# Robotics 2

Dynamic model of robots:
Newton-Euler approach

Prof. Alessandro De Luca
Approaches to dynamic modeling
(reprise)

energy-based approach Newton-Euler method
(Euler-Lagrange) (balance of forces/torques)
!  multi-body robot seen as a whole !  dynamic equations written
separately for each link/body
!  constraint (internal) reaction forces
between the links are automatically !  inverse dynamics in real time
eliminated: in fact, they do not !  equations are evaluated in a
perform work numeric and recursive way
!  closed-form (symbolic) equations !  best for synthesis
are directly obtained (=implementation) of model-
!  best suited for study of dynamic based control schemes
properties and analysis of control !  by elimination of reaction forces and
schemes back-substitution of expressions, we
still get closed-form dynamic
equations (identical to those of Euler-
Lagrange!)
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Derivative of a vector in a moving frame
… from velocity to acceleration
0
( )
R˙ i = S 0" i 0 Ri

!

derivative of “unit” vector

!i

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Dynamics of a rigid body
!  Newton dynamic equation
!  balance: sum of forces = variation of linear momentum
d
" fi = dt
(mv c ) = m v˙ c
!  Euler dynamic equation
!  balance: sum of torques = variation of angular momentum
!
d d
µ = I
" i dt ( ) # = I ˙
# + (R I R T ) # = I#˙ + R˙ I R T + R I R˙ T #
( )
dt
= I#˙ + S(# )R I R T# + R I R T S T (# ) # = I#˙ + # \$ I#

!  principle of action and reaction
! !  forces/torques: applied by body i to body i+1
= - applied by body i+1 to body i
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Newton-Euler equations -1

link i
FORCES

center vci fi force applied
of mass from link (i-1) on link i
zi-1 ci zi
fi+1 force applied
. from link i on link (i+1)
. fi+1
Oi-1 Oi mig gravity force
fi
axis qi axis qi+1
mig
all vectors expressed in the
same RF (better RFi)

Newton equation fi " fi+1 + mi g = mi aci N

linear acceleration of ci
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!
Newton-Euler equations -2
link i
!i
TORQUES
"i torque applied zi-1 zi
from link (i-1) on link i ri-1,ci ri,ci "i+1
"i
"i+1 torque applied . .
from link i on link (i+1) Oi-1 Oi fi+1
fi
axis qi axis qi+1
fi x ri-1,ci torque due to fi w.r.t. ci

- fi+1 x ri,ci torque due to - fi+1 w.r.t. ci all vectors expressed in
the same RF (RFi !!)
Euler equation

E

angular acceleration of bodyi
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Forward recursion
Computing velocities and accelerations
•  “moving frames” algorithm (as for velocities in Lagrange)
•  wherever there is no leading superscript, it is the same as the subscript
•  for simplicity, only revolute joints
(see textbook for the more general treatment) initializations

AR

the gravity force term can be skipped in Newton equation, if added here
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Backward recursion
Computing forces and torques
eliminated, if inserted
from Ni to Ni-1 in forward recursion (i=0) initializations

F/TR

from Ei to Ei-1
at each step of this recursion, we have two vector equations (Ni + Ei) at the
joint providing and : these contain ALSO the reaction forces/torques
at the joint axis they should be next “projected” along/around this axis
for prismatic joint
FP N scalar
for revolute joint equations
at the end
generalized forces add here dissipative terms
(in rhs of Euler-Lagrange eqs) (here viscous friction only)
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Comments on Newton-Euler method
!  the previous forward/backward recursive formulas can
be evaluated in symbolic or numeric form
!  symbolic
!  substituting expressions in a recursive way

!  at the end, a closed-form dynamic model is obtained, which

is identical to the one obtained using Euler-Lagrange (or any
other) method
!  there is no special convenience in using N-E in this way

!  numeric
!  substituting numeric values (numbers!) at each step

!  computational complexity of each step remains constant ⇒

grows in a linear fashion with the number N of joints (O(N))
!  strongly recommended for real-time use, especially when the

number N of joints is large

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Newton-Euler algorithm
efficient computational scheme for inverse dynamics

(at robot base) numeric steps
at every instant t

AR FP

F/TR

inputs outputs

AR FP

F/TR

(force/torque exchange
environment/E-E)
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Matlab (or C) script
general routine NE"(arg1,arg2,arg3)
!  data file (of a specific robot)
!  number N and types ! ={0,1}N of joints (revolute/prismatic)
!  table of DH kinematic parameters
!  list of dynamic parameters of the links (and of the motors)
!  input
!  vector parameter " = {0g,0} (presence or absence of gravity)
!  three ordered vector arguments
!  typically, samples of joint position, velocity, acceleration

taken from a desired trajectory
!  output
!  generalized force u for the complete inverse dynamics
!  … or single terms of the dynamic model

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Examples of output
!  complete inverse dynamics
. .. .. .
u = NE0g(qd,qd,qd) = B(qd)qd+c(qd,qd)+g(qd)=ud
!  gravity terms
u = NE0g(q,0,0) = g(q)
!  centrifugal and Coriolis terms
. .
u = NE0(q,q,0) = c(q,q)
!  i-th column of the inertia matrix
u = NE0(q,0,ei) = bi(q) ei = i-th column
of identity matrix
!  generalized momentum
. .
u = NE0(q,0,q) = B(q)q

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Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

desired (smooth) joint motion:
quintic polynomials for q1, q2 with

zero vel/acc boundary conditions
from (90°,-180°) to (0°,90°) in T=1 s

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Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

zero final torques
initial torques = u1 ! 0, u2 = 0
free equilibrium balance
configuration link weights
+ in final (0°,90°)
zero initial configuration
accelerations

motion in vertical plane (under gravity)
both links are thin rods of uniform mass m1 = 10 kg, m2 = 5 kg
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Inverse dynamics of a 2R planar robot

torque contributions at the two joints for the desired motion
= total, = inertial
= Coriolis/centrifugal, = gravitational
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Use of NE routine for simulation
direct dynamics
.
!  numerical integration, at current state (q,q), of
.. . .
q= B-1(q) [u – (c(q,q)+g(q))]= B-1(q) [u – n(q,q)]
!  Coriolis, centrifugal, and gravity terms
. complexity
n = NE0g(q,q,0) O(N)
!  i-th column of the inertia matrix, for i =1,..,N
bi = NE0(q,0,ei) O(N2)

!  numerical inversion of inertia matrix
O(N3)
InvB = inv(B) but with small coefficient
!  given u, integrate acceleration computed as .
.. new state (q,q)
q = InvB * [u – n]
and repeat over time...
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