ERRORS IN THE USE OF REPORTED SPEECH

MADE BY FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMAN 1 TAPIN SELATAN
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016

SARJANA’S THESIS

FELDA SARTIKA
REG. NUMBER : A1B208284

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
LAMBUNG MANGKURAT UNIVERSITY
BANJARMASIN
2016

ERRORS IN THE USE OF REPORTED SPEECH
MADE BY FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMAN I TAPIN SELATAN
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016

SARJANA’S THESIS
Presented to Faculty of Teacher Training and Education as a Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for Completing the Sarjana
Pendidikan Program in English Language Education

FELDA SARTIKA
REG. NUMBER : A1B208284

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
LAMBUNG MANGKURAT UNIVERSITY
BANJARMASIN
2016

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LETTEROF APPROVAL

This is to certifu that the Sarjmw's thesis cntitled "Emors In The Use
Of Rcportcd Speech Made By FirstYeer Studentg At SMAIT I Tapin Selaten
In Acrdcmic Yeer 2015/2016' has been approved by the thesis advisors fororal
examination.

Banjarmasin, May2016

@
Mvisorl

a
\

Novita Triana. S.Pd, M.A
NIP. 19?41119 200010 2 001

Baqiannasin, May20l6

Advisor II

Asmi Rusmanayanti. S.P{ M.Sc
NrP. 19?80621 2001 12 2 M2

Approved by:

Head of the English Oeprtnent,

D,r. It Abdul Muth'im, M.Pd
NrP. 19550606 198803 I ml

June 2016 ChairPerson.Sld.sr*tr| Asmi Rusmanafnti.IIum 198903 l 003 Approved by: Dr.A NIP.Pd. Novia Triana. Abdul Mudr'im. M. M-Pd NrP. S.19741 I 19 200010 2 001 Member. fI. M. 19780621 200112 2 002 Mernber. ?/. Baqiarrnssin. 19550606 1988S3 l00r . M.Sc NIP. LETTEROF APPROVAL This is to certify that &e Sarjana's thesis of Felda Sartika" Reg Number A18208284 eutitled *Brrorc In The Use Of Reported Speech Made By First Year Students At SMAN I Tapin Selatan h Academic Year 2015/2016' has been approved by the BoErd of Examiners as requirement for complefing Sfiana Pendidikan Perogram in English Teaching.

and no errors in double marking area. in order to prevent native language interference. Banjarmasin. error analysis. M. over-regularization for 16 or 9. addition for 6 errors or 3. ii . Method of this research was descriptive qualitative method.3% errors. Keywords: learner’s error. The research is aimed to analyze the errors made by the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan in changing direct question into reported speech. S. Advisors: (I) Novita Triana. ABSTRACT Sartika. and (II) Asmi Rusmanayanti. reported speech. M. S.9% errors. Sc.7% errors. The technique of sampling used in this research was random cluster sampling. over-generalization for 27 errors or 15. Sarjana’s Thesis. It is suggested that the students should understand and learn to recognize the correct rules and differences between reported speech in Bahasa Indonesia and reported speech in English. omission for 8 or 4.Pd. Also it is suggested for the other researcher to use various instruments and larger population for deeper investigation by analyzing the errors based on the sources of the occurance of errors. 2016. A. English Department Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Lambung Mangkurat University.5%.6%. Based on the data that the researcher found the errors are in area of misordering which consist of 115 errors or 66. Felda.Pd. Errors in the Use of Reported Speech made by the First Year Students of SMAN I Tapin Selatan in Academic Year 2015/2016.

who has given her correction. Dr. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful All praises be to Allah.Hum. M. the Head of English Department. 2.S. a number of assistance and support were given to her. as the Dean of Faculty of teacher Training and Education. M. M. the researcher deepest innumerable gratitude to Allah SWT. Therefore. H. and his followers. In the process of making this thesis. 3.Pd. H. and valuable feedback from the beginning until the end of this thesis making. as the second advisor. S. as the first advisor. peace and salutation be upon our Prophet Muhammad SAW and his family. M. S. and encouragement in the process of finishing this research. his companions. the researcher would like to express her gratitude especially extend to: 1. 4. Asmi Rusmanayanti. M. advice and additional thought in improving this thesis. Sc. Dr.A. iii . beneficial opinion. 5. More over. Wahyu.Pd. Novita Triana. Prof. Dr.Pd. Lambung Mangkurat University. as the examiner who had given great guidance. advice. Fatchul Mu’in. Abdul Muth’im. Thank you so much for guidance. lord of the universe Who has given her some mercy and blessing until she can finish the Sarjana’s Thesis entitled “Errors in the Use of Reported Speech Made by First Year Students of SMAN I Tapin Selatan in Academic Year 2015/2016” properly.

as the librarian. who given her guidance and support during her study. Last but not least. Setia Budi. guidance. who have involved in the process of conducting the research. prayers. 11. 9. and Syeeba Meidina Azza. and Risma Pebriyanti.6.Pd. Ajidin and Masliyanti.Pd. Bambang Indiarto. The researcher’s beloved parents. harshness. and Hartini Hartati. S. 7. researcher’s sister Nur Aiyesha Naviza Zahra. Rizky Ameliya Syaiputeri. the researcher express her big thankfulness to all precious friends Eka Noormansyah in batch 2008. Mufdi Budimansyah. The researcher’s beloved.Pd. thank you very much for your help and kindness. the Headmaster of SMAN I Tapin Selatan. who always give her his love. mental and financial support. attention and support. the first grade’s English teacher and who given her helped and support. and support to make her strong and be able to reach her success. 12. who always support. S. M. 10. prayers. Students of X-IIS and X-MIA. for their corrected. Emma Rosanna Febriyanti. advise.Pd. 13. S. and love for her. patient. Ridina Sholihati.I.Pd. 8. Bambang Ariyanto. and the little sweety Alif Fediansyah. Dedy Kurniawan. laughing. 14. the researcher’s English teacher. and also researcher’s brother. happiness. and to iv .Pd. M. All of the lecturers in the English Department FKIP Lambung Mangkurat University who give her valuable knowledge and guidance in her study. Eka Nurjannah in batch 2010. Fiti Handayani. S. motivation.

The researcher realizes that this thesis will give meaningful contribution. Banjarmasin. opinions and suggestions are needed to improve it. especially in the Development of Teaching and Learning English Language. The researcher hopes that this thesis will be useful and will give contibution to the other researchers and any suggestions and criticisms are welcome for the betterment of this thesis. June 2016 The researcher v . all people who helped and supported the researcher during completing this thesis. the resarcher admits that weakness are still found in this thesis. Therefore. Finally.

.........5................................................................ Scope of the study ..........2..............................................................6....................... 5 1............................................... Definition of Key Term .........................................3..................................... The Definitions of Grammar ...........................2......1....... 14 vi .............. 5 1..................... ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1........1...............2................................ 9 2.3.......... Reported Speech ................................................................................2................................................................... Research Problem..2................................................... 1 1............. Transformational Rules from Direct Question into Indirect or Reported Question ....................... Background of the study............. viii LIST OF APPENDICES ...................................................................................... 6 1................................. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................... Significance of the study ................................................................................ The Kinds of Speech ........1....................... ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT................. v LIST OF TABLES ................................................................ 6 1. 10 2........................ The Definitions of Reported Speech ...................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ... 8 2.......................... Objective of the study............................................................................................................................................................................................4.......................................................................................................2............. vii LIST OF DIAGRAMS ................................... 9 2................................ 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2..............................................

............... Over – Generalization ........................... 24 2........ 29 3.................................................................................................. Data Analysis .................... Missordering................ 29 3.............. 27 3............. 32 4. 35 4......1. Approach and Type of Research ................... Research Findings ........................................................4....................................2.......3.......... Over – Regularization ..2.......... Validity of Instrument .................2.............4..................... Instrumentation ................................. Sample ............................. 34 4... 22 2.......... Addition.......................................2.......3............................................. 40 vii ..... The Research Results ..........5...............2..2........ 30 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS.............................. 20 2............... Data Collection ............................................................................................................1.....................................................................................6....................3............. The Difference Between Errors an Mistakes .3...................1......................... 28 3.... 19 2.......................... 39 4. The Error in the Reported Speech ...............2............... Population and Sample ...............2.................. The Students Error in Learning Reported Speech of Question Sentence .......................... Population....2.. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4... 25 CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH 3......................................... 18 2.............3..............2..................................................1................. 36 4................................................... 28 3................................................................................3....... 30 3..............................................1........3............................................................4............. The Definitions of Error .............. The Procedures of Errors Analysis ............................3.. Omission.......4.. 37 4. 29 3......... The Types of Errors ......................................... The Causes of Error ........................3...................2.............................5......................2......................1.......................................................... 2.............3.... 18 2.3..................

............. Discussion of Research Results ..........................1..................................................................................1..............3.............. 53 REFERENCES STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY APPENDICES CURICULUM VITAE viii ................... Reported Question ............ 43 4............................3..........................................................................3................... 51 5................................................... 41 4...3.. 4............ Indirect Speech ..... Direct Speech ...................... 45 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5...................3.........................2...............2.......... 44 4................ Conclusions ....................... Suggestions ......................................

3 The Verbs Used Before ‘If’ and ‘Whether’ – Clauses ...................................4 The Verbs Used Before Clauses Beginning ‘WH’ Words ........................................................................... LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2...... 17 2...... 18 4............2 The Common Expressions of Time in Indirect Speech ....6 The Changes of Pronoun and Possessive Adjectives ...................1 Reporting Verbs Which Can be used to Report .......................................................................... 13 2................1 Total Syntactical Errors Found in Each Group of Errors .. 33 ix ...... 15 2...................5 The Characteristics Changes in Tenses .......... 16 2............... 14 2...........................

36 4.....2................................... 34 4.................2................................................................................................................2........ 35 4......................................................2........ 38 4........................ 40 x ..............5 Students’ Error in Missordering ................................... LIST OF DIAGRAMS Diagrams Page 4........................1 Student’s Percentage of Errors ..................1 Student’s Errors in Omission ...........3 Students’ Error in Over – Regularization ..........2........2 Students’ Error in Addition .......... 39 4......................4 Students’ Error in Over – Generalization ........................

Rekaman Konsultasi Mahasiswa xi . Research Instrument 4. Surat Izin Penelitian dari Kantor Pelayanan Perijinan Terpadu 8. Statement of Originality 2. Surat Keterangan Telah Melaksanakan Penelitian dari Kepala Sekolah 10. LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix: 1. The Total of Students’ Error 3. Surat Izin Penelitian dari Fakultas 7. Surat Penunjukan Dosen Pembimbing 5. Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian 6. Surat Rekomendasi Penelitian dari Dinas Pendidikan 9.

1 . Therefore.1 Background of the study When people communicate with others. Without the capability of mastering a language. As a global or an international language. World population that is very multi various and multi cultural has languages own. It is an important communication tool that people can use to express their feelings.” it has an important role in the world. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the background of the study. as Brumfit (1982: 1) said “English is an International language. technology. thoughts and also share ideas so they can interact with others easily. statement of problem. objective of the study. world interaction and communication must be supported by one global or international language. Language has a big role for every individual in making a good relationship with other people. the scope of the study.. One of the reasons why they learn it is because they hope that they can master English entirely. 1. it is almost impossible to communicate with people around the world. they will use a language.. significances of the study and definitions of key terms. art and create relationship with other countries.. with English they can develop their science. And this one global or international language is English. It has become the popular language which is learnt by most people in the world.

Although in the curriculum of 2006 (KTSP and 2013) grammar is not stated directly – it is included in the language skills – grammar still needs to get special attention because of its importance.3) states that ”There is no doubt that a knowledge – implicit or explicit – of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language: you cannot use words unless you know how they should be put together”. speaking.4). There are many aspects discussed in English grammar. either orally or in written. Based on the description above. indirect speech. by learning grammar students will be able to use the language precisely and accurately. It is needed to be learnt because it is one of the three ways for students to report or share their statements or thoughts to other people especially when they communicate between each other. In learning English the students have to learn the four language skills – listening. 2 English is a compulsory subject to high school students in Indonesia. vocabulary. According to Murcia and Freeman (1999: 687. Reported speech is one of many grammatical categories which is important to be learnt by the students. and paraphrase. These language skills and components are very important to master in order to be able to conduct communication in English. and grammar. reading and writing – and language components – pronunciation. . one of them is reported speech. Grammar and rhetoric books generally recognize three ways for a speaker and writer to attribute statements or thoughts to other people: direct quotation. Ur (1988:4.

whether in direct or indirect speech. there are many errors that maybe made by the students when they learn reported speech. There are two ways to report what a person has said or thought. In addition. students just have to . the students will be able to quote somebody’s words or thoughts. Although they know how to report what a speaker say to someone else in Bahasa Indonesia. For many high school students in the first grade reported speech may become a grammar point which is difficult to learn. Therefore. thus they will understand the way to report speeches. it can be denied that the use of reported speech has important role because it is often used by people in writing or communicating in their daily conversation. 3 Indirect or reported speech is commonly used to give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech. Of course by these differences. and commands. Based on the curriculum of English used in Indonesian high schools. Learning reported speech is not easy for many Indonesian students. without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words. It has already known that English and Indonesian have many different aspects in grammatical form. questions. because by learning reported speech. Reported speech is presented in the second semesters of X (tenth) grade together with Tenses. They are: direct and indirect speech. the students should learn reported speech because one of the linguistic features that is used by students when they try to write the text of news item or report text. such as statements. Indirect or reported speech is essential for students to be learnt.

the tense becomes Simple Past Tense. they just need to add a reporting word. . Not only the tense changed. Son : Ayah berkata bahwa beliau perlu selembar kertas. the pronouns. Although the students remember the patterns of English tenses. The sample dialog above shows that the direct speech is in Simple Present Tense. In the sentence structures from direct speech to reported speed in Bahasa Indonesia can be seen. Son : Father said that he needed a piece of paper. Father : “Tell your mother that I need a piece of paper”. such as berkata (said). When the statement is reported. In the following sample dialog the changes. Unlike Bahasa Indonesia. the pronoun of I is changed into He. 4 repeat what the speaker says without making any changes to the verbs. they can make mistakes in producing the Reported Speech if they do not know the changes of tenses from direct speech to report speech. students have to pay attention to the changes of the tenses and time markers when they want to use Reported Speech in English. In this case there are two grammar point that the students need to master: (1) Tense. Father : Katakan kepada ibumu bahwa Ayah perlu selembar kertas. and the time markers. The following sample dialog show how the changes happen. and (2) Changes in Tenses. and mention the name of the speaker.

Based on the above discussion the researcher would like to do a research on students’ errors in learning reported speech. Because reported speech is still general. the researcher only does the research on the students’ error in reported speech of question sentence made by the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan in the academic years 2015/2016. as follow: 1. From the statement above.2 Objective of the study This study has two objectives. Some previous studies on Reported Speech show that students have problem in using it.1 Research Problem In this research. it will lead them to produce many errors in their learning. the grammatical changes which happened when direct form is transformed into indirect form has become one of the difficulties that happens when the students learn reported speech. 5 Because of the grammatical changes it is likely that the students produce errors in using Reported Speech in English. it can be concluded that. To find out the reason why the student made the errors . 1. To identify the errors made by the first year student of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan in learning reported speech of statement. because of the difficulty. Therefore. thus. 2. the problem investigated is ” What are the most types of error made by the first students in reported speech of question sentence in the change of tenses and pronouns at SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan in the academic years 2015/2016?” 1.

. it is become an information in which make the students realize that their answer sheets determine whether the test good or worse when they used reported speech. The subjects of this research are the X (tenth) grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan in the academic years 2015/2016. For the students. This study is aimed to identify and classify the students’ errors in reported speech of question sentence in the change of tenses and pronouns. 3. For the teachers. For the next researchers who are interested in the same field. 6 1. this study hopes to contribute in analyzing student errors in the use of Reported Speech so that when the teacher evaluation. 2. 2. teacher will know where the errors students the right to hold a remedial test or they are able in helping their students to handle those error. 1.3 Scope of the study The scope of this research is concerned as follows: 1. it can be used as references in doing similar research or conducting a further research.4 Significance of the study The significances of this research are hoped to be: 1.

Students’ errors: The wrong or unwanted form of a language made by students in their writing which is occur repeatedly. 7 1. omission. Grammar: The study of the systematic rules which describe the way words change their form and are combined into good sentences. misinformation. 4. addition. Surface strategy taxonomy: Errors classification from Dulay which classify the errors into four categories. 2. Reported Speech: To quote somebody’s idea or thoughts without exactly repeating the exact word produced by the speaker. and misordering. . 3.5 Definition of Key Term 1.

1994: 87). According to Nunan (1999: 97). “Grammar of a language is a conventional system of rules for making and putting together the expression (e. and the error in the reported speech. the transformational rules from direct question into indirect or reported question. the various theories or perspectives that attempt to understand and describe it. 2. the types of error. the definitions of error. arranged or changed to show certain kinds of meaning. “A description of the structure of a language and the way which linguistic units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentences in the language”. the kinds of speech. the definitions of reported speech. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter gives explanation about the definition of grammar. Swan (2005: xix). a system that governs the way words come together to form meanings.g.1 The Definitions of Grammar Grammar is the natural. the students error in learning reported speech of question sentence.” 8 . the procedures of errors analysis. “The grammar of language is the rules that show how words are combined.” (Hurford. the causes of error. grammar is also the study of that system. inherent meaning-making system of the language. sentences and phrases) that belong to the language.

1 The Definitions of Reported Speech Direct sentence is a sentence containing news event or events from other sources with direct imitating. Parrot (2000: 217) stated. quoted or repeated utterance of the source. 9 Veit (1986: 1) defines grammar as what enables someone of understand every word he is reading. 2. “In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech. and to speak and write word and sentences of his own. Not all of the exact words are used: verb forms and pronoun may change. without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words”. it can be concluded that grammar is the study of the systematic rules which describe the way words change their form and are combined into good sentences. from this definition.1. stated that “Reported speech refers to using a noun clause to report what someone has said. whereas Indirect sentence is a sentence range of news that contains the event or events from other sources reshuffled by the speaker.” . grammar will be a guide in order that every word becomes meaningfully and understandable.1 Reported Speech 2. Azar (1992: 366). From all definitions above. Reported speech refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s words. Therefore. not directly imitate or say from the source.

in plays. From some definitions above.1. According to the above definition the researcher concluded that direct sentence is a sentence given to a third person in accordance with what was said by the first person to complete but not directly at the time. and in quotations. while the indirect sentence is in the form of a message to be heard directly by the second person to be delivered to a third person. 2. it can be concluded that reported speech is to quote somebody’s idea or thoughts without exactly repeating the exact word produced by the speaker.2 The Kinds of Speech There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect. 10 Reported speech (also called indirect speech) is used to communicate what someone else said. Example: She said. “I want to go to the market. but without using the exact words. Single quotation marks (“…”) are more common in British English. and double quotation marks (“…”) in American English.” Quotation marks are used when we quote direct speech. a. Direct Speech Direct speech conveys exactly what someone has said. It is usually found in conversations in book. .

Reported speech is used when it emphasis not in the words that someone has chosen. Commas are not put before that. articles or speeches that have been heard or read. quotation marks (“…” or “…”) are used. In literary writing. and changing pronouns. tenses and other words where necessary. Example: He explained that he never ate meat. that). etc. talking. for example.in indirect speech structures. remind. Reported speech found in newspaper reports. what. using conjunction (e. or writing about conversation. Example: She said that she wanted to go to the market. ask. that he never ate meat. → (Not) He explained. . suggest. where. but in the essential information they conveyed. fiction. It is put before the quotation. a large number of other verbs are used (to add variety and to give additional information). It is often used far fewer words to report this than were originally spoken. This kind of structures called Indirect Speech or Reported Speech. usually the quoted words are introduced by one of the words. reports. recommend. 11 In direct speech.g. In writing. Indirect Speech It can be made a speaker’s words or thoughts part of his sentence. etc. b.

the change of tense will not happen. From some examples above it can be seen that. 12 When turning direct speech into indirect. present perfect or future tense.” He said he loved me. If the introductory verb which is introduced in indirect speech is a present. Example: Direct Speech Indirect Speech He said. “I’m waiting for Ann. The tenses. some changes are usually necessary. Example: Paul says. “I’m trying to get a taxi.” He said (that) he was waiting for Ann “Do you know John?” He asked if/whether I knew John.” Indirect speech → He said (that) he was waiting for Ann. when transforms direct speech into indirect speech. For example in the first statement: Direct speech → He said. He said. pronouns and other words may different from the original sentence. if someone wants to report the direct speech into indirect. some changes are needed. . there is no change of tense if someone reports from direct speech into indirect speech. “I am waiting for Ann. “I love you. In the other word. the tense of indirect speech have then to be changed into corresponding past tense. therefore.” Paul says he is trying to get a taxi. if the introductory verb is in the past tense. However.

. my sister. It is better to choose to tell when to draw attention specifically to the person who is being addressed. so when it is transformed into indirect. 13 Tense of the direct speech is present continuous tense. Example: He said (that) he was ill. from examples above. them. us. 1990: 315. etc. him. Besides.g.1 Acknowledge Dispute Recall Add Enquire Recite Admit Explain Recommend Advise Forbid Record Agree Grumble Refuse Allege Guarantee Remark Announce Hint Remind Answer Imply Repeat Argue Inform Reply Ask Inquire Report Source: John Sinclair. Here is a list of reporting verbs which can be used to report what people say: Table 2. and choosing between these verbs often poses a problem to learners.) whereas it has to use an indirect object after tell. the tense of indirect speech is past continuous tense. it also can be seen that the most neutral and most common verbs which are used to introduce what are reported are say and tell. He told me (that) he was ill. Say is never followed by an indirect object (e. Pronoun of I is changed into he.

The following week/year. 14 Table 2.1986. etc. pronouns and possessive adjectives. For example: Direct question: He said. 2. the writer limits the problem only on reported speech of question sentence. In indirect question.3 Transformational Rules from Direct Question into Indirect or Reported Question As mentioned in the previous chapter. ago A year before/the previous year Source: Thomson and Martinet.1. and the question mark (?) is omitted in indirect questions. the interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form. Tense. etc. etc. . etc. The previous week/year.2 The Common Expressions of Time in Indirect Speech Direct Indirect Today That day Yesterday The day before The day before yesterday Two days before Tomorrow The next day/the following day The day after tomorrow In two days‟ time Next week/ year. When turning direct questions into indirect speech some changes are necessary. Last week/ year. etc. adverb of time and place change as in statements. “Where does she live?”→Indirect question: He asked where she lived. A year. Reported question is used when people want to relate a question that someone has asked.

These are questions which someone asks for information about an event or situation. or a ‘whether’-clause beginning with the conjunction ‘whether’. . 1990: 323. 15 Besides. ‘whether’ uses when the speaker has suggested one possibility but has left open the question of other possibilities.3 The Verbs Used Before ‘If’ and ‘Whether’ – Clauses Discover Say Know See Remember Wonder Source: John Sinclair. When one reports a yes/no questions. the second type is WH-Question. Meanwhile. he or she uses an ‘if’-clause beginning with the conjunction ‘if’. ‘If’ uses when the speaker has suggested one possibility that may be true. WH-Questions cannot be answered with yes or no. Here is a list of other verbs which can be used before ‘if’-clauses and ‘whether’-clauses. These are questions which can be answered simply with yes or no. there are two types of report structure for questions. Table 2. There are few verbs which can be used before ‘if’-clauses or ‘whether’- clauses. The first is yes/no question.

that is. 16 One the other hand.4 The Verbs Used Before Clauses Beginning ‘WH’ Words Decide Imagine See Describe Know Suggest Discover Learn Teach Discuss Realize Tell Explain Remember Think Forget reveal Understand Guess Say Wonder Source: John Sinclair. when ones report a ‘WH’ question. 1990: 323. the subject comes before the verb. and it is not necessary to use „do‟ or „did‟: Example: “where does Alif live?” She asked him where Alif lived. he/she uses a ‘WH’ word at the beginning of the reported clause. There are few verbs which can be used before clauses beginning with ‘WH’ words. The following are the form of grammar for Reported Speech: 1. Yes/no questions: this type of question is reported by using ask + if/whether + clause: . 2. Here is a list of verbs which can be used before clauses beginning with ‘WH’ words. Table 2. Normal word order is used in reported questions.

Table 2. The clause contains the question. 3. Future Conditional “Will you be in Paris on Monday?” He asked me if I would be in Paris on Monday. Source: http://www. in normal word order and with the necessary tense change. he/she often has to change the tenses and pronouns used in indirect question. “Are you British or American?” He asked me whether I was British or American. He asked me what my name was.athabuscau. Example: “What is your name?” he asked me.ca/courses/engl .5 The Characteristics Changes in Tenses Direct Question Indirect/Reported Question Simple Present Simple Past “What is the matter?” She asked me what the matter was. Question words: This type of question is reported by using ask + question word + clause. as discussed before. Present Perfect Past Perfect “Have you bought a new car?” She wondered whether I had bought a new car. when someone reports another person’s words in indirect question. Present Progressive Past Progressive “Where are you going?” I wanted to know where she was going. Simple Past Past Perfect “How did you make this cake?” I wondered how she had made that cake. 17 Example: “Do you speak English?” He asked me if I spoke English. In addition.

While.com/files/2009/4/23/2415017/My%20Documents/Struktur/DIRECT%2 0-%20INDIRECT%20SPEECH 2. (2000: 215) has different opinion. . 18 Table 2. He defines an error as noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker reflecting the Interlingua competence of the learner.2 The Students Error in Learning Reported Speech of Question Sentence 2. and which is continually reshaped as he or she aims toward full mastery (Harmer.fileden. Brown. “Errors are part of the student’s Interlingua that is the version of the language which a learner has at any one stage of development. those are part of conversation or composition that deviates from some selected norm of nature language performance. according to Dullay (1982: 139) error is the flawed side of learner speech or writing.6 The Changes of Pronoun and Possessive Adjectives Direct Question Indirect/Reported Question I He/she You Me/he/them/I/him/her My His/her Our Their/our Your My/his/her Source:http://www.1 The Definitions of Error To get clear understanding about the error.2. it is better for the writer to consider several opinions given by some linguists. He gives more attention on the Interlingua competence of the speaker. 1987: 170).

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From all definitions above, the writer can summarize that error is flawed side

of learner speech caused by the factor of competence. On the other hand, they do not

understand well the use of linguistics‟ system of the target language; it will lead the

students to make errors consistently.

In conclusion, mistakes are failure to use language because of slip of the

tongue or spelling. This failure is easily corrected by the learner since they

conceptually understand the language system. On the other hand, errors are mistakes

that student’s make due to lack of competence. They are not able to be self-corrected

because they do not know the concept.

2.2.2 The Difference Between Errors an Mistakes

Learning a language is a fundamentall process that involves making of

mistakes or errors. The mistakes include with vocabulary items, grammatical pattern

and sound pattern as well.

Hurford (1994) differentiates between error and mistakes. He said, errors as

a systematic mistakes due to lack of language competence, while mistakes refer to

performance errors because of a random guess or slip. Errors cannot be self-

corrected; mistakes can be sel-corrected if the deviation is pointed out to the speaker.

Meanwhile, Brown (1998: 205) said, a mistakes refers to a performance

error that is either a random guess or slip; it is a failure to utilize a known system

correctly. An error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native

speaker, reflecting the interlingua competence of the learner.

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From the statement above, it can be elaborated that error and mistake are

different. The difference is in making correctness. Mistakes are failure to use

language because of slip of the tongue or spelling. This failure is easily corrected by

the learner since they conceptually understand the language system. On the other

hand, errors and mistakes that student’s make due to lack of competence. They are

not able to be self-corrected because they do not know the concept.

2.2.3 The Causes of Error

Error occurs for many reasons. One obvious cause is interference from the

native language. The learners may make errors because they assume that the target

language and their native language are similar. While in fact they are different. They

generalize the similarity between target and native language. This cause of error is

usually known as overgeneralization. Another obvious cause is simply an incomplete

knowledge of the target language. The students are asked to produce words or

sentence that they have not yet learnt the grammar. Consequently, they made the

mistakes. The next common cause of error is the complexity of the target language.

For example, English has different tenses to indicate time of happening, such as

present, past, future, while Indonesian language does not. Therefore, these differences

obviously cause many Indonesian learners make errors in tenses.

Norish (1987) exposes three types and causes of errors:

a. Carelessness. It is often closely related to lack of motivation. Many

teachers will admit that it is not always the student’s fault if he loses

interest, perhaps the materials and/or style of presentation do not suit him.

21

b. First language. Norrish states that learning a language (a mother tongue or

a foreign language) is a matter of habit formation. When someone tries to

learn new habits the old ones will interfere the new ones. This cause of

error is called first language interference.

c. Translation. It is one of the causes of error. This happens because a student

translates his first language sentence or idiomatic expression into the target

language word by word. This is probably the most common cause of error.

Interlingua transfer maybe a source of error because influencing of mother

tongue that has been mastering to the second language learned. This phenomenon is

categorized intervention. It maybe adapted to second language or third language

system continually (Brown, 1987: 177–179).

Second error source is intralingua transfer. It happened after second

language or third language learners get new language system they learned then apply

the system language unit. E.g. When the learners have just known that English has

verb that showing time, example verb wash has time in present, and washed has time

in past, so when using verb go to moved to past the move go to be goed not went.

Third error source is context of learning. It can be source of error because

error in explaining when it has got in a learning. It maybe happened if in learning got

wrote explanation or not appropriate with language using.

22

2.2.4 The Types of Errors

Dullay (1982) in lengthy consideration of errors described three major types

of taxonomy: error types based on linguistic category, surface strategy taxonomy, and

error types based on comparative taxonomy.

In classifying the students’ error in this research the writer uses the surface

strategy taxonomy. The surface strategy taxonomy highlights the ways surface

structures are altered. Learner may omit necessary items (omission), or add

unnecessary ones (addition), they may deform items (selection), or disorder them

(disordering).

a. Omission
Omission errors are characterized by the absence of an item that must

appear in a well-formed utterance. Omission can occur in morphology. Learner

often leaves out the first person singular morpheme -s, the plural marker -s and

the past tense inflection -ed. In syntax, learner may omit certain element which is

an obligatory element. E.g. I not crying.

b. Addition

Addition error is the opposite of omission. It is characterized by the

presence of an item which must not appear in well-formed utterance. E.g. we

works our homework.

c. Double marking

Learner who have acquired the tense for both auxiliary and verb often

place the marker on both. E.g. he doesn’t know my name.

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d. Over regularizing

This error is under the misinformation category, in which a regular

marker is used in place of an irregular. E.g. runned for ran.

e. Over generalization

According to Dullay, this error refers to an archi-form, the selection of

one member of a class of forms to represent others in the class. This is a common

characteristic of all stages of second language acquisition; they have called the

form selected by the learner as an archi-form. The learner makes a rule on the

basis of his experience of other rule in the target language. E.g. what does he

putting on the top?

f. Missordering

As the label suggests, missordering errors are characterized by the

incorrect placement of morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. E.g.

where you did go yesterday?

From the description above it can be drawn the conclusion that the

researcher cited in the above review is that the linguistic fault not the same as

speaking mistakes. Both are the use of forms of distorted speech. Speak error occurs

systematically because they have not mastered the language rule system is concerned.

Errors of speaking does not happen systematically, not happen because not mastered

the language rule system is concerned, but because of the failure to realize the actual

system language rules have been mastered.

The description of the student’s errors involves classification of sort of errors made by the students. .5 The Procedures of Errors Analysis In the language teaching. either a native language or a second language teaching. 24 2. In this step. Els and friends state that there are some procedures in errors analysis. Description of errors 3. teachers recognize the student’s errors from the task given of errors. Finally. the last step is correction of errors where the teachers check the result from the task done by the students. The First step is explaining errors that can be regarded as a linguistic problem.2. Preventing/correction of errors The first step in the process of analysis is identification of errors. The third step is the evaluation of errors in which the teachers will give the task to the students. Then. Evaluation of errors 5. The second step is the description of errors begun when identification stages have taken place. namely: 1. study about the student’s errors is very important. Identification of errors 2. Explanation of errors 4. they correct the errors that the students made. This step attempts to account for how the errors can happen and why the errors occur.

according to the researcher as has been described in the discussion above it is considered necessary to conduct a repair is usually performed by teachers. etc. practice. . Often said that the fault is a picture of the students' understanding of the language system is being studied by it. when someone reports to another persons words in indirect or reported speech. Beside the change of tense and pronoun. the following changes are necessary such as in the change of tenses and pronouns. speaking of mistakes will be reduced if the stage of understanding increased 2. adverbs of time and place. A change of speaker may mean a change of pronoun.2. other changes are also needed such as in the change of possessive adjective. for example through remedial. However.6 The Error in the Reported Speech As explained before. If the time of reporting is expressed as later than the time of the utterance. the person reporting uses tenses that relate to the time when he/she is making the report. 25 Therefore. A change of time may mean a change of tense. and the resulting relationship of verb forms in the reporting and reported clause is known as the sequence of tense. The change is termed backshift. there is generally a change of verbs forms. not to the time when the original words were used. When the stage of students' understanding of the language system is being studied by it was less. when someone turns direct question into indirect question. speaking errors would often occur. he/she often changes the tenses and pronouns which are used in the direct speech. In other hand.

This type of error is missordering because it is characterized by the incorrect placement of morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. thus it must be: The teacher asked me who spoke English. 26 Parrot (2000: 225). The sentence of the direct speech above. “Who speaks English?” Indirect Speech: Incorrect →The teacher wanted to know who has spoken English. if it is transformed into indirect speech. stated Learner is sometimes confused by the tense and pronoun changes that can occur in reported speech. it can be summarized that the grammatical changes that occur in converting direct into indirect question becomes the error for students whose their mother tongue or first language does not have grammatical changes in reporting somebody’s word or question. The tense of the direct speech is simple present. . it must simple past not present perfect. The example of the difficulty in the change of tense and pronoun: Direct Speech: The teacher asked. From the statement above. therefore it is transformed into indirect.

Therefore. instrumentation. CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH This chapter describes the procedure of the research to find out the answer for the previous question stated in chapter one. Descriptive design is a research which is aimed at describing the phenomenon without finding the reasons. and data analysis. the researcher used descriptive method and qualitative approach. This chapter covers approach and type of research. 3. Fraenkel (2006: 431) states that qualitative researchers are concern with the process as well as product. data collection. cause – effect relationship. or describe naturally occurring phenomena (Selige and Shohamy: 1984). Descriptive research involves a collection of technique used to specify. or correlation behind the phenomenon. 27 . qualitative approach is chosen in order to describe the ability of the students’ error in reported speech of question sentence from the data which is gained. delineate. Qualitative researcher are especially interested in how thing occur. the researcher used descriptive method to describe the students’ error in reported speech of question sentence made by the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan in the academic years 2015/2016. population and sample.1 Approach and Type of Research In this research. Thus.

28 Besides. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2012: 92). 3. Kalimantan Selatan. The number of the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan.1 Population and Sample In order to implement the result of the research.1 Population Population is total subject of research. the population and sample were taken. which is located on Jl. .011/III. Kabupaten Tapin. the researcher took the sample in the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. “The population is the total number of people. things. Kabupaten Tapin. Munggu Raya RT. because this research would identify or investigate the student’s error in reported speech and also descriptive as a type or category of research refers to investigation which utilize already existing data or non-experimental research and the researcher conducted the research at SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. the larger group to which one hopes to apply the results is called the Population. and other criterion that become the object of interest or a group of all interesting object“. The students were in one class. Indonesia.1. In this research. 3. Kecamatan Tapin Selatan. The detail about population and sample of the research were described below. the qualitative approach was used to analyze the data. Arikunto says. Kabupaten Tapin is 60 students who were divided into two classes.

It was 60 students.2. therefore.2 Sample Sample is part of population or group of individual which represent the general characteristics of population. The researcher gave a written test focused on the subject matter that would be studied. The test consists of 50 questions. meaningfulness. 3. Sample is needed when the population or subject of research is more than what a research needs. 2006: 150). Kabupaten Tapin as sample in her research. the writer used test as an instrument to obtain the data. Validity has been defined as the appropriateness.2 Instrumentation In this research. . correctness. and usefulness or the specific interferences researchers make based on the data they collect (Fraenkel and Wallen. 30 students were chosen as the sample of the research. 29 The researcher decided to take the whole students in the first year of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. 3. The researcher decided to take 50% of population was the students of Class X A and X B of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. Finally. Kabupaten Tapin as the sample of research. some subject of the population is taken as sample. 2006: 151).1. 3. The researcher made the test about reported speech.1 Validity of Instrument Validity is the most important ideas to consider when preparing or selecting an instrument to use (Fraenkel and Wallen. It is about directing the students to transform direct question into indirect question.

Kabupaten . the test is designed based on syllabus and textbook which is used by the first students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan.4 Data Analysis The technique of data analysis used by the researcher in this research was descriptive qualitative analysis technique.3 Data Collection The researcher used the written test to know the errors made by the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. In this research. The first part consisted questions the students to recognition question with the suitable tenses. The second part and third were consisted of other questions the students transform direct speech into in-direct speech with the suitable pronouns and tenses. Kabupaten Tapin in reported speech of question sentence. In this technique the researcher describes the errors made by the first year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. It means. The test consisted of 30 questions. the form of instrument used should be represents the purpose of study. Besides. 3. 3. the form of instrument was directing the students to transform direct question into indirect question. therefore. Since the purpose of this study was to analyze the student’s errors of using grammar in writing. 30 In this research content validity was used. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006: 151) “The content and format of the instrument should appropriate and consistent with what the researcher is intended to measure”. the test design should be dealing with students learning material. Content validity refers to the content and format of the instrument.

over regularizing. to know the percentage of errors made by the students. over generalizing. addition. and the last step is correction of errors. and describes the causes of why the students make errors in learning reported speech of question sentence. There are some steps to analyze the errors: The first step in the process of analysis is identification of errors. the second step is the description of errors. The technique focuses on the data of the errors type based on the surface taxonomy theory (omission. 31 Tapin. the writer were tried to classify the errors. the fourth step is the evaluation of errors. and misordering). In the end. Besides. the writer uses formula: F P= X 100 % N P = Percentage F = Frequency of wrong answer N = Number of sample which is observed . the third step is explanation of errors. double marking.

The data collected from class X-IIS and X-MIA through written test. simple past into past perfect. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter describes the result of the research conducted in SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan on November 25th 2015 until February 11th 2016. present perfect continuous into past perfect continuous. the first part of this question the researchers found that students still unable to understand and remember the concept of change of direct question into in-direct question. not to measure the performance of students on the matter. the researcher provided multiple choice questions to students in order to measure the students' understanding of the concept is complex and knowing the memory of students to the concept. 4. the research result. and the students were lack of attention on tenses resulting changes in their choices in response to experience errors 32 . Therefore. simple present into past perfect) and the exception (from simple present into simple present). focusing on directing the students to transform direct question into indirect question (from simple present into simple past. simple future into past future. CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS. Multiple choices also objective and does not require a long time in the assessment process. and discussion of research data. The data were analyzed according to the findings of data analysis. present perfect into past perfect. In the first part. The test consists of 20 questions.1 Research Findings The researcher gave the students some questions in the test.

and the last there is no double marking error which is made by the students.1 Total Syntactical Errors Found in Each Group of Errors Frequency of Percentage of No Error Classification Errors Errors 1 Omission 8 5% 2 Addition 6 3% 3 Double Marking . 33 In the second and third sections. - 4 Over-Regularization 16 9% 5 Over-Generalization 27 16% 6 Missordering 115 67% Total 172 100% From the data. it could be described that the errors in missordering error are the most frequent errors in which the students committed 115 errors. over-regularization error with 16 errors. After that. This test also was aimed to determine the depth of students' understanding of a concept and assess the performance of students in a matter. Error in omission there are 8 errors. researchers found that students answer questions in various forms that they think was right according to their own understanding of the matter based on the concept that they are understand or know. Addition consists of 6 errors. It is followed by over-generalization error with 27 errors. . Table 4. in this study. Those. researcher gave about in narrative form or how students produce answers to questions based on the concept or understanding as well as students' knowledge of the given problem.

50% 5% 3 Double Marking 0 - 9% Omission 4 Over-Regularization 16 9.60% Double Marking 16% 6 Missordering 67% 115 66. For example error in: omission. over-regularization with 9%. and misordering. over-regularization.1 The Research Results There are various types of learner’s errors that happened in their transform direct question into indirect question (reported speech).90% Over-Regularization Over-Generalization Total 172 100% Missordering The graphic above shows the answer of the research problem. It can be seen that missordering was the most frequent errors in which the students committed. After that.1 Student’s Percentage of Errors Frequency of Percentage of No Error Classification Percentage Errors of Errors Errors 1 Omission 8 4. 4.30% Addition 5 Over-Generalization 27 15.70% 0% 2 Addition 3% 6 3. Addition consists of 3%. It is followed by over-generalization with 16%. Error in omission 5%. over-generalization. It was 67% from the total errors. addition. and the last there is no double marking error which is made by the students. . 34 Graph 4.

the researcher found the errors in omission were caused by language interference and students’ carelessness.1 above is errors in omission area made by students are 8 errors or 24%.2. Omission can occur in morphology. Learner often left out the first person singular morpheme -s. error in omission has 5 students who committed errors or 15% in the percentages.2. Based on the data.1 Student’s Errors in Omission Questions Total Student's Errors Number of Students Omission 20 Omission 8 5 15% Questions Total 24% Student's Errors 61% Number of Students From the diagram 4. 35 The following are the example of each classification of the errors that learner made in their transform from direct question into indirect question (reported speech). On the other hand. In syntax.1. Diagram 4.1 Omission Omission errors are characterized by the absence of an item that must appear in a well-formed utterance. the plural marker-s and the past tense inflection -ed. learner might omit certain element which is an obligatory element. 4. .

He asked me why I apply for the job. and omit certain element which was an obligatory element. the researcher could conclude that omission only minor problem faced by the studentd in their transform reported speech. . . the past tense inflection –ed. Diagram 4. By seing the percentage of this kind of error is small. 36 There are 5 students often do omission from 20 questions by leaving out the First person singular.2. 4. He wanted to know what I did in spare time. Examples : .1. It is characterized by the presence of an item which must not appear in well-formed utterance.2 Addition Addition error is the opposite of omission. .2 Students’ Error in Addition Questions Student's Total Errors Number of Students Addition 20 6 Addition 5 16% Questions Total 19% Student's Errors 65% Number of Students . He asked me where I going. He asked me how I like this cake. . He asked whether I got a driving licence.

.He asked me who would comes to the pictures with him. there is 6 or 19% error made by the students in addition area.2. There are 5 students often perform addition from 20 questions by adding item morpheme –s which must not appear in well-formed utterance. . On the other hand. By seing the percentage of this kind of error is small. That error is caused by the carelessness.2. the rsearcher can conclude that addition only minor problem faced by the studentd in their transform reported speech. He wanted to know whether I could to speak any foreign languages. . . error in addition has 5 students who committed errors or 16% in the percentages.He asked me where I’m was going. The Errors were showed in the Examples below: . 4. In general. He wondered how I could to be so unkind. in which a regular marker is used in place of an irregular.3 Over – Regularization This error is under the misinformation category. so placement is not appropriate tenses. 37 In diagram 4. those errors happenbecause of their Interlingua error which leads incomplete application method on the student’s grammar.1.

In general. “am” and “was”. He asked me who had shown I his book. there were 12 students committed over-regularization from 20 questions in under the misinformation category. 38 Diagram 4. And the students also had not been able yet in distinguishing the usage of regular and irregular verb in the sentence. He asked me how old me.2.3 above. error in over- regularization has 12 students committed errors or 25%. In this area.3 Students’ Error in Over – Regularization Questions Student's Total Errors Number of Students Over – RegularizationOver 20 – Regularization 16 12 25% Questions Total 42% Student's Errors 33% Number of Students From the diagram 4. Some students had not been able to distinguish the usage of “is”.She asked me which book I am taking.2. . . Example: . . On the other hand. in which a regular marker was used in place of an irregular. there are 16 errors or 33%. those errors happened because of their inter-lingual error which leads to incomplete application method on the students’ grammar. . This error might be caused by the teaching material.He wondered where he did put his pencil.

error in over-generalization has 17 students committed errors or 27%. On the other hand. . the researcher can be concluded that Over regularization is minor problem faced by the students in their transforming reported speech. Diagram 4.4 Students’ Error in Over – Generalization Questions Student's Total Errors Number of Students Over – GeneralizationOver 20– Generalization 27 17 Questions Total 27% 31% Student's Errors Number of Students 42% In this diagram 4.1.4.2. 4. The learner led to make the rule on the basis of experience of other in the target language. The learner makes a rule on the basis of his experience of other rule in the target language. 39 By seing the result of the test. they have called the form selected by the learner as an archi-form. students made 27 errors or 42%. Based on the data. the researcher interpreted those errors in over generalization were caused by incorrect pattern when the students applied the rule in the sentence.2.4 Over – Generalization This is a common characteristic of all stages of second language acquisition.

. Example: .5 Students’ Error in Missordering Questions Student's Total Errors Number of Students Missordering 20 Missordering 115 30 12% 18% Questions Total Student's Errors Number of Students 70% . He wanted to know where they oughted to meet tonight. . 4. Subtitution of over generalization of errors was considered as one of several major problems found students’ transform reported speech. He wanted to know what is the time. Diagram 4. He asked whether I has got a driving licence. She wanted to know what the time is. .He wondered where he had putted his pencil. .5 Missordering Missordering errors are characterized by the incorrect placement of morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance.2.1. 40 In this section there were 17 students who made errors from 20 questions by a rule on the basis of his experience of other rule in the target language.

2 Discussion of Research Results Generally. He asked me who me showed his book. He asked me how long had I been working in my present job. She asked me which I taking book. He asked me where was I going.2. Example: .5 above. They are Interlingua error and Intralingua error. Interlingua error is a condition where the learner may assume that the target language and his native language are similar. 41 In diagram 4. the learner carrying over speech habits of the native language or dialect into another language or dialect. those were caused by the false concept hypothesized. She asked me why she not eaten anything. On the other hand. . The errors of term missordering were the most frequent errors committed by the students with 115 errors or 70%. . In this section there were 30 students makes errors from 20 questions by the incorrect placement of morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. . . error in misordering has 30 students committed errors or 18%. this was considered as the most major problems found in students’ transform reported speech. Because of that condition. . It was also caused by the incorrect students in placing the morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. 4. Based on the data. By considering that many students mostly made errors in misordering. there are two kinds of errors.

Intralingua error is error which reflects the general characteristic of rule learning. etc. English is not language that they use every day. there were many errors from those student’s errors. Consequently. The learner applies the rule of target language and producing error. incomplete application of rule. pronounciation. It is quite difficult to learn English because it has significant differences in basic grammar and structure with their native language. vocabulary. According to the written test which had been finished by students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. such as faulty over-generalization. meaning. It was very common for students who learn English as foreign language to make error since English is not their native language. Intralingua error occurs when the first language does not have a rule which the target language has. the researcher tried to explain error by using general error and specific percentage of error. It does not only leads students to make error in composing English sentence. minor problem. but they will tend to translate the grammatical system or Bahasa Indonesia into English. spelling. while specific percentage of errors were used to know which errors that can be categorized as major problem. In this research. 42 The result affects error in various aspects of language: grammar. It would give general perspective or information to reader about the reason why those errors might be happened. they are lack of experience using this language. . General error would classify errors as Intralingua and Interlingua errors. and could not be considered as error. and failure to learn conditions.

defines grammar as what enables someone of understand every word he is reading. Those actions are known as omission. The researcher focused on the reported speech of question sentence based on surface strategy taxonomy. “I want to go to the market. It is usually found in conversations in book. . After analyzing the errors. Example: She said. and double quotation marks (“…”) in American English. double marking. over-generalization. and in quotations. and misordering. 43 After the researcher analyzing the errors by identifying and correcting. in plays. KabupatenTapin. then the researcher tried to interpret the data. over- regularization. Veit (1986: 1) as mention in chapter II. 4. As has been reviewed before. grammar will be a guide in order that every word becomes meaningfully and understandable. Thus. it means that the learner may omit necessary items or add unnecessary ones. and to speak and write word and sentences of his own.2.1 Direct Speech Direct speech conveys exactly what someone has said. the researcher found that the error in missordering was the most frequent errors made by First year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. from this definition. addition. or they may misform or misorder them. Single quotation marks (“…”) are more common in British English.” Quotation marks are used when we quote direct speech.

ask. some changes are usually necessary.2.g. suggest. usually the quoted words are introduced by one of the words say or think. 4. that). In writing. the change of tense will not happen. using conjunction (e. pronouns and other words may different from the original sentence. remind. tenses and other words where necessary. 44 In direct speech. “I’m trying to get a taxi. there is no change of tense if someone reports from direct speech into indirect speech. etc. for example. When turning direct speech into indirect. Example: Paul says. so if someone wants to report the direct speech into indirect.2 Indirect Speech It can be made a speaker’s words or thoughts part of his sentence. In literary writing. a large number of other verbs are used (to add variety and to give additional information). Example: He explained that he never ate meat. If the introductory verb which is introduced in indirect speech is a present. present perfect or future tense. and changing pronouns. . quotation marks (“…” or “…”) are used. Or in the other word.” Paul says he is trying to get a taxi. The tenses. It is put before the quotation. that he never ate meat. → (Not) He explained. recommend. This kind of structures called Indirect Speech or Reported Speech.

When turning direct questions into indirect speech some changes are necessary. “I love you. He said. From some examples above it can be seen that. the tense of indirect speech have then to be changed into corresponding past tense. In indirect question. 4.3 Reported Question Reported question is used when people want to relate a question that someone has asked. when transforms direct speech into indirect speech. 45 However. Tense. adverb of time and place change as in statements. Example: Direct Speech Indirect Speech He said. if the introductory verb is in the past tense. pronouns and possessive adjectives. the interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form. some changes are needed. “I’m waiting for Ann. “Where does she live?” Indirect question: He asked where she lived. and the question mark (?) is omitted in indirect questions. .2.” He said (that) he was waiting for Ann “Do you know John?” He asked if/whether I knew John. For example: Direct question: He said.” He said he loved me.

“whether” uses when the speaker has suggested one possibility but has left open the question of other possibilities. 1. The first is yes/no question. he or she uses an “if”-clause beginning with the conjunction “if”. the subject comes before the verb. Meanwhile. and it is not necessary to use “do” or “did”: Example: “What do you do in your spare time?” He wanted to know what I did in my spare time. or a “whether”-clause beginning with the conjunction “whether”. . Normal word Normal word order is used in reported questions. “If” uses when the speaker has suggested one possibility that may be true. that is. Here is a list of verbs which can be used before clauses beginning with “WH” words. he/she uses a “WH” word at the beginning of the reported clause. When one reports a yes/no questions. the second type is WH-Question. when ones report a “WH” question. These are questions which can be answered simply with yes or no. These are questions in which someone asks for information about an event or situation. there are two types of report structure for questions. 2. Yes/no questions: This type of question is reported by using ask + if/whether + clause: Example: “Do you speak English?” He asked me if I spoke English. There are few verbs which can be used before clauses beginning with “WH” words. 46 Besides. WH-Questions cannot be answered with yes or no. On the other hand.

the plural marker-s and the past tense inflection -ed. The surface strategy taxonomy highlights the ways surface structures are altered. He asked me what my name was. . in normal word order and with the necessary tense change. error in omission has 5 students who committed errors or 15% in the percentages. they may deform items (selection). the researcher found the errors in omission are caused by language interference and students’ carelessness. Based on the data. In syntax. a. Omission Omission errors are characterized by the absence of an item that must appear in a well-formed utterance. or disorder them (disordering). On the other hand. learner may omit certain element which is an obligatory element. 3. 47 “Are you British or American?” He asked me whether I was British or American. Learner often leaves out the first person singular morpheme -s. Errors in omission area made by students are 8 errors or 24%. or add unnecessary ones (addition). Example: “What is your name?” he asked me. Learner may omit necessary items (omission). The clause contains the question. Omission can occur in morphology. Question words: This type of question is reported by using ask + question word + clause.

It is characterized by the presence of an item which must not appear in well-formed utterance. On the other hand. In this research the researcher did not found the double marking from the students. He wanted to know what I did in spare time. He wanted to know whether I could to speak any foreign languages. and omit certain element which is an obligatory element. There were 5 students often perform addition from 20 questions by adding item morpheme –s which must not appear in well-formed utterance. b. the placement of double marking is not considered as a problem for students. . Since the number of error and number of students is not found. 48 There are 5 students often do omission from 20 questions by leaving out the first person singular. The correct transform is “He wanted to know what I did in my spare time”. There is 6 or 19% error made by the students in addition area. That error was caused by the carelessness. The correct transform is “He wanted to know whether I could speak any foreign languages”. therefore the placement is not appropriate tenses. one of the student made error when they transformed direct question into indirect question in omission. The errors were showed in the examples. the past tense inflection –ed. For examples. error in addition has 5 students who committed errors or 16% in the percentages. Double marking Learner who had acquired the tense for both auxiliary and verb often places the marker on both. c. Addition Addition error is the opposite of omission.

“She asked me which book I was taking”. there were 12 students committed over-regularization from 20 questions in under the misinformation category. There were 16 errors or 33%. this error refers to an archi-form. Over generalization According to Dullay. in which a regular marker is used in place of an irregular. the selection of one member of a class of forms to represent others in the class. error in over-regularization has 12 students committed errors or 25%. In over generalization students made 27 errors or 42%. She asked me which book I am taking. Based on the data. those errors happened because of their inter-lingual error which leads to incomplete application method on the students’ grammar. Over regularizing This error is under the misinformation category. the researcher interpreted those errors in over generalization were caused by incorrect pattern when the students apply the rule in the sentence. “am” and “was”. In general. On the other hand. 49 d. The errors were showed in the example. Some students have not been able to distinguish the usage of “is”. The learner tended to make . in which a regular marker was used in place of an irregular. In this area. This error might caused by the teaching material. And the students also have not been able yet in distinguish the usage of regular and irregular verb in the sentence. This is a common characteristic of all stages of second language acquisition. e. The learner makes a rule on the basis of his experience of other rule in the target language. they have called the form selected by the learner as an archi-form. The correct transform is.

For some examples. it can be concluded that the errors were also caused by intralingual. 50 the rule on the basis of experience of other in the target language. Students sometimes failed to apply or identify the appropriate rule for appropriate item or context of Reported question in English. missordering errors are characterized by the incorrect placement of morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. The errors were showed in the example. He wanted to know where they oughted to meet tonight. f. error in over- regularization has 30 students committed errors or 18%. error in over-generalization has 17 students committed errors or 27%. Missordering As the label suggests. He asked me how long had I been working in my present job and He asked me where was I going. Based on the data. those were caused by the false concept hypothesized. The errors of term missordering were the most frequent errors committed by the students with 115 errors or 70%. They did not understand the knowledge very well. On the other hand. From the discussion above. The correct transform are “He asked me how long I had been working in my present job”. . It was also caused by the students misplaced the morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. In this section were 30 students made errors from 20 questions by the incorrect placement of morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. The correct transform is “He wanted to know where they ought to meet tonight”. In this section there are 17 students who made errors from 20 questions by a rule on the basis of his experience of other rule in the target language. On the other hand.

Reported speech is hard to acquire. considering the rules of the language they use. Learn grammar means students must learn the structure of the language. The students try to understand the message as possible in reporting the news. the researcher found that in order to get a better understanding of the news it is required to get more attention to the situation as best reported speech grammatically correct as possible. . 51 Teaching grammar seems to need a serious effort. It is clear that from the analysis. This gives a signal to the recipient report what is important and what is to come.

especially when they were asked to transform from direct question into indirect question. That is 27 or 15. They need to give extra attention to learning grammar points. 52 . the writer concluded that the First year students of SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan. Kabupaten Tapin still made the errors when they learned reported speech of question sentence.9% errors. While in omission.5%. There was no error made by the students in double marking area. Therefore. For example. Finding out what grammar points are often difficult for native speakers. In addition area. A grammatical mistake can change the meaning and will make a bad impression. many speakers Indonesia have difficulty using the "a" and "the" in English.1 Conclusions Based on the description in preceded chapter.7% errors made by the students. they play a very important role in our daily lives. it is suggested for getting students understand is in knowing the grammatical rules in language. Grammatical errors are not acceptable.6% errors. there were 8 or 4. There were 16 or 9. error made by the students was 6 error or 3. and thus. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5. It is followed by the percentage of errors in over-generalization area. The data result showed that the most types of errors made by the students were in area of missordering which consists of 115 or 66. People who speak the same language often make the same mistakes in English grammar.3% errors in area of over-regularization.

make a news report in English. English is understood in most of the planet. students’ incomplete application of rule. They need to find a friend who can speak in English. They have to recognize the differences between reported speech of question in Bahasa Indonesia and reported speech of question English in order to prevent native language interference. The Students: a. and students’ carelessness. and move on. assuming that English grammar want good and true. it can be interpreted that errors are caused by language interference. d. the researcher would like to suggest as follows: 1. to improve grammar is by way of continuous practice. 53 After knowing the percentage of errors made by the students. . 5. Students can perform multiple activities such as. c. b.1 Suggestions Referring to the conclusion. and they should understand the correct rules in changing the direct speech into reported speech of question. Their speech will reflect a pattern they hear. false concept hypothesized. Learning grammar will be difficult if we do not really know how to speak in English. and the rest will fall into place. Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts.

Therefore. 54 2. Evaluating students work means that after giving materials teacher needs to evaluate the teaching-learning process need to be taken into consideration this can help teacher to measure the whole teaching- learning process whether it is effective or not. 3. The Teacher: a. It is suggested for the other researcher to conduct another research with another various instruments. The teacher's motivating and responsibility are needed to provide a good way to students. it would be better if the teacher gives some extra session to the students in turning irreguler verb forms from simple form into past form and/or into past participle form. it is important to teach students how to give a good understanding on the situation in which we can report the news in person. . c. These things can help students to understand how to get a good grasp in understanding reported speech and meaning based on what is presented. d. Because the missordering error is the most frequent errors made by the students. b. and to include a larger population in order to investigate the problem more deeply by analyzing the errors based on the sources of the errors occurance. The teacher should give clear explanation and more exercises about reported speech of question to the students especially who had high percentage of error. The other researcher: a.

1999. Marianne and Diane Larsen Freeman. Betty Schrampfer. Theo Van and friends. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching 4th edition. 2nd edition. Brumfit. Ronald M. and James. Heidi C. An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. New York: Longman. New York: Heinle Publisher. 1982. Azar. Barash. 1991. Learning and Teaching of Foreign Languages. REFERENCES Azar. Fundamental of English Grammar. Brown. Dulay. 2nd edition. C. Understanding and Using English Grammar Edisi Inggris-Indonesia. 1983. H. Krashen. H. Learning and Teaching of Foreign Languages. New York: Longman. Diane Larsen and Michael H. 2007. Theo Van and friends. California: Addison Wesley Longman. London: A Division of Hodder & Stoughton. 1983. Christopher. The Grammar Book an ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course. Douglas. Applied Linguistics and the Prentice Hall. Els. Douglas. 1993. Teaching by Principles an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy Third Edition. Beyond The Monitor Model: Comments on Current Theory and Practice in Second Lanuage Acquisition. English for International Communication. Vaughn. Betty Schrampfer. Inc. Burt. Marina K. 1994. 1982. and Stephen D. Brown. Els. 2000. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara. University of California: Oxford University Press. Freeman. 1992. . London: Prentice Hall. Language Two. Publisher: Heinle and Heinle Publishers. Oxford: Pergamon Press. San Francisco. Celce-Murcia. 1992. London: A Division of Hodder & Stoughton. Long.

Swan. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. D. Jumaidi. Sinclair. Fatchul Mu’in. Parrot. Stephen D. USA: Newbury House Publisher Inc. Ommon Errors in Language Learning Insight from English. Krashen. Hancock. Nunan. H. James R. Meaning-centered Grammar. 1990. 2005. David. Daud Pamungkas. Pedoman Penulisan Skripsi (Sarjana’s Thesis). England: Longman Group Ltd.Massachusetts: Newbury House Publisher Inc. Error Analysis: Perspective on Second Language Acquisition. 1982. Sirajudin Kamal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Harmer. 1972. Program Study Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin. Collins Cobuild Grammar. Richard. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. 1995. New York: Prentice Hall Regents. John. Grammar a Student’s Guide. 2011. K. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rowley. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Jeremy. Marina and Kiparsky. 1984. 1975. Craig. 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Burt.George. 1982. . Practical English Usage. 2000. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Hurford. S. Michael. Krashen. The Gooficon a Repair Manual for English. Carol. Jack. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Martin. London: Equinox Publishing ltd. 1999. Cayandrawati Sutiono. University of Southern California: Pergamon Press Inc. Boston: Heinle Publisher. V. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1994. London: Harper Collins.

September 7th 2014. Penny. http://www. August 30th 2013. Discovering English Grammar. http://www.co.athabascau.fileden.com/english/grammar/reporting_verbs. 1986.pdf Sunday.com/files/2009/4/23/2415017/My%20Documents/Struktur/DIRE CT%20-%20INDIRECT%20SPEECH.ca/courses/engl Friday. http://www.html Sunday. 1988. Veit. 1986.masbow.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/radio/specials/820_gramchall enge44/ Friday. Martinet. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. A Practical English Grammar.edufind. Richard. A. August 15th 2014. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press.bbc.com/2009/07/pendapat-para-ahli-psikologi-dalam. http://www. August 28th 2011.V.Thomson. Grammar Practice Activities. http://www. . Ur.J and A.phpFriday. August 30th 2013.

bukan menrpakan roam1 afihan tulisan ataryun pikiSaa maog lain )ang saya akui sEbagai hns:l rulim atar pftfoe saya- Apabila dikmrdian bri terhrtri arar dryat drb. Baajarmasin" Juni 2016 F'elda Sartika .ag sal6 tulis ini beimr - baar merupslon basil kr5ra saya smdiri.18208284 Prgffim Sarie*a(Sl) ProgramSfidi : PendidikanBahasalaggris I\deoyata*an egre ltt:bearnlra bahwt Slripsi 5la.ry** Skipsi ini hasil jiplakaq maka sa5rn bersdia m€oerima smksi atas pefummn tersehrt. PERI\TYATAAI{ KEASLIAN TI]LISAI{ (STATEMENT OF ORTGTNALTTY) Saya png bertmda tangan di bawah ini: Naua Felda Sqtika NIM A.

. . 2 . . 3 6 20 Student 20 . 1 6 7 10 Student 10 . 3 5 23 Student 23 . 2 2 27 Student 27 . . . . . . . 1 . 4 6 8 Student 8 1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 18 Student 18 . . . . 4 5 30 Student 30 . 1 . . . 6 6 Total 8 6 0 16 27 115 172 . . 2 3 5 16 Student 16 . . 1 1 4 6 5 Student 5 . 2 3 7 9 Student 9 . . . . . 5 6 15 Student 15 . . . . 1 3 5 4 Student 4 . 2 2 7 Student 7 . . 5 6 25 Student 25 . . . . . . . 2 6 8 6 Student 6 . 2 1 4 7 13 Student 13 . . . . 2 . The Total of Students’ Error Error Classification Total of No Students O A DM O-R O-G M Errors 1 Student 1 3 . . 1 . . . 2 3 3 8 22 Student 22 1 . . 1 3 6 12 Student 12 . . . . . . . . 2 5 7 24 Student 24 . 6 8 26 Student 26 . . 1 2 3 21 Student 21 . 2 1 5 8 3 Student 3 1 . . . 2 2 14 Student 14 . 1 . . . . . 1 3 2 6 11 Student 11 . . 1 3 4 17 Student 17 . . . . . . . 1 2 2 8 2 Student 2 . . . 1 1 4 6 19 Student 19 2 1 . . . . . 2 4 6 28 Student 28 . . 5 5 29 Student 29 . 2 .

4. How old are you? 2. Change the direct speech in each sentence into Reported speech. He………………………………………………………………………… 3. . Vary the introducing verb You had an interview for a job and these were some of the questions the interviewer asked you: 1. He asked (me) how old I was. ……………………………………………………………………………. Why did you apply for Interview the job? er 5. What do you do in your spare time? 3. You use Reported speech: 1. ……………………………………………………………………………. How long have you been working in your present job? 4. ……………………………………………………………………………. 2.A. ……………………………………………………………………………. 5. 6. Have you got a driving licence? Later you tell a friend what the interviewers asked you. Can you speak any foreign languages? 6.

2. Who will come to the pictures with me? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.B. Where can I go for it? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14. When did they tell you that? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9. wondered. Which book are you taking? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Why has she not eaten anything? She asked me ………………………………………………………………………………… 10. Why does he sing so loudly? We wondered …………………………………………………………………………………. 1.. Who showed you my work? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7. Vary the introducing verb: he asked. How could you be so unkind? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8. How do you like this cake? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15. Where ought we to meet tonight? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. wanted to know. How do you know that? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11. Where are you going? He asked me …………………………………………………………………………………. Put the following sentences into REPORTED SPEECH with the introducing verb in the PAST tense. What is the time? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13. etc. Where has he put my pencil? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. . When will my dress be finished? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4.

She asked me which book I was taking. She asked me how I knew that. 6. 13. 15. 4. 5. 14. 2. He asked me why I applied for the job. PART B: 1. He asked me how long I had been working in my present job. He asked me who had shown me his book. She wanted to know what the time was. He wanted to know whether I could speak any foreign languages. He wondered where he had put his pencil. 2. He asked mw whether I had got a driving lecence. 3. 10. 9. 5.ANSWER KEY PART A: 1. She asked me why she had not eaten anything. 11. He asked (me) how old I was. 4. He asked me who would come to the pictures with him. 12. 7. She wanted to know when they had told her. He asked me where I was going. We wondered why he sang so loudly. He aske me how I like this cake. He wondered how I could be so unkind. 6. She wanted to know where she could go for it. 8. 3. . She wanted to know when her dress would be finished. He wanted to know where they ouhgt to meet tonight. He wanted to know what I did in my spare time.

M. XEI+EIITERIAI$ RTSET TEKHOLOGtr trAFI PENDIDIKAN TINSSI UNIVEXSITAS I.AIIBT'XG I'iANGKURAT FAKULTAS I(EGI'RUAH DAX IL}IU PEXDIDIKAH . $c t978A6Zt2A0L12 2 terhadap Mahasiswa: NA}IA FETDN SARTIKA dengan Iudul Skripsi: *ERR*RIN TIIE.fANTLS. tersebut di bawah ini sebagai Pembimbing Skripsi pada $emesir Ganjil rahun ZgtStZOrcl NOVITA TBIANA.IM.URU6AN FETIDIPII(A]I BI}IASA DAil SENI PROGRAI* STUDI PE!*DIDIKAN BA}IASA INGSRIS !a!an ffigignd Fl.ME Ie4111e z00ot? 2 001 ASMI R USMAN4. M. Oi8/Lrr E J.www.qsm qqRAT Fqrqllr{rrrfislr IVO. Fakultas Keguruan _$etua Program studi dan llmu Pendidikan Universitas Lambung dengan ini meiuniut ni*a yani ftan$rurqBaniarmilin. !4 November Z01S . Kotak h6 BZ.3300660.sE oF R*po*roosrercn wDE By Fr*srvrun:srun^Nrs AT $MAN 1 TAPIN SEI.pd.2.PD 198803 1 001 . Banjarmasin 20123 Tclcphone"/Fax (0511) 3301914.wsrdpreq.dTAN rN aaDEMTCYEAR 2A74/2075" Demikian surat Penuniukan ini disampaikan untuk dapat dipergunakan sebagaimana mestinya.2. I'lasan Basri. I404Ttt.Bbingftipunlanr.2 I PP/ 20 r 5 pendidikan Bahasa Inggris.

Baqiarmasin.ahir : Birngur Btru / 04-05-1989 NIM A18208284 Juqsan Pend. Ddffin FKIP Udam Di Barnjarnnasin DemganHormaf. 25 Nopember 2015 Hal : Ptrmohonan Sruet ljin Penelitian Kepda Yth. Yang berhnda tangan di huxah ini :' Nanra rELDA SARTIKA Taqld I Tanggal l.Tambarangan Pengao isi menggd'.kar permohooaa agr dibuafrkan Srirat Pergantar/Izin Fenelitian Ke SMA NEGERI I TAPIN SEII\TANT ./'y Dr. Hormd Syq KetuaPropram. M. A18208284 - . ABDUL MLffHUvI. atas perfi*ian dao perkenan Bapak diucapkan tedmakasih- Mengetahui. H. Bahasalnggris Almat Komp.Studi. Untuk memperoleh informasi/data gunamenyelesaikan S*ripsi yang berjudul : ERRORS IN THE USE OF REPIDRTED SPEECH MAI}E BYFTRSIT YEARSTI]I}ENTS AT SMAN I TAPIN SEII\TAITI IN ACAITEITilC YEAR2O15T'016 Demikianpermobnan ini saya sampaikan. Bahasalnggris Program Srudi Pend. t.PTPN )ffi PERSERO. 1955ffi05198803 1001 W FELDA SARTIKA NIIvI.Pd NrP.

* r98s03.1.2lPL. KEMENTERIAN RTsET. H. 3304914 Banjarmasin Nomor : 530/LIN8.0ll20l5 02 Desember 2015 Lampiran : - Hal : fzin Penelitian / Minta Data Yth. TEKNOLOGI DAN PENDIDIKAN TIN66I UNIVER5ITA5 LAMBUNG MANGKURAT FAKULTAs KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN BANJARMASIN Alamat : Jalan. Hasan BasryTelp.l.. Brigfend. Penelitian inidimaksudkan untuk memperoleh informasi/data dalam rangka penyusunan SkripsiAvlakalah/Tugas Akhir yang berjudul : ''ERRORS IN TIIE USE OF REPORTED SPEECII MADE BY FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT SMAN 1 TAPIN SELATAN IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016'' Demikian harapan kami atas kesediaan Saudara kami ucapkan terimakasih. ffi@ \. Sehubungan dengan tugas perkuliahan yang harus diselesaikan oleh mahasiswa FKIP-Unlam berikut ini : Nama FELDA SARTIKA NIM 418208284 Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Perkenankanlah kami mohon kesediaan Saudara agar mahasiswa yang bersangkutan dapat diberikan izin untuk mengadakan penelitian di SMA Negeri I Tapin Selatan.003 . Kepala Dinas Kabupaten Tapin Dengan hormat.

. Kepala SMA Negeri I Tapin Selatan Dengan hormat.PORTED SPEECH MADE BY FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT SMAN 1 TAPIN SELATAN IN ACADEMIC YEAR2OI5I2OI6" Demikian harapan kami atas kesediaan Saudara kami ucapkan te.2/PL.1. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk memperoleh informasildata dalam rangka penyusunan Skripsi/tr4akalah/Tugas Akhir yang berjudul : ''ERRORS IN TIIE USE OF RE. 1 .198s03.0ll20l5 02 Desember2015 Lampiran : - Hal : I2in Penelitian lMinta Data Yth. H. #@ \.$ffi 912t3 .00s . KEMENTERIAN RISET. Sehubungan dengan tugas perkuliahan yang harus diselesaikan oleh mahasiswa FKIP-Unlam berikut ini : NAma : FELDA SARTIKA NIM : A18208284 Jurusan : Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni Program Studi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Perkenankanlah kami mohon kesediaan Saudara agar mahasiswa yang bersangkutan dapat diberikan izin untuk mengadakan penelitian di teinpat saudara. Brigjend. TEKNOLOGI DAN PENDIDIKAN TTN66I UNIVERSITA5 LAMBUNG MANGKURAT FAKULTA5 KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN BANJARMAsIN Alamat : Jalan.j@eih. 3304914 Banjarmasin Nomor : 530/UN8. Hasan BasryTelp.

tN. Nama : Nama : FELDA SARTIKA NIM : A1B2O82M .ERRORS IN THE USE OF REPORTED SPEECH Judul Penelitian : MADE BY FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT SMAN 1 TAPIN SEISTAN tN ACADEMIC YEAR 2A15PA16" Lokasi Penelitian : SMA Negeri 1 Tapin Selatan MulaiTanggal : 25 Nopember s/d selesai Untuk itu pada prinsipnya kami tidak keberatan dan memberikan ijin sesuai dengan ketentuan : 1.ARtF. Harus mentaati peraturan prundang-undangan yang berlaku sertia mengindahkan adat istiadat setempat 4. 2 Telp. PEMERINTAH KABUPATEN TAPIN KANTOR PELAYANAN PERIJINAN TERPADU Jalan Brigjend.H. tidak ada kaitannya dengan maksud penelitian 3. Sebelum melaksanakan kqiatan harus melaporkan diri kepada pejabat setempat 2.1 . Tidak dibenarkan melakukan kegiatan yang tidak sesuai. Dikeluarkan di : Rantau Pada tanggal : 7 Desember 2015 Kepala Kantor.Hasan Basery No. Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Kab Tapin 3. Agar memberitahu pejabat setempat apabila telah selesai melaksanakan penelitian dan melaporkan hasil kegiatan diatas Demikian surat ijin ini dibuat untuk dapat dipergunakan sebagaimana mestinya. Surat ijin ini kami cabut kembali dan dinyatakan tidak berlaku lagi apabila ternyata pemegangnya tidak mengindahkan / mentaati peraturan yang berlaku 5. (0517) 31437 RANTAU Kode Pos 71114 SURAT IZIN PENELITIAN Nomor : A7 Of7 6|KP2T llKl201 5 Sehubungan dengan Surat Permohonan ljin Melakukan Penelitian Unlam Fakultas Keguruan Dan llmu Pendidikan Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni Januari 2016. 530/UN8.0112015 Tentang Permohonan ljin / Rekomendasi penelitian An. 19651205198602 1 008 1. Yang bersangkutan 4. No. Arsip . Sos ' Pembina Tk.6.APL. I Tembusan: NrP. BupatiTapin sebagai laporan 2. .

illill NIP : 19640529 199001 1 001 PangkaUGol.Sos.b tryd NUR S. untuk dipergunakan sebagaimana mestinya.O Rantau 71111 REKOMENDASI Nomor : 07015432/Disdik/20{ 5 Yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini : Nama : H.n. 08 Desember 20't5 A. PEMERINTAE KABUPATEN TAPIN DINAS PENDTDIKAN Alamat : Jalan Brigjend H. Ruang : Penata / lll/C Jabatan : Kasubbag Umum Unit Kerja : Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten Tapin Dengan ini memberikan Rekomendasi kepada : Nama FELDA SARTIKA NIM / NPM A18208284 Jurusan/Program Studi S 1 Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Pendidikan Fakultas Keguruan Dan llmu Pendidikan Banjarmasin Untuk mengadakan Penelitian dalam rangka menyusun Skripsi dengan lokasi penelitian pada: Si.IA NEGERI 1 TAPIN SELATAN KABUPATEN TAPIN Demikian rekomendasi ini diberikan.SoS.FAKHRUN NuR.Hasan Basry Km 2 t(0517) 31C/. Kepala Sekretaris u.S.MM 9640529 199001 1 001 . Rantau.

dengan judul Tesis : "Errors In The Use Of Reported Speech Made By F'int Students At SMAN 1 Tapin Selatan In Academic Ywr20l5?016'. Program Studi Sl Pendidikan Bahasa Inggns Telah melakukan Penelitian untuk penyusuoan tesis di SMA Negeri I Tapin Selatan. 04 Mei 1989 d. S.]PATEN TAPIN DINAS PENDIDIKAN SMA NEGERI l TAPIN SELATAN Alamat : Jl. 05 I 7-20 34 2 54 ST]RAT KETERANGAN Nomor : 870/0 I 4-SURKET/SMANSATAPSEL/MArc Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini : a. NIP 196902t7 199101 I 001 c-. PEMERINTAH KABI. tanggal lahir Bungur Baru.Pd b. NIM A18208284 c. Jenis Kelamin Perempuan e. Tempat. Unit Kerja : SMAN 1 Tapin Selatan Menerangkan dengan sesungguhnya bahwa : a.Pangkat I Golongan : Pentbina llJf-a d. S. Pd 9690217 199101 I 001 . Nama BAMBANG INDIARTO. Nama FELDA SARTIKA b. Jabatan : Kepala Sekolatr e. mulai tanggal tanggal 25 November 2015 sampai dengan tanggal 1l Februari 2016 Demikian Surat Keterangan Melakukan Penelitian ini dibuat dengan sebenarnya dan diberikankepada yang bersangkutan untuk diketahui dan dipergunakan sebagaimana mestinya. Mutggu Kapasan No. 26 Februari 2016 G INDIARTO. 165 Tambrangan Kecamatan Tapin I Selatan Kabupaten Tapin 7 I 1 I Telp.

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FKIP Lambung Mangkurat University from 2008 to June 2016. She was the first daughter in her family. 1989. Kabupaten Tapin on May 04. She continued her study at the English Department. and SMPN I Tapin Selatan in 2004. . SDN Tambarangan 2 in 2001. CURRICULUM VITAE Felda Sartika was born in Bungur Baru. She completed her elementary school. Her Sarjana’s thesis is about errors in the use of reported speech made by the first year students of SMAN I Tapin Selatan in academic year 2015/2016. and SMAN 1 Tapin Selatan in 2007. She graduated for her Sarjana Program in English Language Education from the English Department of FKIP Lambung Mangkurat University Banjarmasin in June 2016.