Experiment 1: Buffer Capacity and pH Measurement

Studying and understanding the essence of buffer capacity and pH measurement is
very intrinsic. Few people did know that buffer capacity and pH helps maintain the
equilibrium of some enzymatic activities inside our body. On top of that, what is a
buffer? A buffer is a solution that consists of either a “weak acid-conjugate base”
combination or “weak base-conjugate acid” combination that resists sudden change
in the pH whenever small amounts of acid or base is added. A pH is the measure of
the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. Solutions with a high concentration of
hydrogen ions have a low pH and solutions with a low concentration of H+ ions have
a high pH. This may seem like a confusion way to express these relationships. It has
a logarithmic nature whereas pH is expressed as the negative logarithm of the
hydrogen ion concentration of a particular solution. On the other hand, a solution’s
buffer capacity is the ability of a buffer solution to resist change. It is the strength of
a buffer to resist any changes brought by an “acid” or “base” that is being
introduced to the buffer solution

What makes our knowledge about buffer solution important it is because, buffer
solution greatly affects how our body is going to function. We have to understand
that the human body is designed to maintain a very subtle pH balance in its fluid,
tissue and its system. As most biochemical reactions essential to life take place in
an aqueous environment, however, it is our blood plasma and interstitial fluids
surrounding the cells that are most sensitive to acid-alkaline imbalance. Whereas
these fluids are needed and must be maintained in a narrow range of pH. The
physiological pH is 7.35 and 7.45. In this pH our body’s immune system is
functioning in optimal conditions. When our body is in equilibrium, our multiple self-
regulating control mechanisms are able to operate in ideal conditions to efficiently
deliver nutrients to our cells and to dissolve and eliminate waste products through
the body’s natural elimination channels. Over acidification of the body, on the other
hand, is a dangerous condition that weakens all body systems, and can give rise to
an internal environment conducive to disease and even death. One of the body’s pH
control mechanisms is called the acid-base buffer system. In this experiment, we
will further understand the importance and the essence buffers and its other
benefits in human body.

Objectives:

1. The students will be able to define the buffer, buffer capacity, pH
measurement
2. The students will be able to prepare different buffer solutions at different pH
3. Determine the pH using different methods

0. The standard formula for calculating the specific gravity is density of object/liquid divided by density of water. while on the (2) Mohr-Westphal. The last method was using a Leach Pycnometer. In this method. The ethanol’s specific gravity in this method was 0. the mass of ethanol is 19. to calculate the specific gravity of these liquids with the same volume. you just had to read the specific gravity perse. it is 61 grams.82. first you must get the (a) mass of the empty pycnometer. However in this experiment the volume of the water and the volume of the object. Just like the prior steps in using the pycnometer first we must get the (a) mass of the empty . therefore the mass of water is 24. just like the first method.9 grams. it is 36. Then get the (b) mass of the pycnometer with water in it.08 grams. the second method was using a Mohr-Westphal Balance.9 g/24. in our experiment. From these measurement we can get the (d) mass of water by subtracting the mass of the pycnometer alone with the mass of pycnometer that contains water { b-a }.2 grams and the (e) mass of the liquid sample (ethanol) by subtracting the mass of empty pycnometer with the mass of pycnometer that contains ethanol { c-a }. 0.2 g } we will get an answer of 0.82. thus. Having the specific gravity in (1) Baume Hydrmeter. we can actually observe that the specific gravities that we got from these 3 different devices and using different methods are almost the same. and with (3) Leach pycnometer. Hence.810. we will just divide the mass of the object/liquid sample over the mass of water. By dividing these two numbers { 19. Then we must get the (c) mass of the pycnometer with the liquid sample used (ethanol) where as in this experiment weighs 56. pycnometer is being used to determine the specific gravity of the solid sample (copper sulfate). Specific gravity of solid In this experiment.7 grams. It is because we have used the same container in measuring these two liquid. In our set-up the ethanol’s specific gravity using this device is 0. There are 3 methods that are being scrutinize to be able to determine the specific gravity of the liquid sample.82. The standard liquid sample used is ethanol. The method using leach pycnometer is more complicated than those of the prior 2 methods introduced. With these following meaurements. You just have the read the specific gravity and there is no calculations involved. Results and Discussion: Specific gravity of liquid: The liquid sample that is being used is ethanol. The standard liquid is the one where the copper sulfate will be insoluble.82. in our experiment. The first methods was using a Baume Hydrometer. 0. we can acquire the specific gravity of the liquid.810.

In the experiment the specific gravity is 2.  If we will subtract the mass of pycnometer that contains the solid mass to the mass of the empty pycnometer { c-a } we will get the mass of the solid sample (copper sulfate)  If we will subtract the mass of pycnometer that contains the standard liquid to the mass of the empty pycnometer { b-a } we will get the mass of standard liquid (ethanol)  If we will subtract the mass of pycnometer that contains solid sample and standard liquid to the mass of the pycnometer that contains the solid sample { d-c } we will get the returned liquid (the liquid remained in the pycnometer  If we will subtract the mass of the liquid to the returned liquid. From these measurements.8 grams. get the (d) mass of the pycnometer that contains the solid sample and the ethanol that was used in the prior measurement which weighs 38.6 grams. Lastly.pycnometer using a weighing balance. and then we must get the (b) mass of the pycnometer that contains standard liquid (ethanol) which weighs 36. we will get the displaced liquid. The displaced liquid will be equal to the volume of the solid sample. We must be familiar first in these figures. the reason why the ethanol overflowed because it was replaced by the copper sulfate.9 grams.64. In other words. Since the copper and the liquid has the same volume. Then set the ethanol aside and put the solid pycnometer and get the (c) mass of pycnometer that contains the solid sample (copper sulfate) whereas in this experiment weighs 18. we can acquire the relative density of the solid sample. we must divide the density of the copper over the density of the liquid. On one hand. . to compute for the relative density. it is the liquid that is being spilled out from the pycnometer when the solid sample is introduced to the ethanol inside the pycnometer. where we will get 16 grams. we can get the relative density by diving the mass of copper over the mass of displaced liquid . and thus the amount of copper sulfate being introduced is equal to the water being spilled out.