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Name: Mark Anthony B.

Rivas JD 2-3 / 2014-08638-MN-0

Subject: Advanced English Grammar
Title: Capitalization in the development of Written and Oral Communication skills through policies and
regulations for the advancement of accounting services in compliance with MRA Framework in ASEAN

Sources Material Annotated

Estelita C. Aguirre.(July 15, 2015). Mutual ASEAN MRA is a multilateral Association of Southeast Asian
Recognition Agreement: The Challenges and arrangement among ASEAN Nations Mutual Recognition
Opportunities for CPAs. Retrieved July 26 countries or bilateral Arrangement (ASEAN-MRA) is
2015, from arrangement between two a proposed arrangement ASEAN countries to enable among ASEAN member
A_eca.pdf professionals registered in its countries designed to facilitate
signatory countries to be the freer movement and
equally recognized in another employment of qualified and
signatory country certified personnel between
ASEAN member countries.

MRA Framework on In the Philippines, the MRA

Accountancy framework on Accountancy
was signed in Chan AM
Signed in Chan-Am Thailand Thailand. The MRA focuses on
Education Licenses the education,
Demonstration of Competency licenses,demonstration of
Experience Compliance competency experience, and
with IFAC Standards and compliance with IFAC
Guidelines Feb 26, 2009 standards and Guidelines. The
memorandum was signed last
Competencies February 26, 2009.
The AMS recognizes the need
to require the PPA seeking
recognition to demonstrate In order for them to meet the
competencies to assure that the objectives of MRA-accountancy.
PPA has satisfactory knowledge The Host Country/Philippines
of the Domestic Regulations of need to evaluate the following:
the Host Country
Proper implementation of the
international accounting
Proper implementation of the standards
international accounting Effective implementation of
standards the International Auditing
Effective implementation of Standards in the conduct of
the International Auditing audit
Standards in the conduct of Compliance with CPD, using
audit the PICPA CPD Competency
Compliance with CPD, using Framework based on IEAS
the PICPA CPD Competency Production of credible and
Framework based on IEAS reliable FSs
Production of credible and Levelling up to become
reliable FSs globally competititve interms
Levelling up to become of language proficiency
globally competititve interms of
language proficiency The above-mentioned factors
are core values of accounting
professionalism. Philippines is
one of the countries that has
produced globally competitive
accounting professionals.

In this state, the country has

adopted numerous basic
operational framework to level
up the competitiveness and
capability of accounting
professionals especially in
business communication.

Rafaelita M. Aldaba. (January 2013). ASEAN Deterring factors in MRA with It was stated that there are
Economic Community 2015: Labor Mobility respect to Accountancy. several factors that prevent
and Mutual Recognition Arrangements on core practices to be fully-
Professional Services. Retrieved July 26 2015, 1. Piece-meal approach of established with respect to
from national government agencies MRA Accountancy. leading the establishment of
df national systems & mechanism First, the Government agencies
are still in progress and about
2. Disconnect between national to finalize the concrete
government agencies involved programs and approaches.
in negotiations & professional
regulatory bodies in charge of Second, there are other rules
the technical attributes of the and regulations made by the
profession especially on different Government agencies
business communication and such as BOA and PRC that
language need to be harmonized. BOA
just recently launches a reform
3. Lack of initiatives among in accounting curriculum
professional groups, MRA not a enhancing and improving the
priority of professional sectors technical features of
accounting profession in
business communication and

Third, some of the government

agencies and other accounting
professional groups are
hesitant in the new
developments and suggested
operational framework.
Though the framework would
allow competency of
accounting professionals to
become more comprehensive.
Some groups think that these
are less important / priority
since the Philippines is known
to be English speaking country.
If the groups would strictly
implement reforms aligned
with the proposed agenda of
MRA, this would entail finance
and funding requirements in
order for each program to
materialize and for
sustainability, perhaps.

Moreover, reluctance and lack

of priority were some of the
key factors why they are not
determined to pursue and align
there current practices to the
developments and plans
introduced initially by the
government in accordance with
the signed bilateral agreement.

Hudson. (May 24, 2014). Communication Detailed, technical proficiency Beyond the preparation of
skills: the key to accounting success. will always be a key part of the financial statements and other
Retrieved July 26, 2015 role, but those who develop financial reports, authors
from strong commercial and agreed that technical
articles/postid/30/communication-skills-the- communication skills will proficiency of an accountant in
key-to- increase their chances of the profession places a pivotal
accounting-success success and important role in the
industry. Studies showed that
Increasingly, finance those accountant who have
professionals who use their strong commercial and
analytical skills to tell a communication
compelling story with numbers are likely to become more
and influence business successful in their field.
outcomes will be those who
stand out from the pack, Finance consultants and
says Nicholas Rogers, Manager auditors, who have excellent
of Accounting and Finance in analytical skills, should also
Brisbane for Hudson, who has have to advance their skills in
been in accounting recruitment communicating the relevance
for the past eight years. of numbers and reports to have
an impact and influence in
business decisions.

Banderlipe II et. al. (April 2005). The Communication skills involve Communication skills
Development Of Analytical, Communication both receiving and transmitting collectively involves
And Research Skills In Accounting information and concepts, effective reading, listening,
Education:Perceptions Of De La Salle including effective reading, writing, and speaking. This
University Accountancy Students And Faculty listening, writing, and speaking skills should not be restricted
Members. Thesis. (Burnett, 2003). Additionally, to theories and accounting
the skills should not be limited terminaligies but also the
to the understanding of the understanding the
communication theory, communication theory,
preparation of business preparation of business
correspondences, and the correspondences and
presentation of reports (Maupin presentation of reports.
& May, 1993). Several related
studies suggest that Educators and idealists believe
communication skills should be that inorder to achieve this
an application of the theory in development; the program
emphasizing ideas, in observing should include the observance
good writing conventions of the 7 Cs of Communication
(Danziger, 1997), in organizing - correctness, conciseness,
the flow of thought, the clarity, completeness,
observance of the 7 Cs of concreteness, consideration,
Communication (correctness, and courtesy in writing.
conciseness, clarity,
completeness, concreteness, It can be validated that
consideration, and courtesy), communication skills place a
the use of standard English, the pivotal roles in the progress
awareness of the purpose of and growth of an accounting
writing, and the professional. These skills are
appropriateness of the writing bested to each who could
for readers (May and transfer the facts of the reports
Menelaides, 1993). easily to their clients, as well
Communication skills play a as, co-workers in the
very important role in the professional firm.
development of an accounting
professional. These skills are However, recent studies shown
required of accountants to why there is a typical and slow
transfer information easily and pace in development of
defend views to clients and communication skills is the
peers (Reinstein & Trebby, dependency of some educators
1997). However, recent studies in the curriculum without
indicate that there is a problem adding value or integrated
with regard to the development mechanisms that support the
of communication skills of cause. One reason is the
accounting students. This can inclusion of one writing course
be attributed to the inclusion of in an accounting curriculum
only one writing course in the set by the educational
accounting curriculum and the institution and nave exposure
nave exposure of educators to of the educators to different
different types of writing types of writing activities or
activities by CPAs (Sriram and programs by CPAs.
Coppage, 1992). In a related
study conducted by Hussain, Al- The accounting firms stressed
Darayseh, & D Ouville (1994), a the importation in oral and
large chunk of firms are written communication. The
dissatisfied with the educators role should intensify
undergraduates because of the accounting curriculum by
oral-written communication encapsulating strategies our
problems. In addition to this, courses to prepare students
the firms stressed the and eventually graduates in
importance of intensifying the this profession. Apparently,
accounting curriculum by some suggested the inclusion
integrating more oral-written of the fifth year in the
communication courses and accounting curriculum to meet
information technology courses the needs of harnessing
towards a more enhanced communication skills of the
academic preparation of the students.
students. Others suggested the
inclusion of a fifth year in the Results in the research
accounting curricula to meet explained that there
the needs of harnessing communication skills
communication skills development have a significant
(Anonymous, 1982). relationship with the belief that
Furthermore, Sutherland communicational skills are
(2004) suggests the inclusion of developed more through
exercising integrity in experience than classroom
communication, particularly in learning.
written communication, where
plagiarism can be the last Essentially results clearly
resort for students who are not shown in the study conducted,
oriented to the best writing that class reporting is the
practices in the profession. number one tool in the
Reinstein and Trebby presented development of oral
techniques in improving the communication skills, while
students writing skills by classroom debates have the
requiring them to submit term lowest oral communication
papers and cases. Term papers skill development. Faculty
require students to resolve an members
accounting issue with carefully asking clear and relevant
researched arguments. questions the greatest while
Students were also required to open forum with lecturers
develop from the professors and practitioners the least oral
own experiences, course communication skill
textbooks, seminars and development.
previous examinations.
Students were also encouraged The study suggested that
in class participations to educators should also take a
develop their oral look in improving the non-
communication skills. verbal communication of the
students such as posture and
Based on the perceptions of facial impression. They also
students, it can be concluded give importance the tool such
that alternative as class reporting, graded
hypotheses related to all items recitation, debates, and essays
under oral communication writing.
skills, all items in
written communication skills
except writing essays, all items For accounting graduates,
in non-verbal class reporting is the number
communication and listening one tool in the
skills are accepted due to development of oral
highly significant communication skills. It is
correlation of these items with commended that generally how
the general evaluation on the they present themselves during
development of class reporting will determine
communication skills. For how they will showcase their
faculty members, only class ideas in communicating such in
reporting, graded their future clients.
recitation, debates, and essays
are communication skill items It is worthy to take note of
that are highly communication skills
significant with the development have a significant
development of communication relationship with the belief that
skills, while open forum and ACR skills are developed more
feedback possess statistical through experience than
significance with the classroom learning. The results
development of communication correspond favorably on the
skills produced financial statements,
diligence reports, and even
As perceived by students, class
reporting is the number one
tool in the
development of oral
communication skills, while
debates on accounting issues
have the lowest oral
communication skill
development. Faculty members
asking clear and relevant
questions the greatest while
open forum with lecturers
and practitioners the least oral
communication skill
development. Both students and
faculty members perceive
written reports to be the utmost
factor in written communication
skills development, while
writing essays are the least
factor in the
development of written
communication skill.

As perceived by students,
communication skills
development have a significant
relationship with the belief that
ACR skills are developed more
through experience than
classroom learning.
Durden. et. al. (2006). A Critical Review of The importance of The review proposes that over
Empirical Studies on the Communication communication skills for the years, communication skills
Skills of Accountants. accountants has been are very important. What
emphasized in the literature for discourages the firm and other
over 50 years. For example, graduates and poses a
based on a two-year study Roy challenge in their day to day
and MacNeill (1963) reported activities are their inability to
on the common body of communicate orally and in
knowledge that a US Certified writing.
Public Accountant (CPA) should
possess at the outset of their Notwithstanding all the studies
career. In this context they and efforts of educators, the
stated "what is the outstanding common perception that
deficiency of college graduates? professionals are poor
The answer has come back in communicators still persists.
unison the inability to
communicate orally or in Asserted causes for this kind of
writing" (Roy and MacNeill, perspective is that first,
1963:58). educators have not understood
the need of communication of
Despite all the studies and practicing accountants and
efforts of educators, the some strategies do not meet
common perception that the need of industry in
accountants are poor practice.
communicators still persists.
Possible reasons for this Secondly, educational
perception include: (1) institutions have failed to
accounting educators have not develop institutions have failed
understood the communication to develop transferable
needs of practicing accountants communication skills. This may
and therefore communication be attributable to lack of
skills taught in universities do concrete and comprehensive
not meet practice and industry policy.
needs (May, 1992; Gross, 1992;
Maupin and May 1993); (2) Thirdly, CPE program in
practice and industry needs are accounting profession have
identified but higher education failed to provide adequate
institutions have failed to training in the area of
develop transferable communication to the
communication skills (May, employees.
1992); (3) the communication
skills necessary to be a Fourth, students are more
successful accountant evolve focused on the skills in
over the span of a career and analyzing numbers and digits
accounting employers and placed and reported in every
professional accounting bodies workingpaper.
have failed to provide adequate
continuing education and In this respect, accounting
training in this area to their educators have an important
employees (Addams, 1981); (4) responsibility to help improve
students who select accounting the communication skills of
as a major have a accounting graduates. If the
communication apprehension. purpose of conducting
Regardless of the cause, the research in the field of
concern is clear are communication skills of
accountants sufficiently skilled accountants is to improve the
in the areas of written and oral communication skills of
communication? accounting graduates, it is
essential that educators are
aware of what is already
known, and what is still

Schmidt et. al. (2005) Accounting Department The importance of Studies showed that there two
Chairs Perception of the Importance of communication skills varies terms used in industry such as
Communication skills according to career stage. formal oral communication and
Therefore, findings related to informal oral communication.
RGAs and accountants (from all The two items are distinct but
career stages) are theres a thin line in
considered separately. differentiation one over the
Communication skills important other. From presenting
to RGAs financial reports during
According to four out of the meetings to group discussion
nine RGA studies examined and inteviews. The success of
(Juchau and Galvin, 1984; an accounting professional is
Morgan, 1997; Christen and attributable to his
Reese, 2002; Gray, 2010), communication skill in his
listening is one of the most career.
important skills (if not the most
important). Juchau and Galvin To further address the
(1984) also note that lack of deficiency,educators should
listening responsiveness and collaborate with
coherence of verbal communication specialists in
presentations are the most designing concrete framework
frequently listed reasons for in improving communication
dismissing interview skills.
candidates. Other oral
communication skills Educational institutions can
considered important include engage communication
interview (Juchau and Galvin, specialists to identify the skills
1984); conference (Andrews and elements of
and Sigband, 1984); casual communication that are
verbal presentation (Zaid, needed to effectively complete
Abram, and Abraham, 1994); the tasks.
and speaking on the phone and emphasize these elements
(Gray, 2010). The majority of and skills in communication
the studies used the terms courses for accounting
"formal oral communication" students.
and "informal oral
communication". However, the Various studies suggest that
distinction between the two is oral communication skills are
not clear. While there is more important than written
evidence that informal speaking communication skills. But
skills are more important than there are engagements such
formal speaking for RGAs, a financial risk analysis and
conclusion cannot be made due internal auditing systems
to the ambiguity about the which require the latter than
formal-informal distinction. In the former.
addition, several studies used
the term "presentation" without Thus, it can be suggested that
specifying whether the context both oral and written
was formal or informal and communication skills are
therefore these studies were essential. Their importance
excluded in forming this corresponds to the need of
observation.Various studies specific engagement or tasks in
suggest that oral a specific industry.
communication skills are more
important than written
communication skills for RGAs
(e.g., Zaid, Abraham, and Some suggests that in order
Abraham, 1994; Christensen for oral and communication
and Rees, 2002; Goby and skills develop, an individual
Lewis, 1999). However, written should also have to improve
communication skills are also their listening skills/ or
critical to the accountants role. capability. As said by some,
For example, based on a study often a written document is
of internal auditing systems, produced in response to an
Stevens and Stevens (1994) oral request (no more detailed
recommended that internal written instructions from
auditing departments review teachers!)."
job applicants' writing samples.
According to Rader and Wunsch The importance of listening
(1980), at least one fourth of an skills for accountants should be
accountant's time is spent further explored by including it
writing. The distinction in the inventory
between formal and informal of skills in future studies.
writing is imprecise. For
example, it is not clear whether Overall there is not enough
memorandum writing is a evidence to conclude which
formal or informal writing skill. communication skills, oral or
Few studies included written, are more important for
memorandum and general career accountants.
correspondence together.
Therefore, for the purpose of In this ASEAN ambitious
this paper, memos, letters, strategy, they key challenge for
general correspondence, accounting educators, the
working documents were all government, and other
classified as informal writing. professional organization is to
Results of surveys by Juchau develop transferable skills
and Galvin (1984), Goby and within students/accounting
Lewis (1999) and Morgan professionals that match or
(1997) indicate that informal 8 align with the most frequently
writing skills are more performed communication
important than formal writing tasks. According to Smythe
skills. Respondents to Zaid, and Nikolai (1996), educators
Abraham, and Abrahams who are engaged in
(1994) study on the other hand incorporating communication
ranked the importance of skills into accounting
formal curriculum must "assess the
writing above informal writing. effectiveness of instruction in
A large number of studies used providing useful, transferable
the term "reports" without skills for the practicing
specifying a formal or informal professional." The strategy
report. Such studies were should be brief and concise
excluded in comparing the that would meet the intended
importance of formal and result.
informal writing. Further
research should be undertaken
to better
ascertain whether informal
writing skills are seen as more
important than formal writing
skills or how the balance
between the two dimensions
should be dealt with.