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**STRESS CLASSIFICATION IN PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING
**

Arturs Kalnins

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem

PA 18015-3085 USA

**Keywords: Design analysis, pressure vessels, piping, stress categories, primary stresses,
**

secondary stresses, limit analysis, limit load, stress limits, lower bound

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Primary Stress

TE SS

2.1. Definition

2.2. Objective of Primary Stress Approach

S

2.3. Primary Stress Subcategories

R

2.4. Applicability

AP L

2.5. Primary Stress Limits

H O

2.6. Calculation of Primary Stresses

2.7. Primary Stresses from Free Bodies

C E

2.7.1. Plate

2.7.2. Axisymmetric Vessel

E O–

2.7.3. Flat Head

3. Secondary Stress

3.1. Definition

3.2. Examples

PL C

**3.3. Stress Limit Involving Secondary Stresses
**

3.4. Calculation of P+Q Stress

M ES

Glossary

Bibliography

Biographical Sketch

SA N

Summary

U

**The definitions and limits of primary and secondary stress categories are taken from the
**

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. Primary stresses are defined as those that

develop the internal forces and moments needed to equilibrate the applied external

boundary forces and moments and body forces. Secondary stresses are those that

develop the internal forces and moments needed to satisfy internal or boundary

constraints. These definitions are taken as the basic premise for reach of the stress

categories. The general and local primary membrane, primary bending, and secondary

stresses, and their limits, are presented in a way that is consistent with that premise.

Limits on the applicability of the primary stress approach with respect to the wall

thicknesses of pressure vessels and piping are given. Examples are provided that explain

the basic concepts for the calculation of primary and secondary stresses.

1. Introduction

©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)

1.Stress Classification In Pressure Vessels And Piping. The purpose of stress classification is to identify these different kinds of stress. and the secondary stresses. Stress classification provides a vehicle for reaching that goal. Definition C E The basis of the primary stress concept is rooted in the following definition cited in the E O– ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code: A primary stress is any normal stress or a shear stress developed by an imposed loading that is necessary to satisfy the laws of equilibrium in terms of the external and internal PL C forces and moments. which is of primary importance and therefore referred to the realm of primary stresses. Primary Stress H O 2. R AP L 2.Arturs Kalnins The main goal in pressure vessel design is to assure safe and satisfactory performance of a vessel or piping. The classification of stresses into primary and secondary categories separates the issues regarding overall strength. M ES When applied to the design of a pressure vessel. which is of secondary importance and therefore referred to the realm of secondary stresses. It should be noted at the outset that the use of the primary stress approach as U defined above implies limitations on the thickness of the wall to which it can be applied. followed by a S discussion of secondary stresses in Section 3. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) . and its subcategories of general and local primary membrane and bending stress. the important part of the definition is the idea that equilibrium is required between forces and moments on plane sections through the wall of a pressure-retaining boundary and not between stresses at all points SA N through the wall.PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS . primary stresses will be discussed first in Section 2. It is recognized that different kinds of stress have different degrees of significance and must be held to different limits. They are placed in stress categories. from the issues of local behavior. The stress categories of interest to this chapter are those of primary stress. This is a plate and shell theory concept as illustrated by a plate in Figure 1. The category of peak stress relates to the assessment of fatigue TE SS failure of metals and is not included in this chapter. In this chapter.

This is based on the lower-bound theorem of limit analysis. The SCL also defines two stress classification planes on the sides of the shell R element. Primary stresses do not equilibrate each of the individual cubes of the stack along the SCL. For practical design purposes.. The important point to note is that. Stack of cubes equilibrated by internal forces and moments Adopting the terminology of shell theory. The loading that produces collapse is defined as the Limit Load that is defined according to the rules of the theory of limit analysis. A normal at a point on this surface will be called in this chapter a TE SS stress classification line. There is no SCP-3 normal to the SCL.Stress Classification In Pressure Vessels And Piping.e. which can be stated briefly for a 3-dimensional continuum (i. an SCL E O– defines only two SCPs. For example. a reference surface is defined to represent the shell. The fact that the bottom cube feels the pressure is not part of the primary stress framework. In simple words. and shear stress resultants applied to these two SCPs. The H O primary stress definition requires that these stress resultants be in equilibrium with the external forces and moments that are applied by an external agency.e. The internal forces and moments are AP L the membrane. a lower bound to the Limit Load (henceforth lower-bound load) is calculated.Arturs Kalnins SCP-2 SCP-1 t x1 t x2 SCL Figure 1. Objective of Primary Stress Approach The objective of primary stress limits is to prevent the loss of load-carrying capacity of a vessel or piping. according to the definition of primary stress. U 2. The analysis is performed with respect to coordinates on this surface.2. which will be referred to as collapse. C E the stress resultants must satisfy the equations of equilibrium of shell theory. The calculation of the Limit Load for complicated geometries is difficult.PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS . denoted by SCP-1 and SCP-2 in Figure 1. if pressure is applied to the bottom surface of the shell element of Figure PL C 1. primary stress does not recognize any through-thickness normal stress distribution within the stack because there is no external force that it equilibrates. The pressure is M ES equilibrated by the forces on the two SCPs by the shear stress resultants and. such as x1 and x2 in Figure 1. also by the membrane stress resultants.. not every individual cube. satisfies the stress boundary conditions and prescribed body forces (i. for a curved shell. 3-dimensional solid elements) as follows: Theorem (1): Any stress field that is in equilibrium with the applied loading. and lies on or within the yield surface of the material renders the applied loading a lower bound to the ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) . the primary-stress mission is to keep only the whole stack in equilibrium. It defines a shell element consisting of a stack of infinitesimal cubes (only six shown in Figure 1) between bottom and top surfaces of the S shell. According to the above SA N definition. or SCL. gravity). bending.

A lower bound according to Theorem (1) applies to a structure of any geometry. This leads to the following subcategories of primary stress: 1. Since primary stresses are defined in terms of S internal forces and moments. This distinction will be encountered in the discussion in Section 2. M ES 2. The AP L following points may be noted: H O 1. 3-dimensional continuum analysis and primary stress analysis.e. Primary shear stress For design purposes.. and shear stress resultants are determined from equilibrium. infinitesimal cube is not required for a lower bound load. the primary membrane stress is further divided into general primary membrane stress and local primary membrane stress subcategories. the theorem applies to cases in which equilibrium of only the stack of TE SS cubes shown in Figure 1 is satisfied. plate. Theorem (2): Any field of internal forces and moments that is in equilibrium with the external forces and moments and lies on or within the yield surface written in terms of forces and moments renders the applied loading a lower bound to the Limit Load of the external forces and moments.3. higher pressure cannot be equilibrated and collapse occurs. A lower bound according to Theorem (2) applies only to thin vessel walls and will E O– approach the lower bound according to Theorem (1) as the wall thickness tends to zero. 2. A local primary membrane stress is a primary membrane stress that occurs over a local ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) . A general primary membrane stress is one that is so distributed in the structure that no redistribution of stress occurs as the result of yielding. When the general primary membrane stress reaches the yield surface. Theorem (2) provides the basis for the primary stress R approach. which develop these forces and U moments. It occurs typically remote from discontinuities and is responsible for the kind of collapse that occurs in a sufficiently long thin cylindrical shell. are calculated. the theorem applies to cases in which equilibrium of each individual. infinitesimal cube (see Figure 1) is satisfied.7.PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS . Primary bending stress 3. corresponding stresses across the wall. Equilibrium of each individual.Stress Classification In Pressure Vessels And Piping. C E including vessel walls of any thickness.2 of the calculated PL C collapse load of a cylindrical shell by elastic-plastic. In this form. It can also be stated for a 2-dimensional surface with assigned thickness (i.2. bending. In this form. Its objective is to produce a lower bound load according to Theorem (2). Primary Stress Subcategories SA N After the internal membrane. and shell elements) in terms of the resultant forces and moments.Arturs Kalnins Limit Load. Primary membrane stress 2. beam.

that primary stress is a concept of shell theory. ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) .1. It is of interest in pressure vessel design when it exceeds the primary membrane stress outside the local region remote from discontinuities. like that of a shell. All this means that the primary stress approach is applicable to reasonably thin walls. Furthermore. If it is sufficiently long. while for thick walls the through-wall normal stress (radial stress in a cylindrical shell) comes into play.Stress Classification In Pressure Vessels And Piping.4. For thin walls. which.3 above. A limitation of the primary stress approach to less than a radius/thickness ratio of 25 may not be that prohibitive. Even for low strength carbon pressure vessel steels it would amount to a limit on pressure of about 7 MPa (1000 psi) for a cylindrical shell. In pressure vessel design. If it is shorter than the length limit given in design codes. However. For this reason. but it is higher than that placed on the general primary membrane stress. t t/2 T P Rm TE SS S R AP L H O Figure 2.3.Arturs Kalnins region. Illustration of occurrence of local primary stress C E The length of the local region of reduced thickness is important. as is shell theory.1 to 2. membrane and bending stresses define adequately the deformation process. E O– then the primary membrane stress inside this region will affect the collapse of the shell in the same way as a general primary membrane stress outside the local region and must be subjected to the same limit.PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS . a limit on the local primary membrane stress is applied. Applicability U It has already been stated in Sections 2. that would typically be a wall of a pressure-retaining boundary. A typical example is a pressurized cylindrical shell with a reduced wall thickness over a part of its length. except that the stress must be calculated used the reduced thickness of T . then the rise PL C in the primary membrane stress is a local detail that does not influence the collapse of the vessel using the thickness of t . membrane and bending. perhaps no thicker than a shell with a radius/thickness ratio of 25. imply application to a special structure. the names assigned to the primary stress subcategories in Section 2. it may M ES produce unacceptable distortion of the shell caused by the reduced section. SA N 2. as stated in Section 2. as shown in Figure 2. namely one that has a recognizable wall. if not limited in the latter case. is not a primary stress.

and Updike. (1997). D. [Illustrates calculation of primary stresses from free-body diagrams. ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 56-3934.PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS . [Provides basic concepts for assessing collapse by primary stress approach..eolss. then. The wall-thickness limit applies to the wall geometry and not to the method or elements used in the analysis.Arturs Kalnins which is likely to be higher than the pressures in most applications. elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) material law and linear deformation theory must be used. typically signaled by an error message that convergence cannot TE SS be achieved. “On Primary Stress Calculations”. according to Theorem (1) of Section 2.2. J.net/Eolss-sampleAllChapter. ASME Design Analysis. D. A. 249-259.. 167-174. ASME Press. [Provides guidance for stress classification. gives the highest lower-bound load that can be obtained for the vessel by S the FE model and program used in the analysis. pp.] ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) . If S m is used for the yield stress of the R EPP material law.] Kalnins.Stress Classification In Pressure Vessels And Piping. P. ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology.] Hollinger. [Gives the background for the stress category concept. 288-292. If the wall thickness exceeds that of the above limit. L. and Updike. Division 2”. which applies to any wall thickness and arbitrary geometries that have no recognizable wall. there is a practical way to deal with the assessment of collapse. 122. and Updike. “Three-Dimensional Stress Criteria—Summary of the PVRC Project”. “Limit Pressures of Spherical and Cylindrical Shells”.2 below.7.2. the calculated lower- AP L bound load is a conservative allowable load for prevention of collapse. For this FEA. G. P. The loading magnitude at which equilibrium can no longer be maintained. PVP-265. “Primary Stresses from Simple Laws of Equilibrium”. New York. A. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.. and Stress Classification. A back up to this argument is also given in Section 2. That way is to calculate a lower bound load by elastic- plastic FEA.] Kalnins. H O - C E - - E O– TO ACCESS ALL THE 19 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER. New York. A. Visit: http://www. It is important to note that this limit on wall thickness cannot be avoided by using 2-D or 3-D solid elements in FEA instead of shell elements. 123. 105–109. (1993). (2001). and Hechmer.. P. “Criteria of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Design by Analysis in Sections III and VIII. L. [Provides limit pressures for comparison with the lower bounds obtained by primary stress approach. SA N [This is a design code that defines and uses stress categories derived from stress classification.] U ASME Criteria Document (1969).aspx PL C M ES Bibliography ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2007).] Kalnins. ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes and Standards. Robust Methods. PVP-353. The limit would be even higher for high strength steels. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (2000). D..

1999).Stress Classification In Pressure Vessels And Piping. he developed new design tools for torispherical pressure vessel heads. and fatigue analysis. and Hechmer. and the finite element method. 2003) on plastic analysis. 61-67. shakedown. limit load analysis. was a Fulbright-Hayes Fellow (1977) at the University of Innsbruck (Tirol. Kalnins joined the S Working Group on Shells in 1976 and has served as member of the Subgroup on Design Analysis/Subcommittee on Design and the Working Group on Vessels/Section III since 1987 and 2003. 119. Germany (2009). Dr. Dr. Brazil (1977-78). and has served as a consultant to many companies in the United State and abroad. and at TE SS AREVA NP GmbH in Erlangen. and pressure vessels. ratcheting. He served as professor of mechanics at Lehigh University from 1967 to 2004 and is currently professor emeritus of mechanics. He is the author/co-author of 124 research papers and one book. a certificate of recognition (1989) and an Outstanding Service Award (2005). Pennsylvania. His main research interest has been in the behavior and failure of metal plates. Conn.Arturs Kalnins Pastor. Other contributions include three Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) H O Conference tutorials (2000.] Biographical Sketch Arturs Kalnins joined the faculty at Lehigh University (Bethlehem.PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS . fatigue analysis. Dr. He is a Fellow of ASME and the recipient of the 2008 ASME PVP Medal. and gave seminars at Pennsylvania State University. Kalnins also lectured at the University of Mexico. (1997). Kalnins was honored with two certificates of appreciation (1987.) for five years. 2001. [Gives basics for primary stress calculation. He has served as topic organizer and session developer at a number of PVP C E conferences. “ASME Task Group Report on Primary Stress”. Within the activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. USA) as an associate professor in 1965 after serving as assistant professor at Yale University (New Haven. the Petrobras Company in Rio de Janeiro. Mexico City (1972). In this capacity. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. He has developed the KSHEL computer programs for the analysis of shells of revolution. E O– PL C M ES SA N U ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) . Austria). University Park (1977-80). T. shells.. P. R AP L respectively. J.

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