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**Design of Monopole Bases
**

By Daniel Horn, P.E.

Copyright 2011 by Tower Numerics Inc. All rights reserved.

www.towernx.com

**Care has been taken to ensure that the material found in this publication is both useful
**

and accurate. However, please be aware that errors may exist in this publication, and that

Tower Numerics Inc. makes no guarantees concerning accuracy of the information found

here or in the use to which it may be put.

Contents

Introduction 1

Organization .............................................................................................................. 1

Historical Perspective ............................................................................................... 2

AISC Method For Building Columns ..................................................................... 7

Flexible Base Plate ........................................................................................ 8

Example 1.1 ................................................................................................... 9

Stiff Plate Approach ................................................................................... 12

Example 1.2 ................................................................................................. 14

Example 1.3 ................................................................................................. 17

**Grouted Base Plates 19
**

Process Equipment Design Method...................................................................... 19

Example 2.1 ................................................................................................. 26

Lutz Modification .................................................................................................... 29

Example 2.2 ................................................................................................. 31

Complete Square Base Plate – Load On Diagonal .............................................. 33

Modification for Clipped Corners............................................................ 36

Example 2.3 ................................................................................................. 38

Example 2.4 ................................................................................................. 43

Complete Square Base Plate – Load Parallel ....................................................... 47

Example 2.4 ................................................................................................. 50

Complete Circular Base Plate Method ................................................................. 54

Example 2.5 ................................................................................................. 58

**Ungrouted Base Plates 63
**

Determining Bolt Forces ......................................................................................... 63

Example 3.1 ................................................................................................. 64

Example 3.2 ................................................................................................. 66

Example 3.3 ................................................................................................. 68

**Determining Plate Stresses 71
**

Introduction.............................................................................................................. 71

Effective Width Based Upon Plate Theory .......................................................... 71

Process Equipment Methods ................................................................................. 72

Example 4.1 ................................................................................................. 74

Base Plates With Gussets........................................................................... 77

Alternate Method 1 ................................................................................................. 79

Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Contents • iii

Alternate Method 2 ................................................................................................. 79

Alternate Method 3 ................................................................................................. 79

Method of Slices....................................................................................................... 80

Example 4.2 ................................................................................................. 83

Alternate Method 1 – Square Base Plates............................................................. 87

Alternate Method 2 – Circular Base Plates .......................................................... 87

Boulos Method (New York Dept. of Transportation) ........................................ 87

Diagonal Loading Case.............................................................................. 90

Parallel Loading Case ................................................................................ 91

Owens Method (New York Dept. of Transportation) ........................................ 94

ASCE Manual 72 (Proposed 2003 Revision) ........................................................ 95

Example 4.3 ................................................................................................. 96

Anchor Bolts 99

Material Grades ....................................................................................................... 99

Anchorage .............................................................................................................. 101

Example 4.1 ............................................................................................... 103

Recommendations 105

Determining Base Plate Forces ............................................................................ 105

Grouted Base Plates ................................................................................. 105

Ungrouted Base Plates............................................................................. 105

Determining Base Plate Stresses.......................................................................... 105

Construction Details.............................................................................................. 107

Bibliography 108

References............................................................................................................... 108

Glossary of Terms 111

Index 113

iv • Contents Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases

Introduction

Organization

**The following chapters will cover the following topics:
**

1. An historical perspective including the AISC approach to base plate design for building columns.

2. Classical methods for determining bolt forces and concrete stresses for grouted base plates.

3. Classical methods for determining bolt forces for ungrouted base plates.

4. Evaluation of various methods currently being used to determine base plate bending stresses for

plain and stiffened plates

Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 1

Historical Perspective

Monopoles have become increasingly popular for use in the telecommunication industry. The

advantages include architectural attractiveness and a minimal use of land. Poles are of two general

types, tapered polygonal poles and stepped pipe poles.

The tapered polygonal pole shown in Fig. 1-1, is custom manufactured to exact diameters required

for the design. Each section is joined using telescoping lap joints.

Fig. 1- 1

Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 2

1-2. the most common method of attaching the pole to the foundation is with a base plate.Pipe poles are made from large diameter pipe sections and joined by external or internal flange connections as shown in Fig.2 While some poles may be directly buried into the earth. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 3 . 1. Fig.

however. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 4 . the ASCE Manual(1) suggests limiting the distance to two bolt diameters. 1-3 when overturning moments are relatively light.Base plates can be square with clustered anchor bolts as shown in Fig.3 The clear space below the leveling nut is not limited by the TIA-222 Standard. AASHTO also recommends that the minimum base plate thickness be equal to the bolt diameter. Fig. AASHTO(2) limits this distance to one bolt diameter. 1.

7) have indicated that current design practices used by pole manufacturers may be under-designed by 20 to 30%.Base plates can also be polygonal or circular to accommodate a larger number of bolts. There is currently no industry standard for the design of pole base plates. Fig. no testing has been done on larger diameter pole base plates such as used in the telecommunication industry (poles 36 to 72 inches in diameter). A typical example is shown in Fig. 1-4. the designer is left to arrive at appropriate methods based upon classical structural mechanics. Recent finite element studies(5. Some state highway departments (New York) have developed their own methods. poles were used almost exclusively for flags(3. The plate may need to have gusset plates (stiffeners) in order to transfer forces due to axial and bending moment to the pole. In recent years. As such.6.4) and for highway structures(2). Prior to that. 1. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 5 . but no national standard exists. Therefore. While some testing has been done on smaller pole base plates used in highway construction (usually poles between 10 and 20 inches in diameter). such design techniques may or may not be appropriate. poles have become popular for both electric transmission towers and for telecommunication structures.4 Poles have been used in the power transmision field since the 1960’s.

5 The purpose of this report is to make available the various design techniques currently being used in the industry in the hope that more reliable methods of design may be developed in the future.Although monopole failures are a relatively rare occurrence. let us examine the traditional methods that have been developed for designing building columns subject to axial loads and moment. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 6 . 1. a number of recent pole failures (see Fig. 1-5) have increased interest in manufacturer’s design and manufacturing techniques. Fig. To begin.

Two different approaches have been taken to determine the distribution of forces on the base plate. a flexible plate approach and a stiff plate approach. Engineers must therefore refer to textbooks or technical papers for design methods although not all texts cover this topic.95 times the depth of the structural members for shapes of rectangular cross-section such as wide flanges and tubes.80 times the diameter of the pipe. DeWolf(13) and Thambiratnam(14) compared methods of designing building columns to test data. Working stress methods for analyzing moment resistant base plate can be found in engineering texts(8.11. The AISC method for designing axially loaded base plates defines the critical section as being at .12).9.10.AISC Method For Building Columns Moment resisting base plates for building columns are covered in neither the AISC Specification nor the Manual of Steel Construction. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 7 . The critical section for pipe is defined at a location equal to .

P M f D T fc C A/3 A N' N Fig.Flexible Base Plate Relatively flexible base plates are incapable of maintaining a linear strain distribution and the assumption is made that the compression force is centered beneath the compression flange of the column.6 Flexible base plate force distribution The following basic equations (B=plate width) define the static forces as shown in Fig 1-6. fcAB T +P = C = 2 PD M− T= 2 D f+ 2 2 (T + P ) fc = AB Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 8 . 1.

The bolts are 1. The structural member is an 8-inch wide flange and the base plate is 14x14.7 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 9 .1 Design a base plate for an axial load of 60 kips and a moment of 480 in-kips.5” from the edge. Fy for the plate and anchor bolts is 36 ksi and f’c is 3 ksi.5" N=14" Fig.Example 1. 60 k 480 in-k 5.5" 8" T fc C A/3 A N'=12. 1.

75× 36 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 10 .70fc′ = 2.87 × 3.22 (1.1 ksi o.35fc′ = . The critical section is at 14 − 0.k.26) fc = = 1.5 + 2 14 − 8 A = 3× =9 2 C = T + P = 25.16 in .09 t pl = = 1.26 2 (85. W = 1" Fb 6 6M t pl = Fb Fb = . 9×14 The thickness of the plate is determined by checking both the compression and tension sides.26 + 60 = 85.09 in 2 3 2 M W × t pl S reqd = = .26 kips = 12.2 in 2 9 − 3.87 ) 3.2 fcpl = 1.35 − 0. A2 Fp = .35 = 0.2 2 in−kip M pl = + = 6.35 ksi ≤ 2.95× 8 b= = 3.63 kips 8 bolt 5.1 ksi Ap 60× 8 480 − T= 2 = 25.87 ksi 9 0.75Fy 6×6.

22 in ≥ 1.2×. 14" b=3.5 beff = 1.16 3.47 t pl = = 1.63×(3.The critical width on the tension side is defined by AISC as shown in Fig 1-8.2 − 1. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 11 .2 − 1.5) = 3.5 = 1.5) = 21.2" beff 14" 45° 1.5 + (3.5" 8" 1.5 use 1.75× 36 Therefore the tension side controls.7 > 1.2 in 6×21.5" Fig 1-8 M pl = 12.47 in − kips 3.2 − 1.

stiffer.9 Stiff base plate force distribution The following basic equations define the static forces as shown in Fig 1-9. P M f D T fc A N' N Fig 1. M e= P N A − −e T = −P 2 3 N A − +f 2 3 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 12 .Stiff Plate Approach Thicker. fcAB P+T = C = 2 where B=width of the base plate. base plates are capable of approaching a linear strain distribution and the base plate is assumed to behave in a manner similar to reinforced concrete columns(8).

TA fc = N A s n − A + f 2 TA2 B P+T = N 2A s n − A + f 2 Defining N K1 = 3 e − 2 6nA s K2 = (f + e) B N K 3 = −K 2 + f 2 A 3 + K1A 2 + K 2A + K 3 = 0 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 13 .

94 (7 − 7.94 14 K1 = 3 8 − = 3 2 6×9.25 kips 7 − 7.1 ksi 9.1 ksi Ap 480 e= = 8 in 60 29000 n= = 9.94 K2 = (5. 3 57 3000 A s = 2×.70fc′ = 2.5×7.5 = −1300 2 Solving for A by trial.5 bolt 3 20.3×1.3 + 5.5 + 8) = 104 14 14 K 3 = −104 + 5.5) Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 14 .969 = 1. A = 7.6 ksi ≤ 2.3 in 7.Example 1.35fc′ = .5 kips = 10.3 + 5.3×1.3 7− −8 T = −60 3 = 20.3 fc = = 1.2 Design the same plate of Example 1. A2 Fp = .1 using the stiff approach and assuming 1 ¼” diameter bolts.

75× 36 The critical width on the tension side is defined by AISC as shown in Fig 1-10.2" beff 14" 45° 1. The critical section is at 14 − 0.90) 3.22 (1.3 0.6 = 0.95× 8 b= = 3.5" Fig 1-10 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 15 .2 2 − M pl = + = 7 in inkip 2 3 6×7 t pl = = 1.2 fcpl = 1.90× 3.90 ksi 7.5" 8" 1.6 − 0.The thickness of the plate is determined by checking both the compression and tension sides.25 in .2 in 2 7. 14" b=3.3 − 3.

M pl = 10.5 + (3.5 = 1.5 in beff = 1.75× 36 Therefore the compression side controls.43 t pl = = 1.2 − 1.5) = 17.25×(3.25 in 3.43 in − kips 3.5 in side clearanace use 1.2 in 6×17. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 16 .2 − 1.2×.10 in ≤ 1.5) = 3.2 − 1.7 > 1.

however the distance to the critical section is now 14 − 0.5" 1.8xDiameter 1.2" 45° beff 14" .55 t pl = = 1.Example 1.77 ksi 7. A pipe would have the critical section defined as 14" b=3.75× 36 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 17 .5" Fig 1-11 The analysis for bolt forces and concrete stress are identical to the wide flange base plate.3 0.77 ) 3.8 in 2 7.80× 8 b= = 3.46 in .8 fcpl = 1.77 × 3.8 2 − M pl = + = 9.55 in inkip 2 3 6×9.3 − 3.2 for an 8” pipe column.3 Re-design Example 1.6 − 0.6 = 0.82 (1.

8 − 1.17 in ≤ 1.8 ×.3 = 3.3 > 1.8 in 6×23.46 in 3.5 in beff = 1. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Introduction • 18 .5 in side clearance use 1.58 t pl = = 1.25×(3.8 − 1.Checking the tension side M pl = 10.5) = 23.5 + 2.58 in − kips 3.75× 36 Therefore the compression side controls.5 = 2.

The most common use has been for chimneys and stacks used in the process equipment field. M P f s nf c (d-kd) kd d Fig. and Bednard(19). The method was developed for circular base plates.1 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 19 . Troitsky(17). The following description of the method is taken from Brownell and Young(16).. Note that all of the grouted base plate techniques that follow assume that the eccentricity is sufficiently large enough to produce tension on a portion of the base plate. 2. Thompson. however the method can be conservatively used for polygonal plates and square base plates by using the diameter across the flats of the plate. The method is based upon reinforced concrete column theory using the Working Stress Design Method (WSD). and Smulski(15). Megyesy(18). The method most often used was based upon the work of Taylor.Grouted Base Plates Process Equipment Design Method Procedures for designing circular base plates with large openings (approaching the inner diameter of the shell) have been used for over 75 years.

Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 20 . This assumption would only be valid if there are a sufficient number of bolts uniformly spaced around the bolt circle. This assumption is valid only if the base plate can be considered rigid. 2-1. which is typically the case when the shell of the pole runs through the base plate. Denoting fc as the compressive stress in the concrete. By similar triangles fs nf = c (d − kd) kd therefore nfc 1 k= = nfc + fs 1 + fs ( ) nfc The area of bolts can be expressed in terms of an equivalent ring of steel of thickness t having the same total cross-sectional area of steel as shown in Fig.Defining the modular ratio as Es n= Ec Fig. 2-2. a straight line may be drawn from fs to nfc as shown in Fig. Polygonal plates can be assumed to be a circular ring equal to the flat diameter of the polygon. the induced compressive stress in the steel bolts is given by fs = nfc Considering the stress to be directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. The method assumes that the bolt circle is in the center of the bearing plate. The wind load and the dead weight load of the pole result in a tensile load on the upwind anchor bolts and a compressive load on the downwind anchor bolts. The neutral axis is located at a distance kd from the downwind side of the bearing plate and at a distance (d – kd) from the upwind side. 2-1 is a sketch representing the loading condition for the anchor bolts of the monopole base plate.

ts δθ tc θ α Ft Fc Neutral axis d/2 r= kd Ft l1 l2 jd zd Fc Fig. 2-2 can be defined in terms of the angle α.2 The location of the neutral axis from Fig. The area of this element is dA s = t s rdθ Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 21 . 2. d 2 − kd cos α = = 1 − 2k d2 And α = cos−1 (1 − 2k ) A differential element of the steel ring is measured by dθ.

g. the stress in the element is r (cos α + cos θ) fs′ = fs r (1 + cos α ) The force in the element is therefore (cos α + cos θ) dFt = dA s fs′ = fs t s r (1 + cos α ) The total tensile force is therefore π π (cos α + cos θ) Ft = 2∫ dFt = 2fs t s r ∫ dθ α α (1 + cos α ) 2 = fs t s r ((π−α ) cos α + sin α ) (1 + cos α ) = fs t s rC t where 2 C t = ((π−α ) cos α + sin α ) (1 + cos α ) The c. l1.where r=d 2 The distance from the neutral axis to this differential element is r(cos α + cos θ ) Denoting the maximum steel stress as fs. The moment of the differential element is dM t = dFt r ( cos α + cos θ) (cos α + cos θ ) = fs t s r r (cos α + cos θ) dθ 1 + cos α (cos α + cos θ )2 = fs t s r dθ (1 + cos α ) Integrating 2 π (cos α + cos θ) ∫ 2 M t = 2fs t s r dθ α (1 + cos α ) (π−α ) cos2 α + 23 (sin α cos α ) + 21 (π−α ) = 2fs t s r2 1 + cos α Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 22 . can be located by first determining the moment on the tension side and then dividing by Ft. of the tensile force.

Dividing Mt (π−α ) cos2 α + 23 (sin α cos α ) + 21 (π−α ) l1 = = r Ft (π−α ) cos α + sin α The values of α. The differential element for a compression ring of thickness tc is dA c = t c rdθ The distance from the neutral axis to this element is r (cos θ − cos α ) The maximum distance from the neutral axis is r (1 − cos α ) The element stress is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis r (cos θ − cos α ) fc′ = fc r (1 − cos α ) The compressive stress in the steel is (cos θ − cos α ) fsc′ = nfc (1 − cos α ) The force is determined by multiplying by the element areas cos θ − cos α dFc = fc′dA c = fc t c r dθ 1 − cos α cos θ − cos α dFsc = nfsc′ dA s = nfc t s r dθ 1 − cos α The total is therefore cos θ − cos α dFctot = (t c + nt s ) rfc dθ 1 − cos α Integrating αcos θ − cos α Fc = (t c + nt s ) rfc 2 ∫ dθ 0 1 − cos α 2 (sin α −α cos α ) Fc = (t c + nt s ) rfc 1 − cos α Fc = (t c + nt s ) rfc C c Conversely Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 23 . Values for the compression area follow a similar formulation. The width of the compression ring is defined as t c = bpl − t s . Ct and l1 are constants for a given value of k.

can be located by first determining the moment on the compression side and then dividing by Fc. Defining the dimensionless ratio j as l1 + l 2 j= d (π−α ) cos2 α + 21 (π−α ) + 23 sin α cos α 1 2 1 2 α − 2 sin α cos α +α cos α 3 1 =2 + (π−α ) cos α + sin α 2 sin α −α cos α The distance from the neutral axis to the centerline of the pole is d cosα 2 and the distance zd is equal to d zd = l 2 + cos α 2 The quantity. Fc fc = (t c + nt s ) rC c Where sin α −α cos α Cc = 2 1 − cos α The c. l2.g. of the compressive force. The moment of the differential element is dM c = dFc r (cos θ − cos α ) 2 (cos θ − cos α ) = (t c + nt s ) r fc 2 dθ (1 − cos α ) Integrating 2 α (cos θ − cos α ) M c = (t c + nt s ) fc r 2 ∫ 2 dθ 1 − cos α 0 2 3 1 2 cos α − 2 (sin α cos α ) + 2 α = (t c + nt s ) fc r 2 1 − cos α Dividing Mc α cos2 α − 23 (sin α cos α ) + 21 α l2 = =r Fc sin α −α cos α The total distance between the forces Ft and Fc is equal to l1+l2. z is therefore 1 α − 23 sinα cos α +α cos2 α z = 12 cos α + 2 sin α −α cos α Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 24 .

The two equilibrium conditions that must be met are M wind − Pzd − Ft jd = 0 M wind − Pzd Ft = jd Ft + P − Fc = 0 Fc = Ft + P Substituting M − Pzd fs = 2π wind C jdA t s F = t t s rC t kdfs fc = n (d − kd) The peak bearing stress. l2.The values of Cc. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 25 . j and z are constants for a given value of k. at the outer edge of the base plate is 2kd + bpl fcmax = fc 2kd Where bpl is the width of the bearing plate.

1 Analyze a grouted base plate for a 55” diameter pole that runs through the base plate.4376×64 Ft = = 830 kips .442 Ct = 1 + cos (1.1593 ) + sin (1 .1593 ) − 1 .1593 ) 1 1.1593) cos (1.1593) + 2 2 = .781 2 sin (1 .1593) 2 1 2 = .1593 ) 42780 − 46×.323 in 64π 73 − 55 tc = − .1593) j = 1 2 + (π− 1 .1593) + sin (1. The concrete has a strength of 3000 psi. 1593 ) cos (1 .1593 cos (1.29 E c 57 3000 A s = 20 (3.1593) + 1.1593) + 1.1593) = 2.781×64 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 26 .1593) cos (1.1593 cos (1 . Es 29000 n= = = 9.1593) cos (1. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).1593 − 3 sin (1.30… α = cos−1 (1 − 2k ) = cos−1 (.1593 − 23 sin (1.4376 sin (1.1593) (π− 1.323 = 8.4) = 1. The bolt circle is 64” with (20) 2-1/4” bolts.1593) 1 1.1593)2 z = 12 cos (1.1593) + 23 sin (1.1593) cos (1.1593 cos (1.1593 cos (1.1593)) C c = 2 = 1. The thickness of the base plate is 2-1/4”.5093 1 − cos (1 .1593 ) 2 (π− 1.1593) + 21 (π− 1.1593) − 1.1593) − 1.25) = 65 in 2 64 r= = 32 in 2 65 ts = = .677 2 Assuming a trial value of k of 0. The outer diameter of the base plate is 73”.1593 rad (sin (1.1593 cos (1.1593) cos2 (1.Example 2.

677 + 9.437 j = .323) 32×1.305 k= = .8 Fc = 875.165 C c = 1.55 Calculate a new value for k.3025×64 The maximum bending moment in the plate is actually due to a trapezoidal stress distribution.92 fc = 1. The stress on the compression side is Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 27 .78 ksi ≤ .k.88 ksi .3025 2 The next loop α = 1.3 + .55 ksi (8.781 Ft = 829.5093 1 k calc = = .29×.546 k calc = .546×2×.4366 z = .8 fs = 32.25 = 107 kips 73 − 55 1.8 ksi o.305 32.7 × 3×1.303 Which is sufficiently accurate to proceed to final calculations Pbolt = fsA bolt = 32.442 876 fc = = 1.92× 3. .323× 32×2.516 C t = 2.3025×64 + 2 fcmax = = 1.29×1. 2×.88 1+ 9. however most process equipment designers use the average stress at the bolt circle for ease of computation.33 = 2. Fc = 830 + 46 = 876 kips 830 fs = = 32.

546×92 in − kip M max = = = 62.5 in − kip 2 6× 481.33 = 36 ksi n.75× 36×1. 55π 2 2.2 ksi ≥ .g.6 2 2 in 6M 6×62.5 fmax = = 66 ksi ≥ .33 = 36 ksi n.75× 36×1.25 20 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 28 . bt 1×2.6 fmax = 2 = = 74.252 The stress on the tension side is 64 − 55 M max = Pa = 107 × = 481. fc l2 1.g.

Should the compression ring extend inside the pole and the bolt circle is not centered on the outstanding leg of the base plate or. based upon the relative stiffness of the base plate.3 Lutz observed that a simple correction using two values of k would yield the correct result. ts α1 δθ α tc θ Ft Fc rc= Dc /2 d/2 r= ro Neutral axis (d-Dc)/2 kd Ft jd zd Fc Fig.Lutz Modification One of the major assumptions in the Process Equipment Method is that the center of pressure is coincident with the steel bolt ring. Lutz(20) extended the theory to account for the fact that the compression ring may have a different diameter than the steel tension ring. then the results will be in error. it is deemed that the center of compression will be at or near the pole diameter. 2. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 29 .

at the outer edge of the base plate. with radius ro . Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 30 . is 2kd + ro − rc fcmax = fc 2kd The value C c is calculated using k while the values for C t . 1 − rc r r kt = +k c 2 r " jd" = ( j − 21 ) d + rc M wind − Pzd Ft = ( j − 12 ) d + rc Fc fc = t + nt r r C rc c s c c 1 1 + r r 2 c k= 1+ ( f nf ) s c The peak bearing stress. z and j are then calculated using the value of k t . Note that when rc = r then k t = k and the results are identical to the Process Equipment Method.

The bolt circle is 64” with (20) 2-1/4” bolts.109)) C c = 2 = 1.1362 cos (1.2773) = 1.109) − 1.109 ) 1 − 30.29 E c 57 3000 A s = 20 (3. 1362 ) − 1.1362) cos (1.1362)2 z = cos (1.2773… α = cos−1 (1 − 2×. 1362 ) Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 31 . The concrete has a strength of 3000 psi.109 cos (1. The thickness of the base plate is 2-1/4”.109 rad (sin (1.1362) + sin (1.177 2 Assuming a trial value of k of 0.25 32 30.1362 − 3 sin (1.1362) + 2 1 2 = .4399 2 sin (1.1362) 1 1.25 kt = + .4482 Ct = 1 + cos (1.Example 2. 1362 cos (1. Es 29000 n= = = 9.323 = 12.2 Analyze a grouted base plate with an inner diameter of 48” and an outer diameter of 73”.1362) cos (1.1362) = 2.25 in 2 65 ts = = .447 1 − cos (1 .1362) + 1.323 in 64π 73 − 48 tc = − .2773 = .2895) = 1.25) = 65 in 2 64 r= = 32 in 2 (73 + 48) 2 rc = = 30.2895 2 32 α1 = cos−1 (1 − 2×.1362 rad 2 (π− 1. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).

1362) 1 2 = .4399×64 Ft = = 860. (π− 1.349 ksi 12.7807 − .4482 906.447 30.1362) + 23 sin (1.1362) j = 21 + (π− 1 .42 fs = = 33.1362) cos2 (1.5 − 30.177 + 9.323 32 30.1362 ) 42780 − 46×.77 1+ 9.1362) cos (1.42 fc = = 1.349×2×.29×1. 1362 ) − 1 .7807 2 sin (1 .42 kips (.1362 cos2 (1.25 Fc = 860.5) 64 + 30. 1362 ) cos (1 .29×.2773× 32 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 32 .70 ksi 2×.277 33. 1362 cos (1 .25×1.349 Which is sufficiently accurate to proceed to final calculations Pbolt = fsA bolt = 33.97 ksi .1362) cos (1.1362 ) 1 1.42 kips 860.4 kips 1.25 1 + 32 1 30.1362 ) + sin (1 .25 2 k calc = = .1362) + 1.2773× 32 + 36.1362) + 21 (π− 1.25 = 110.25 fcmax = = 1.1362 − 23 sin (1.97 × 3.42 + 46 = 906.323× 32×2.

Horn(21). Base plates that extend inside the pole will also have a triangular stress distribution that may differ from the assumed ring theory.4 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 33 . 2. q B e=M/P y n. Often base plates are encountered that have as few as four bolts. Circular or polygonal plates can be analyzed using the Complete Circular Base Plate Method discussed in the next section.a. developed a method for square base plates with a circular opening which takes into account individual bolt locations.Complete Square Base Plate – Load On Diagonal The Process Equipment Method assumes that the bolts can be idealized as a ring of steel and that the compression area can be idealized as a ring with the center of pressure at the center of the ring. di Fig. These cases can result in significant errors when calculating pressures and bolt forces.

Defining di ri = 2 y = .707 B B − 4 The method will make use of transformed areas of the bolts. the area of the semi-circle must be deducted Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 34 . a condition that occurs when B4 πd4i − e> 12 64 2 πd2i . two wedge areas will have to be subtracted y2 = y − . Bolts that are in the tension zone will have their areas transformed by A bolt = nA b Bolts within the compression zone will have their areas transformed by A bolt = (n −1) A b The method will calculate moment of inertia of the areas and the moment areas about the “e” line . The moment of inertia divided by the moment area will then be the location of the neutral axis.a.) fall below the diagonal of the plate.The method is valid when there is net tension on the section.707 B − e + q 29000 n= 57 fc′ Py max fc = qA T − Q T A T = A1 + A2 + A c + ∑ comp (n − 1) A b + ∑ tens nA b The area of the triangular wedge is defined as y ×2 y A1 = = y2 2 Should the neutral axis (n.707 B A2 = 0 if y2 ≤ 0 = −2y22 if y2 > 0 Should the neutral axis fall below the top of the circular opening. The process iterates on the value of q until it is determined to a sufficient degree of accuracy.

if l < 0 1. l > 0 2 r i The moment area is defined as Q T = Q1 + Q2 + Q c + Q bolts y Q1 = A1 q − 3 y Q2 = A 2 q − 2 3 y1c = 0 .5 −2 (ri2 − y20 ) = 3A c Q c = A c (e − y1c ) j= ntens j= ncomp Q bolts = ∑ nA b (e − y j ) + ∑ (n − 1)A b (e − y j ) j=1 j=1 The moment of inertia of the areas is defined as I T = I1 + I2 + I c + I bolts y2 y 2 I1 = A1 + q − 18 3 y2 y 2 I2 = A2 2 + q − 2 18 3 −1 y 0 2 3 r 4 sin πr 4 y 0 (r2 −y ) ri2 y 0 ri2 − y20 i r I c = − i + i i 0 2 − − − A c y1 2 c + A c ( e − y1 c ) 8 2 4 4 A2bolt 2 I bolts = ∑ + A bolt (e − y j ) 4π IT q= QT Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 35 . l = ri − e + q y 0 = max (ri − l. − ri ) ri2π y Ac = − + y 0 ri2 − y20 + ri2 sin −1 0 .

5 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 36 . c q B e=M/P y n. di Fig. 2-5.Modification for Clipped Corners When the corners of a square base plate are clipped as shown in Fig.a. there are “negative” areas that must be removed from the analysis. 2.

c) A 5 = y25 y5 l5 = e + 3 Q5 = A5l 5 y25 I5 = A 5 + l25 18 A T = A1 + A2 + A 3 + A 4 + A 5 + A c + ∑ comp (n − 1) A b + ∑ tens nA b Q T = Q1 + Q2 + Q 3 + Q 4 + Q 5 + Q c + Q bolts I T = I1 + I2 + I 3 + I 4 + I5 + I c + I bolts P ( y − c) fc = qA t − Q t Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 37 .707 B − c = min ( y − .707 B. 2c) A 4 = −y24 2y l4 = e − c + 4 3 Q4 = A4l4 y2 I 4 = A 4 4 + l24 18 y5 = 0 if y ≤ .The previous equations may be used with the addition of the following terms A 3 = −c2 2c l3 = q − y + 3 Q3 = A 3l 3 c2 I 3 = A 3 + l 23 18 y 4 = 0 if y ≤ .707 B = min ( y − .707 B + c.

The plate is 68” square and the inside of the base plate has a diameter of 58”.a. The plate is 2. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).5”. A36 plate.Example 2. M 42780 e= = = 930 in P 46 q 68" e=930" y n.3 Analyze the bolt forces on a grouted square base plate loaded on the diagonal and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4. The concrete strength is f’c=3000 psi. 58" Fig 2.6 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 38 .25” thick.

0575° 4.485 Fig. Calculate the bolt values as follows 8.0575° 64π 29000 n= =9 57 3000 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 39 . 2-7 4.The actual process requires iterating on q until a calculated value of q agrees to the fifth decimal place with the previous cycle.5 θ = 360 = 8.68 4. The final iteration of q yields q=911.33267.5" 32 31.

485 9 3.25 27202.41 2 A1 = (29.25 28129.672 + 292 sin −1 = −318.25 29.684 9 3.25 26 23356.61(930 − 22.41 − .31 25054975 6 4.69 25542988 9 31.25 29.33267 − = 779690 3 Q2 = 0 1. − ri ) = 18.25 29.25 27333.67 Ac = − + 18.25 27071.5 27069305 5 4.26 27051524 12 -31. 29.87 3 (−318.41) = 864.25 28129.25 29.33 y 0 = max (ri − l.85 y2 = max (0 .33267 = 29.25 − 318.25 27333.485 9 3.86 + 0 + 341.22 20981316 11 -31.684 9 3.49 Calculating the moment areas 29.25 29.672 ) y1c = = 22.25 27071.67 292 π 18.684 8 3.26 27051524 Totals 341.33267 = 10.5 25298393 2 0 9 3.707 ×68 − 930 + 911. Bar # ybolt n Abolt nAbolt Qbolt Ibolt 1 0 9 3.25 28138.485 9 3.31 25054975 7 -4.22 20981316 10 31.485 9 3.25 26 23356.25 29.5 −2 (292 − 18.25 317672 295894256 Calculating the plate areas y = .61 = 887.25 29.69 25542988 8 -4.25 29.25 29.67 292 − 18.5 25298393 3 32 8 3.85 911.41 Q1 = 864.707 ×68) = 0 A2 = 0 Calculating the deduction for the area of the hole 58 ri == 29 2 l = 29 − 930 + 911.25 26 23348 20966558 4 -32 9 3.684 8 3.25 27202.87 ) = −289020 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 40 .61 2 29 A T = 864.61) Q c = −318.

872 + (−318.04 ksi 911.33 fbc = = 1.33267 ) Pbolt = (9× 3.33267 − = 702954883 18 3 I2 = 0 18.34 ksi 911.67 (292 −18.33 46×10.33267 × 887.49 − 808342 y pole = 911.95 ksi qA T − Q T 911.67 2 29 18.49 − 808342 P (e − y bolt − q) Pbolt = (nA b ) qA T − Q T 46 (930 − (−32) − 911.61)(930 − 22.33267 × 887. Py 46×29.49 − 808342 Pbolt = 148.33267 QT 808342 Therefore.85 + 911.87 ) I c = −262180695 I T = 702954883 + 0 − 262180695 + 295894256 = 736668444 I 736668444 q calc = T = = 911.8 kips ( compression ) Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 41 . Q T = 779690 + 0 − 289020 + 317672 = 808342 Calculating the moments of inertia 29.67 2 2 29 Ic = − + − − … 8 2 4 4 2 −(−318.33 46×13.33267 − 930 + 32 = 13.33267 ) Pcompr = (8× 3.49 − 808342 Pcompr = −34.67 29 − 18. another iteration is not necessary and we can calculate final concrete and bolt stresses.61)22.33 fcpole = = 1.33267 × 887.25) 911.672 ) 3 294 sin −1 π294 18.41 2 I1 = 864.33267 × 887.33267 − 930 + 29 = 10.25) 911.412 29.41 fcmax = = = 2.49 − 808342 y bc = 911.7 kips (tension) 46 (930 − 32 − 911.33267 × 887.

6406 6 4. This can only be achieved if the plate is extremely stiff.9763 9 31. for all of the bolts.684 9 147.Likewise.485 9 67.96912 11 -31.75× 36×1.g. using the maximum stress over the plate results in an extremely high stress. 4.707 ×68 − 29) 4.684 9 147.252 As can be seen.5×(2.5” strip is then 2 2 4.832 The maximum plate stress using the maximum pressure over a 4.684 8 -33.04)(.252 M max( t ) = 148.g. 4. A more reasonable approach would be to modify the method to discount a portion of the plate similar to if the plate had a “clipped” corner.96912 10 31.9763 8 -4.485 9 41. Bar # ybolt n Pbolt 1 0 9 54.6406 7 -4.832 12 -31.485 9 41. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 42 .5 ksi ≥ 36 ksi n.5×2.79381 4 -32 9 148.8× 3 = 446 in − kips 6× 446 fbmax = = 117.707 ×68 − 29) M max( c) = + + 34.8× 3 = 1998 in − kips 2 3 6×1998 fbmax = = 526 ksi ≥ .76 5 4.5×1.485 9 67.04 (.33 = 36 ksi n.8084 2 0 9 54.5×2.95 − 1.8084 3 32 8 -34.684 8 -33.

58" 64" Fig.860. 13" q 68" e=930" y 35" n.a. 2.3 to discount a portion of the plate. the amount to be clipped would then be 13 inches from the top of the plate. Assuming that the bolt circle is at the mid- point between the pole and the clipped edge. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 43 .4 Modify Example 2.7 The previous equations may be modified using the clipped corner adjustments. After iterating. the new value for q is 915.Example 2.

25 29.485 9 3.25 29.26 27051524 12 -31.82 132 I 3 = −160 + 890.25 28129.86 y 0 = max (ri − l.25 28138.94 + = 890.684 8 3.26 27051524 Totals 341.684 9 3.94) = 1151.485 9 3.25 29.707 × B − y = .684 8 3.707 ×68 − 33.25 29.69 25542988 8 -4.25 27202.14 Ac = − + 14.25 26 23356.31 25054975 6 4.25 27071.64 y2 = max (0 .25 29.25 27333.25 29.22 20981316 11 -31.25 29.25 27202.Calculate the bolt values as follows Bar # ybolt n Abolt nAbolt Qbolt Ibolt 1 0 9 3.94 − .5 27069305 5 4.68 2 29 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 44 .25 26 23356.13 ≥ 13 ∴ y4 = 0 Calculating the deduction for the area of the hole 58 ri == 29 2 l = 29 − 930 + 915.485 9 3.14 292 π 14.22 20981316 10 31.5 25298393 2 0 9 3.707 ×68) = 0 A2 = 0 A 3 = −132 = −169 2×13 l 3 = 915. 33.86 = 14. − ri ) = 14.69 25542988 9 31.485 9 3.31 25054975 7 -4.86 = 33.14 292 − 14.592 = −134044230 18 .59 3 Q 3 = −169× 890.707 ×68 − 930 + 915.5 25298393 3 32 8 3.25 27071.25 26 23348 20966558 4 -32 9 3.25 317672 295894256 Calculating the plate areas y = .25 27333.59 = −150509.86 − 33.25 29.684 9 3.94 2 A1 = (33.94 = 14.25 28129.25 29.142 + 292 sin −1 = −535.

86×789.94 2 I1 = 1151.5 −2 (292 − 14.942 33.64 915.82 1.25) = −486428 Q T = 1041713 + 0 − 150510 − 486428 + 317672 = 722447 Calculating the moments of inertia 33.24) I c = −442542378 I T = 942352607 + 0 − 134044230 − 442542378 + 295894257 = 661660255 I 661660255 q calc = T = = 915.67 ksi qA T − Q T 915.86 QT 722447 Therefore.68)(930 − 20.21 − 722447 y pole = 915.142 ) y1c = = 20.94 − 13 = 21.14 2 3 ) 2 2 2 294 sin−1 π29 29 14.86 − 930 + 29 = 14.94 fcmax = = = 2.68)20.64 + 915.68) Q c = −534.86 − = 702954883 18 3 I2 = 0 132 I 3 = −169 + 890.21 Calculating the moment areas 33.592 = −134044230 18 14. y max = y − c = 33.64 + 0 − 169 + 341.86×789.86 − = 1041713 3 Q2 = 0 Q 3 = −169× 890.86 46×14.90 ksi 915. A T = 1151.94 Q1 = 1151.59 = −150509.68 = 789.14 29 Ic = − + − − … 8 2 4 4 2 −(−534.25 − 534.86 fcpole = = 1.14 29 − 14.94 Py 46×21.14 (292 − 14 .21 − 722447 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 45 .68 (930 − 20.14 4 14 .242 + (−534.24 3 (−534. another iteration is not necessary and we can calculate final concrete and bolt stresses.

86×789.6568 2 0 9 -52.4 in − kips 2 3 6× 303.75× 36×1.5×2.g.9551 6 4.5×2.485 9 -69.252 M max(t ) = 171.33 = 36 ksi n.25) 915.96 kips ( compression ) Likewise. P (e − y bolt − q) Pbolt = (nA b ) qA T − Q T 46 (930 − (−32) − 915.96× 3 = 303. 4.g.90)(35 − 29) M max( c) = + + 35.8 kips (tension) 46 (930 − 32 − 915.645 12 -31.07247 11 -31.11848 4 -32 9 -171.8× 3 = 515 in − kips 6×515 fbmax = = 135.485 9 -69.86) Pbolt = (9×3.645 The maximum plate stress using the maximum pressure over a 4.07247 10 31.21 − 722447 Pcompr = −35.9 ksi ≥ . for all of the bolts. 4.86) Pcompr = (8× 3.3585 8 -4.822 5 4.684 9 -170.485 9 -35.21 − 722447 Pbolt = 171.684 9 -170.86×789.9551 7 -4.252 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 46 . Bar # ybolt n Pbolt 1 0 9 -52.90 (35 − 29) 4.684 8 58.5×1.5×(2.25) 915.6 ksi ≥ 36 ksi n.4 fbmax = = 79.684 8 58.5” strip is then 2 2 4.6568 3 32 8 59.485 9 -35.3585 9 31.67 − 1.

**Complete Square Base Plate – Load Parallel
**

The Process Equipment Method assumes that the bolts can be idealized as a ring of steel and that

the compression area can be idealized as a ring with the center of pressure at the center of the ring.

Often base plates are encountered that have as few as four bolts. These cases can result in

significant error when calculating pressures and bolt forces. Base plates that extend inside the pole

will also have a triangular stress distribution that may differ from the assumed ring theory.

Horn(21), developed a method for square base plates with a circular opening which takes into

account individual bolt locations. Square plates with clipped corners or polygonal plates can be

analyzed using the Complete Circular Base Plate Method discussed in the next section.

B

q

e=M/P

y

di

Fig. 2-8

The method is valid when there is net tension on the section, a condition that occurs when

Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 47

B4 πdi4

−

e > 12 64 2

B 2 πdi

B −

2 4

The method will make use of transformed areas of the bolts. Bolts that are in the tension zone will

have their areas transformed by

A bolt = nA b

Bolts within the compression zone will have their areas transformed by

A bolt = (n −1) A b

The method will calculate moment of inertia of the areas and the moment areas about the “e” line.

The moment of inertia divided by the moment area will then be the location of the neutral axis. The

process iterates on the value of q until it is determined to a sufficient degree of accuracy.

Defining

di

ri =

2

y = . 5B − e + q

29000

n=

57 fc′

Py max

fc =

qA T − Q T

A T = A1 + A c + ∑ comp (n − 1) A b + ∑ tens nA b

**The area of the rectangle is defined as
**

A1 = yB

Should the neutral axis fall below the top of the circular opening, the area of the semi-circle must be

deducted

l = ri − e + q

y 0 = max (ri − l, − ri )

ri2π y

Ac = − + y 0 ri2 − y20 + ri2 sin −1 0 , l > 0

2 ri

**The moment area is defined as
**

Q T = Q1 + Q c + Q bolts

Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 48

y

Q1 = A1 q −

2

y1c = 0 , if l < 0

1.5

−2 (ri2 − y20 )

=

3A c

Q c = A c (e − y1c )

j= ntens j= ncomp

Q bolts = ∑ nA b (e − y j ) + ∑ (n − 1)A b (e − y j )

j=1 j=1

**The moment of inertia of the areas is defined as
**

I T = I1 + I c + I bolts

2

By 3 y

I1 = + A1 q −

12 3

−1 y 0

2 3 r 4

sin

πr 4 y 0 (r2

−y ) ri2 y 0 ri2 − y20 i

ri

I c = − i +

i 0 2

− − − A c y12c + A c (e − y1c )

8 2 4 4

A2 2

I bolts = ∑ bolt + A bolt (e − y j )

4π

IT

q=

QT

Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 49

5”.4 Analyze the bolt forces on a grouted square base plate loaded parallel to the edge and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4.2-9 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 50 . The plate is 68” square and the inside of the base plate has a diameter of 58”. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips). M 42780 e= = = 930 in P 46 68" q 930" y 58" Fig.Example 2. The concrete strength is f’c=3000 psi.

63" 19. Calculate the bolt values as follows 25.6964.58" 22.5 θ = 360 = 8. 2-10 4.The actual process requires iterating on q until a calculated value of q agrees to the fifth decimal place with the value from the previous cycle. The final iteration of q yields q=911.0575° 64π 29000 n= =9 57 3000 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 51 .23" Fig.

186 Calculating the plate areas y = .25 27950.72 26709212 5 22.32 + 292 sin−1 = −334.70 A1 = 68×15.5 −2 (292 − 18.25 26 23591.25 29.02 21567106 10 19.70 Q1 = 1067.6964 = 10.5 − 334.25 29.25 26 23680.92 21267418 3 -25.25 27864.88 = 1063.3 292 − 18.98 Calculating the moment areas 15.25 29.88 (930 − 22.63 9 3.25 26 23680.58 8 3.23 8 3.92 21267418 2 25.34 + 331.70 = 1067.23 9 3.43 26544558 9 19.3 Ac = − + 18.7 y 0 = max (ri − l.25 29.25 27864. Bar # ybolt n Abolt nAbolt Qbolt Ibolt 1 25.66) = −303848 Q T = 962727 − 303848 + 308733 = 969612 Calculating the moments of inertia Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 52 .02 21567106 11 -19.66 3 (−334.98 26355418 12 -19.72 26709212 4 -25.62 21406382 7 -22.3 2 29 π 18.36 Calculating the deduction for the area of the hole 58 ri = = 29 2 l = 29 − 930 + 911.25 29.58 9 3.25 27764.700.6964 − = 964727 2 1.88) Q c = −334.25 27950.5×68 − 930 + 911.23 9 3.43 26544558 8 -22.63 9 3.58 9 3.23 8 3.6964 = 15.63 8 3.62 21406382 6 22.25 26 23514.36 911.58 8 3.88 2 29 A T = 1067.25 26 23591.25 29.25 27764.63 8 3. − ri ) = 18.25 26 23514.5 308733 287.98 26355418 Totals 331.32 ) y1c = = 22.

3 29 Ic = − + − − … 8 2 4 4 2 −(−334.63 8 -12.386 12 -19.58 8 -21.3 29 − 18.58 8 -21.662 + (−334. another iteration is not necessary and we can calculate final concrete and bolt stresses.7 fcmax = = = 1.75 ksi qA T − Q T 911.6964 QT 969612 Therefore.685071 11 -19.08987 2 25.23 8 -2.7 3 15.88)22.6964 − = 871988746 12 2 18.1 kips Likewise.091 4 -25.472 8 -22.6964×1063.6964 ×1063.23 9 122. 2 68 ×15.98 − 969612 P (e − y bolt − q) Pbolt = (nA b ) qA T − Q T 46 (930 − (−25.63 8 -12.25) 911.58) − 911.66) I c = −275697158 I T = 871988756 − 275697158 + 287700186 = 883991774 I 883991774 q calc = T = = 911.63 9 133. the other bolt forces are Bar # ybolt n Pbolt 1 25.88)(930 − 22.472 9 19.091 5 22.32 3 ) 2 2 2 294 sin−1 π29 29 18.7 I1 = + 1067. Py 46×15.3 4 18.3 (292 − 18.63 9 133.36 911.98 − 969612 Pbolt = 143.08987 3 -25.23 9 122.386 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 53 .6964) Pbolt = (9× 3.23 8 -2.58 9 143.685071 10 19.53961 7 -22.58 9 143.53961 6 22.

Often base plates are encountered that have as few as four bolts. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 54 . Horn(21). Square plates using the Complete Base Plate Method were discussed in the last two sections. Base plates that extend inside the pole will also have a triangular stress distribution that may differ from the assumed ring theory. These cases can result in significant error when calculating pressures and bolt forces. This assumption was valid for larger diameter pole with a relatively large number of bolts. developed a method for circular or polygonal base plates with a circular opening which takes into account individual bolt locations.Complete Circular Base Plate Method The Process Equipment Method assumes that the bolts can be idealized as a ring of steel and that the compression area can be idealized as a ring with the center of pressure at the center of the ring.

Bolts that are in the tension zone will have their areas transformed by A bolt = nA b Bolts within the compression zone will have their areas transformed by A bolt = (n −1) A b Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 55 . q y e=M/P di B Fig.2-11 The method is valid when there is net tension on the section. a condition that occurs when (B4 − di4 ) e> 8B (B2 − d2i ) The method will make use of transformed areas of the bolts.

Defining di ri = 2 y = . the area of the semi-circle must be deducted l = ri − e + q y c = max (ri − l. 5B − e + q 29000 n= 57 fc′ Py max fc = qA T − Q T A T = A1 + A c + ∑ comp (n − 1) A b + ∑ tens nA b The area of the outer circle is defined as B r= 2 l0 = r − e + q y0 = r − l 0 r2π y A1 = − y 0 r2 − y20 − r2 sin−1 0 2 r Should the neutral axis fall below the top of the circular opening. The moment of inertia divided by the moment area will then be the location of the neutral axis.5 2 (r2 − y20 ) y1 = 3A c Q1 = A1 (e − y1 ) Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 56 . l > 0 2 r i The moment area is defined as Q T = Q1 + Q c + Q bolts 1.The method will calculate moment of inertia of the areas and the moment areas about the “e” line. The process iterates on the value of q until it is determined to a sufficient degree of accuracy. − ri ) ri2π y Ac = − + y c ri2 − y2c + ri2 sin−1 c .

y1c = 0 . if l < 0 1.5 −2 (ri2 − y2c ) = 3A c Q c = A c (e − y1c ) j= ntens j= ncomp Q bolts = ∑ nA b (e − y j ) + ∑ (n − 1)A b (e − y j ) j=1 j=1 The moment of inertia of the areas is defined as I T = I1 + I c + I bolts y 4 y 3 r2 sin −1 0 πr 0 (r2 − y20 ) 2 r y0 r −y2 2 r 2 − A1 y12 + A1 (e − y1 ) 0 I1 = + − − 8 2 4 4 −1 y c 2 3 r 4 sin πr 4 y c (ri2 − y ) c ri2 y c ri2 − y2c i ri 2 Ic = − i + − − − A c y12c + A c (e − y1c ) 8 2 4 4 A2 2 I bolts = ∑ bolt + A bolt (e − y j ) 4π IT q= QT Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 57 .

18446. The final iteration of q yields q=916.Example 2.5 Re-analyze Example 2. 2-12 The actual process requires iterating on q until a calculated value of q agrees to the fourth decimal place with the value from the previous cycle. M 42780 e= = = 930 in P 46 q y e=M/P 48" 64" 73" Fig.29 E c 57 3000 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 58 .2 using the Complete Method. Es 29000 n= = = 9.

889 9.434 8.68 y 0 = 36.25 30.1925 28377.889 9.79 12 -9.29 3.37 21726597.47 25561196.58 26671839.18 .25 30.809 8.29 3.52 π 13.02 22023329.1925 28860.51 17 -30.82 A1 = − 13.5 The inner circle is next calculated l = 24 − 930 + 916.1925 28646.1925 27780.25 26.9425 24549.03 26113565.25 26.1925 28646.29 3.19 27941540.1925 29045.000 8.79 2 9.25 30.76 22369575.66 27587651.56 21802449.90 27850633.5 2 y = l 0 = 36.434 9.29 3.25 26.35 503989684 The area of the outer circle is calculated as 73 r= = 36.92 27180531.889 8.93 16 -32.434 8.52 − 13.9425 24359.44 5 30.822 − 36.1925 27780.1925 28860.29 3.90 27850633.29 3.18446 = 10.82 36.889 9.Calculate the bolt values as follows 360 θ= = 18° 20 y bolt = r × sin ( j×θ) Bar # ybolt n Abolt nAbolt Qbolt Ibolt 1 0.25 30.25 30.29 3.76 22369575.78 3 18.29 3.9425 24236. − 24) = 13.45 13 -18.03 26113565.58 26671839.000 9.809 9.29 3.9425 24359.82 242 − 13.29 3.78 11 0.000 9.889 9.64 6 32.82 Ac = − + 13.29 3.29 3.25 30.25 30.1925 28079.29 3.47 25561196.9425 24194.434 9.25 26.25 30.1925 28079.52 sin−1 = 1108.9425 24236.82 242 π 13.29 3.5 − 22.889 9.25 30.25 26.25 30.56 21802449.1925 28377.35 14 -25.29 3.25 30.25 26.29 3.45 Totals 581.1925 28997.25 30.889 8.66 27587651.9425 24549.05 10 9.44 9 18.92 27180531.29 3.68 = 13.79 2 36.25 26.45 15 -30.29 3.889 9.18 y c = max (24 − 10.809 9.54 7 30.1 541015.1925 28997.822 + 242 sin −1 = −280.05 4 25.45 19 -18.000 9.82 36.25 30.29 3.93 18 -25.5 − 930 + 916.29 3.18446 = 22.02 22023329.35 20 -9.64 8 25.809 8.34 2 24 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 59 .

18 2 Py 46×18.34) Q c = −280.52 − 13.97 ) = −255674 Q T = 1005464 + 541015 − 255674 = 1290806 Calculating the moments of inertia 13.18 fbc = = = 1.18 3 (1108.52 −13.822 ) yc = = 17.972 + (−280.5 −2 (242 − 13. Py 46×22.55 Calculating the moment areas 1.18446 QT 1290806 Therefore.79 + 581. A T = 1108.18446×1409.79)(930 − 23.54 sin−1 π36.97 ) I c = −233183299 I T = 911810020 + 503898968 − 233183299 = 1182616405 I 1182616405 q calc = T = = 916.34 (930 − 17.18446×1409.97 3 (−280.54 13.82 (24 − 13.34)17.79) Q1 = 1108.5 13.73 ksi qA T − Q T 916.5 I1 = + − − … 8 2 4 4 2 −(1108.18) = 1005464 1.82 2 2 36.82 2 3 24 4 sin π24 4 13.34)(930 − 17.82 2 36.5 − 13.822 24 Ic = − + − − … 8 2 4 4 2 −(−280.82 36.55 − 1290806 64 y bc = − 930 + 916. another iteration is not necessary and we can calculate final concrete and bolt stresses.182 + (1108.68 fcmax = = = 1.18446 = 18.82 24 − 13.82 ) 2 2 2 24 13.39 qA t − Q t 916.79)23.1 − 280.55 − 1290806 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 60 .822 ) 3 36.822 ) y1 = = 23.18) I1 = 911810020 −1 13.5 2 (36.34 = 1409.82 (36.79 (930 − 23.

2 compare as follows: 1.889 9.000 9.19 6 32. 105.29 -9.29 10. Likewise.27 4 25.000 8. 1.809 9.29 37. 1.22 20 -9.889 9.41 7 30.02 16 -32. 1.29 34.29 34.29 -54.85 12 -9.6 kips The values from the Lutz Modification Example 2.809 8.05 11 0.22 14 -25.65 13 -18.54 15 -30.29 -105.29 -91.55 − 1290806 Pbolt = −105.29 -31.889 9.809 8.84 5 30.29 -9.18446) Pbolt = (9×3.63 17 -30.29 24.02 18 -25.27 10 9.85 2 9.000 9.18446×1409.29 -102.434 9.000 9.05 3 18. the other bolt forces may be calculated Bar # ybolt n Pbolt 1 0.434 8.19 8 25.29 10.29 -102.73 ksi.39 ksi.84 9 18.29 -54.29 -91.809 9.889 9.434 9.29 -75.434 8.349 ksi vs.889 9.70 ksi vs.6 kips.29 24.889 9.889 8.29 -31. P (e − y bolt − q) Pbolt = (nA b ) qA T − Q T 46 (930 − (−32) − 916.54 19 -18.25) 916. and 110.65 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 61 .29 -75.4 kips vs.889 8.

33 = 50 ksi n.11×2. 9.g.8 fmax = = 41.16 916.18 2 46×15.8 in − kips 2 6×506.41× = 506.18 fpole = = 1. 16 ) 2 2 M max = + +… 2 3 64 − 58 37.75×50×1.11 20 58 y= − 930 + 916. 73 − 1.18446×1409.2 ksi ≤ 50 ksi o. 9.11×2.16 9.55 − 1290806 2 2 73 − 58 73 − 58 9.18446 = 15.8 in − kips 2 6× 316.8 fmax = = 65. using 50 ksi grade plate.252 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 62 .k.93 ksi ≥ . is then π×58 beff = = 9. 11× (1.11×1.The maximum plate stress with a pole diameter of 58”.6× = 316.252 64 − 58 M max = 105.

The bolt group should be symmetrical about both axes and the bolts should be the same size. the pole can no longer be adjusted for any out-of-plumb condition since the leveling nuts will be encased within the grout. The maximum bolt force is determined by P My max Fmax = + n I Where n is the number of bolts and ymax and I are calculated as illustrated in the following examples. Some manufacturers have specific warranty disclaimers if the pole is grouted. The determination of bolt forces in ungrouted base plates is straightforward. Grouting of the plate can lead to corrosion problems if means are not provided to allow for drainage of condensation that can develop within the pole. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 63 .Ungrouted Base Plates Determining Bolt Forces Most monopoles built today do not have grouted base plates. Once grouted. Square base plates usually have the bolt clustered in four groups located along the diagonals of the plate.

1 Analyze the bolt forces on a polygonal base plate with a bolt circle of 64” and (20) 2-1/4” bolts.89 18.8 9.88 Fig 3.Example 3. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).43 25. 32 30.1 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 64 .

− 131. n = 20 y max = 32 20 I = ∑ y2 = ∑ (r sin (θ )) 2 1 360 θ= = 18° 20 2 2 I = 2× 322 + 2× 02 + 4 ×(32 sin (18)) + 4 ×(32 sin (36)) + 2 2 4 ×(32 sin (54)) + 4 ×(32 sin (72)) I = 10240 46 42780× 32 Fmax = ± = +135.39 kips 20 10240 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 65 .99 kips.

2 4.0575° 64π Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 66 .68 4.2 Analyze the bolt forces on a square base plate loaded on the diagonal and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4.0575° 4. 3.5 θ = 360 = 8. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in- kips).5”.Example 3. 8.5" 32 31.485 Fig.

6 kips. − 219.9425)) I = 6144 46 42780× 32 Fmax = ± = +226.0575)) + 4×(32 sin (81.0 kips 12 6144 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 67 . n = 12 y max = 32 12 I = ∑ y2 = ∑ (r sin (θ)) 2 1 2 2 I = 2× 322 + 2× 02 + 4×(32 sin (8.

25.3 4.23" Fig.5”. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).0575° 64π Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 68 . 3.Example 3.5 θ = 360 = 8.58" 22.3 Analyze the bolt forces on a square base plate loaded parallel to the edge and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4.63" 19.

58 12 I = ∑ y2 = ∑ (r sin (θ )) 2 1 2 2 2 I = 4×(32 sin (45 − 8. 3-4). The shear resisted by the bolts will then be 2V Fv = n When the base plate is solid (without a central hole). the plate would be sufficiently rigid to equally distribute the shear to all of the bolts. The bending stress would then be 16cFv fb = πd3b where c is the clear distance (see Fig. n = 12 y max = 25. When threads extend well into the clear space. AASHTO requires bending to be considered whenever the clear distance is greater than one bolt diameter. V Fv = n Bending Stresses In Bolts Bolts in ungrouted base plates may be subjected to bending stresses when the clear distance below the leveling nut is excessive. However. the maximum bolt force is always determined from the loading along the diagonal for a square base plate. The ASCE Manual 72 recommends that bending be considered whenever the distance is greater than two bolt diameters. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 69 .0575)) I = 6144 46 42780×25. the root diameter of the threaded portion should be used for db. Determining Bolt Shear Shearing stresses in the pole are a maximum at the equator of the pole. − 174. A flexible base plate will therefore have shearing forces distributed primarily to the two side regions at the equator. The bolt is considered to be bent in reverse curvature.58 Fmax = ± = +182 kips. The TIA Standard has no requirement for this condition.3 kips 12 6144 As can be seen from these two examples.0575)) + 4×(32 sin (45)) + 4×(32 sin (45 + 8.

4 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Ungrouted Base Plates • 70 . c db Fig 3.

Poisson’s ratio can be taken as 0. The methods for determining the base plate bending stresses. Effective Width Based Upon Plate Theory Traditionally. are not so uniformly accepted. The unit load. The stress in the plate would then be 6M f= Beff t2 To determine if this is realistic.Determining Plate Stresses Introduction The methods of determining bolt forces and concrete stresses presented in the previous chapters are commonly used by all designers. and simply supported continuously at the anchor bolt circle.30 for steel. consider a circular ring. however. “w” is taken Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 71 . most methods have used the peak bolt force or maximum concrete stress in determining a cantilever moment on an effective width of plate at the pole to determine the plate stress by simple beam theory. Roarke(25) Table 24.1b states that the maximum moment in the ring will be L9 M = wa C8 1 2 b C 8 = 1 + υ + (1 − υ) 2 a ro 1 + υ a 1 − υ ro 2 L9 = ln + 1 − a 2 ro 4 a where “a” is the radius of the outside of the ring and “b” is the radius of the inside of the ring (outside radius of the pole). The moment would be equal to the M = F ×d where F is the force and d is the distance from the force to the face of the pole. guided at the pole but free to displace vertically.

but it will give us some indication for the correct value of effective width.5 30 b/a . OC is the outside diameter of the plate and D is the pole diameter across the flats.833 C8 . “ro”. while industrial engineers designing stacks usually limit the stress to . The allowable bending stress (AISC) would be limited to . Note that this condition is for an axial load without moment.as one and the position of the load.2576 . is taken as “b” to simulate the load coming from the pole.85 11. it leads us to conclude that the classical method of using a circumferential strip for determining plate stress should be reasonably accurate for plates that have a uniform spacing of anchor bolts in a circular pattern.625 .94 5.367 6 Beff=d/M 1. The maximum bending moment in grouted base plates on the compression side is calculated per unit circumferential length (b=1 in) in the base plate as OD − D d= 2 f d2 M press = c 2 where we use fc as the average uniform pressure on the cantilevered plate.787 . The maximum bending stress is therefore 6M press 3fcd2 fb = = t2 t2 where t is the thickness of the plate.03 1.6Fy. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 72 .15 1.86 .908 .893 L9 . Process Equipment Methods A base plate without stiffeners is assumed to behave as a cantilever beam.143 M 7.77 d=a-b 9 4.75Fy.04 Although this may be a crude comparison.124 . Monopole Examples a 24 32 36 b 15 27.

The unit maximum bending moment in all base plates on the tension side and ungrouted base plates on the compression side is BC − D d= 2 Tdn M bolt = πD where we use T is the maximum bolt force on the cantilevered plate. Both the compression and tension sides of the base plate should be checked. Sometimes a 45 degree angle limitation is used(13) when there are a limited number of bolts (bolt spacing is greater than twice the distance to the pole).When using any of the Complete Methods. 45 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 73 . the moment would be a combination of the concrete pressure and the contribution of the bolts in compression. BC is the bolt circle diameter. D is the pole diameter across the flats. and n is the number of bolts.

The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).1 Analyze the bolt forces on an ungrouted square base plate loaded on the diagonal and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4.Example 4. M 42780 e= = = 930 in P 46 68" 29.25” thick. The thickness of the pole is .5”. The plate is 68” square and the inside of the base plate has a diameter of 58”.500” and the plate is 2.1 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 74 .5" 58" Fig 4.

485 Fig.0575° 4. 4-2 4.5" 32 31.5 θ = 360 = 8.0575° 64π Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 75 .Calculate the bolt values as follows 8.68 4.

33 6×1544.6 kips. n = 12 y max = 32 12 I = ∑ y2 = ∑ (r sin (θ)) 2 1 2 2 I = 2× 322 + 2× 02 + 4×(32 sin (8.5) = 1544.485 + 2 (31.68 P2 = + = 224.0575)) + 4×(32 sin (81.4)(31.33×2.0 kips 12 6144 y1 = 32 P1 = 226.68 − 29.6 (32 − 29.88 If the effective width is limited to a 45 degree angle from the bolts (AISC approach). beff = 2× 4.4 kips 12 6144 M = 226.5) + 2 (224.68 − 29.9425)) I = 6144 46 42780× 32 Pmax = ± = +226.68 46 42780× 31. − 219.4 ksi 13.6 kips y2 = 31.252 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 76 .88 fb = = 137.5) = 13.

The following table. note that when l/b is equal to or less than 1. Most process design texts design the gusset by ignoring any contribution of the base plate itself.131fcb2 -0. the maximum bending moment occurs at the middle of the free edge.123fcb2 -0. 031 fbpole wall = + t2 1. that the equations reduces back to the cantilever equation.125fcb2 3 0.133fcb2 -0. 32 Z . tabulates the bending moments for this case. The stress in the plate is 6M max fb = t2bp The gusset is usually designed to resist the entire shear force as a cantilever beam.5 0.125fcb2 In this table.666 0. the gusset acts as a vertical plate only. Note that when l/b=0 (no gussets or gusset spacing is very large).227fcl2 1 0. the maximum bending moment occurs at the junction with the pole because of cantilever action. The gusset will impart a bending stress on the wall of the pole. b=gusset spacing (x direction) and l=base plate outside radius minus the pole radius (y-direction).5. the loading condition on the section of the plate between the two gussets may be considered to act like a rectangular uniformly loaded plate with two opposite edges simply supported by the gussets. M gusset 1 .5.333 0.Base Plates With Gussets When gussets are used to stiffen the base plate. taken from Timoshenko(26). Also.119fcl2 1.43ah 2 Rt + (4ah 2 ) 1 3 Rt Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 77 .500fcll2 . x = b x = b 2 2 M x M y b y = y = 0 0 0 -0.0293fcb2 -0.500 0.125fcb2 ∞ 0. If l/b is greater then 1.0972fcb2 -0.0078fcb2 -0.428fcl2 . and the fourth and outer edge free. which can be estimated from the work of Bijilaard(22).319fcl2 .124fcb2 2 0.133fcb2 -0. the third edge joined to the pole.0558fcb2 -0. Some designers will assume a tee-beam with a portion of the base plate acting along with the vertical plate gusset.

177 am m + 1.0 Z= 2 .0 Rt t t = thickness of pole wall a = 2 (t gusset + t ) R = radius of pole wall h = height of gusset m = thickness of base plate Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 78 .where 1.

D is taken to be the average diameter of the polygonal pole D = . 2 BC − D − d b 2. 2 BC − D − d nut 2. D flat + D tip 1. 2 Alternate Method 3 This method is identical to the Process Equipment Method with following modifications. This assumes that the bolt is considered capable of resisting such a moment. 2 Alternate Method 2 This method is identical to the Process Equipment Method with following modifications. d is taken from the edge of the nut to the fillet weld d = − tw . BC. 2 BC − D − d nut 2. D flat + D tip 1.Alternate Method 1 This method is identical to the Process Equipment Method with the following modifications. to a point midway between the bolt and the average diameter of the pole. 2 3. d is taken from the edge of the bolt rather than from the bolt circle d = . Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 79 . d is taken from the edge of the nut to the fillet weld d = − tw . The plate is considered to be bent in double curvature such that the moment is one-half that of a cantilevered plate. D is taken to be the average diameter of the polygonal pole D = . An equivalent procedure would be to adjust the bolt circle. D is taken to be the average diameter of the polygonal pole D = . D flat + D tip 1.

y d Fig 4. the width of the hole(s) is deducted from the effective plate width. which takes a slicing plane across the entire width of the base plate. Should a slice occur near a bolt hole.a.Method of Slices The method evolved from the AISC method (see Introduction). beff B 1 2 3 4 n. The method ignores the tension side distribution shown in Fig 1-3 and assumes that the effective width resisting bending moment. beff. The net moment at any slice is then the sum of the moments due to the forces outside of the cutting plane minus the moment due to stresses in the pole when the slice occurs within the Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 80 .3 The method requires that a number of slicing planes be taken between the bolt circle and the neutral axis. 4-3. goes across the entire plate as shown in Fig.

a. a point that may or may not be the most critical slice.a. y < y i 6M fb = beff t2 At any location from the center of a polygonal or circular plate. Most designers who use this method usually only take a slice at the face of the monopole. 2 2 2 2 M = ∑ Pbolt ×( y bolt − y) + ∫ fi ×( y − y i ) . y y=. y y=B/2 beff y=d /2 =B 2 d d = B − 2 − y d − − y y=d/2 beff y=n. y < y i 6M fb = beff t2 Parallel loading usually does not control in this method since the bolts are usually below the y location of the face of the pole. At any location from the center of a square plate for loading on the diameter. y < y i 6M fb = beff t2 The moment due to the pole shell stresses be calculated as follows d r= 2 y α = cos−1 r Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 81 . 2 2 M = ∑ Pbolt ×( y bolt − y) + ∫ fi ×( y − y i ) . At any location from the center of a square plate for loading parallel.diameter of the pole.414B − 2y − 2 − y d − − y y=d/2 beff y=n. y 2 B beff y=B/2 = 2 − y B − B − y y=d /2 2 2 2 2 B B d beff y=d/2 = 2 − y B − − y − 2 − y d − d − y y=n. 2 2 M = ∑ Pbolt ×( y bolt − y) + ∫ fi ×( y − y i ) .a.707 B beff y=d/2 = 1.414B − 2 y 2 d d = 1.

2 2Ptr2 α 2Mtr2 α (cos θ − cos α ) M pole = A ∫0 ( cos θ − cos α ) dθ + S ∫0 1 − cos α dθ 2Mtr2 α cos α − 23 (sin α cos α ) + 12 α 2 2Ptr2 = (sin α −α cos α ) + A S sin α −α cos α Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 82 .

5" 23.500” and the plate is 2.5”.25” thick.4 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 83 .Example 4.2" 58" Fig 4. The plate is 68” square and the inside of the base plate has a diameter of 58”. The thickness of the pole is . The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).2 Analyze the bolt forces on an ungrouted square base plate loaded on the diagonal and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4. M 42780 e= = = 930 in P 46 68" 1 2 29.

0575° 64π Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 84 .8 times the diameter of the pole (AISC critical location).68 4.0575° 4. Slice 2 is at . Calculate the bolt values as follows 8.4-5 4.Slice 1 occurs at the outside face of the pole.485 Fig.5" 32 31.5 θ = 360 = 8.

a. − 219.6 kips.2 23.152×2.28 ksi 37.9425)) I = 6144 46 42780× 32 Pmax = ± = +226. Next.152 M1 = 226.414 ×68 − 2×29.5 π (592 − 582 ) A= = 91.5 = 37.8 ksi using the Process Equipment Method.5 − 23.0 kips 12 6144 46×6144 y n.88 f1 = = 49.3 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 85 .68 − 29.6 (32 − 29.88 in 2 4 π (59 − 58 4 ) 4 I= = 39311 in 4 64 39311 S= = 1333 29.0575)) + 4×(32 sin (81.2 − 2 (29.5) = 1544.665 29.68 P1b = + = 224.414 ×68 − 2×23.2 α = cos−1 = . calculating the stress on slice 2 y2 = .80d = 23.4)(31.5 2 beff = 1.88 6×1544.252 This compares to 130.5) + 2 (224.6 kips y1b = 31.55 " 12× 42780 y1a = 32 P1a = 226.68 46 42780× 31. = = . n = 12 y max = 32 12 I = ∑ y2 = ∑ (r sin (θ)) 2 1 2 2 I = 2× 322 + 2× 02 + 4×(32 sin (8.2) = 13.5 − 23.4 kips 12 6144 beff 1 = 1.2) 59 − (29.

665 2 1333 sin (.5×29.3×2.665 cos (.665 cos (.665 cos (.665)) + 21 .88 2× 42780×.4)(31.665)) + … 91.665) − .665) M pole = 41 + 4495 = 4535 M 2 = 226.665) − .5×29.73 ksi 13.665) − 23 (sin (.252 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 86 .6 (32 − 23. 2× 46×.2) − 4535 = 1265 6×1265 f2 = = 112.68 − 23.2) + 2 (224.52 .665) cos (.52 M pole = (sin (.

1 and 4. The diagonal case had a single zone at the narrowest part of the plate (45 degrees to the diagonal). Alternate Method 2 – Circular Base Plates This alternate uses one slice at the face of the pole and uses 90% of beff. especially if the slice location is limited to the face of the pole. A research project was undertaken in 1993 at the New York State Department of Transportation Engineering Research and Development Bureau and sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration(5). there is a wide discrepancy between stresses calculated by the Process Equipment Method (used by industrial engineers for stacks) and those calculated by the Method of Slices (used by a number of pole manufacturers). Boulos et al determined that both the parallel load and diagonal load cases resulted in three critical zones of stress. The parallel case had two zones. Boulos Method (New York Dept. Since the testing was done on smaller ungrouted base plates commonly used for traffic poles having only four bolts. however. Results of testing and analysis of four poles indicated that they were structurally inadequate. The project performed full-scale testing and finite element analysis of traffic signal poles (square poles with four anchor bolts) to evaluate their structural adequacy. the method may not be totally applicable to larger diameter pole used for telecommunication purposes. The support base plate and anchor bolts were found to be deficient components. The report proposed a new design method for the base plate. of Transportation) As can be seen from Examples 4. Results showed that plates designed by the manufacturers’ current (1993) methods of design were not adequate to carry the design loads. each one at the narrowest part of the plate (0 degrees and 90 degrees). Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 87 . it will provide educational background into the problem of determining stresses in base plates. FEA models of the signal poles that verified the test results were then used to evaluate a representative sample of poles from three major suppliers.2. but the pole’s post was adequately designed.Alternate Method 1 – Square Base Plates This alternate uses one slice at the face of the pole and limits the value of beff to no greater than the diameter of the pole. This method is only applicable to square base plates.

Fig.6 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 88 . 4.

4. Fig.7 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 89 .

Diagonal Loading Case The method proposed by Boulos et al calculates the maximum bending stress as BC − DB d= 2 6M × d fb = α (1.304 − 0.686 L − DB L Cα = 1.8 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 90 . L is the width of the plate and DB is the diameter of the pole.75 .02021 − 4.45 ≤ α ≤ .097 Typically. Upon careful examination of this equation.503 −… T L L α = /Cα L − . the value of α is .414L − DB)× BC × T 2 Where M/BC is the bolt force.9750 − 1. BC DB DB 2 4. 4.304 + 4. BC is the bolt circle diameter. α. Fig. it can be seen that this is identical to the method of slices with a correction term for the effective width.707 BC BC 0.

707 BC.9 Torsional Shear Stress at Midpoint of Side The side of the plate has one bolt in compression and the other in tension. Boulos constructed a mathematical model which assumed that the plate spanned between the two bolts with fixed ends. This results in a torsional stress that is calculated as Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 91 .85 L − .Parallel Loading Case Bending Stress The maximum bending stress was found to occur midway between the bolts as the point of maximum pole stress pushes down analogous to a triangular load at midspan spanning between the two bolts. DB 1 − DB 4 3M 1 1 − L ′ L ′ fb = − + 2 DB 4 3 12 βt (L − DB) 2 L ′ L ′ = max (.33 BC − 259.13 LT + 194.4 − 21.6 − 21.080 Typically. 4. In fact. D) DB 2 157.65 BC BC C β = 1. Fig.3 DB − 48.5 ≤ β ≤ 1. The loading was then assumed to be a triangular load acting between the bolts.6 + … L β = DB T L DB L − DB /C β T DB 127.5 . the value of β is 0.

0 0.094 Typically.282 5.231 2.414B − DB L C γ = 1.1719 BC − DB − 714.333 2 210 − 66. Fig.0 0.9 BC − . DB) b/t C’ 1.2 0.0 0. 4.3 DB −… L γ = DB T L /C γ L − .10 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 92 .16 − 288.267 4. the value for γ is 1.707BC.8 DB + 358.208 1.707 BC BC − DB BC 48.291 10.2 + 381 L − DB 1.258 3.3 .5 0.0 0.219 1.3 ≤ γ ≤ 2. M fv = 2 ( γC ′bT 2 ) b = min (.246 2.312 ∞ 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.

However it is reasonable to assume that.05 L These ranges are usually exceeded for telecommunication poles and the corresponding values will be < 0.0 ≤ ≤ 16. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 93 . the effective width would increase above this value.95 ≤ ≤ 1.The method is valid for square base plates within the following ranges BC 8. it may be prudent to impose an upper limit on the effective width equal to .5 ≤ ≤ 0. Therefore.5 T DB 0. as the number of bolts increases.40 of the full slice width at the face of the pole for poles with four bolts.75 L BC 0. thus suggesting that the lower bounds should be used.

4.. Fig. The stress at the yield line is calculated as follows M by = T × rby t2 . al. extended the Boulos method to accommodate grouted base plates.707 t2 a S x = b′′ × = b′ − 6 6 4 M by fby = Sx Comparing to the Method of Slices.Owens Method (New York Dept.823B − . the effective width is beff = b′′ = .707d Which is about 40-45% of the full diagonal width at the face of the pole for common telecommunication poles. of Transportation) Owens(6.11 The research confirmed the Boulos findings that base plates previously designed by manufacturers were deficient. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 94 .7) et. He incorporated yet another check using yield line theory.

The tangential to corner situation is only applicable to power line transmission poles where the forces are primarily parallel and perpendicular to the transmission lines. 4-11). a line parallel to the pole face and another line tangential to the corner of the polygon. Beff c2 c1 Parallel to bend line 45 r ne cor tol ntia ge Tan Fig.11 The bending moment on the bend line is then the sum of the bolt forces outside of the bend line times the distance of the bolt from the bend line (c1 and c2 in Fig. See Fig. 4. 4-11.ASCE Manual 72 (Proposed 2003 Revision) ASCE Manual 72(27) contains a base plate design section which uses the Method of Slices with the 45 degree limitation discussed in the Process Equipment section. The ASCE method checks two bend lines on each facet of the polygon. Telecommunication poles can be oriented at any Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 95 . The bend line for a circular pole is tangent to the pole.

Example 4. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780 in-kips).3 Analyze the bolt forces on an ungrouted square base plate loaded on the diagonal and a bolt circle of 64” and (12) 2-1/4” bolts spaced at 4.5" 58" Fig 4.12 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 96 .25” thick. The the parallel case would be the worst case scenario for this situation.possible angle to the wind and therefore the pole would be assumed to be oriented such that the bolts and the polygonal faces are in the worst possible condition with the resultant moment in only one direction.500” and the plate is 2.5”. M 42780 e= = = 930 in P 46 13. The plate is 68” square and the inside of the base plate has a diameter of 58”.33" 68" 29. The thickness of the pole is .

485 Fig.Calculate the bolt values as follows 8.0575° 4.5" 32 31.0575° 64π Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 97 .68 4.5 θ = 360 = 8.4-5 4.

2).68 46 42780× 31.4)(31. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Determining Plate Stresses • 98 .5) = 13.4 kips 12 6144 beff1 = 2× 4.485 + 2×(31.68 − 29.5) + 2 (224.33×2.88 6×1544.68 − 29. n = 12 y max = 32 12 I = ∑ y2 = ∑ (r sin (θ)) 2 1 2 2 I = 2× 322 + 2× 02 + 4×(32 sin (8. − 219.0 kips 12 6144 y1a = 32 P1a = 226.68 P1b = + = 224.6 kips.28 ksi using the Method of Slices (Example 4.6 (32 − 29.252 This compares to 49.33 in M1 = 226.0575)) + 4×(32 sin (81.4 ksi 13.6 kips y1b = 31.88 f1 = = 137.9425)) I = 6144 46 42780× 32 Pmax = ± = +226.5) = 1544.

ASTM Designation Tensile Strength. a wide variety of bolt grades have been used for pole base plates. 140 (over 2 ½”) A354 Gr BC 125. the nut is usually tack-welded to the bolt to insure that the nut does not Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Anchor Bolts • 99 . Only grades 36 and 55 permit welding. The standard method detail is to provide a threaded portion at the bottom of the anchor bolt and attach a nut or nut with washer. ksi A307 60 A325 (SAE Gr 5 similar) 105 A354 Gr BD 150.Anchor Bolts Material Grades Over the years. #18J bars) 100 A687 150 A36 58 A572 Gr 50 65 A572 Gr 42 60 A588 70 F1554 Gr 36 58 F1554 Gr 55 75 F1554 Gr 105 125 The current standard has anchor bolts unified under ASTM F1554 . 115 (over 2 ½”) A449 90 A490 (SAE Gr 8 similar) 150 A618 Gr 75 (Anchor bolt grade. When the grade permits welding. The most commonly used grades are listed below. Hooked anchor bolts have fallen into disfavor as tests have shown that local crushing occurs at the bend point leading to a reduction in pullout capacity.

000 to 100.000 10 aCategories correspond to AISC Appendix K Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Anchor Bolts • 100 .000 25 500.loosen or fall off. Fatigue is often ignored in the selection and sizing of anchor bolts. High strength grades usually do not permit welding and a second “jam” nut is often provided. in cases of high seismic/wind situations fatigue may be a consideration. The number of anchor bolts required is a function of the maximum net uplift on the column and the allowable tensile load for the grade chosen.000 to 500. Prying forces in anchor bolts are typically neglected. However. ksi 20.000.000 to 2.000 40 100.000 15 Over 2. Number of Cyclesa Allowable Tensile Stress. The following table shows some recommended values for bolt fatigue stresses.000.

5-1 is the distance from the centerline of the anchor bolt to the centerline of the nearest reinforcing bar.25 φA se Fy ) thereby insuring that the steel would yield prior to concrete rupture. To insure ducitlity for breakout. A se is the tensile stress area of the anchor bolt and φ = .3 of ACI 318-02 requires that anchor bolts reach their design strength before anchorage failure or failure of the surrounding concrete (ductile failure) yet no code section is provided to state how this is to be accomplished.9 as given in ACI 318-02 Chapter 9. as it would be for pullout and side-face blowout. there must be sufficient lap length (with a standard hook on the reinforcing bars if required) to adequately develop the capacity.5 rather than the older 45 degree assumption. The cone is considered to have a square shape in plan rather than the classical round shape to simplify calculations. Appendix D of ACI 318-02 (ACI 2002) and Appendix B of ACI 349-01 both address the anchoring to concrete of cast-in-place anchors. Section 15. In the CCD method the concrete cone is considered to be formed at a slope of 1 in 1. Lutz-Fisher(23). The distance “g” as shown in Fig.3l d + + top cover 1. When an anchor bolt is designed to lap with reinforcement. To achieve this. Adhesive anchors and grouted anchors are not covered by these appendices.Anchorage Prior to publication of ACI 318-02. outline a procedure to insure this ductility requirement. ACI 318 presented a new method for determining anchor bolt capacities. Lutz proposed that the concrete must reach a capacity of 1. The provisions in both of these appendices are based upon the Concrete Capacity Design (CCD) Method.5 When the anchor is solely resisted by concrete.8. Using a Class B splice. one needs to have the concrete designed with additional capacity in order to insure ductility of the ( connection.3. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Anchor Bolts • 101 . anchorage of bolts was based upon approximate methods using pull-out “cones” as developed in AISC(12) and PCI(24). the required embedment (top of concrete to top of nut) would be g h ef = 1. the anchor capacity can be taken as φA se Fy since the lap splice will insure that ductile behavior will occur.

2 Development of bar for concrete breakout Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Anchor Bolts • 102 .3ld hef 1 1. Hooked bars if required 1.5 Potential failure plane g Fig. 5.

Example 4. 9" 10" 60" 3" Fig 5-2 Check tension capacity of 2-#9 bars φPcap = . The basic development length of a #9 bar with 3 inches clear is 37 inches (straight bar).0×60 = 108 o. 3 inches clear from the edge of the pier and the concrete strength is 3500 psi. The anchor bolt capacity is Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Anchor Bolts • 103 .k. There are 24-#9 Gr 60 reinforcing bars bundled in groups of 2.1 An anchor bolt has a factored (USD) bolt tension of 50 kips.90×2×1. There are 8 anchor bolts and the anchor bolts are 10 inches from the edge of a 60 inch diameter concrete pier and the bolts are 1-1/4” F1554 Gr 55.90× nA b × Fy = .

4) A brg (8fc′) 2. side-face blowout must be checked. The side-face blowout strength is s φN sbg = .75 1 + o 160c A brg fc′ 6c 18.4 h ef . side-face blowout would not need to be checked if ties are provided in the region at the anchor bolt nut location such that the ties would cross the failure plane.5 = 61 kips ≥ 60 o.9×.236 4 φN pn = .75 1 + 160×10 2.70×1. c .969×55 = 60 bolt Using a nut diameter of 2. Often the anchor bolts are held together with a ½” setting plate ring.3l d = 48 in g 9 h ef ≥ 1.25 (φA se Fy ) = 1.3l d + + cov er = 48 + + 3 = 57 in.25× 0. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Anchor Bolts • 104 .75×A se × Fut = .252 A brg = π = 2.236× 8× 3. the concrete strength must be greater than kips 1.4×2. the pullout strength is φN pn = φψ 4 N p = .k.5 Pullout To insure ductility for pull-out and side-face blowout.12 − 1. An assumption could be made that the bearing would be equivalent to a washer which would have an outside diameter of two times the bolt diameter.k.5 kips ≥ 60 o.236× 3500 = 139.70 (1. Since c ≤ . φN s = .85 = .75×.1”. l d = 37 in 1. 6×10 Normally. This would increase the bearing area but might not be fully effective since the plate would bend during pullout. is 10”.969×75 = 54. Side-Face Blowout The side clearance.5 1. say 5 ' 1.5 kips Breakout Ductility for breakout will be insured by lapping the bolt with the reinforcing bars.

Recommendations Determining Base Plate Forces Grouted Base Plates All of the methods presented yield approximately the same results. Therefore. when using the 45 degree rule. However. The Complete Methods also have specific methods for square base plates.40 for four bolt base plates and would increase for poles with more than four bolts. which can only be approximated as circular using the Process Equipment or Lutz Methods. Determining Base Plate Stresses The Method of Slices without any adjustment to the effective width was proven inaccurate by the work of Boulos and Owens. The plate hole opening diameter should be taken as no less than the inner diameter of the pole minus the distance from the pole face to the adjusted outside edge of the plate. The Process Equipment Method of considering the plate as a simple cantilever from the center of the bolt circle to the face of the pole is still the simplest method for circular or polygonal plates and yields results for square base plates. The method should only be used for square base plates whenever the effective width of plate at the face of the pole is multiplied by an adjustment factor . The following two modifications should be made: 1. that are comparable to those Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Recommendations • 105 . the Complete Method should be modified to obtain a more reasonable distribution of plate stresses considering that the plate is not infinitely rigid. The distance from the bolt circle to the outside edge of the plate should be limited to the distance from the pole face to the bolt circle. the Complete Methods are more accurate when there are a limited number of bolts. Ungrouted Base Plates The method of calculating bolt forces using the section modulus of the bolt group is the only method currently being used. The factor would be approximately 0. 2.

There was no evidence in the research that would support the assumptions in any of the Alternate Methods although they may have some validity. The ASCE Manual 72 (Proposed) Method is identical to the aforementioned Process Equipment Method using the 45 degree rule. The Process Equipment Method (45 degree rule)/ASCE Manual 72 Method is therefore recommended using the parallel bend line and the worst case positioning of pole facets and bolts.obtained by using the Boulos method when using a lower bound of . Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Recommendations • 106 .40 on effective width.

Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Recommendations • 107 . The poles are circular and extend through the plate as shown below. A covering fillet(s) may be added to prevent water collection at the base plate.Construction Details The majority of poles manufactured today are small diameter poles used for traffic control purposes. Larger diameter polygonal poles may have manufacturing tolerances such that a “gap” may occur during fit-up. This requires that the fillet welds be built-up in order to maintain the proper root thickness. Typical Fillet Weld Top Weld Resists . A better detail for larger diameter poles is to extend the plate inside the pole and to use a full penetration weld as shown below.75-100% of Load Bottom Weld Resists 25% of Load gap Must build out weld to achieve proper root thickness This detail subjects the weld to a constant state of stress.

American Association of State Highway Transportation Offices (AASHTO). 1925. Design and Behavior. Manual 72. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Boulos. Research Report 131. Design of Steel Structures. New Procedure For Design of End Plates and Base Plates of Cantilevered Traffic Support Structures. Base Plates Under Axial Loads and Moments. Design of Welded Structures. 13. Thambiratnam. Column Base Plates with Axial Loads and Moments. 8. Steel Structures. 9. 6. McGuire. and Alampalli. Concrete Plain and Reinforced. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures. A Simplified Design Procedure For End-Plates and Base-Plates Of Cantilevered Traffic Structures. 1957. 2. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 15. Load Testing. 7. May 1986. Salmon and Johnson. 12. 16. Luminaires and Traffic Signals. New York State Department of Transportation. Sreenivas. October 2001. 11. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. Frank Owens. November 1980. Blodgett. The National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers (NAAMM). Osman Hag-Elsafi. Sreenivas Alampalli. Gaylord and Gaylord. Fu. Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs. Steel Design Guide Series 1. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering.Bibliography References 1. Metal Flagpole Manual. 4. 3. Osman Hag- Elsafi. Guide Specifications for Design of Metal Flagpoles. and Frank Owens. Column Base Plates. Taylor. 10. Brownell and Young . New York State Department of Transportation. and Smulski. Process Equipment Design. Thompson. Steel Structures. Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Bibliography • 108 . Lincoln Arc Welding. And Design of Steel Traffic-Signal Pole. 5. Research Report 159. 14. Finite Element Analysis. DeWolf. The National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers (NAAMM).

22. 1991. Troitsky . Roofs to Column Anchorage. Prestressed Concrete Design Handbook. 2004. Computerized Structural Design. 27. 23. 18.17. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Leroy Lutz. Pressure Vessel Handbook. Theory of Plates and Shells. Design of Plate Structures – Volume 2. Industrial Buildings. 25. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Roarke. Dr. Bijilaard. Lutz-Fisher. Daniel Horn. Lincoln Arc Welding 1990. Pressure Vessel Handbook. Bednard . 2004. Computerized Structural Design. Steel Design Guide Series #7. ASCE Manual 72. Tubular Steel Structures. 2004. 24. Internal Memorandum. Megyesy. Formulas for Stress and Strain. 19. Presressed Concrete Institute (PCI). Timoshenko. Internal Memorandum. Guide for Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures. 20. 26. Theory and Design. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Bibliography • 109 . 21.

.

Glossary of Terms AASHTO American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials. or 18 sides). AISI American Iron and Steel Institute. Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Glossary of Terms • 111 . AISC American Institute of Steel Construction. Poles can be round or polygonal (8. Base Plate A steel plate that transmit forces from a column to the foundation.16. PCI Prestressed Concrete Institute. ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers. Monopole A stepped or tapered steel pole. NAAMM National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers.12.

.

of Introduction 72 Transportation) 91 Breakout 105 L C Lutz Modification 29 Complete Circular Base Plate Method 63 M Complete Square Base Plate . Determining Bolt Forces 66 Determining Bolt Shear 71 Diagonal Loading Case 91 Index E Effective Width Based Upon Plate Theory 74 Example 1.Load On Diagonal 33 Material Grades 104 Complete Square Base Plate .1 68 AISC 111 Example 3.3 101 Alternate Method 2 83 Alternate Method 2 .2 69 AISC Method For Building Columns 7 Example 3. 104 Alternate Method 1 80 Example 4.2 14 Example 1.5 63 AASHTO 111 Example 3.1 26 Example 2.3 17 Example 2.Circular Base Plates 91 F Alternate Method 3 87 Flexible Base Plate 8 Anchorage 104 ASCE 111 G ASCE Manual 72 (Proposed 2003 Revision) 99 Grouted Base Plates 107 B H Base Plate 111 Base Plates With Gussets 79 Historical Perspective 2 Bending Stress 95 Bending Stresses In Bolts 71 I Boulos Method (New York Dept.4 47.1 79.1 9 Example 1.2 31 Example 2. 58 A Example 2.Square Base Plates 90 Example 4.3 38 Example 2.2 87 Alternate Method 1 .Load Parallel 50 Method of Slices 87 Modification for Clipped Corners 36 D Monopole 111 Determining Base Plate Forces 105 Determining Base Plate Stresses 108 Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Index • 113 .3 69 AISI 111 Example 4.

of Transportation) 99 P Parallel Loading Case 94 PCI 111 Process Equipment Design Method 19 Process Equipment Methods 77 Pullout 105 S Side-Face Blowout 105 Stiff Plate Approach 12 T Technical Manual 1-1 43 Technical Manual 1-2 54 Technical Manual 1-3 79 Torsional Shear Stress at Midpoint of Side 96 U Ungrouted Base Plates 108 Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Index • 114 .N NAAMM 111 O Organization 1 Owens Method (New York Dept.

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