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**Dynamic model of robots:
**

Newton-Euler approach

**Prof. Alessandro De Luca
**

Approaches to dynamic modeling

(reprise)

**energy-based approach Newton-Euler method
**

(Euler-Lagrange) (balance of forces/torques)

! multi-body robot seen as a whole ! dynamic equations written

separately for each link/body

! constraint (internal) reaction forces

between the links are automatically ! inverse dynamics in real time

eliminated: in fact, they do not ! equations are evaluated in a

perform work numeric and recursive way

! closed-form (symbolic) equations ! best for synthesis

are directly obtained (=implementation) of model-

! best suited for study of dynamic based control schemes

properties and analysis of control ! by elimination of reaction forces and

schemes back-substitution of expressions, we

still get closed-form dynamic

equations (identical to those of Euler-

Lagrange!)

Robotics 2 2

Derivative of a vector in a moving frame

… from velocity to acceleration

0

( )

R˙ i = S 0" i 0 Ri

!

derivative of “unit” vector

!i

Robotics 2 3

Dynamics of a rigid body

! Newton dynamic equation

! balance: sum of forces = variation of linear momentum

d

" fi = dt

(mv c ) = m v˙ c

! Euler dynamic equation

! balance: sum of torques = variation of angular momentum

!

d d

µ = I

" i dt ( ) # = I ˙

# + (R I R T ) # = I#˙ + R˙ I R T + R I R˙ T #

( )

dt

= I#˙ + S(# )R I R T# + R I R T S T (# ) # = I#˙ + # $ I#

**! principle of action and reaction
**

! ! forces/torques: applied by body i to body i+1

= - applied by body i+1 to body i

Robotics 2 4

Newton-Euler equations -1

link i

FORCES

**center vci fi force applied
**

of mass from link (i-1) on link i

zi-1 ci zi

fi+1 force applied

. from link i on link (i+1)

. fi+1

Oi-1 Oi mig gravity force

fi

axis qi axis qi+1

mig

all vectors expressed in the

same RF (better RFi)

Newton equation fi " fi+1 + mi g = mi aci N

linear acceleration of ci

Robotics 2 5

!

Newton-Euler equations -2

link i

!i

TORQUES

"i torque applied zi-1 zi

from link (i-1) on link i ri-1,ci ri,ci "i+1

"i

"i+1 torque applied . .

from link i on link (i+1) Oi-1 Oi fi+1

fi

axis qi axis qi+1

fi x ri-1,ci torque due to fi w.r.t. ci

**- fi+1 x ri,ci torque due to - fi+1 w.r.t. ci all vectors expressed in
**

the same RF (RFi !!)

Euler equation

E

**angular acceleration of bodyi
**

Robotics 2 6

Forward recursion

Computing velocities and accelerations

• “moving frames” algorithm (as for velocities in Lagrange)

• wherever there is no leading superscript, it is the same as the subscript

• for simplicity, only revolute joints

(see textbook for the more general treatment) initializations

AR

**the gravity force term can be skipped in Newton equation, if added here
**

Robotics 2 7

Backward recursion

Computing forces and torques

eliminated, if inserted

from Ni to Ni-1 in forward recursion (i=0) initializations

F/TR

from Ei to Ei-1

at each step of this recursion, we have two vector equations (Ni + Ei) at the

joint providing and : these contain ALSO the reaction forces/torques

at the joint axis they should be next “projected” along/around this axis

for prismatic joint

FP N scalar

for revolute joint equations

at the end

generalized forces add here dissipative terms

(in rhs of Euler-Lagrange eqs) (here viscous friction only)

Robotics 2 8

Comments on Newton-Euler method

! the previous forward/backward recursive formulas can

be evaluated in symbolic or numeric form

! symbolic

! substituting expressions in a recursive way

! at the end, a closed-form dynamic model is obtained, which

**is identical to the one obtained using Euler-Lagrange (or any
**

other) method

! there is no special convenience in using N-E in this way

! numeric

! substituting numeric values (numbers!) at each step

! computational complexity of each step remains constant ⇒

**grows in a linear fashion with the number N of joints (O(N))
**

! strongly recommended for real-time use, especially when the

number N of joints is large

Robotics 2 9

Newton-Euler algorithm

efficient computational scheme for inverse dynamics

**(at robot base) numeric steps
**

at every instant t

AR FP

F/TR

inputs outputs

AR FP

F/TR

**(force/torque exchange
**

environment/E-E)

Robotics 2 10

Matlab (or C) script

general routine NE"(arg1,arg2,arg3)

! data file (of a specific robot)

! number N and types ! ={0,1}N of joints (revolute/prismatic)

! table of DH kinematic parameters

! list of dynamic parameters of the links (and of the motors)

! input

! vector parameter " = {0g,0} (presence or absence of gravity)

! three ordered vector arguments

! typically, samples of joint position, velocity, acceleration

**taken from a desired trajectory
**

! output

! generalized force u for the complete inverse dynamics

! … or single terms of the dynamic model

Robotics 2 11

Examples of output

! complete inverse dynamics

. .. .. .

u = NE0g(qd,qd,qd) = B(qd)qd+c(qd,qd)+g(qd)=ud

! gravity terms

u = NE0g(q,0,0) = g(q)

! centrifugal and Coriolis terms

. .

u = NE0(q,q,0) = c(q,q)

! i-th column of the inertia matrix

u = NE0(q,0,ei) = bi(q) ei = i-th column

of identity matrix

! generalized momentum

. .

u = NE0(q,0,q) = B(q)q

Robotics 2 12

Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

**desired (smooth) joint motion:
**

quintic polynomials for q1, q2 with

⇔

zero vel/acc boundary conditions

from (90°,-180°) to (0°,90°) in T=1 s

Robotics 2 13

Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

**zero final torques
**

initial torques = u1 ! 0, u2 = 0

free equilibrium balance

configuration link weights

+ in final (0°,90°)

zero initial configuration

accelerations

**motion in vertical plane (under gravity)
**

both links are thin rods of uniform mass m1 = 10 kg, m2 = 5 kg

Robotics 2 14

Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

**torque contributions at the two joints for the desired motion
**

= total, = inertial

= Coriolis/centrifugal, = gravitational

Robotics 2 15

Use of NE routine for simulation

direct dynamics

.

! numerical integration, at current state (q,q), of

.. . .

q= B-1(q) [u – (c(q,q)+g(q))]= B-1(q) [u – n(q,q)]

! Coriolis, centrifugal, and gravity terms

. complexity

n = NE0g(q,q,0) O(N)

! i-th column of the inertia matrix, for i =1,..,N

bi = NE0(q,0,ei) O(N2)

**! numerical inversion of inertia matrix
**

O(N3)

InvB = inv(B) but with small coefficient

! given u, integrate acceleration computed as .

.. new state (q,q)

q = InvB * [u – n]

and repeat over time...

Robotics 2 16

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