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Copyright © 1999 by ASME All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.


Greg B. Bruening and Won S. Chang
Turbine Engine Division
Air Force Research Laboratory
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH

ABSTRACT Tga Turbine Rotor Inlet Temperature ( °F)
Tmetal Average Bulk Metal Temperature ( °F)
This paper evaluates the feasibility and potential impact on T., Cooling Air Temperature ( °F)
overall engine performance when utilizing the heat sink OT a;i Delta Air Temperature Across Heat
sources available in a gas turbine engine for improved Exchanger
turbine thermal management. A study was conducted to Mn Mach Number
assess the application of a heat exchanger to cool the BPR Engine Bypass Ratio
compressor bleed air normally used air for cooling turbine OD Outer Diameter
machinery. The design tradeoffs of this cooled cooling air Capture Ratio Percent Fan Bypass Air That Flows Through
approach as well as the methodology used to make the Heat Exchanger
performance assessment will be addressed. %Wa,s Percent Total Engine Airflow That Enters
High Pressure Compressor
The results of this study show that the use of a cooled SLS Sea Level Static Inlet Condition
cooling air (CCA) system can make a positive impact on Max AB Maximum Afterburner
overall engine performance. Minimizing the complexity and FN/Wa Specific Thrust (lbf/lbm/sec)
weight of the CCA system, while utilizing advanced, high T/W Engine Thrust-to-Weight Ratio
temperature materials currently under development provide
the best overall solution in terms of design risk and engine
The need for improved engine performance will drive
CCA Cooled Cooling Air future turbine engines toward higher and higher operating
TSFC Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption temperatures. To achieve this, increased material temperature
(lbm/lbf-hr) capability and improved cooling techniques have been a major
FN Net Thrust (lbf) focus in the turbine industry. However, further improvements
OPR Overall Pressure Ratio in these areas may be limited due to the time and cost
T4 High Pressure Turbine Rotor Inlet associated with developing a new material that meets the
Temperature ( ° F) higher temperature requirements while maintaining sufficient
T3 Compressor Exit Temperature ( ° F) strength and manufacturability characteristics.
CMC Ceramic Matrix Composite
ACM Air Cycle Machine Significant progress was made in the 1960's to allow the
s Cooling Effectiveness turbine to reliably operate at gas temperatures that exceed the

Presented at the International Gas Turbine & Aeroengine Congress & Exhibition
Indianapolis, Indiana — June 7-June 10, 1999

Downloaded From: on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use:

However. the challenge of designing current technology trends. selected and the associated temperatures are based on the Therefore. The bleed air is then cooled as it is compressor (HPC). and a illustrates the trend in turbine inlet temperatures that has maximum turbine rotor inlet temperature (T. from the compressor. . new and innovative approaches will be necessary successful transition of technology efforts currently underway to achieve the next level of performance capability. Today.5 (1950°F Avg Bulk) Figure 1 — Turbine Inlet Temperature Trends ^T41 = 3800°F Max Multi-Property Disk (1500 t Rim) One approach being considered today in the turbine Figure 2 — Notional Advanced Variable Cycle Engine engine community is the concept of first cooling the compressor bleed air before it is used to cool the turbine. Figure 3 is an illustration of a fuel-to-air heat exchanger The cycle and configuration is based on a projection of system for cooling the HPT rotor. The notional engine cycle considered for this study is an advanced. a fan pressure ratio of 8. melting temperature of the turbine materials. Development 2500 roduction ^K Tmn a rarurc U j000 500 S CcrsnK Engine Cycle HP Turbine Materials ^ ^"x ~ ^ Cnscnl Vines 1000 F. The temperature Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.) of 3 800° on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. and a two stage low pressure . In the capability to operate up to Mach 2. the need for the improvements achieved with the introduction of turbine CCA is not eliminated for the high operating temperatures airfoil cooling. similar to in industry. Figure 1 (OPR) capability of 50. which includes both the available technologies associated with a year 2010-15 initial disk and blades. variable cycle fighter engine as shown in Figure 2. compressor bleed air temperature by as much as 400°F at the maximum T. The bleed air is taken off at the compressor exit stage mechanically linked to a 4 stage high pressure through a bleed manifold. This study considered both an air-to-air and a fuel-to-air This concept significantly reduces cooling flow and turbine heat exchanger for cooling the compressor bleed air.4 (1950°F Avg Bulk) Production Or Demonstration Date Overall Pressure Ratio = 50 Single Crustal Nickel Shroud Fan Pressure Ratio = 8. a core driven fan the system. The high temperature T 3 and T 41 These higher temperatures make it very difficult to conditions both contribute significantly to the challenge of sufficiently cool the turbine with compressor discharge air adequately cooling the turbine. even with these materials. Applied to a typical fighter with turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures continues. this addition. The bleed air then follows the same path that it normally takes to eventually cool the rotor. The variable cycle turbofan external heat exchanger in order to enhance maintainability of concept consists of a two stage front fan. 4000 3500 --------^ v ^ s°lidific n Advanced Arcs Turbine Turbmc =- 3000 -^j.4 in the tropopause. The CCA system was analyzed assuming an operational capability (IOC). expected of future engines. of 1600°F. This is the temperature of the bleed air extracted resulting in increased compressor bleed air temperatures. resulting in improved engine approach assumes a CCA system capable of reducing the performance and life. The introduced back into the bore of the engine through diffuser basic cycle characteristics consist of an overall pressure ratio struts.asme. Each material temperatures. the desire for better specific fuel consumption (SFC) cycle results in a maximum compressor exit temperature (T 3 ) has driven engine designs toward higher pressure ratios. _ _ _ _ _. and T 41 operating condition.5.-d (2010-2015 IOC) (2400°F Avg Bulk) S00 Cooing Tur b in e Throttle Ratio = 1. The advanced materials without significantly penalizing the engine cycle performance. A heat exchanger is added in the bleed air flowpath to transfer COOLED COOLING AIR CONCEPTS the heat from the bleed air to another source.06 Single Crystal Nickel Blade 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Bypass Ratio = 0._ _ _ II_ _ Dircctionafh_ Turbmc Variable Cycle Fighter Engine Ceramic Matrix Composite Vane Convective Soiidif.asme. a single stage variable area high pressure passed through a fuel-to-air heat exchanger and is eventually turbine (HPT). resulted in significant improvements in engine performance The component effeciencies assumed are consistent with and aircraft capability. Two potential heat sink sources are the fan bypass air and the engine fuel.

the HPT vanes do A similar approach for cooling is to use an air-to-air heat not require CCA.asme. if cooled turbine .asmedigitalcollection. the vane would require CCA to achieve full life. which air cycle machine (ACM) which is added to the bleed air assumes an advanced cooling utilizing quasi-transpiration or a flowpath to increase its pressure. This eliminates the need for using compressor cooling air has a positive impact on engine performance. This is accomplished with an The "advanced technology" cooling curve in Figure 5. A portion of rate compared to the "current technology" cooling curve. centrifugal compressor to overcome the pressure losses of the therefore. The temperature of the bleed air directly exchanger. The This presents an additional challenge to the design because amount of bleed air to cool the turbine rotor. For safety which will be discussed later in this paper. losses from the heat exchanger. The fuel is complex with the addition of an ACM because of the rotating assumed to enter the heat exchanger at 250°F. interstage bleed air to cool the LPT. A CCA system obviously becomes more also used to cool the last compressor stage disk. The reduced temperature. The ACM consists of a centrifugal compressor and a film cooling. the combustor as it normally on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. turbine influence the size and weight of a heat exchanger. the turbine blade requires a more 3 Downloaded From: http://proceedings. is the turbine vane cooling air must have adequate pressure determined from the cooling effectiveness characteristic of the margin to enter back into the core flowpath through the vane turbine blade. This approach assumes no CCA for the matrix composite (CMC) material. CMC's were unavailable the turbine vane material is limited to the 1950°F-nickel alloy material assumed for the turbine Both the amount of air the heat exchanger must cool and blade. As a result of using a lower temperature capable the level of temperature reduction required for cooling the material. The the bleed flow split. However. The turbine blade design is less pressure turbine (LPT) with adequate pressure and challenging with the lower cooling effectiveness. and pressure conditions at the low pressure turbine (LPT) pressure bleed air is further compressed through the allow it to be cooled with compressor interstage bleed and. The heat exchanger is located in the fan bypass from the compressor exit is adequate to cool the vanes duct to utilize the cooler fan air to cool the compressor because of the high temperature capability of the ceramic discharge bleed air. This also negatively impacts the size and heated fuel exiting the heat exchanger is then injected into weight of the heat exchanger as well as the fuel temperature. this system includes a fuel bypass capability in case a fuel leak is detected in the heat exchanger. Both the engine cycle cooling slots in the base of the rotor. does not require CCA. The turbine blade does not have this problem blade design ultimately determines the shape of the cooling because the bleed air pressure is increased by the pumping curve and directly impacts the amount of cooling air required effect of the rotating turbine after it is injected into the for a given cooling effectiveness. This system is reduces both the required cooling effectiveness and the designed to allow the expanded bleed air to cool the low amount of cooling air. the bleed air must overcome the bleed air pressure blade material determine the required cooling effectiveness. as in the fuel-to-air heat exchanger case. The remaining high Without a heat exchanger. significantly reduces the required cooling flow radial turbine connected by a common shaft. considerations. the high pressure bleed air is expanded through the radial Cooling the cooling air temperature by as much as 400°F turbine to drive the ACM compressor. Figure 4 illustrates this combined impingement enhanced convection with advanced design.asme. For the turbine vane. for instance. A small amount of CCA is heat exchanger. assuming a machinery and necessary control system to properly balance heat load requirement similar to modem fighter aircraft. characteristics as well as the temperature capability of the however. The type of cooling technology assumed in the cooling holes. Air ------- 250°F — Fuel o I dAir ass Svstem Fan H rFan Shroud Shroud 0 High Pressure — HP LP Turbine Turbine Compressor(HPC) p V B V B V Combustor t fi Figure 3 — Fuel-to-Air Heat Exchanger Concept Figure 4 — Fuel-to-Air Heat Exchanger Concept with ACM For the case illustrated in Figure 3.

Tme t a i 5 0. Capture Ratio discharge air. For this analysis. HPC ° ISYQ . allowable pressure losses based on reasonable design practices are made in order to do design tradeoffs.asme.5 Tgs .1 passing through the heat exchanger to sustain minimal 0 5 10 15 pressure losses to minimize a further pressure loss associated Cooling Flow Rate ( % Wa25) with recombining with the bypass air not passing through the heat on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.84.Tsaz T`°°' - Tgas = Turbine Rotor Inlet Temp Large differences in total pressure between two combining streams can result in a large total pressure loss.asme. Figure 7 also illustrates design tradeoffs of capture ratio with weight and pressure losses.OTair I large Mach number differences between the two streams resulting in shear effects. Tmetal. lbs the amount of bleed air pipes. However. Figure 6 is an illustration of this configuration. The actual allowable pressure losses would depend on the specific There are several design tradeoffs of a CCA approach design of the turbine and mixer components.000 ft.Air-to Air HEX Installed In Fan Bypass Duct ° 0.. 4 Downloaded From: http://proceedings. case.asmedigitalcollection. The tubes inside the heat 60°%° 'o'°^° exchanger will be exposed to high temperature. 0 The bleed air is distributed evenly among the six heat 0 100 200 300 400 500 exchangers.Turbine Blade Cooling Flow Requirements through the heat exchanger and air delivery pipes will result in additional work required of the turbine rotor to pump the air DESIGN CONSIDERATONS up through the blades with sufficient backflow margin. for a that must be examined for it to be considered a feasible preliminary heat exchanger analysis. This multiple heat exchanger design increases Total Cooled Cooling Air System Weight.4 E . Figure 7 defines an The heat exchanger itself must be compact. /1600°F T 3 ) at bypass air passes around the heat exchanger and is not used 2. The remaining fan maximum heat transfer condition (3800°F T 4 . An air-to-air heat exchanger system must be integrated 20 Sneo-Tube Desi gn well with the fan bypass }^ duct to minimize the im h act to 400 F pT.Air-to-Air Cooled Cooling Air Sizing Criteria leak during flight. but reduces the risk of a catastrophic engine failure in case of a single heat exchanger Figure 7 . The design intent is to minimize the total CCA exchangers for this study assume a shell-tube type. A fighter-type engine cycle usually consists of a i 1/8" Tube OD. allowable design space for the air-to-air heat exchanger that and capable of operating in the high pressure and meets the cooling requirements of the engine configuration in temperature conditions of an engine environment. It is desirable for the fan bypass air 0. For the bleed air side. lightweight. The heat exchanger is designed for its exchanger is defined as the capture ratio. The tubes.Tair — — — — — 40dF _ _ ATau _ _ Current 0 . The flow design. significant losses Figure 5 .8 200 F s5. the CCA system consists of 5 =` six heat exchangers located circumferentially within the fan Increasing Number Of Tubes bypass duct. T1dPC Bleed Air Tcool ° THPC Bleed Air . Besides being compact. This is due to LI 0 •i Tmetal =Avg Bulk Metal Temp 0. cross- system weight while avoiding significant pressure losses. Bleed Air Side engine size. and manifolds are made of a percent of fan bypass air that flows through the heat nickel alloy material. for cooling the bleed air.4 Mn/ . assumptions for max solution to improving engine performance.6 La Figure 6 .. 10 mil thickness Inconel 625 Material relatively low bypass ratio (BPR) with limited area in the 72 `f 15 – – '5% Pressure Loss Fan Duct Length bypass duct for additional hardware. The cooling flow — Bypass rate then becomes much more sensitive to increases in gas Duct temperature as the curve flattens out. The heat this study. aggressive cooling effectiveness of 0.7 HEX Module Bypass Air Technology C 0.2 A Constant Tgas. Engine Advanced Bleed No 0.9 HEX Core Technology Air 0. ¢ Bleed Air Side) Constraint (20 40 40%% a fan duct heat exchanger must be designed structurally to \ 45°i° withstand foreign object damage as well as pressure sur ga es 10 during transient operation.

critical temperature limit (-700°F). A fuel-to-air system has much greater heat added to the air from the pressure rise through the ACM.* ) 100 . the fuel will operate above its engine performance benefits of a CCA system. This is a result of both cooling flow rate for an air-to-air system. For this study. In concepts. Clamps. For a fuel-to-air heat exchanger.---------- 1000 It 400°F ATair (with ACM) Coking iIiIIIIJiIiIIIIIIIIJ -Deposits u. compared to a fuel.. the fuel becomes supercritical.asmedigitalcollection. which includes an to the engine on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.. specific thrust..206 FOT. The amount Using a high temperature CMC vane material. the complexity and weight of the CCA system is reduced. the the cooling flow rate has on the fuel temperature for different sensors and controls. Hence. For the case that additional hardware necessary to mount the heat exchanger is cooling both the turbine vane and rotor. as well.. Fuel systems that operate in this range may require maintenance to prevent these deposits ENGINE CYCLE IMPACT from clogging the fuel system and heat exchanger. subcritical.. of cooling temperature reduction across the heat exchanger. the air delivery pipes. of high temperature applications. Figure 8 a liquid or supercritical phase as heat loads change. Endothermic reactors are under consideration. the fuel would be delivered to the combustor in either performance and the weight of the CCA system. eliminates the need for CCA for the vane which keeps the fuel i.e. No Hinx Figure 8 — Cooled Cooling Air Sizing Comparison THPC Bleed Air 200 10 15 20 With the fuel-to-air heat exchanger system. This can cause further to-weight ratio have been used to compare the various CCA fouling and fuel reaction with metal components. which results in the engine specific fuel consumption. This can be an important consideration in the engine design. however.. nozzles and heat exchanger.. The CCA weight is very sensitive to the ACM. The amount of cooling flow impacts the engine mission. and the levels of cooling air temperature reduction. sink potential for increases in cooling flow rate.asme. 800 400°F ATa . (Flanges. exchanger system. Temperatures above this limit cause the fuel to react higher operating temperatures without thermal decomposition with plumbing and form "gumming" deposits. the impact Cooling Flow Rate (% Wa25) on the fuel temperature is an important consideration. This will compares the sensitivity of CCA system weight with cooling require unique fuel control designs such as a liquid fuel by- flow rate for both an air-to-air and a fuel-to-air heat pass loop and/or dual-phase fuel injectors in the combustor. an increased amount of cooling flow and the additional heat to-air system.. JP8+100 has been It is interesting to note that advanced hydrocarbon fuels developed recently which extends the temperature limit up to are currently being developed to allow fuels to operate at 425°F. and thrust- formation of pyrolytic deposits. Current hydrocarbon fuels have an operating temperature limit of about 325°F.asme.- Fuel I1 / (withoult ACM) 5) Critical o I I 1400°F ATav i Limit .e. addition. also influences weight sensitivity. both 200°F and 400°F temperature reductions in the cooling air The complexity of the fuel system depends on the heat stream are illustrated. The tradeoff is with the increased risk 600 Total Weight Includes: Heat Exchanger (No ACM) A/A HEX associated with development of a CMC vane material capable 500 Ai Delivery Pipes 400°F AT z ir . . i. cause fuel control valves to stick and fouling of the fuel since they would increase cooling capacity. F/AHEX 600 Gumming 1 ) lieP gslts (without ACM) 200°F OTair E No HEX JP8+100 00 5 10 15 20 u 400 Cooling Flow Rate (% Wa25) I I A Constant Tgas. This can [1]. The key objective of this study is to evaluate potential As the heat loads increase. there are significant differences in fuel density as it transitions into a supercritical fluid. Figure 9 illustrates the sensitivity that components is included.Misc. The weight of all the CCA load placed on the fuel. Sensors/Controls Fuel Bypass System (F/A HEX Only) 400 . 200°F versus 400° .. Tmetal. The heat absorbed by the fuel causes its temperature to increase Figure 9 — Fuel Temperatures For Various Fuel-To-Air which introduces additional challenges to the fuel system Cooling Concepts design. the fuel bypass system. Mounts. etc) . Throughout an aircraft Downloaded From: http://proceedings.

system. Table I compares a baseline cycle to the limits the overall performance improvements. This results in a more reasonable CCA turbine vane and blade and a 3800°F max T 41 . ° F sub. The "materials only" cycle in the system.asmedigitalcollection. higher temperature blade material would improve Any modifications to the engine cycle impact the engine performance by reducing the cooling flow.7% -1. flight limits its heat sink capacity. Also. the heat exchanger engine core size and weight by reducing the amount of bleed characteristics were determined based on the engine cooling air required for turbine cooling. condition. An engine the disk material remains. To conduct this assessment.8 70. However. presents some unique design challenges because it in subsonic SFC and specific thrust. Flow. at about the Engine Bypass Ratio 0.17 +1.1 64. Aircraft today use heat exchangers to cool Table I achieves a significant improvement in engine thrust. weight can then be determined. sub.4Mn/50K).org/ on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.7 67. Similarly. Similarly.2 73.7% -0.8Mn/40K) .0% baseline cycle. However. high fan various approaches examined.2% -4. must be structurally capable of operating up to 1700°F. the penalties critical critical critical critical critical associated with this approach are substantial.42 0.4% increased complexity of the fuel delivery system and control (1.3% +11.7% 20.1 be the best overall solution in balancing improved engine performance with risk. The baseline cycle is limited pressure ratios increase the fan duct air temperature which to 1400°F maximum T 3 at the 2. avionics components and the environmental control system. Cooled Cooling Air 0 0 240 63 230 System Weight. the increase in cooling flow The use of a heat exchanger for turbine cooling application.922 -l. The relatively compact heat the same turbine cooling requirements.6% +0. super. SLS 109.5Mn/50K) 1. as well. to-weight ratio (T/W). In addition. The engine must be designed to accommodate the higher fuel temperatures but by limiting the fuel to a Baseline No HEX A/A HEX F/AHEX F/AHEX subcritical phase. each approach exchanger could potentially be integrated into the engine core introduces unique design challenges while having varying which would further reduce the complexity of the CCA effects on overall engine performance.000 ft. significantly improves the engine HPT Cooling Flow (% Wa25) 16.6% -3. This presents a very high risk to the design relative to current 6 Downloaded From: http://proceedings. Dry. It advantage of the greater heat load capacity of the fuel versus assumes a 1950°F capable nickel alloy material for the the fan duct air. The lighter weight CCA system.51 0. an engine modeling technology capability for highly loaded turbine disks.3 +0.7% -3.44 0.8% thrust-to-weight ratio. sub.7% 24.4 Mn/50. a high blade becomes so closely integrated with the engine and can cooling effectiveness is required and the turbine disk material significantly affect the engine cycle. bypass ratio which improves SFC but reduces specific thrust.asme.7% system. A program was used to predict the performance of each cycle. Besides the SFC.asme.39 same specific thrust as the baseline. Ibm/hr/lbf (0. but the problem of flowpath which ultimately affect its weight. the increased weight of the CCA system limits the Specific Thrust. along with the low Overall Pressure Ratio 32 50 50 50 50 density CMC vane material. penalizes the cycle. which can only be estimate of each engine component.9% -1. This also increases the engine requirements. (SLS Max A/B) Table 1 .Engine Performance Results CONCLUDING REMARKS To achieve higher OPR's without a CCA system.2% +4. SFC improves. resulting in only marginal improvements however.5% improvement to engine thrust-to-weight ratio compared to the Relative T/W Ratio Base +7. based on inputs from the cycle model as well as the characteristics of the materials The cycle with an air-to-air heat exchanger reduces the assumed for each component. the last stage of the HPC design program was used to generate a flowpath and weight will likely require the disk to be cooled.1% -0.33 0. This appraoch appears to Engine Core Corr. Ibm/sec 75.6% 12. a dual-phase fuel delivery system is not (Mat'Is Only) (w/o ACM) (w/o ACM) (w/ ACM) required. an engine Heat exchangers have been used for a long time in design must rely more on advanced materials and/or mechanical systems to improve the thermal management of advanced cooling technology.3% -2. The cycle utilizing the fuel-to-air heat exchanger takes which reduces the overall pressure ratio from 50 to 32.0% +2. 1950°F capable vane material. In satisfying system weight and size. (2. Cooled cooling air increases the overall pressure ratio The significant weight of the CCA system and the additional capability by allowing T 3 to operate significantly higher than pressure loss in the bypass duct due to the heat exchanger current engines. The overall engine achieved with CCA. lbs Fuel Temperature 250 250 250 524 937 The cycle with an ACM uses a more conventional. sub.6% 20.

The additional challenges associated with a CCA system such as safety and reliability.e. i. eliminating the ACM device by taking advantage of cooled ceramics for the vane. "AIAA Paper 93-0807. For the fuel-to-air system.. The results suggest that a fuel-to-air heat exchanger system offers the greatest potential for improved engine performance while reducing some of the dependence on advanced materials.asme. Compared to fuel. W. "USAF Supercritical Hydrocarbon Fuel Interests.. on 11/12/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. 1984. Also.. must be addressed by the engine research and development community before these concepts will fmd their way into operational systems. ."Compact Heat Exchangers.asmedigitalcollection. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank and acknowledge Jeffrey Stricker and Christopher Norden of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base for their assistance in the research and analysis that went into this paper. M." 3` d ed. Kays. the weight of an air-to-air system is very sensitive to potential increases in cooling flow requirements. however. VA Downloaded From: http://proceedings. the key is to minimize its complexity and weight. New York: McGraw-Hill. REFERENCES 1. 2. fan air has limited potential as a heat sink.