.

It is correlation of these items with commended that generally how the general evaluation on the they present themselves during development of class reporting will determine communication skills. while debates on accounting issues . all items For accounting graduates. For how they will showcase their faculty members. “As perceived by students.except writing essays. The results development of communication correspond favorably on the skills” produced financial statements. and essays are communication skill items It is worthy to take note of that are highly communication skills significant with the development have a significant development of communication relationship with the belief that skills. debates. diligence reports. class reporting is the number one tool in the development of oral communication skills. and even memos. in non-verbal class reporting is the number communication and listening one tool in the skills are accepted due to development of oral highly significant communication skills. only class ideas in communicating such in reporting. while open forum and ACR skills are developed more feedback possess statistical through experience than significance with the classroom learning. recitation. graded their future clients.

(2006). while writing essays are the least factor in the development of written communication skill”. What . accountants has been are very important. “As perceived by students. et. A Critical Review of “The importance of The review proposes that over Empirical Studies on the Communication communication skills for the years. communication skills development have a significant relationship with the belief that ACR skills are developed more through experience than classroom learning”. have the lowest oral communication skill development. al. Durden. Faculty members perceive asking clear and relevant questions the greatest while open forum with lecturers and practitioners the least oral communication skill development. Both students and faculty members perceive written reports to be the utmost factor in written communication skills development. communication skills Skills of Accountants.

This may and therefore communication be attributable to lack of skills taught in universities do concrete and comprehensive . Public Accountant (CPA) should possess at the outset of their Notwithstanding all the studies career. Possible reasons for this Secondly. unison — the inability to communicate orally or in Asserted causes for this kind of writing" (Roy and MacNeill. educational perception include: (1) institutions have failed to accounting educators have not develop institutions have failed understood the communication to develop transferable needs of practicing accountants communication skills.” educators have not understood the need of communication of “Despite all the studies and practicing accountants and efforts of educators. For example. 1963:58). communicators still persists. perspective is that first. graduates and poses a based on a two-year study Roy challenge in their day to day and MacNeill (1963) reported activities are their inability to on the common body of communicate orally and in knowledge that a US Certified writing. In this context they and efforts of educators.emphasized in the literature for discourages the firm and other over 50 years. the some strategies do not meet common perception that the need of industry in accountants are poor practice. the stated "what is the outstanding common perception that deficiency of college graduates? professionals are poor The answer has come back in communicators still persists.

have failed to provide adequate continuing education and In this respect. it is essential that educators are aware of what is already known. needs (May. 1981). and what is still . students are more successful accountant evolve focused on the skills in over the span of a career and analyzing numbers and digits accounting employers and placed and reported in every professional accounting bodies workingpaper. purpose of conducting Regardless of the cause. (2) Thirdly. accounting training in this area to their educators have an important employees (Addams. employees. Maupin and May 1993). 1992. CPE program in practice and industry needs are accounting profession have identified but higher education failed to provide adequate institutions have failed to training in the area of develop transferable communication to the communication skills (May. the research in the field of concern is clear — are communication skills of accountants sufficiently skilled accountants is to improve the in the areas of written and oral communication skills of communication?” accounting graduates. If the communication apprehension. 1992. (4) responsibility to help improve students who select accounting the communication skills of as a major have a accounting graduates. 1992). (3) the communication skills necessary to be a Fourth.not meet practice and industry policy. Gross.

specialists to identify the skills . Other oral communication skills Educational institutions can considered important include engage communication interview (Juchau and Galvin. communication skill in his listening is one of the most career.educators should listening responsiveness and collaborate with coherence of verbal communication specialists in presentations are the most designing concrete framework frequently listed reasons for in improving communication dismissing interview skills. Christen and attributable to his Reese. (2005) Accounting Department “The importance of Studies showed that there two Chairs’ Perception of the Importance of communication skills varies terms used in industry such as Communication skills according to career stage. Gray. differentiation one over the Communication skills important other. candidates. 2002. unknown. Juchau and Galvin To further address the (1984) also note that lack of deficiency. 1984. 1997. important skills (if not the most important). 2010). RGAs and accountants (from all The two items are distinct but career stages) are there’s a thin line in considered separately. Schmidt et. al. From presenting to RGAs financial reports during According to four out of the meetings to group discussion nine RGA studies examined and inteviews. formal oral communication and Therefore. findings related to informal oral communication. an accounting professional is Morgan. The success of (Juchau and Galvin.

needed to effectively complete Abram. communication skills are more important than written communication skills for RGAs . But skills are more important than there are engagements such formal speaking for RGAs. However. several studies used the term "presentation" without Thus. addition. The majority of and skills in communication the studies used the terms courses for accounting "formal oral communication" students. In the former. While there is more important than written evidence that informal speaking communication skills. 2010). and speaking on the phone and emphasize these elements (Gray. Their importance excluded in forming this corresponds to the need of observation. conference (Andrews and elements of and Sigband. 1994). and "informal oral communication".Various studies specific engagement or tasks in suggest that oral a specific industry. it can be suggested that specifying whether the context both oral and written was formal or informal and communication skills are therefore these studies were essential. casual communication that are verbal presentation (Zaid. and Abraham.1984). the tasks. the Various studies suggest that distinction between the two is oral communication skills are not clear. 1984). a financial risk analysis and conclusion cannot be made due internal auditing systems to the ambiguity about the which require the latter than formal-informal distinction.

the working documents were all government. produced in response to an Stevens and Stevens (1994) oral request (no more detailed recommended that internal written instructions from auditing departments review teachers!). For example. As said by some. accounting educators. are more important for memorandum and general career accountants. Goby and skills develop. Abraham. and other classified as informal writing. at least one fourth of an skills for accountants should be accountant's time is spent further explored by including it writing. letters. The distinction in the inventory between formal and informal of skills in future studies. memos.g. correspondence together. capability. According to Rader and Wunsch The importance of listening (1980). they key challenge for general correspondence. an individual Lewis.(e.. 1999). Zaid. professional organization is to . and Some suggests that in order Abraham. communication skills. for the purpose of In this ASEAN ambitious this paper. Therefore." job applicants' writing samples. writing is imprecise. oral or Few studies included written. For example. However. it is not clear whether Overall there is not enough memorandum writing is a evidence to conclude which formal or informal writing skill. 1994. based on a study “often a written document is of internal auditing systems. Christensen for oral and communication and Rees. 2002. strategy. written should also have to improve communication skills are also their listening skills/ or critical to the accountant’s role.

informal writing.Results of surveys by Juchau develop transferable skills and Galvin (1984). and Abraham’s who are engaged in (1994) study on the other hand incorporating communication ranked the importance of skills into accounting formal curriculum must "assess the writing above informal writing." The strategy report. According to Smythe skills. and Nikolai (1996). educators Abraham. Goby and within students/accounting Lewis (1999) and Morgan professionals that match or (1997) indicate that informal 8 align with the most frequently writing skills are more performed communication important than formal writing tasks. Such studies were should be brief and concise excluded in comparing the that would meet the intended importance of formal and result. transferable the term "reports" without skills for the practicing specifying a formal or informal professional. Respondents to Zaid. Further research should be undertaken to better ascertain whether informal writing skills are seen as more important than formal writing skills or how the balance between the two dimensions should be dealt with. effectiveness of instruction in A large number of studies used providing useful. .