CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.1 Introduction

Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a theory of motivation. It is concerned with supporting our

natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways. SDT has been researched and

practiced by a network of researchers around the world.

The theory was initially developed by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, and has been elaborated

and refined by scholars from many countries. Deci is currently a professor at the University of

Rochester in the Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology in Rochester, NY; Ryan,

a clinical psychologist, was recently appointed as Professor at the Institute for Positive Psychology

and Education at the Australian Catholic University in Sydney, Australia. Together and separately,

Deci and Ryan have promoted SDT through theory, research, and their ongoing training of scholars.

People are centrally concerned with motivation — how to move themselves or others to act.

Everywhere, parents, teachers, coaches, and managers struggle with how to motivate those that they

mentor, and individuals struggle to find energy, mobilize effort and persist at the tasks of life and

work. People are often moved by external factors such as reward systems, grades, evaluations, or the

opinions they fear others might have of them. Yet, just as frequently, people are motivated from

within, by interests, curiosity, care or abiding values. These intrinsic motivations are not necessarily

externally rewarded or supported, but nonetheless they can sustain passions, creativity, and sustained

efforts. The interplay between the extrinsic forces acting on persons and the intrinsic motives and

needs inherent in human nature is the territory of Self-Determination Theory.

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Self-Determination Theory (SDT) represents a broad framework for the study of human motivation

and personality. SDT articulates a meta-theory for framing motivational studies, a formal theory that

defines intrinsic and varied extrinsic sources of motivation, and a description of the respective roles

of intrinsic and types of extrinsic motivation in cognitive and social development and in individual

differences. Perhaps more importantly, SDT propositions also focus on how social and cultural

factors facilitate or undermine people’s sense of volition and initiative, in addition to their well-being

and the quality of their performance. Conditions supporting the individual’s experience of autonomy,

competence, and relatedness are argued to foster the most volitional and high quality forms of

motivation and engagement for activities, including enhanced performance, persistence, and

creativity. In addition, SDT proposes that the degree to which any of these three psychological needs

is unsupported or thwarted within a social context will have a robust detrimental impact on wellness

in that setting.

The dynamics of psychological need support and need thwarting have been studied within families,

classrooms, teams, organizations, clinics, and cultures using specific propositions detailed within

SDT. The SDT framework thus has both broad and behavior-specific implications for understanding

practices and structures that enhance versus diminish need satisfaction and the full functioning that

follows from it. These many implications are best revealed by the varied papers listed on this

website, which range from basic research on motivational micro-processes to applied clinical trials

aiming at population outcomes.

1.2 Problem Statement

In Malaysia there is currently an outcry over the quality of education on English offered in rural area.

Educators and concerned parents are protesting about the level of education on English in these

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schools in comparison with that of historically urban schools. It is also claimed that children

attending rural schools are unable to cope effectively in classroom situations. The poor quality of

such education on English achievement has been attributed to various factors, for example, to a lack

of learner's motivation which often results in educators exerting minimal effort into their work, as

well as to external factors that are beyond learner's control (e.g. inadequate training of teachers, lack

of educational facilities such as libraries and laboratories). These inadequacies are thought to inhibit

children's opportunities to explore concepts on their own and obtain hands-on experience and thus

negatively affect their motivation. Lack of motivation often results in learners exerting minimal

effort into their work.

My personal experience in disadvantaged educational settings suggests that, although there are many

rural learners who lack motivation, there are also many who succeed in their academic lives despite

the obstacles that are mentioned above. For this reason, it was my intention to investigate whether

these two categories of learners - those who succeed and those who do not — differ in terms of

motivational behaviours.

Existing theory and research (Deci & Ryan, 1985) have shown that selfdetermination (intrinsic

motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation) and achievement motivation play a prominent role

in the academic performance of learners. It is assumed that intrinsic motivation and achievement

motivation lead to increased effort thereby improving performance.

The main aim of the present study is to determine whether self-determination and English

achievement motivation impact positively on the English achievement of rural learners. Such

knowledge may offer suggestions as to how educators may, despite lack of resources, improve the

self-determination and achievement motivation of their learners.

1.3 Research Objectives

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1. 1.The main aim of the present study is to determine whether self-determination and achievement motivation impact positively on the English performance of rural learners. Extrinsic motivation is negatively related to English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. improve the self-determination and achievement motivation of their learners. 3. This study was intended to: a) Examine various theoretical perspectives and past findings related to the variables of interest. Intrinsic motivation is positively related to English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. 4. and to establish what they suggest about self-determination and achievement motivation and the impact thereof on learners (both those who succeed and those who do not). Mere is a positive correlation between achievement motivation and academic performance amongst rural learners in year 5. Such knowledge may offer suggestions as to how educators may. despite lack of resources.4 Research Questions Based on the problem statement and research objective above. 2. There is a negative correlation between amotivation and English achievement rural learners in year 5. and to test four hypotheses based on theory and past findings. the researcher want to identified : 4 . b) Collect and analyse data from learners in rural schools.

2. 1. 1. 4. Ho4: There is a positive correlation between achievement motivation and English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. objective and research question. Ho3 : There is a negative correlation between amotivation and English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. 3. There is a positive correlation between achievement motivation and English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. Independant Variable Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Dependant Variable ESL Achievement 5 . Ho2: Extrinsic motivation is negatively related to English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. There is a negative correlation between amotivation and English achievement rural learners in year 5.6 Framework Of The Study The framework of the will be based on the dependent variable of self.determination among rural learners in year 6 while the independent variable is English Achievement. Have Intrinsic motivation is positively related to English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5.5 Research Hypothesis Based on problem statement. 1. several hypothesis had been done : Hᴏ1: Intrinsic motivation is positively related to English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5. Have Extrinsic motivation is negatively related to English achievement amongst rural learners in year 5.

1 Framework of the Study 1. In order to make sure that learners at rural area do not left behind in English as a second language. Amotivation Achievement Motivation Figure 1. The PPD and JPN should be able to formulate an effective program to help rural learners to have self-determination toward English which will ultimately result in a positive impact on the performance in English as a second language in school. Therefore. it will generate a positive impact on student achievement and school progress. this study is important to the parties . 6 .policies or programs to be implemented considering for rural area learners to have self-determination towards English as a second language. studies on self-determination and English achievement rural area learners meager progress.the interested parties as follows: It is hoped that teachers and school administration can understand the problems experienced self- determination and English achievement among learners in rural area school. If learners have self- determination toward English achievement. It is hoped that the Ministry of Education and the government can formulate policies . However.7 Significance Of The Study Studies related to self-determination and academic achievement related to school learners have been done by previous researchers.

extrinsic motivation and amotivation. who focus on qualitative. their activities will involve moving in the direction of achieving that goal.1 Motivation The word 'motivation' is derived from the Latin words moveo (out of) and movere (to move).8. They also view intrinsic 7 . rather than on quantitative. Motivation in the learning context is defined by Woodbridge and Manamela (1992) as the willingness to engage in meaningful tasks. They contend that a learner who considers learning as a personal tool to increase knowledge is intrinsically motivated. Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory is motivational. whereas someone who is energised or activated towards an end is motivated (Deci & Ryan.1. 1.2 Self-determination The main proponents of self-determination theory are Deci and Ryan (1985). affective and behavioural variables. differences in motivation.8 Operational Definitions The terms below have described the operation as follows: 1. If learners are motivated to attain a given goal. A person who feels no inspiration to act is viewed as a person who is unmotivated. Deci and Ryan's selfdetermination theory distinguishes between intrinsic motivation.8. whereas the learner who learns in order to meet the requirements of others is extrinsically motivated. which sustains the desire to learn. 1. 2000). To be motivated means to be 'moved to do something'.8.3 Intrinsic Motivation Corno and Rohrkemper (1985) also define intrinsic motivation as an internal facility within the individual. rather than cognitive in nature in that it addresses the energisation and direction of behaviour and thus uses motivational constructs to organise cognitive.

It is usually equated with what is termed 'learned helplessness'. for instance when they interpret their failure as caused by lack of ability.5 Amotivation Amotivation.4 Extrinsic Motivation According to Deci and Ryan. these sums were easy).g. In the school setting. they are quick to deny responsibility and tend to attribute their success to variables over which they have little or no control (e. Learned helplessness is a state in which learners feel helpless (Stipek. because they feel they do not possess sufficient intelligence to deal with tasks. a learner must be able to have the necessary skills to control his environment. satisfaction) is considered to be intrinsically motivated (i. 8 .8.g. 1995). 1973). autonomous). 1.motivation as the need to deal effectively with the environment in order to become more competent. or not believing it will yield a desired outcome (Seligman. this means that learners who are intrinsically motivated tend to take full responsibility for their learning actions. On the other hand. This usually occurs when learners perceive outcomes of their behaviour as caused by factors beyond their control.8. which is the third type of 'motivation' described by Deci and Ryan (1992). When they do succeed. They further postulate that human development can be described in terms of movement towards greater autonomy. occurs when there is an absence of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. a person who engages in an activity for an internal reward (e. I was lucky. That is. the motivation is said to be extrinsic. Some learners simply give up trying. and that this movement depends in part on the continual acquisition of a variety of competencies. In other words. Amotivation may also result from not valuing an activity (Ryan. when the reason for engaging in that particular task is to obtain something outside the activity itself. he must possess the internal impetus that will drive him towards a desired goal regardless of obstacles in the environment. 1998) or lack of intention to act (Deci & Ryan 2000).e. 1.

they need also to encourage those learners who are extrinsically motivated to expend effort and work hard in order to achieve. • Educators should encourage learners' feelings of competence and discourage dependency in classrooms by being giving them freedom as well as responsibility to act on their own at times. This can enable the learners to feel that their behaviour is self-determined. • Educators should continually promote both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by helping learners to focus not only on the extrinsic rewards they gain after they accomplish tasks but to also inculcate the intrinsic value of their academic subjects. Educators can achieve the above through implementation of the following suggestions: • Educators should encourage the learners to not only rely solely on motivation to accomplish their tasks invest effort on academic tasks in order to improve their performance. it is important for educators to understand the differences in motivational aspects of their learners in order to facilitate effective learning in academic settings. Since educators cannot rely only on intrinsic motivation to foster learning.1. • Educators need to provide learners with optimal challenges that will stimulate them toward peak performance and to be involved proactively in their academic tasks.9 Assumptions And Limitation Of The Study As was postulated in the literature. 9 . The following are recommendations that are not based on the findings in this study but that can assist educators to encourage learners to expend their efforts and work hard in order to achieve better performance.

Furthermore. • Tasks given to learners should match to the learners' cognitive levels. to overcome the failure and obstacles inherent in the learning process through willingness to persist. but offer sufficient interest value to facilitate improved concentration and elicit positive affective responses from the learners. thus enabling them to feel part of the whole process of learning. In other words learners might have given responses that they believed would be pleasing.9. the manner in which the research statements were phrased might not have been meaningful to the learners. This can encourage them to internalize classroom activities and work on tasks without waiting for prodding from significant others. The learners also need to feel cared for and respected by their educators. 1. which implies that they must help learners firstly to try their best and secondly. although the questionnaire was translated into Malayn languages.• Educators must also facilitate optimism in learners. • Response biases may have contaminated the results. 10 . This implies that the tasks should neither be too difficult nor too easy.1 Limitations Of This Study • The results cannot be generalized as the sample consisted only of three primary schools in Pendang. (Bachman & O'Malley 1984 reported that black learners were more likely to give extreme responses in the Likert-type questionnaire than white learners). • Cultural factors may have played a role in that black learners are unaccustomed to research and to responding to research questions. • Educators can enhance motivation (whether intrinsic or extrinsic) by providing them with a sense of belonging and connectedness.

10 Summary It is important that educators within the classroom setting have a good understanding of the motivational aspects of their learners.• The statistical analyses were limited. Only correlations and Anovas were calculated in this study. 11 . In essence. and to keep persevering even in the face of obstacles. This will help learners to do their work diligently. Educators should be skilled enough to be able to use cues in the classroom to encourage intrinsic motivation. educators must help learners to create an internal legacy of learning that will sustain itself regardless of the external environment thus helping them to develop the necessary internal drive to propel them to achieve greater heights in learning. 1.

2 The Definitions/Concepts Of The Variable To Be Studied The word 'motivation' is derived from the Latin words moveo (out of) and movere (to move). This study focuses on self-determination and achievement motivation in an academic setting. 2. The concept of motivation in general will be discussed first. To be motivated means to be 'moved to do something'. namely. Motivation in the learning context is defined by 12 . Self-determination and achievement motivation are the two facets of motivation that are derived from the broad concept of 'motivation' and interpreted by theorists such as Deci and Ryan (1985) (self-determination) and Ball (1977) (achievement motivation).1 Introduction Several decades of research have demonstrated that motivation is an important contributor to school performance. in order to provide an overview of the field. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and amotivation. The complex and multifaceted concept of 'motivation' is interpreted by various theorists in different ways. Achievement motivation and its relation to self- determination will then be discussed. This is followed by a discussion on self determination theory and its main components. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

differences in motivation. according to Van Vuuren (1988). 2000). rather than on quantitative. their activities will involve moving in the direction of achieving that goal. nor maintain striving towards these goals. to stir. They posit that these different types of motivation 13 . In other words learners are driven to do more work since they enjoy the feeling that they experience when they are engaged in a task. extrinsic motivation and amotivation. When learners are motivated. they tend to develop inner confidence and generally expect to succeed. For example. who focus on qualitative.Woodbridge and Manamela (1992) as the willingness to engage in meaningful tasks. rather than cognitive in nature in that it addresses the energisation and direction of behaviour and thus uses motivational constructs to organise cognitive. work upon. They tend to avoid challenging tasks and show little persistence in the face of difficulty. Such learners tend to exhibit maladaptive behavioural patterns in that they do not value or establish reasonable goals. The main proponents of self-determination theory are Deci and Ryan (1985). If learners are motivated to attain a given goal. Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory is motivational. Children displaying these patterns appear to enjoy exerting effort in the pursuit of task mastery. and inspire. affective and behavioural variables. which are defined by Dweck (1986) as those behaviours which demonstrate the seeking of challenges as well as persistence in the face of obstacles. educators therefore need to provide a context that will inspire motivation. excite. implies setting in motion. The opposite is true for learners who are unmotivated. whereas someone who is energised or activated towards an end is considered to be motivated (Deci & Ryan. learners are motivated when they experience pleasure in tackling schoolwork. Deci and Ryan's selfdetermination theory distinguishes between intrinsic motivation. For learners to become motivated by their learning activities. Similarly motivation. A person who feels no inspiration to act is viewed as a person who is unmotivated. They tend to portray adaptive motivational patterns.

Deci and Ryan contend that opportunities to be self-determining enhance intrinsic motivation. and with the 14 . All definitions of intrinsic motivation indicate that intrinsically motivated students are driven from within. have curiosity to learn. when the reason for engaging in that particular task is to obtain something outside the activity itself. It will also be made clear from the definitions below. 1992). and that this movement depends in part on the continual acquisition of a variety of competencies. show signs of having psychological needs to be competent. They further postulate that human development can be described in terms of movement towards greater autonomy. a learner must be able to have the necessary skills to control his environment. are willing to explore learning activities on their own. On the other hand. The different types of motivation mentioned above will now be discussed in more depth. and undertake tasks in order to fulfil their quest to know more (Deci & Ryan. and do not depend on constant urgings from significant others in their environment for motivation to accomplish a task.g. Self-determination also refers to the experience of freedom in initiating behaviour (autonomous behaviour). Stipek (1998) claims that human beings are born with the disposition to develop skills and engage in learning-related activities. he must possess the internal impetus that will drive him towards a desired goal regardless of obstacles in the environment. the motivation is said to be extrinsic. Deci and Ryan (1985) also see the need for self-determining behaviour as an important motivator inherent in intrinsic motivation which is closely intertwined with the need for competence. and that lack of such opportunities undermines intrinsic motivation. In other words. According to Deci and Ryan. autonomous).e. satisfaction) is considered to be intrinsically motivated (i. a person who engages in an activity for an internal reward (e. Learners who are driven from within (intrinsically motivated) tend to possess a self-generated energy for a task. that intrinsic motivation is influenced by the degree of interest and the nature of the challenge. That is. However these intrinsic tendencies tend to decline with age.are based on different reasons that may give rise to action (for example internal and external reasons).

an individual must be free from outside pressure. and thus tend to perform well on cognitive tasks. They also contend that since human beings are capable of conscious choices (autonomy). this means that learners who are intrinsically motivated tend to take full responsibility for their learning actions. Corno and Rohrkemper (1985) also define intrinsic motivation as an internal facility within the individual. and have an innate need to be autonomous and to engage in activities of their own volition (Stipek. They contend that a learner who considers learning as a personal tool to increase knowledge is intrinsically motivated. And when learners succeed at school. which sustains the desire to learn. and it is unlikely to function under conditions involving controls or reinforcements ( Deci & Ryan.interference of the external reinforcements (rewards). they are likely to view academic performance as a controllable outcome. Intrinsic motivation is operative when action is experienced as autonomous. whereas the learner who learns in order to meet the requirements of others is extrinsically motivated. human beings are naturally inclined to seek opportunities to develop competencies. In the school setting. Deci and Ryan (1985) use the term intrinsic motivation to describe motivation arising from the innate human need for continuous feelings of competence and Such feelings are experienced when individuals are successful in handling self-selected challenges. To be truly intrinsically motivated. That is. 1985). 15 . They also view intrinsic motivation as the need to deal effectively with the environment in order to become more competent. It follows that only when external rewards are not expected after a task. She argues that external reinforcements are superfluous since the desire to learn is inherent within individuals (Stipek. They devote energy to achieve their learning goals. true feelings of competence can only arise from self-determined behaviour. can individuals feel competent after accomplishment of the task. 1998). 1998).

persisting with. De Charms (1968) adds that in these mastery atternpts people need to feel like causal agents. 1992). and the desire to engage in activity purely for the sake of participating in and completing the task at hand.Intrinsic motivation is often referred to as an independent ego energy. Hence Deci (1975) has proposed that the innate psychological needs for competence and self-determination underlie intrinsically motivated behaviours. Deci and Ryan (1985). Even though intrinsic motivation exists within individuals. and perceive themselves as having an internal drive. feel competent and self-determined. It has also been defined as a process which results in commencing. Hull (1943) maintains that people who are intrinsically motivated experience interest and enjoyment. exploration and play (Deci & Ryan. White (1959) argues that intrinsically motivated behaviours can be usefully understood in terms of the need of persons to feel competent or effective in dealing with their environments. This definition is related to the one of achievement 16 . Seeking to master the environment. They further claim that human beings are by nature information- processing organisms who. and willingly approach novel stimuli and challenging tasks. Gottfried (1985) and Dev (1998) also define intrinsic motivation as the motivation that arises from the need to know more about chosen topics. That is. Deci and Ryan (2000) suggest that in another sense it exists in the relation between individuals and activities. people are intrinsically motivated for certain activities and not others. people take interest in. for the most part decide their behaviours based on their cognitive assessment of the situation in which they find themselves. and not all persons are intrinsically motivated to do a given task. Wigfield (1994) explain intrinsic motivation as the intense and highly energised state of concentrated attention which every individual seeks to attain. the need to excel out of curiosity or interest. This term is used to refer to the ego energy as a portion of the personality structure responsible for volitional response to rational processes. and even enjoying challenging tasks.

motivation as will be later seen, in the sense that a learner requires intrinsic energy to persevere with,

and complete a task.

Vallerand, Pelletier, Blias, Briöre, Senécal and Valliöres (1993) differentiate between the three types

of intrinsic motivation.

2.2.1 Intrinsic motivation to know and understand.

To do something for the pleasure and satisfaction experienced while learning. This can happen, for

example, when a learner decides to read a book, not for the accumulation of factual knowledge on

which testing can be based, but for the pleasure derived from discovering something new through

reading.

2.2.2 Intrinsic motivation to accomplish things

To do something for the pleasure and satisfaction of accomplishment. Here a learner can be

motivated to read beyond what is prescribed to read for a test or examination, for the sheer pleasure

of acquiring more knowledge than required.

2.2.3 Intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation

To do something in order to experience stimulating sensations. For example, a leaner may decide to

read, purely for the sake of stimulation and refreshment of the mind.

In sum, intrinsically motivated behaviours are those engaged in for their own internal rewards such

as satisfaction and pleasure. A person is internally driven to engage in an activity in the absence of

any external rewards. That is, intrinsically motivated individuals do not need any type of reward or

incentive to initiate and complete a task.

However, in an academic setting many tasks are not inherently interesting (e.g. learning the

alphabet). Therefore intrinsic motivation cannot always be relied upon to foster learning. It is

imperative therefore that educators acquire a broader understanding of the other forms of motivation

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a learner might possess, in order to help the learner use that particular type of motivation towards

success in achieving goals.

2.2.4 Extrinsic motivation

In contrast to intrinsically motivated behaviours, extrinsically motivated behaviours are performed

for the sake of external rewards offered for participation in, or completion of, a task. Learners who

are extrinsically motivated may, for example, engage in tasks to receive teacher approval, or to obtain

high marks, or to avoid punishment. In other words, extrinsic motivation occurs when the reason for

doing a task is other than interest in the activity itself (Deci & Ryan, 1992). Learners who lack the

internal drive to accomplish tasks, and rely on external incentives for motivation (intrinsically

motivated behaviours), are therefore said to be extrinsically motivated. This type of motivation is

said to be non-autonomous as external, rather than internal, factors guide behaviour.

Although many researchers and theorists maintain that extrinsically motivated behaviours are non-

autonomous (i.e. not self-determined), Deci and Ryan (1992) argue that these behaviours can become

autonomous. They contend that behaviour can initially be driven by extrinsic factors, but may after a

time become autonomous. Woodworth (1985) refers to this type of progression as 'functional

autonomy', that is regardless of its initiating motive, a behaviour can eventually become intrinsically

motivated.

However, Deci and Ryan (1987) further suggest that controlling strategies (e.g. external rewards)

reduce feelings of autonomy and undermine later intrinsic motivation for these activities.

De Charms (1968), in his classic view of extrinsic motivation, described extrinsic motivation, in

contrast with intrinsic motivation, as a pale and impoverished type of motivation. On the other hand,

self-determination theorists claim that there are various types of extrinsic motivation, some of which

actually represent impoverished forms of motivation while some of the others represent active,

agentic states (Deci & Ryan, 2000). For example, learners can perform actions either with

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resentment, resistance and disinterest, or with an attitude of willingness that reflects inner acceptance

of the utility of the task at hand. The former view illustrates the traditional view of extrinsic

motivation in self-determination theory, where the motive for engaging in an action is a sense of

external propulsion, while in the latter case, the extrinsic goal is self-endorsed and thus pursued out

of volition.

Deci and Ryan (1992) describe a process of internalisation in the development of motivational

behaviours. Irrespective of whether the behaviour was initially induced by external motivational

considerations, once the behaviour has been internalised it may be transformed to intrinsic behaviour.

Grolnick, Deci, Ryan and Avery (1991) argue that since the domain of internalisation consists of all

the behaviours that do not occur spontaneously, but are required by the social world, the process of

internalisation involves developing abilities to master external demands.

Deci and Ryan (1992) suggest four different forms of extrinsically motivated behaviours, namely

external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and integrated regulation. These

behaviours differ in their degee of autonomy and behavioural consequences. In this regard Deci and

Ryan (1992) suggest that it is important to consider not only the quantity but also the quality of the

behaviours. The four types of extrinsic motivation as distinguished by Deci and Ryan will now be

discussed.

2.2.5 External regulation

External regulation occurs when behaviours are initiated and sustained by external factors in order to

attain desirable consequences (e.g. a pat on the back from a teacher) or to avoid negative

consequences (e.g. mocking by peers). There is very little spark of self-determination (autonomy) in

this type of behaviour as it is largely influenced by pressure from others. A learner may, for example,

be motivated to do homework due to fear of punishment from parents.

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7 Identified regulation Identified regulation refers to behaviours that arise when learners evaluate the implications of a possible behaviour and judge the behaviour as important. not self-determined since the behaviour is initiated by the feelings of guilt which are introjected from without. and creativity as indicators of whether an extrinsic regulation has been fully integrated.8 Integrated regulation According to self-determination theory. learners may decide to study for examinations because they believe that studying hard will lead to academic success. It is autonomous in the sense of self-discovery of the internal value of engaging in the selected behaviour. It is. will do so because they are driven not only by external pressure. but also to pressure from within. this integrated regulation style is the most volitional. For example. 20 .2. even though any personal interest may be absent. This kind of motivation may be viewed on a superficial level as 'intrinsic' as it has internal origins. autonomous form of extrinsic motivation. but also by feelings of guilt.6 Introjected regulation Introjected regulation refers to the type of motivation where individuals respond not only to pressure from without. it tends to be freely chosen without any external pressure. depth of processing. it represents the basis for self-determined functioning.2.2. Although the behaviour is extrinsically motivated. learners who are reluctant to produce an assigment. such as cognitive flexibility. 2. Self-determination theorists use the qualities associated with intrinsically motivated behaviour.2. 2. Together with intrinsic motivation. The decision is then taken to perform the behaviour. For example. however.

They are not sufficiently diligent to modify strategies in accordance with the demands of changing tasks. for instance when they interpret their failure as caused by lack of ability. 21 . Learned helplessness is a state in which learners feel helpless (Stipek.g. Some learners simply give up trying. Consequently they are both expected to lead to higher quality learning than external and introjected regulation. especially when they see others doing better in the classroom than they are (Stipek.9 Amotivation Amotivation. integrated regulation (a form of extrinsic motivation) is similar to intrinsic motivation in that it is self-initiated. 1973). 1995). When they do succeed. such as lack of persistence with their tasks which generally results in decreased performance. 1998).2. these sums were easy). It is usually equated with what is termed 'learned helplessness'. The performance of the amotivated learner therefore tends to deteriorate in the face of failure. However. I was lucky. Boggiano and Pittman (1992) postulated that amotivated learners tend to use maladaptive learning strategies. This usually occurs when learners perceive outcomes of their behaviour as caused by factors beyond their control. which is the third type of 'motivation' described by Deci and Ryan (1992). 2. or not believing it will yield a desired outcome (Seligman. Amotivation falls on the lowest level of autonomy on the self-determination continuum. According to Deci and Ryan (1985) such amotivated learners lack confidence in their ability to exert further effort after failure. Amotivation may also result from not valuing an activity (Ryan. Amotivated learners tend to react to failure by falling into a state of helplessness. 1998) or lack of intention to act (Deci & Ryan 2000). occurs when there is an absence of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. they are quick to deny responsibility and tend to attribute their success to variables over which they have little or no control (e.It is important to mention that the two fundamental forms of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) differ in that intrinsically motivated behaviours are autotelic whereas extrinsic behaviours are primarily influenced by extrinsic factors. because they feel they do not possess sufficient intelligence to deal with tasks.

This theory predicts that freedom from demeaning evaluations can facilitate intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan. they usually tend to compete. but it also helps learners to accept responsibility for their actions as they grow older. in the same classroom some learners may show signs of intrinsic motivation while others may be extrinsically motivated to achieve. She goes on to argue that although there are times when intrinsic and extrinsic motivation run parallel. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci & Ryan. As previously mentioned she also suggests that extrinsic rewards tend to undermine the intrinsic drive to accomplish a given task. In other words Deci and Ryan.Their poorly formed strategies are likely to be ineffective and to inhibit motivational development. which is considered as a sub-theory of self-determination theory. For example. the children tend to disregard their own internal drives.2. once offers of extrinsic rewards are made. which eventually leads to diminished academic achievement. The reason for this is that rewards and positive feedback allow satisfaction of the basic psychological need for competence. Even though children may initially be intrinsically motivated to accomplish a task. 2000). Stipek further suggests that children in similar classroom settings may exhibit different motivational behaviours in their responses to learning. 22 . suggest that certain behaviours should be extrinsically motivated to prompt learners to engage in essential tasks which are not inherently interesting. 2. In contrast to the above argument. 2000). This not only encourages learners who are amotivated to achieve some degree of success. since behavioural motivational orientations change as human beings develop. holds that interpersonal events and structures (rewards and feedback) may enhance feelings of competence during an action and thus enhance intrinsic motivation for that action.10 The Relationship Between Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation And Amotivation Stipek (1998) maintains that intrinsic motivation can be measured in terms of an individual's voluntary activities. since their type of motivation is not necessarily the same.

Indicators of intrinsic motivation include enthusiasm for.11 Impact Of Self-Determination On Achievement Related Behaviours Deci and Ryan's (1985) studies reveal that there is a positive relationship between intrinsic motivation.2. Although very simple activities tend to bore such learners. time devoted to tackling the task. those that are too difficult tend to lead to frustration as well feelings of anxiety and incompetence. They also maintain that learners who are both achievement motivated and intrinsically motivated. These authors suggest therefore. learning and achievement. educators should expose learners to tasks that are optimally challenging. This intrinsic need for competence and achievement motivates an ongoing process of seeking and attempting to conquer suitable challenges. and to feel confident about tackling unfamiliar learning situations. 23 . Deci and Ryan (1985) and Boggiano and Pittsman (1992) agree that intrinsically motivated learners tend seek challenging tasks. and the associated feelings of self-efficacy. enjoy challenges and persist with their learning tasks. The more challenging the activities are. Baron and Elliot (1998) contend that intrinsic motivation is strongly related to achievement motivation. They define challenging tasks as those requiring the stretching of current competencies. Intrinsically motivated learners are more likely to retain the concepts learned. and persistence with an assigned task. However. that is. a few steps ahead of present ability. Deci and Ryan (1985) maintain that intrinsically motivated learners will persist with tasks even though these may be difficult. the interest learners might have for a particular task also contributes to motivational orientation. An assigned task with little or no interest value is not likely to motivate the learner.2. that in order to foster intrinsic motivation. Harackeiwicz. the more the inherent aspiration to independently explore and make discoveries is evoked. They maintain that intrinsic motivation energises a wide variety of behaviours and psychological processes for which the primary rewards are competence and achievement. and therefore influences academic performance. These learners tend to show mastery and competence over their environment.

Self-Determination. their questions to educators are more likely to concern the learning material itself rather than what content will be covered in the examination (Harackiewicz. Baron & Elliot. learners who are extrinsically motivated tend to attribute their academic performance to external factors over which they have no control. 1998). On the other hand. Heckhausen. including doing the reading and homework necessary for success. and Schneider (1985) believe that intrinsic motivation is strongly related to academic achievement. which are considered to be achievement motivated behaviours. It may be concluded that intrinsic motivation positively influences academic performance: If learners are interested in a specific task they are likely to devote time and energy to the task. as well as persistence in the face of failure (i. achievement motivation) (Bar-Tal & Bar-Zorah.e.2. They state that intrinsically motivated and achievement motivated learners tend to perceive their achievements as the consequence of their own actions.12 The Relationship Between Achievement Motivation. Since intrinsically motivated learners enjoy learning. 24 . On the other hand. Baron and Elliot (1998) also suggest that intrinsically motivated learners are more likely to concentrate in class to ensure gaining adequate knowledge for what they have to do. Harackiewicz. and are more likely to display continuous progress on the path to success. Since intrinsic motivation fosters challenge seeking and persistence with activities. it normally leads to task mastery and competence. The prevalent idea among all theories of intrinsic motivation is that intrinsically motivated learners tend to use self-regulated strategies that involve internalisation of the learning content. And Achievement Related Behaviours Achievement motivated learners are likely to show initiative in and enthusiasm for academic tasks. 1977). 2. Schmalt.Nicholls & Dweck (1985) argue that intrinsically motivated and achievement motivated behaviours are closely related.

In sum. Deci and Ryan have promoted SDT through theory. was recently appointed as Professor at the Institute for Positive Psychology and Education at the Australian Catholic University in Sydney. Ryan. Deci is currently a professor at the University of Rochester in the Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology in Rochester. People are centrally concerned with motivation — how to move themselves or others to act. coaches. tend to persist with tasks even after having experienced failure. It can therefore be assumed that achievement motivation is positively related to academic performance. 1977). research. The theory was initially developed by Edward L. Everywhere. and has been elaborated and refined by scholars from many countries. parents. 2. Together and separately. SDT has been researched and practiced by a network of researchers around the world. a clinical psychologist. teachers. According to Atkinson (1985) and Deci and Ryan (1991). the above literature raises a general expectation that both intrinsically motivated learners and achievement motivated learners tend to do better in academic tasks than extrinsically motivated learners. Deci and Richard M.Zorah. intrinsic motivation and achievement motivation are positively related since learners who are intrinsically motivated. NY. unless they are persuaded by the offer of extrinsic rewards (Bar-Tal & Bar.extrinsically motivated learners do not usually show any determination to improve their academic performance and have little reason to exert more effort on their academic tasks. Australia. Ryan. and managers struggle with how to motivate those that they 25 . and their ongoing training of scholars.3 Theories Of The Variables To Be Studied Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a theory of motivation. It is concerned with supporting our natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways.

The interplay between the extrinsic forces acting on persons and the intrinsic motives and needs inherent in human nature is the territory of Self-Determination Theory. grades. and cultures using specific propositions detailed within SDT. Perhaps more importantly.and relatedness are argued to foster the most volitional and high quality forms of motivation and engagement for activities. People are often moved by external factors such as reward systems. just as frequently. people are motivated from within. and a description of the respective roles of intrinsic and types of extrinsic motivation in cognitive and social development and in individual differences. classrooms. in addition to their well-being and the quality of their performance. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) represents a broad framework for the study of human motivation and personality. mobilize effort and persist at the tasks of life and work. These intrinsic motivations are not necessarily externally rewarded or supported. SDT propositions also focus on how social and cultural factors facilitate or undermine people’s sense of volition and initiative. organizations. The dynamics of psychological need support and need thwarting have been studied within families. but nonetheless they can sustain passions. These many implications are best revealed by the varied papers listed on this 26 . Conditions supporting the individual’s experience of autonomy. by interests. a formal theory that defines intrinsic and varied extrinsic sources of motivation. care or abiding values. and individuals struggle to find energy. clinics. In addition. Yet. including enhanced performance. or the opinions they fear others might have of them. and creativity. SDT articulates a meta-theory for framing motivational studies. persistence. SDT proposes that the degree to which any of these three psychological needs is unsupported or thwarted within a social context will have a robust detrimental impact on wellness in that setting. competence. teams. The SDT framework thus has both broad and behavior-specific implications for understanding practices and structures that enhance versus diminish need satisfaction and the full functioning that follows from it. evaluations. creativity. curiosity. and sustained efforts.mentor.

It begins with the assumption that people are active organisms. That is. the social context can either support or thwart the natural tendencies toward active engagement and psychological growth. defense. however. and development. Achievement motivation theorists attempt to explain people's choice of achievement tasks. operate automatically. Thus. it is the dialectic between the active organism and the social context that is the basis for SDT’s predictions about behavior.1 Meta-Theory: The Organismic Viewpoint SDT is an organismic dialectical approach.3.2 Achievement Motivation In contrast to self-determination theories which are concerned with the quality (type) of motivation. either developmentally or proximally. such as certain types of psychopathology. but instead require ongoing social nutriments and supports. 2. and fulfillment of need- substitutes. and aggression are understood in terms of reactions to basic needs having been thwarted. which range from basic research on motivational micro-processes to applied clinical trials aiming at population outcomes. 2.3. persistence on those 27 . or it can catalyze lack of integration.website. people will develop and function effectively and experience wellness. experience. Within SDT. These natural developmental tendencies do not. mastering ambient challenges. The darker sides of human behavior and experience. and relatedness. achievement motivation theories focus on the quantity (degree) of motivation. and integrating new experiences into a coherent sense of self. people will more likely evidence ill-being and non-optimal functioning. the nutriments for healthy development and functioning are specified using the concept of basic psychological needs for autonomy. with evolved tendencies toward growing. prejudice. but to the extent that they are thwarted. competence. To the extent that the needs are ongoingly satisfied.

These theorists view achievement motivation as energy inside the individual. the tendency to succeed on that task depends on the strength of achievement motivation. 1985). On the other hand. as opposed to the very easy or very challenging task (Atkinson. a drive within the individual to attain desired standards. (1991) & Pintrich (1991) & Schunk. without being pushed by 28 . a motivational deficiency exists which hinders achievement oriented activities. they tend to choose tasks that require the application of higher cognitive strategies and to persist in performing such tasks. Heckhausen. He suggests that the tendency to achieve is more readily aroused by tasks linked to an intermediate degree of difficulty. Once such learners fail and believe that they can no longer gain the approval of significant others. vigour in carrying them out. and their performance in them (Eccles & Wigfield. but has as its focus.tasks. which drives an individual from within to succeed. Atkinson and Raynor (1974) states that the propensity to achieve success is indicated by performance of the individual in achievement related behaviour. (1996). Achievement motivation is not the search for observable accomplishments such as obtaining a high score in a test. The above definitions are closely related to that of intrinsic motivation in Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory. Schmalt. For example. (1995) & Shiefele. Ball (1977) defines achievement motivation as a pattern of planning actions connected with striving to achieve a chosen standard. Learners who are achievement motivated tend to engage in achievement related behaviours. in that they emphasise an individual's internal drive towards achievement. Atkinson (1985) goes on to argue that when the motive to avoid failure is stronger than the motive to achieve. persistence with activities and achievement motivation subsides. extrinsically motivated learners tend to lack achievement motivation. and Schneider (1985) define achievement motivation as an internal process in which individuals are motivated to achieve success and avoid failure in their tasks and activities. He further contends that when the given task is perceived to be diffcult.

these students displayed lack of interest in their schoolwork and a preference for easy rather than challenging tasks. they reported a strong desire to please the teacher. That is. had students with marked indications of extrinsic motivational orientation. When there is a propensity to seek approval or to comply with authority (the attributes of extrinsically motivated individuals). particularly when these are viewed as challenging.1 Research On The Effects Of External Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation Boggiano and Pittman (1977) found that intrinsically motivated students who had initially been doing well on their own. the tendency to avoid failure.parents and teachers. In addition they reported dependence on their educator.4 Past Research Findings On The Topics To Be Studied 2. Achievement motivated learners tend to persist until they succeed since pleasure is derived from working through activities. The opposite outcomes were observed when the same educator used more autonomy-promoting strategies. should be overcome by concentrating more on tasks that are inherently interesting to learners. They concluded that the use of controlling techniques to induce extrinsic motivation in students. that is encouraging them to perform activities for external reasons.4. in contrast to working to satisfy their own interest and curiosity. Furthermore. 29 . 2. which may inhibit performance. decreased their subsequent intrinsic interest in those activities. such decreases were maintained even when the extrinsic reason for task performance was no longer present. Furthermore. decreased in intrinsic motivation after being exposed to extrinsic rewards. Halter (1981) found that teachers who reported a preference for the use of controlling strategies over more autonomy-promoting strategies.

Woodworth (1985) believes that extrinsic motivation tends to interfere with intrinsic motivation. but if a desired extrinsic reward for the behaviour is offered. An individual may initially work with intrinsic interest as the reason for undertaking a given task.4. intrinsic interest is discounted and the prospects of the extrinsic reward drives engagement in the task. According to Green and Foster. 1985 it is only when intrinsic motivation already exists that extrinsic rewards can give rise to detrimental effects. In such cases there is a shift from internal motivation for engagement in activity. 2000) conducted a study with animals which showed that many organisms engage in exploratory. to interest elicited by external reward. 2. 1998). and therefore see no value in pursuing their learning activities with any intrinsic interest. 30 . This effect of rewards on motivation has been described as involving a "discounting principle" (Stipek.2 Research On Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation. a situation where feelings of autonomy are restricted.Greene and Foster (1985) also found that extemal rewards decreased intrinsic motivation. Amotivation And Achievement Related Behaviours In 1959 White (in Deci & Ryan. when such rewards are seen as incentives to direct their behaviour (controlling). On the other hand. Johnson and Johnson (1985) also found that intrinsic motivation may be undermined by the presence of external rewards which are viewed as controlling. and curiosity driven behaviours even in the absence of reinforcement or reward. In the school context this may occur when learners come to expect that after each and every achievement they are entitled to a reward. in that exposure to external rewards causes learners to tend to lose interest in working on their own. playful. they tend to undermine the level of learner's initiative. they suggest that external rewards may enhance intrinsic motivation if they are perceived by learners as feedback regarding to their level of competence. However.

Desired outcomes for these learners are to a large extent tied to the efforts expended in performing the activity. Bempechat and Drago-Severson 31 . Gottfried and Gottfried's (1996) research on intellectually gifted children showed that the gifted children possessed higher levels of intrinsic motivation.Beck. they are inclined to give up. Research conducted by Deci and Ryan (1992) also suggests that children with higher intrinsic motivation function more effectively at school than other children. extrinsically motivated learners base their actions on the instructor's evaluation procedures since the main focus is on the attainment of satisfactory grades. attempt to use complex mental operations. Rorrer-Woody and Pierce (1991) found that intrinsically motivated students are excited by the opportunity to acquire new knowledge. In contrast. This tends to have a negative effect on their efforts and achievement. particularly when these present a major challenge. and thus learn more from the activities than extrinsically motivated learners. and that they find personal enrichment through academic experiences. intrinsically motivated learners pursue activities for the satisfaction inherent in the tasks. The researchers concluded that intrinsic motivation is inherent both within the nature of the individual and the academic task relevant to learning. Johnson and Johnson (1979) found that intrinsically motivated learners want to work because it is fun and enjoyable. In contrast. These learners engaged in activities on their own without coercion from teachers. because when they do not achieve good grades. Lepper and Greene (1987) found that intrinsically motivated learners tend to become deeply involved in their learning activities. Boggianno and Berret (1985) and Boggianno and Katz (1991) found that extrinsically motivated learners tend to view desired outcomes as more contingent on teacher feedback and less determined by their own responses than intrinsically motivated learners do. which suggested that they enjoyed the process of learning more than their peers of lesser ability.

More specifically. The above literature suggests that it is important for learners to be intrinsically motivated in order to make progress with their academic careers. the less instrumental they are in determining their performance outcomes. they examined the motivational tendencies that ultimately caused learners to view themselves as helpless. but with time also renders learners susceptible to the full range of amotivational patterns of behaviour. for example. to take less personal responsibility for their actions. inducing learners to learn by promising punishment if they did not. and to blame their underachievement to lack of ability than to insufficient effort expenditure. especially in the face of adversity.(1991) found that. They assert that the use of controlling techniques not only decreases learner's perceptions of autonomy and encourages extrinsic motivation.5 The Gaps Of The Previous Studied 32 . the research findings provide evidence that intrinsically motivated learners are likely to do better than extrinsically motivated learners in academic tasks because of the high level of enjoyment they derive from their classroom activities. Although inadequate educational resources can play a role in the lack of motivation in children at schools. These researchers found that frequent and repeated exposure to controlling strategies. Her study also revealed that these learners tend to give up in the face of failure. Dweck (1975) found that amotivated learners do not respond to failure with the effort required to succeed. maths achievement was highly correlated with intrinsic motivation. lacking both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. for Asian and American learners. 2. She also found that the more amotivated learners are. tending to view their adverse situation as insurmountable. Boggianno and Pittman (1992) studied various factors that led to amotivation in an academic setting. had dramatic and far-reaching effects on the formation of maladaptive achievement patterns in learners. even though they may be capable of doing so.

The results cannot be generalized as the sample consisted only of three primary schools in one districted.There is some limitation on the previous studies. The statistical analyses were limited. • To determine whether there is a significant correlation between different types of extrinsic motivation (external. although the questionnaire was translated into two African languages. Only correlations and Anovas were calculated on the study. identified and integrated regulation) and scholastic performance. the manner in which the research statements were phrased might not have been meaningful to the learners. The following topics are suggestions for further research that arising from the current study: • To investigate possible factors that may influence motivation. Furthermore. • To explore how the values and beliefs that learners attach to education affect the 33 . In other words learners might have given responses that they believed would be pleasing. • To assess learners' motivation longitudinally at multiple points of individual school career to better understand how and where motivation may fluctuate. • To investigate the feasibility of programme evaluation by the education authorities of the motivational changes produced by various educational programmes. Response biases may have contaminated the results. (Bachman & O'Malley 1984 reported that black learners were more likely to give extreme responses in the Likert-type questionnaire than white learners). and to experience stimulation) and scholastic performance. to accomplish things. introjected. • To determine whether there is a significant correlation between different forms of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know and understand. Cultural factors may have played a role in that black learners are unaccustomed to research and to responding to research questions.

34 . • To ascertain whether there is a link between home parenting style and motivation scholastic performance in school at rural area. manner in which they expend effort on classrooms achievement. • To investigate the degree to which self-concept determines the learners motivational behaviour in class. • To establish whether there is a relationship between amotivation and dropping out of school.

used to describe the biographical information collected . The statistical techniques used to test hypotheses . 3. were used as measures of performance. The June examination marks. It’s a one plan or framework for the whole research process.1 Introduction This chapter. research design is the blueprint for the collection. describes the following: . measurement and analysis of data that help scientists in the allocation of scarce resources to reflect the important choice. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. The basic statistics. For the purpose of this study the learners' marks in English were selected as measures of scholastic achievement as these are the core subjects that enable primary school learners to pass on to the next grade if their performance is adequate.2 Research Design Research design is a one technique will be used to gather information for the research. The data collection procedure . It’s depend on problem statement of the research. Item analysis of the responses obtained from the sample of learners. 35 . which were obtained from class teachers. which outlines the methodology of the present study and the methods used to test the hypotheses (see Chapter 2). The selection and composition of the sample . The pilot study . Cooper (2005).The measuring instrument to measure self-determination and achievement motivation . The measuring instrument to assess scholastic achievement .

Convenient geographical homogeneous sampling was used to select these schools. The population is a student year 5 at primary school in Pendang District. However. the demographics did not allow this distribution as the numbers of boys and girls were not equal. Which have same social and economic status. 3. The sample consisted of 120 year 5 learners. Each school was given 40 questionnaires. with the intention that data would be collected from 20 boys and 20 girls.Research design for this project paper is a quantitative method. Data of student year 5 in Pendang get from PPD Hal Ehwal Murid from PPD Pendang. Population of this study is a Primary school at Pendang District.4 Instrumentation A questionnaire was constructed to measure the following variables: • Intrinsic motivation • Extrinsic motivation • Amotivation • Achievement motivation 36 . Forty respondents were randomly selected from the class register in each school.3 Population And Sampling Simple Random sampling will be done for this study. The three schools located in rural area in Pendang. 3. The main study was conducted in three schools situated in Pendang. The sample of this study a year 5 learners.

20) b) Extrinsic motivation (items 6.4.13. • The respondents should possess the information to answer the questions or items.14) 37 .8. • The items must retrieve information necessary to the aims of the research. The questionnaire contained: 1) Questions relating to biographical information such as: a) Names and surname b) Age c) Name of school 2) A five-point Likert scale containing 20 items previously designed for measuring: a) Intrinsic motivation (items 1. The preliminary questionnaire for this study was adapted from one constructed by Moore (1998). • The items must not suggest a particular answer. • The respondents should be willing to answer the questions or items truthfully.7.11. Furthermore. Modifications based on the recommendations above were made to suit the level of the learners to whom the questionnaire was to be administered.In the process of constructing the questionnaire.10. to ensure reliability the following recommendations by Mouly (1978) cited in Mashimbuye (1978) were taken into account: • The items must be formulated in such a way that they say what they mean.12. attention was given to the three assumptions that Keaves (1988) cited in Mashimbuye (1978) discusses with regard to the characteristics of a good questionnaire: • The respondents should be able to read and understand the questionnaire items.

3. "I never allow social activities to affect my studies" was changed to "I do not allow playing with friends to delay my studies". • Certain items were changed to make them more applicable to the present study. A high overall score indicated high achievement motivation and a low score indicated low achievement motivation. amotivation and for achievement motivation Scores on items pertaining to each of the four subscales were summed separately. two educators whose primary languages are translated the questionnaire into these languages. 3. Owing to language diversity across the selected schools.9) d) Achievement motivation (items 19) The following modifications of Moore's (1998) items were made for the present study: • Some items were simplified to make them more appropriate for younger learners. "I study for the satisfaction I feel when I master a difficult academic task" was changed to "I study for the satisfaction I feel when I finish a task". items marked with an asterisk on the questionnaire were reverse scored. The calculation of indices for the self-determination subscales: intrinsic motivation. and to accommodate learners who were not sufficiently proficient in English. For intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and amotivation high scores indicated high levels of each type of motivation while low scores indicated low levels.c) Amotivation (item 2. No items of these subscales were reverse scored.5 Pilot Test/Testing The Reliability Of The Instruments 38 . For example.5. For example. In the case of achievement motivation. They also translated the responses back to English. extrinsic motivation.

A pilot study was conducted on year 5 learners at a Pendang primary school. 3. Minor errors in the questionnaire were also identified and rectified. I administered the questionnaire to the learners myself. They understood the items.6 Procedure Of Data Collection In School 1. I trained the teachers respectively to administer the questionnaires on my behalf. which is how a set of items that are closely related as a group. 3. The responses of the learners in the two schools indicated that they had a good understanding of the questionnaire items. It should be noted that these schools were not the same schools where the final questionnaire was administered. Alpha Cronbach is to measure internal consistency. 39 . Learners were told that if there were any statements that they did not understand they should speak up so that an explanation could be offered. Alpha Cronbach – 0. Reliability of this instrument are high. 2.836 is high. Furthermore the time that both grades took to respond to the questionnaire was almost the same. The learners could follow instructions. In Schools 2 and 3. The aims of the pilot study were to determine whether: l. • They had the right to withdraw from the study at any time should they feel uncomfortable. They could respond to them without difficulty. Prior to completing the questionnaire learners were informed that: • They were going to be used as research subjects.

• They were to give their own answers and to be as honest as possible. significance levels such as 0. • They would be informed about the overall research findings once the study was completed.20 (and possibly even 0.30 then the significance level for the individual test might be 0.7 Procedure Of Data Analyses 40 . In choosing the level of statistical significance for the present research the following points were taken into consideration: a) In the human sciences researchers are concerned with missing a significant result or making a type Il error when they falsely conclude a significant result. There is no easy way to come to a decision as to what the level of significance should be.02.• Individual results would be kept confidential.05 for the present study.02 levels. • Their teachers would not evaluate their answers. the probability of type I error also increases. 3. it was decided to use the significance level of 0. One approach to counter this effect is to set the level of significance smaller for the individual statistical test so as to compensate for the overall type I error effect. Hays (1963) and Wiener (1971) point out that when both types of errors (type I and type Il) are equally important.05 or 0. b) As the total number of statistical tests performed on the same data increases. Suppose the overall research significance level is 0. After the data had been captured. descriptive statistics (such as frequencies and means) were calculated to describe the biographic information (gender and age) and other variables in the study.05 and 0.30) are more appropriate than the conventionally used 0. In view of all these considerations.

Learned helplessness in humans: 41 . J. These correlations were computed for each school separately. Seligman.E. As mentioned previously the questionnaire used to collect data for this study was based on the one developed and refined by Moore (1998). Age and gender once again were partialled out of the correlation matrix to control the effects of these two variables.e. LIST OF REFERENCES Abramson. For this reason it was decided to accept Moore's (1998) self- determination and achievement motivation subscales as they stood. Numerous Pearson Product Moment correlations were performed not only to test the hypotheses but also to explore possible relations between various variables.D.P. L. item analyses of subscales (i.Analyses of variance (Anovas) and Scheffe post hoc comparisons (PROC GLM of SAS) were used to determine significant differences between the means of various schools with regard to psychological scales.. M. Nonetheless. The most important results concerned the relationships between psychological scales and school subjects as they were used to test the hypotheses. (1978). intrinsic. Cronbach Alpha coefficients were also calculated. A statistical analysis system (SAS) was used for each subscale since it provides the correlation of each item with the total score. since they proved to be adequate and reliable in her study with a sample consisting mainly of year 5 student in Pendang District. & Teasdale. extrinsic motivation and amotivation) were performed to ascertain the internal consistency of each of the subscales..Y. The variables gender and age were included as covariates (additional independent variables) with a view to control for the possibility that these may be confounding variables.

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uncertain. circle the number 4 l. agree. Researcher APPENDIX 1 The questionnaire Tell me about yourself Your first name Your surname Your age Your school The research questions Rate each of the sentences below by showing with a circle whether you strongly disagree. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree agree 2. I am not interested in my schoolwork. or strongly agree. The sentences have been given numbers as follows: l. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree agree 3. I prefer playing with friends to doing my schoolwork. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl 51 . agree 5. uncertain 4. Strongly disagree 2. disagree 3. disagree. Strongly agree For example: I enjoy playing with my friends. If I read a story I feel excited. strongly strongly disagree 1 5 agree if you agree with the statement.

strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 10. I want to do well so that my parents can see I am intelligent. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 8. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 6. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 9. I like reading. I want to do well to prove to myself that I can succeed. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 52 . strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 7. I do not want to go to school. I do my class activities to please my teachers. y disagree agre e 4. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 5. I do not do my homework until I am told to do so. I want to do well to please my parents.

strongl y disagree agre e H. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 12. When I discover something new. I feel excited. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agree 53 . I study for the satisfaction I feel when I finish a task.

For me there are important things than getting good marks. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agree 18. I do not allow playing with friends to delay my studies. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 17. When I feel I am wasting time. I am happy to learn new things. I can easily be talked out of studying. * strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agree 16. I am happy when I am given homework to do.* strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strong ly disagree agree 20. I always try to do my schoolwork on time. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 15. I get cross. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strong ly disagree agree 19.13. strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strongl y disagree agre e 14. I study so that my parents can see me as a better person. 54 .

strongly 1 2 3 4 5 strong ly disagree agree *Items were reverse-scored Pengkaji Lampiran 1 55 .

Saya berminat dengan kerja sekolah sangat 1 2 3 4 sangat 5 tidak setuju setuju di dalam kelas. Sangat tidak setuju 2. Saya lebih suka bermain dengan sangat 1 2 3 4 sangat 5 kawan tidak setuju setuju 56 . Tidak setuju 3. setuju atau sangat setuju. bulatkan 4 l. 3. Ayat-ayat yang telah diberi nombor seperti berikut: l. 2. Sangat tidak setuju1 2 3 4 5 sangat setuju Jika anda setuju dengan penyataan itu. Tidak pasti 4. saya rasa sangat 1 2 3 4 sangat 5 sangat tidak setuju setuju seronok. Soalan Sila Beritahu Saya Maklumat Diri Kamu Nama Pertama Nama Bapa Umur Sekolah Soalan Kajian Nilai setiap ayat di bawah dengan membuatkan sama ada anda sangat tidak setuju. Jika saya baca buku cerita. tidak pasti. Sangat Setuju Contoh : Saya suka bermain dengan kawan. Setuju 5. tidak setuju.

sangat 1 tidak setuju 2 3 4 sangat 5 setuju sangat 2 3 4 sangat 7. Saya mahu melakukan yang terbaik supaya ibu bapa saya boleh melihat saya bijak. Saya mahu melakukan yang terbaik untuk membuktikan kepada diri sendiri bahawa saya boleh berjaya. sangat 1 tidak setuju 2 3 4 sangat 5 setuju 5.dalam membuat kerja sekolah 4. Saya tidak mahu ke sekolah. sangat 1 tidak setuju 2 3 4 sangat 5 setuju 6. . Saya suka membaca. 1 5 tidak setuju setuju 57 .

10.Apabila saya menemui sesuatu yang sangat 2 3 4 sangat baru saya rasa teruja. 1 5 tidak setuju setuju 12. 1 5 tidak setuju setuju 11. sangat 2 3 4 sangat Saya mahu melakukan yang 1 5 terbaik untuk membantu ibu bapa tidak setuju saya.Saya melakukan aktiviti kelas saya sangat 2 3 4 sangat dan memudahkan guru-guru saya.8.Saya belajar untuk kepuasan yang sangat 2 3 4 sangat saya 1 5 tidak setuju setuju 58 . sangat 2 3 4 sangat Saya tidak melakukan kerja 1 5 rumah saya sehingga saya tidak setuju diberitahu untuk berbuat setuju demikian. setuju 9.

rasa apabila saya menyelesaikan tugas.Apabila saya rasa saya sedang membuang masa. tidak setuju setuju 14.Saya belajar supaya ibu bapa saya sangat 1 2 3 4 sangat 5 boleh tidak setuju melihat saya sebagai orang yang lebih setuju baik. saya cepat belajar. 59 .Bagi saya ada perkara yang penting daripada mendapat markah yang baik.Saya gembira belajar sesuatu sangat 1 2 3 4 sangat 5 yang baru. . 13.Saya tidak suka bermain dengan kawan- Kawan jika ianya mengganggu pelajaran Saya. 17. 15. 18.Saya sentiasa cuba untuk melakukan kerja sekolah saya pada masa yang ditetapkan.* 16.

Saya gembira apabila saya diberi kerja rumah yang perlu dilakukan.* 20. 19. *Items were reverse-scored 60 . Saya suka bercakap dari belajar.