Affixes in Syntax
Affixes in syntax usually known as syntactic devices. Syntactic device are

meant to form syntactical construction – words are arranged together in form a

meaningful combination of words. There are some kind of syntactic device which is

usually use such as word order, inflection, derivation, function words and prosody.
a. Word order
Meaningful word order or known as word order is one of the

syntactic devices that has to be used in building syntactical

construction. The words become understandable because the formation

of words. For example we take a string of words ‘girls the’. This string

of word has no meaning because it is not acceptable in English. To

make this jumble of words become a syntactical construction we need

to change the word order. In English subordinative construction, the

word order is modifier first and followed by the head (M – H). so the

syntactical construction of the string of words ‘girls the’ is ‘the girls’.

This is understandable because when we talk about putting words

together, the main points is how to arrange them – words order.
b. Inflectional

Inflection use as a marker which a group of words are

identified as a construction, and not just a jumble of words. For

example ‘the boy smile’. This is can not categorize as construction, and

has no meaning. To make it acceptable to said as a construction we can

add the inflectional suffix –s to the word smile, the words are tied

together and it is acceptable and also has meaning. So it become ‘the

boy smiles’. The suffix here called as syntactic device to form a

construction. We put suffix –s because the subject is the third singular

person. This is to indicate the syntactic linkage between the two words.


3. Derivation Derivational is a form word that use derivational suffixes. The –ment here added to the verb announce to change it into derivative noun ‘announcement’. must. The Head is announcement as the first IC and the modifier her as the second IC. 2. can. We can understand that this two words do not linkage correctly. The result of this two words form an attributive construction. The words ‘she announce’ can be change into ‘her announcement’. Then this is form a predicative construction. may. The inflectional suffix –s here indicate the linkage between she and announce because the subject is the third singular person. etc. We can make linkage wech other using such syntactical devices as: 1. The words ‘she announce’ change into ‘she announces’. Inflection Inflection is form word which used inflectional suffixes. while pronoun she change into possessive pronoun her. By inserting an auxiliary verb such will.For another example we can analyze the words ‘the announce’. The 2 . which the first IC is she and the second IC is announces. the jumble of word could become a syntactical construction of the predicative type. Function word Function word here are also use to indicate the jumble of word she announce into syntactical construction she will announce.

the function of words in here is very important. Words in syntax used as the basic point to build a syntactical construction so words become the smallest units. etc) adjective (envy. etc). question word). Words categorize a s content words and function words. subject she as the first IC and the predicative ‘will announce’ as the second IC. For example boys blue can not said as a construction so we need to put in which is indicate the linkage between this two words. The intonation could be rising (yes/no question. 3 . beautiful. rose. Content words such as noun (table. So it become boys in blue. etc). kiss. Preposition and conjunction can also indicate syntactical linkage. yesterday. chair. beautifully. prohibition. polite request. thin). and sustained intonation (continuation sentence). hug. The predicate its self indicate as attributive construction with anounce as the head and will as the modifier. Words in syntax commonly known as IC-s (immediate Constituent). Prosody This term refers to the intonation contour which always accompanies the production of sentence. and adverb (tomorrow. love. B. Word in Syntax Since syntax is the study of the arrangement of words into phrases and sentences ar syntactical construction. statements implying some emotion). handsome. 4. john. falling intonation (statement. He smiles beautifully can indicate a s a statement if the intonation is falling and as question when the intonation Is rise. orders. verb (run.

and. she. It is just the way it is and it can not be expended. conjunction (since. etc). Meanwhile function words in speaking and writing context have higher frequency of occurrence such words of. quite. content words have a former makers such words girls. oh. who. Open class the characteristic of content word which can be produce a new words influence by culture and technology such as internet. the amount of content word is very much. Last but not least. Function words do not have clear lexical meaning such of. content words categorize as open class and function words as closed class. how. while. qualifier (very. and but. Fourth. smartphone and so on. the suffix –s indicate the words as a noun while function words do not have a former makers. etc). must. content words have a lower frequencies of occurrence in speaking and writing context such kick we can not used it regularly because we explain about it. ugh. pronoun (I. nor). Second. On the other hand. we can not used our finger to count it. a. with. out. determiner articles (his. and interjection (wow. you. preposition (in. content words have clear lexical meaning and function words do not have it. Third. etc). 4 . etc). that. negators (not. There are two kind construction which words can build endocentic construction and exocentric construction. etc). until. It could be possession or relation of an object. will. website. Content words just like clearly mention in dictionary such influence mean effected by something. etc). interrogators (when. function words simply can count it using our finger. etc).function words such as auxiliary word (can. etc). Here are some differences between content words and function words. so. Closed class can not produce a new word. because. First.

about. LKIS Pelangi Aksara.about. Banjarmasin: PT.htm 5 . http://grammar.htm http://grammar.com/od/fh/g/functionword.com/od/c/g/contentwordterm. Introduction to Linguistics: Teaching and Learning Material. Fatchul dan Nanik Mariani. SOURCES Mu’in. Handout for syntax class. 2007.