Chelsea Sciortino

AUD 3222 Contemporary Approaches to Architecture 1
Summaries Lectures 1-7

Lecture 1 – Traditional Architecture
Hassan Fathy 'Architecture for the Poor' 1969


• Born in Alexandria in 1900. He trained as an architect in Egypt,
graduating in 1926.
• Egyptian architect who pioneered appropriate technology for building in
Egypt, especially by working to re-establish the use of mud brick and
traditional as opposed to western building designs and layouts.

Theory 'Architecture for the Poor':

• 'Architecture for the Poor' Is an account of the planning and
construction of New Gourna, a rural village near Thebes and Luxor in

• Fathy, architect and coordinator for the project, turned to traditional
forms and methods of construction, seeking both to accommodate the
needs of the community and to 'hint at a way to begin a revived tradition
of building'.
• By using traditional building methods and bringing craftsman back into
the team, the architect is relieved of the work that he had unnecessarily
taken over from the craftsman.
• Unit of design is the room – masons can be trusted to supply it in
standard quality and all sizes.
• If Gourna would take 3 years then ideally, construction keeps going till
the very end to alter the design to fit the families that live in them.
However, in Gourna, it was difficult to interest people to their new
• He tried constructing a set of houses so the villagers can see what they
were proposing. Fathy says even the smallest contribution a villager
makes to the design is vital.
• Client, architect and craftsman must work together to create a
harmonious design.

• An architect is in a unique position to revive the peasant's faith in his own

• A village craftsman is stimulated to use and develop the traditional local
forms, if he sees them respected by a real architect, and the ordinary
village, the client, is in a position to understand and appreciate the
craftsman's work.
• The architecture must be neither fake tradition nor faked modernity, but
an architecture that will be the visible and permanent expression of the
character of a community. This would mean nothing less than a whole
new architecture.

• Building the village, without the use of more modern and expensive
materials such as steel and concrete. Using mud bricks, the native
technique that Fathy learned in Nubia, and such traditional Egyptian
architectural designs as enclosed courtyards and vaulted roofing, Fathy
worked with the villagers to tailor his designs and their needs. He taught
them how to work with the bricks, supervised the erection of the
buildings, and encouraged the revival of such ancient crafts as claustra
(lattice designs in the mudwork) to adorn the buildings.

Case Studies:

Mosque, New Gourna (below)

Demetri Porphyrious 'Classicism is Not a Style' 1983


• Porphyrios (1949-) has an international reputation as an architect and
theorist. He is the principal of Porphyrios Associates.
• Earned a Master of Architecture and PhD in History and Theory of
Architecture from Princeton University, Porphyrios has pursued the
Classical both through his writings and practice. He has taught at the
Architectural Association, Yale University and the University of Virginia.

Theory 'Classicism is not a Style':

• The only possible critical stance for architecture today is to build an
alliance between building construction and symbolic representation.
• It is from this perspective that classicism should be re-evaluated today: It
is not a style. Its lesson lies in the way by which it raises construction and
shelter to the realm of the symbol.
• Vernacular has nothing to do with style but it points to a method of
constructing shelter under the conditions of scarcity of materials and
operative constructional techniques.
• Beyond appearances, vernacular is market by a number of constructional
elements that are universally phenomenological.
• Building involves experiences of load-bearing and load-borne.
Manifestations of which are the column and lintel.
• It also involves the horizontal and vertical enclosure, that is the roof and
the wall.
• These constructional elements give rise to a set of constructional forms:
gables, pilasters...

• Such elements could serve as the core of a common architectural
• However, architecture cannot remain at this point. It must raise
construction the realm of the symbol. For example, what distinguishes a
shed from a temple is the mythopoeic power the temple possesses. In
this way, classicism is not a style.

• Porphyrios’ definition of classicism – that it “is not a style” or a narrow
and confining doctrine, but rather “the philosophy of free will nurtured by
tradition” is indeed at the same time profoundly modern and timeless. It
is his approach that liberates the classical from any preconceived notions
of an aesthetic singularity. In our contemporary culture, with its tendency
to emphasize the differences rather than continuities, Porphyrios’

theoretical and built work provides a renewed testament to creative
invention with its basis in humanity. His work seeks to reconcile history
with design in contemporary architecture practice. Through Porphyrios’
interpretation of the classical idea we may see again that the highest
aspirations of humanity expressed in our architecture and cities are

Case Studies:

• Whitman College (First picture below)


have given us unlimited freedom which we are unable to control. have disappeared. 1991 . In the past we were confined to the disciplines of natural materials – brick. • The ability to design and build beautiful buildings has ceased … • “There is still hope as people try to keep the lamp of traditional architecture flickering. Educated at the Architectural Association. Thus the creative artistic gift must disappear.. temporary construction and maximum profit have become our Gods. modern man finds himself tragically opposed to nature and has expressed this defiance in his art. stone..Quinlan Terry 'Architecture and Theology' 1989 About: • Quinlan Terry (1937-) takes a similar position to Pugin in claiming a connection between religious faith and architectural style. whose Modernist bias he rejected. concrete. It is necessary to bear all the ridicule and scorn that are deployed by the Darwinian misconception that evolution and progress are mandatory. But now steel. timber. It might be more correct to say tradition rather than style as for Terry that tradition is the Classical. But like in theology. • Ancient man harnessed nature and expressed this in his art.. • Well known representative of the New Classical Architecture. Theory 'Architecture and Theology': • His subject is the place where architecture and religion meet.” Case Studies: • Brentwoord Cathedral. so in architecture – there is nothing new worth having. • This process has occurred in architecture. Cheaper. The two great authorities on this subject from the last century were Pugin and Ruskin. • We are the victims of a predatory technology that ruthlessly consumes the resources of the earth. The march of progress has crushed gentler species of animal and plant to extinction. Depth was controlled by natural light and air etc. however small the commission. Terry worked with Raymond Erith from 1962. • The gentlest species are the creative gift of Art and the fear of the Creator. both of which. glass. continuing to practise under the name Erith and Terry after the latter's death in 1973.


Purposes change. • Post-modernism is a reaction to modernist criticality. rejection of all morals. Scruton endorsed these principles and laid down eleven fundamental principles. to social utility. • A professor of philosophy who has written on a wide range of subjects. to materials. the aesthetic discipline embodied in the classical tradition. modernism threw away. whose authority is less obvious. belief that life is meaningless) Theory 'Architectural Principles in an Age of Nihilism': • Modernism's respect for disciple was its sole redeeming feature: but it was a disciple about the wrong things. ◦ (Nihilism – indifference. ◦ We have an overriding reason to engage in the common pursuit of a . ◦ Architecture plays a major part in creating the public realm. ◦ The public realm must permit and endorse a public morality. It plays with the classical and gothic details which were forbidden by its stern parent. • Our civilisation continues to produce forms which are acceptable to us. he added eleven more specific principles. ◦ To know how to build. Roger Scruton has focused on architecture in a number of essays as well as in the book The Aesthetics of Architecture. At the same time. It told us to be true to function. Then. • In ninteenth-century Europe and America. rather than a means for expressing it. ◦ An aesthetic experience is an inevitable consequence of our interest in appearances. to political principles. This is not the rediscovery of history. you must first understand appearances. ◦ Architecture is judged in terms of its meaning. an effort took place to transcribe the values of our culture. and so empties them of the last traces of meaning.Roger Scruton 'Architectural Principles in an Age of Nihilism' 1994 About: • Born 1944 in the UK. Scruton offers an 'aesthetic disciple' of fundamental principles as an antidote to the nihilism. because it succeeded in enclosing its truth in education. but its dissolution … • Such a practice marks a new departure of the nihilistic spirit which is foreshadowed in modernism. ◦ Architecture is useful only if it is not absorbed in being useful.

◦ Mouldings are the source of our mastery over light and shade. ◦ The building depends on details as well as materials. ◦ The true disciple of form emphasises the vertical. able to stand before us as we stand before them. ◦ The true disciple of style consists therefore in details. ◦ Composition requires detail and the principles of composition depend upon the sense of detail. public taste. aiming beyond desire. ◦ A beautiful object pleases us because it reminds us of the fullness of human life. ◦ It follows that the first principles of composition concern the ordering of façades. ◦ The first constant is that of scale. ◦ The disciple of the builder consists in the ability to perceive. You must comprehend a building's relation to you. ◦ The art of combination relies for its effects on regularity and repetition. ◦ Taste. ◦ All serious architecture must therefore give purchase to the claims of taste. rather than the horizontal line. ◦ The problem of architecture is a question of manners. not art. . to draw and criticise details. judgement and criticism are therefore immovable components of the aesthetic understanding. ◦ Buildings must therefore have façades.

• Born in Oslo in 1926. The task of the architect is then to work within the network of those intentions. architectural historian and theorist. Questions raised: • How to make architecture a sensitive medium? • Building form should be according to function but maintaining a visual order. • His biggest influences are his publications. psychological effects. • The theory was aimed to treat architecture not only as an art form but taking into account social. Theory 'Intentions in Architecture': • Norberg-Schulz (born 1926) Intentions in Architecture is a reaction against Modernism. • He said modern architecture lacked a worked-out method based on a clear analysis of functional. sociological and cultural problems. in particular as realised after the War. • He begins the book with an argument suggesting that the perception of form has a cultural basis and meaning in architecture is the result of cultural intentions.Lecture 2 – General Philosophy Christian Norberg-Schulz 'Intentions in Architecture' 1965 About: • Norberg-Schulz was a Norwegian architect. How? • Formal differentiation for functional differences? • Differentiation should be symbolising? • Definition of our building tasks and the means of their solution? • What purpose architecture has as a human product? • How does architecture influence us? • Why has a building from a particular period have a particular form? • Relation between task and solution: • An embedded method of relations • Solution of concrete problems • Facilitation in historical Analysis • Adaptation in Architecture: . graduated as an architect from the Eidgenoissisches Technische Hochschule in Zurich in 1947. • One of the precursors of post-modernism. • It became a seminal text in its search for “meaning” in architecture. and died in 2000.

• Conservation of structural principles of traditions rather than its motives • Primary and secondary wholes – function and visuals • Tradition in Modern Aspects: • A modern movement can be a true tradition • Historical continuity doesn't mean to be borrowed • Human values are conquered in new ways • Modern Forms: • Modern forms are experiments • Fight against borrowed motives • Never been ordered • Not a formal language .

• Ambiguity and tension rather than straightforwardness • is based on the confusion of experience as reflected in architecture. from inner complexity. • Visual Preferences in opposition to modernism: • complexity and contradiction VS simplification • Forced simplicity results in oversimplification. and included examples – both built and unrealized – of his own work to demonstrate the possible application of the techniques illustrated within. Venturi introduced new lessons from the buildings of architects both familiar (Michelangelo. • The book demonstrated through countless examples. This promotes richness of meaning over clarity of meaning. (b. When complexity disappears. • 'both-and' rather than 'either-or' • both-and is the relation of the part to the whole • eg. 1925 Philadelphia) • He helped to shape the way that architects. • Aesthetic simplicity which is a satisfaction to the mind derives. • He made a case for “the difficult whole” rather than the diagrammatic forms popular at the time. • Drawing from both vernacular and high-style sources.). when valid and profound.Robert Venturi 'Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture' 1966 About: • Robert Venturi is an American architect and one of the major architectural figures in the twentieth century. and the resulting richness and interest. Alvar Aalto) and then forgotten (Frank Furness. blandness replaces simplicity. an approach to understanding architectural composition and complexity. • He is also known for coining the maxim “Less Is a bore”. Villa Savoye is simple outside yet complex inside • Hybrid rather than pure elements • Messy vitality rather than obvious unity . a postmodern antidote to Mies van der Rohe's famous modernist dictum “Less is more”. planners and students experience and think about architecture and the American built environment. he challenged modernism and celebrated the mix of historic styles in great cities like Rome.. Complexity and Contradition in Architecture: • Published in 1966.

Case Studies: • Vanna Venturi House. for central position. inflects toward the other to make a unity of the duality of the central core they constitute. comprises in its shape and position – that is. • And each of these elements. . one solid and the other essentially void. 1964 • Duality in interiors • Two vertical – the fireplace-chimney and the stair – compete.

so there is no garage. It is specifically designed for her needs. caretaker's room.• Bifurcation according to needs • The first floor plan contains all the main rooms of the house – master bedroom. full bathroom. She did not drive. kitchen and a living/dining. .

. Memory and Architecture': • Body. identity and place. • Architecture is about the man.. The architect should consider the holistic experience that the building imparts. Human Identity in Memorable Places • Extending the inner landscape of human being into the world in ways that are comprehensible. pattern and edge. too concerned with appearing beautiful in an intellectual way. Path. The authors believe that architects should not approach architectural design in a 2-dimensional manner. can usefully be ascribed a syntax of place. has become too rational. Pattern and Edge • We believe these elements are the only humane starting point for the organization of the space around us. s/he should feel the space and work on the feelings that the user will get from the space. it is “making places” for man to live in therefore it should provide comfort to the user. Within each of these four..Kent C.. • The inhabited world within boundaries then. Theory 'Body. How it affects the individual and the community emotionally. learning and sensitivity to place. but the architect should imagine being in the space . architectural ordering arrangements can be considered which are made to respond to the natural landscape as well as to human bodies and memories. Place. Memory and Architecture' 1977 About: • Charles Moore (1925-1993) responded to Modernism with wit.. path.. • Forms like columns. providing feelings of joy. It should consider the way the building is experienced.. • This essentially Post-Modern combination is demonstrated in both his writing and his buildings. What is wrong with the buildings today that . both mentally and physically. • The authors claim that modern architecture. Memory and Architecture is a plea for architects to design structures for three-dimensional user experience instead of two- dimensional visual appearance. Bloomer and Charles Moore 'Body. Modern architecture should not base itself on some abstract idea since this causes man to feel alienated from the building. walls and roofs created the first habitation and the first forms that were important to human kind.

1978 . Case Studies: • Piazza D'Italia – Charles Moore. have a lack of this? • The authors ask • … if architecture is a way for man to express his inner feelings to the world in the form of spaces for people to live in and that stimulate their sense.. • … if as everyone claims.. the world is full with examples of good architecture … • … how is it then that we find people who do not like the space they live in? … • We must understand that comfort is not achieved by producing a homogeneous environment.

This is a glimpse of what is prevalent in other parts of the city as well.. only to a blindly borrowed image. critically. • Critical regionalists thus hold that both modern and post-modern architecture are deeply problematic. Culture and Civilsation ◦ Frampton discusses the state of building to be 'conditioned' by the building industry to the point of restriction. • How to be modern and to continue the tradition.. The Rise and Fall of the Avant-Garde ◦ This section is used to demonstrate the role that the avant-garde..1930) is a British architect.. Emphasis should be on topography. there is a past for everything” Theory 'Towards Critical Regionalism: Six points for an Architecture of Resistance': • It is an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and lack of meaning in modern by using contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning. ◦ Consciously bounded architecture – Critical regionalism manifests itself as a conciously bounded architecture. has played in the past and its relation to universal civilization. It emerged as a concept during the early 1980s. critical regionalism should adopt modern architecture. • 1. . • Critical regionalism is an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and lack of identity of the International style. an inseparable aspect of society and architecture in modernization.Lecture 3 – General Theory (1) Kenneth Frampton 'Towards Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance' 1983 About: • Kenneth Frampton (b. for its universal progressive qualities but at the same time value should be placed on the geographical context of the building.? • “Nothing is invented. Most of the contemporary buildings do not seem to have any binding to where they are. but also rejects the whimsical indivualism and ornamentation of Postmodern architecture. • According to Frampton's proposal.. • 2. climate light: tectonic rather than scenography and should be on the sense of touch rather than visual sense.

with information. Climate. identity-giving culture. The visual VS the tactile ◦ It stresses that the tactile is as important as the visual. humidity and air movement are the tools of space making. ambient sessions of heat. Light and Tectonic Form ◦ It looks at architecture as a tectonic fact rather than the reduction of built environment to a series of ill assorted scenographic episodes. Culture vs. • 4. that is a style that distances itself equally from the Englightement myth of progress and from the reactionary impulse to return to pre-industrial styles. The Resistance of the Place form ◦ The most important feature is that critical regionalism attempts to reinterpret vernacular elements in the making of space within and space without. cold. Critical Regionalism and World Culture ◦ Architecture can only be sustained today as a critical practice if it assumes an arriere-garde position. • 5. Nature: Topography. It endeavors to cultivate a contemporary place oriented by culture without becoming too simplistic or direct about formal references or levels of technology. . Sensitivity towards local light. Context. • 6. ◦ It claims that one can't replace experiential qualities of space within. ◦ Arriere-garde has the capacity to cultivate a resistant. ◦ Critical Regionalism as a cultural strategy is as much a bearer of world culture as it is a vehicles of universal civilization. Like the imagery adopted for these buildings which is then just pasted on to the urban fabric. • 3.

(Participatory design) Theory 'The Architecture of Complexity': • In The Architecture of Complexity he examines the ways of achieving his aims within the constraints of an industrialized building process.. yet reintroduce them – renamed overnight – as components. Diversity • Diversity encourages creativity. Brussels 1927) is well known for his projects involving participation by the future users of the buildings.. • Often architecture is too homogeneous. Our Sly Engineering • Mass Housing are always worked out in detail and stacked – always with a tree-like hierarchical organisation rather than a network.Lucien Kroll 'The Architecture of Complexity' 1983 About: • Lucien Kroll (b. connection. knowing their products to be out-dated. while repetition anaesthetises it. Differ orientation. Then you design the flats but vary them according to size.... Industrial Components • Before they become a means of construction. sometimes due to an exaggerated aesthetic commitment (architects' architecture) or because of a self-centred desire to see buildings apart from their context.. Our Approach to Industry • We have always opposed the alarming spread of heavy prefabricated concrete systems and their tendency to dominated areas swept clean of all historical reference. • But yet we have kept our belief that industrial know-how could one day provide the means for an organic architecture. components involve a redistribution of power and roles. • To avoid the 'sewer' approach – set single houses among the blocks of flats. taking advantage of the confusion … . Avoid dominant staircases that tend to position dwellings side and side – this make rigid layouts. sewers and other services. position. • This is referred to as 'sewer architecture' – repetition of elements that are stacked according to rules governing roads. layout and fenestration. If we fail to realise this we shall remain at the mercy of manufacturers of prefabricated systems who.. reversing the significance of what is built. This homogeneity makes it difficult for the users to add anything of their own.

Case Studies: Medical Faculty Housing. This will help the neighbourhood to regenerate itself by itself. This is done through making modification of data as easy as its introduction.. ◦ Preliminary participative consultation and later contacts prepare the inhabitants to put down roots more easily. University of Louvain.. one must be determined to disbelieve the precise results. to get to know each other and to discover how to act together upon their environment. Power of the Tool Over the Product • Computer has a tendency to dominate and reorganise things in its own image. This diversity could be achieved with computers. 1970-1976 . In view of this. • It is not always the most appropriate approach so how does one resist? ◦ Firstly.. This will of course complicate the program … ◦ Tools should be adapted to ensure diversity yet take due account of economic constraints. we take the trouble to leave space for future extensions and to organise the rules of the architecture to encourage such initiative. One must remove the tendency to rely completely.

• Dismissive of the linear rationality implicit in Modernism yet equally uninterested in architectural history and quotation. It can punch a hole in your sky. But the machine moved beyond this. This is an infinite number. which is not so much that there is a right or wrong understanding (of of the impact on a building on people who experience it) but that there seems to be a number of rights and wrongs overlapping. He contrasts contemporary society's conception of time in architecture with the notions of permanence found in the architecture of past civilizations. We need to be able to give things a sequence. It is a correlation of the belief in science and in the ability to make the world conformable. • So this is the hole in the sky theory. Moss rather seeks to puncture architectural preconceptions and extend the realms of the possible.1943) describes a series of projects that investigate ideas of architectural temporality. design and detail in every aspect of the work. The office has developed an architectural language that reflects an understanding and exploration of a building's impact on its environment while simultaneously acknowledging the contributing factors of context. client and program. a logic. It's an attempt to contest the conventions and un-conventions in architecture and the way people experience their lives. • Architecture has the ability to expand that internal boundary. • Working on buildings for Moss is like re-writing a text. Yet you can't get rid of the external quality entirely. • The inclinations produced by science in the world is unavoidable because we all think and we all try to understand everything. Theory 'What truth do you want to tell': • Attitudes towards architecture have changed from an attitude that is extroverted (responding to the world as external stimuli) to one that is more introverted (trying to understand the world based on one's internal perceptions). a method. involving both new construction and unusual renovation and reconstitution of existing structures. site. Eric Owen Moss started his office in 1973 in Los Angeles.Eric Owen Moss 'What truth do you want to tell' 1991 About: • Eric Owen Moss (b. • He uses the railroad car as an example. California. • There seems to be a need to find an analytical side or a causal explanation for everything. It started to have the appeal of image and . The office has designed and completed a wide variety of projects.

style beyond its role. • He tries to answer the question How does the world really work? And alter that perception. 2006-2010 (first image) The Stealth. This is not the kind of association he's interested in. Case Studies: Samitaur Tower. 1993 .

• He often turned vacant lots in the city centre into temporary play areas. It is ambiguous and consciously so. Its ambiguity is something he'd like to see transposed to architecture. Aldo van Eyck was perhaps the most poetic yet articulate in suggesting ways past the dull. not dominated by a permanent centre. ◦ “Architecture without man has no direction. • Aim to team 10: ◦ utopian ◦ not to theorize but to build – to build for them had a particular meaning – ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITY • Man is the subject as well as the object of architecture. • He agrees with the statement of – a house is a tiny city. Joan Miro'.Lecture 4 – General Theory (2) Aldo Van Eyck 'Team 10 Primer' 1962 About: • Aldo Van Eyck (1918-1999) was an architect from the Netherlands. hygienic emptiness of Functionalism. It is like differentiating between speed and velocity.. a city a huge house. the tenth and last meeting of the Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne. no purpose.. He was one of the most influential protagonists of the architectural movement Structuralism. • He designed hundreds of playgrounds in his life. Theory 'Team 10 Primer': • Team 10 was originally formed as a working group of younger architects to prepare for CIAM X. • His playground compositions are more akin to the work of de Stijl.. his work combines Modernist idealism with a sense of multivalent reading and surprise more characteristic of Post- Modernism. No central hierarchical ordering principle. • Architecture is simply the spatial expression of human conduct. He laments of how the fusion of man and architecture in today's world has been lost'. . these are the best known of the playgrounds. • In his playgrounds – all elements were equal. Hemmed by old walls and ramshackle buildings. More concerned with architecture than urbanism. He also designed FOR KIDS – to stimulate their minds. Of the members.

Case Studies: Playgrounds all over Amsterdam (above) Orphanage in Amsterdam. 1960 (below) .

gardens etc. simple rules of thumb. Alexander introduces the concept of the “quality without a name”. • It is essentially an introduction to A pattern language that came out later as well as The Oregon Experiment (third book in the series). • Alexander proposes that we first conduct an analysis in this way – first recognise a physical feature in a building instinctually and not intellectually (what feels right) and abstract it. • Reasoning that users know more about the buildings they need than any architect could. relationships between problems and solutions etc... • In the book.Christopher Alexander 'A timeless way of building' 1979 About: • Born 1936 in Austria. Alexander is an architect noted for his theories about design as well as over 200 building projects around the world. Alexander suggests in the forward that you could read the entire book quickly just by reading the headlines which outlines the entire book's argument. that make us feel the most alive have this unnamed quality. • It had a huge influence on creative thinking. • The book essentially attempts to redefine the way we create architecture. Third. towns. This can be genetic codes of buildings. • The book is written in a format full of headlines followed by short sections giving it more detail.. The person capable of achieving this quality is not a professional architect. but an everyman and everywoman. • The way to achieve the above unnamed quality is through the implementation of pattern languages. Theory 'A timeless way of building': • Proposes a new theory of architecture (and design in general) that relies on the understanding and configuration of design patterns. especially in the areas of architecture and software design. he produced and validated a “pattern language” to empower anyone to design and build at any scale. • Alexander attempts to define the idea by surrounding it with existing concepts that reflect a part of the quality with no name but are not sufficient to define it individually. Second define the problem that this feature solves. Berkeley. define the contexts in which this . • Currently a professor at the University of California.. and argues that we should seek to include this nameless quality in our buildings. • Buildings.

so it can be explained to. or even see. And fourth. for using those patterns. that language would no longer be necessary. or buildings. an endless play of repetition and variety. a time when we would live so close to our hearts. it is a successful pattern language. feature is appropriate. perhaps the next generation of architects will heed his call. create themselves out of pattern languages. we would no longer need. as other animals do. and shared with. and we would create from a void. • Patterns are interconnected to smaller patterns that they encompass. others. name and draw a pattern. 1985 (image below) Sala House. 1983/4 . When a set of patterns differentiate space in a way that treats a building as a whole. the patterns. Case Studies: Eishin School. naturally. a time when human architecture would be just like the rest of the natural world. Just as a language is a set of symbols and rules for those symbols. a pattern language is a set of patterns and a set of sequential rules. but instead see reality directly. • Christopher Alexander foresaw a time when. and to larger patterns that they themselves are encompassed. an infinite number of three- dimensional pattern sentences. So just as an infinite number of one-dimensional sentences create themselves out of English language. The hearts of the previous generation of architects were closed to this vision. after having reinternalized these human pattern languages.

Complexity and contradiction are preferred to over-simplicity and Minimalism. hence the need in a pluralist culture for a design based on Radical Eclecticism. 4. ◦ Minimalism considered as boring and bland 3. function and aesthetics of a building • Modernism focuses on more of the functional value completely ignoring the aesthetics 2. All architecture is invented and perceived through codes. imagination to fancy. style and the city as positive catalysts for intervention. 6. hence the need for a Post-Modern . made for architectural students of UCLA. Architecture is a public language. Linguistic and Aesthetic 5. language. General Values 1. having multiple values • Values in terms of form. Memory and history are inevitable in DNA. It collects together in a concise way the major ideas of thirty years. that is 'more of nature' is nonlinear in behaviour than linear. All codes are influenced by a semiotic community and various taste cultures. hence the languages of architecture and symbolic architecture. hence the double- coding of architecture within the codes of both the professional and populace. Theory 'Propositions of Post-Modern Architecture': • Propositions – summary of the Post-Modern movement. • Literally means. landscape architect and designer. ◦ Use of elements originating from the tradition or culture 7. ◦ Using elements from the past or inculcating elements of historical importance in the building. Multivalence is preferred to univalence.Charles Jencks 'Propositions of Post-Modern Architecture' 1996 About: • Born 1939 • American architecture theorist and critic. Complexity and Chaos theories are considered more basic in explaining nature than linear dynamics. • His books on history and criticism of modernism and post-modernism are widely read in architectural circles.

small-block planning. hence Conextualism. Neo-Rationalism. Urban. hence the relevance of information theory. 12. that very much means the pluralism of ethnic groups. Architecture necessitates ornament (or patterns) which should be symbolic and symphonic. Green architecture and cosmic symbolism. and mixed uses and ages of buildings. face houses and scientific iconography instead of 'machines for living'. Classicism which is partly based on architectural universals and a changing technology. 9. the Heteropolis. Ecological 10. We live in a surprising. 13. hence the need for a cosmogenic architecture which celebrates criticism. process and humour. creative. Architecture must confront the ecological reality and that means sustainable development. ◦ Architecture must expand and evolve with time . Architecture must crystallise social reality and in the global city today. ◦ A building must belong to a city or a place 11. hence the explosion of zoomorphic imagery. Political. hence participatory design and adhocism. Architecture necessitates metaphor and this should relate us to natural and cultural concerns. self-organising universe which still gets locked-into various solutions. Collage City. Architecture must form the city. 8.

• Created the structure of the Anaheim University Kisho Kurokawa Green Institute in 2007 to help develop environmentally-conscious business practices • Kurokawa was a stakeholder and founding Chair of the Executive Advisory Board of the Anaheim. • Wrote and lectured about philosophy and architecture • There are two traditions inherent in any culture: the visible and the invisible • There is a Japanese aesthetic in the context of his work Theory 'Metabolism in Architecture': • Seeing the ruins of War. Japan • A leading Japanese architect and one of the founders of the Metabolist Movement • Graduated in 1957 – Bachelor’s degree at University of Tokyo (studying under Kenzo Tange). • Metabolic movement: • Was developed for the World Design Conference • Took two years to set up and prepare the movement • First declaration at the world design conference: Metabolism . but dropped out in 1964. Started studying a doctorate of philosophy. he had the idea that architecture was eternal and it will not lose its quality even though it’s destroyed. • Group lasted around a decade (successfully) • Founder and president of Kisho Kurokawa Architect & Associates (established 8th April 1962) • Became more adamant about environmental protection later on in his life. • Conferred an Honorary Doctorate of Architecture by Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2002 • Started the Metabolist Movement with colleagues in 1960 – a radical Japanese avant-garde movement pursuing the merging and recycling of architecture styles within an Asian context. California-based University since 1998 and his wife Ayako Wakao-Kurokawa serves as Honorary Chairman of the institute.Lecture 5 – Philosophy of Nature Kisho Kurokawa 'Metabolism in Architecture' 1977 About: • Born 1934-2007. Received his Master’s degree in 1959. Kurokawa discovered Japanese culture. Since he studied several works of Ruskin and Morris.

Design and technology should denote human vitality. • “They proposed a reorganization which divides architectural and urban spaces into levels extending from the major to the subordinate and which makes it easy for human beings to control their own environments. • Kurokawa expresses that we need to rethink transport areas (transitional areas) as spaces we live in [he is referring to Le Corbusier – cities consist of living. This is greatly influenced by the population growth. Misho Kurokawa. lack of valued judgements. influencing the nature of cities and the type of residences. • Media space (en-space): [en means connection or relationship in Japanese] “are important in making the relationship between architecture. • Two main principles: • Human society must be regarded as one part of a continuous natural entity • Technology is an extension of humanity • These principles clash with Western belief (modernization = conflict between technology and humanity) • The architect must help people master technology. and society and nature an open one…” • The Metabolists ideas are based on Buddhist principles (samsara and lakana-Alakanatas) inerchangeability. working. not just the artist creating the art work – but also. and what needs to be changed/ replaced • Beauty is a relationship between the artist and the viewer. Fumihiko Maki. 1960 – A Proposal for a New Urbanism • Collaborators on the first book: Kiyonori Kikutake. and human beings and technology Case studies: . the viewer who appreciates and discusses the work. and Kiyoshi Awazu • Society learns and grows with time. and strive to produce a system whereby changes occur as the result of human judgement. and no pleasing symbols. • They wanted to implement these principles to avoid: lack of thought regarding social significate spaces. and recreational spaces connected by methods of transport].” • One must distinguish between what to retain. metabolic cycle etc… • This movement is not directed to creating a new architectural style • Relationship between the individual and society – the same kind of relationship should be between architecture and nature. • The street is the most important part of the transport area – not the road • The Metabolists wanted to produce a system where man would maintain control over technology (fearing a time were technology would take over the world). Masato Otaka.

Karuizawa.Capsule House K. Japan 1974 (prefabricated apartment building project: using capsule units) .

• Group lasted around a decade (successfully) • Founder and president of Kisho Kurokawa Architect & Associates (established 8th April 1962) • Became more adamant about environmental protection later on in his life. • Conferred an Honorary Doctorate of Architecture by Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2002 • Started the Metabolist Movement with colleagues in 1960 – a radical Japanese avant-garde movement pursuing the merging and recycling of architecture styles within an Asian context. However successfully established the Green Party to help provide environmental protection • Created the structure of the Anaheim University Kisho Kurokawa Green Institute in 2007 to help develop environmentally-conscious business practices • Wrote and lectured about philosophy and architecture • There are two traditions inherent in any culture: the visible and the invisible • There is a Japanese aesthetic in the context of his work Theory 'The Philosophy of Symbiosis': • Hybrid architecture: elements of different cultures exist in symbiosis. and then for a seat in the House of Councillors in the Japanese House of Councillors election in 2007. he was not elected. therefore life age architecture = meaning • “Differences are precisely the proof of life’s existence. relationship between the environment. and it is these differences which create meaning…” • Architecture acquires plurality through the inheritance of its historical tradition • Several methods of inheritance: . • Ran for governor of Tokyo in 2007. tradition and advanced technology • Machine age architecture = function.Kisho Kurokawa 'The Philosophy of Symbiosis' 1987 About: • Born 1934-2007. Started studying a doctorate of philosophy. Received his Master’s degree in 1959. Japan • A leading Japanese architect and one of the founders of the Metabolist Movement • Graduated in 1957 – Bachelor’s degree at University of Tokyo (studying under Kenzo Tange). but dropped out in 1964.

irony. • An intermediate space can sometimes be used to stimulate a metamorphosis. metamorphosis and symbiosis. street spaces. but create a new multivalent significance. parks. opposing factors. • Presence of intermediary space: this allows two opposites to have a common ground. Case studies: Capsule House K. Karuizawa. and nature and the environment • Symbiosis conditions: • Recognising reverence for the sacred zone between different cultures. Japan 1974 (prefabricated apartment building project: using capsule units) . Kurokawa calls this the tentative understanding. rivers. • This is nothing to do with recreating historical architecture • Invisible ideas: such as aesthetics. twists. and “creating a mode of expression characterised by abstraction. between extremes of dualistic opposition. waterfronts. This leads to manipulating the forms intellectually. atriums. landmarks etc… • One of the challenges would be to express invisible technologies • Kurokawa continued architecture on the following principles: metabolism. sophistication and metaphor…” • Age of life architecture: will be open to regional. city walls. • In terms of architecture: gates. • Sukiya: historical forms are followed but new techniques and materials are introduced to produce change gradually • Method of recombining: to dissect fragments of historical forms and place them freely throughout works of contemporary architecture: • Using this method leads to losing its historical form. urban contexts. wit. gaps. lifestyles and historical mind- sets that lay behind historical symbols and forms.


the Building Contractor's Society Prize for the Shonandai Cultural Centre. • Formed her own design firm. ought to be designed not as an isolated work. yet by no means transparent.” • We must consider the topography and space. This serves as a means of communication with nature. • The challenge would be to propose new designs connected with new science and technology. world of emotions that have been disregarded by modern rationalism. and see what we can do to help create a new nature in the place of the one that used to be there: • A new building should commemorate the nature that was destroyed to accommodate the new development. and hence we must stop thinking of architecture as something constructed according to reason and distinct from other forms of matter. Japan).” • Hasegawa frequently takes an ad hoc approach to architecture . but as part of something larger” • “To eliminate the gap between the community and architecture by taking such an approach to public architecture and to give architecture a new social character. permitting humans to coexist with nature. • Architecture must be responsive to the eco-system • “Architecture ought to be such that it allows us to hear the mysterious music of the universe and the rich. Theory 'Architecture as Another Nature': • Reconsider architecture of the past: • Architecture was adapted based on the climate and location. and a Design Prize from the Architectural Institute of Japan. (considering the past) • Theme: architecture as another nature • We must recognize that human beings are a part of nature. becoming his assistant (great honour in Japan) after two years. • Restoring architecture to the people in society who use the architecture (the occupants) • Applying urbanism: “a building that is used by many people. whatever its scale. and architecture was part of the earth’s ecosystem. Itsuko Hasegawa Atelier in 1979 • Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects • Awards: Avon Arts Award. Japan • Received a degree in architecture from Kanto Gakuin University in 1964 • Trained with Kiyonori Kikutake • Entered Kazuo Shinohara’s lab at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1969.Itsuko Hasegawa 'Architecture as Another Nature' 1991 About: • Born 1941. the Cultural Award for Residential Architecture (Fukuoka.

(Concept of pop-up architecture) • An attempt to raise the consciousness of as many people as possible . rather than an exclusionary stance (that is an approach with a particular end/purpose) • She works hard on creating an inclusive architecture: one that can have multiple uses.

canals. North Carolina. Example streets. • Lynch practiced planning and urban design in partnership with Stephen Carr (they both founded Carr Lynch Associates in Cambridge. at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and received a Bachelor’s degree in City Planning from MIT in 1947 • Started working as an urban planner in Greensboro. • Became an assistant professor in 1949. becoming a full professor in 1963. but eventually was recruited to teach at MIT by Lloyd Rodwin. how they affect children. • Their research was published in 1960 as Lynch’s book: The Image of the City • Lynch analysis was formed by him – an analysis used greatly in urban design nowadays • His books explored the presence of time and history in an urban environment. • Died 1984. edges. districts. and railroads. was tenured as an associate professor in 1955. • Predominant elements in many people’s image • Edges: • Linear elements not used or considered as paths to the . not just its imageability. United States • Urban planner and author • Studies at Yale University under Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin. and landmarks (in the lynch analysis) • Paths: • Channels in which the observer moves. history. or name. • “It is taken for granted that in actual design form should be used to reinforce meaning.Kevin Lynch 'the Image of the City' 1960 About: • Born 1918. United States Theory . Massachusetts). human perception of the physical form of the cities. its function. and the basis for good urban design. and not to negate it. walkways. • 1954: Lynch (together with his MIT teaching colleague Gyorgy Kepes) received a grant from the Ford Foundation to study urban form in Italy.The City Image and its Elements: • This analysis limits itself to the effects of physical and perceptible objects • Other things influence a space.” • Five types of elements: paths. nodes. (a phrase that Lynch coined) such as the social meaning of the area. and a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to study perceptions of the urban environment and urban form.

then the citizen can inform it with his own meanings and connections. store. shaped for human purposes • We are accustomed in adjusting or habits to fit our environments (survival and dominance) Theory . a tent for many functions. differentiated structures at the urban scale Theory . major land-uses.Form Qualities: • Based on the following: • Singularity of figure-ground clarity • Form simplicity • Continuity • Dominance . • Can be barriers. mountain etc… • These elements are the building blocks in the process of making firm. • Landmarks: • Another type of point reference.City Form: • Imageable landscape: visible. and walls. and clear • “A city is a multi-purpose. street corner. in which the user does not enter within them – they are external • Usually a simply defined physical object: building. Then it will become a true place. • Not as dominant as paths • Important organizational features. identifying character • Nodes: • Strategic spots in a city into which an observer can enter • Intensive foci to and from travelling purposes • Example: junctions. convergence of paths. railroad cuts. Can be perceived edges.” • Expressive city forms: circulation. shifting organization. raised by many hands and with relative speed. more or less penetrable. linear breaks in continuity. • Holding together generalized areas • Outline of a city by water or wall • Districts: • Medium-to-large sections of the city • An observer mentally enters ‘inside of’ • Have some common. coherent. sign. • “If the environment is visibly organized and sharply identified. a crossing. piazzas. or an enclosed square. Example: shores. observer. remarkable and unmistakable…” • A city should be made by art. • Bound between two phases. places of break in transportation. and key focal points.

• Clarity of joint • Directional differentiation • Visual scope • Motion awareness • Times series • Names and meanings .

law. Cue magazine. Jacobs worked as an unpaid assistant to the women’s page editor at the Scranton Tribune • Moved to New York City in 1935 during the Great Depression. and Vogue • Studied at Columbia University’s School of general Studies for two years. • Died: 2006. and moving on to editor for a trade magazine • Sold articles to the Sunday Herald Tribune. Canada Theory .The Peculiar Nature of Cities: • the uses of sidewalks: safety • must have three main qualities: • there must be a clear demarcation between what is public space and what is private space • there must be eyes upon the street. United States (nee Butzner) • American-Canadian journalist. • Started working at Iron Age magazine • This fuelled her activist in her • Petitioned the War Production Board to support more operations in Scranton • Equal pay for women • Major influence on decentralist and radical centrist thought • The Rockefeller Foundation created the Jane Jacobs Medal – “to recognize individuals who have made a significant contribution to thinking about urban design. eyes belonging to those we might call the natural proprietors of the street • the sidewalk must have users on it fairly continuously • the uses of sidewalks: contact . studying geology." – Jane Jacobs • Worked as a secretary. author.Lecture 6 – The City (1) Jane Jacobs 'The Death and Life of Great American Cities' 1961 About: • Born: 1916. and economics. zoology. what work was like. political science. and activist best known for her urban studies • After graduating high school. working mainly as a stenographer and freelance writer (frequently writing about districts in the city) • "… gave me more of a notion of what was going on in the city and what business was like. specifically in New York City” • The Canadian Urban Institute: Jane Jacobs Lifetime Achievement Award • Jacobs received the second Vincent Scully Prize from the National Building Museum in 2000.

The Conditions for City Diversity: • The generators of diversity • To understand cities. To insure the presence of people going outside during different times of day. not separate uses. must serve more than one primary function (ideally more than two). • The need for small blocks • Condition 2: most blocks must be short: i. we have to deal outright with combinations or mixtures of uses. streets and opportunities to turn corners must be frequent • The need for aged buildings • Condition 3: the district must be compromised of different buildings from various eras and conditions • The need for concentration • Condition 4: the district must have a good dense concentration of people (regardless of their purpose there) – including people that reside in the area • City planning deals with the life of individuals • “A city cannot be a work of art…” • The kind of a problem a city is… • Cities = problems in organized complexity (similar to life sciences) • They can be analysed into many such problems or segments are also related to one another. sub-city size. and are using the spaces for different reasons. • The problems are “interrelated into an organic whole” • The most important habits of thought (with regards to understanding cities): • To think about processes • To work inductively. as the essential phenomena • The need for primary mixed uses • Condition1: The districts and other parts. which reveal the way larger and more ‘average’ quantities are operating. • these are the small change from which a city’s wealth f public life may grow • The uses of city neighbourhoods • The problem: neighbourhoods in cities need to supply some means for civilised self-government • Seeing the neighbourhoods as organs of self-government: • The city as a whole • Street neighbourhoods • Districts of large.000 people or more in the cases of the largest cities Theory . composed of 100. .e. reasoning from particulars to the general • To seek for ‘unaverage’ clues involving very small quantities.

Italy • Italian architect and designer – many achievements in theory. and by architecture. • Records of vision: images.Aldo Rossi 'The Architecture of the City' 1966 About: • Born 1931. he’s referring to the architecture. the villages expanded like an urban nucleus. acquiring a consciousness and memory.1964. and became the editor during 1959 . Theory . and necessary artefact. • We must judge the quality of a space • Why we don’t go to certain places because it evokes a particular feeling. • “A poet who happens to be an architect” – Ada Louise Huxtable • Awards: Pritzker Architecture Prize (1990) • Died 1997. or reminiscence of previous experiences. the creation of the environment in which it lives…” • Architecture has been deeply rooted in shaping our civilization and is a permanent.Urban Artifacts and a Theory of the City • When he talks about the city. Italy Theory . and the creation of better surroundings for life. and a fixed point for urban dynamic • Important to have rituals in collective nature.Typological Questions • First houses built were to protect the users from the elements – man used what he could control at the time. • Started writing for Casabella magazine in 1955. engravings. As time progressed. drawing. • Studied architecture at the Politecnico di Milano and graduated in 1959. • Two permanent characteristics of architecture: aesthetic intention. • “This addresses the ultimate and definitive fact in the life of the collective. architecture and product design. • Monuments will act as a primary element. expropriation and rapid changes in use. • The city grows upon itself. he also includes the construction of the city over time. universal. to help preserve myths which constitutes a key to understanding the meanings of the monuments and their implications for the city in an urban context. Therefore the concept of type became a basis for . Changes can be seen as far back as Neolithic villages. photographs of the disembowelled cities • Signs of urban dynamics: destruction and demolition.

• The city is the biography of humanity Case Studies Teatro del Mondo. 1979 . memory. locus. and design itself.Critique of Naïve Functionalism • Some of the principle questions in relation to an urban artefact: individuality. a logical principle that is prior to form and that constitutes it…” • ‘Type’ is the very idea of architecture • Imposing itself on the ‘feelings of reason’ as the principle of architecture and of the city Theory . architecture. • Function has nothing to do with it • Otherwise this stops us from studying forms and knowing the world of architecture according to its true laws Theory . • Rossi’s definition of type: “something that is permanent and complex.Monuments and the Theory of Permanences • Historical science does not equal to urban science • In this case. we need to consider urban history (research purposes) • We experience a sense of permanences though streets and plans – which link us to the past in some cases. Italy. Venice.


and ultimately to justify our own architecture. or ugly and ordinary over heroic and original. • Coined the phrase Less is a bore • Graduated from Princeton University in 1947. and later for Louis Kahn in Philadelphia. Yale School of Architecture (lecturing with Scott Brown). or ugly and ordinary • Ugly and ordinary as symbol and style • Against ducks.Lecture 7 – The City (2) Robert Venturi et al 'Learning from Las Vegas' 1972 About: • Born 1925. visiting lecturer at Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design (2003). • Taught at the University of Pennsylvania (1954 – 1965) (where he met his wife/partner Denise Scott Brown). • Received his M. Michigan in 1951.A.” • Commercial strip at Las Vegas: • Challenges the architect to take a positive view • Modernism is dissatisfied with existing conditions. • Awards: Pritzker Architecture Prize (1991). from Princeton in 1950 • Briefly worked under Eero Saarinen in Bloomfield Hills. Guild House (in association with Cope and Lippincott) • Heroic and original. founding principal of the firm Venturi.F. Scott Brown and Associates.A significance for A&P parking lots. or Learning from Las Vegas: • “Learning from the existing landscape is a way of being revolutionary for an architect… to question how we look at things.High-design architecture: . Vincent Scully Prize. • Withholding judgement may be used as a tool to make other judgements more sensitive Some definitions using the comparative method • Argument is based on comparisons: to show what we are for and what we are against. Twenty- five Year Award Theory . simply for banality’s sake. United States • American architect. Or in other words. or think little Theory . where he was a member- elect of Phi Beta Kappa and won the D’Amato Prize in Architecture. • Emphasize image over process or form • Used two manifestos for his arguments • The duck and the decorated shed • Paul Rudolph’s Crawford Manor vs.

but a temporary alliance in design can help everyone. .• People’s architecture as they want it does not stand a chance against high-end designers and urban renewal until it is acceptable to the decision makers. • Social classes rarely come together.

and teacher • Major intellectual influence on architecture and urbanism (city planning. England.” • Can help deal with utopia as an image • Dealt in fragments . up to a point. University of Cambridge. for a year.Collision City and the Politics of ‘Bricolage': • A collision of points of view is inevitable and acceptable • He proposed to allow a theory of contending powers (all of them visible) as likely to establish a more ideally comprehensive city of the mind than any which has. as yet. folkish.Collage City and the Re-conquest of time: • Refers to a Picasso art work (Bull’s Head – 1944) [bicycle seat that looks like a bull’s head. and urban design) • Education: Warburg Institute. University of Liverpool • Taught at the University of Texas most of his life. therefore metaphor] • Exploitation and recycling of meaning • A dialectic between past and future • What is true/ false? • What is antique/ new? • Therefore concluding to a collage • Collage both as a technique and a state of mind • Ultimate problem: utopia versus tradition • Introducing a social collage: anything can be: aristocratic. academic. been invented • Criticism is encouraged as to view all possible outcomes • 17th Century Rome was simultaneously a dialectic of ideal types plus a dialectic of ideal types with empirical context Theory . United Kingdom • British-born. critic. collage accommodates both hybrid display and the requirements of self- determination. popular etc… • “Societies and persons assemble themselves according to their own interpretations of absolute reference and traditional value. United States Theory . theoretician. regeneration. • Awards: Royal Gold Medal (1995) by the Royal Institute of British Architects (highest honour) • Died 1999.Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter ‘Collage City’ 1975 About (Rowe): • Born 1920. American naturalised architectural historian.

and green technology • Principal: James Wines (born 1932.” • Their work is a hybrid fusion of both art and architecture – intentionally eliminating the conventional distinctions between them. and disorder. Illinois) • Also includes: Emilio Sousa. fragmentation. therefore not the objective of a design process. • Architecture is the only intrinsic public art. landscape. • Architecture is the subject matter (or raw material) or art. and aesthetic significance of architecture and public space. New York • Aim: to unite building design with visual art. Wall Street. • A building is conclusive at that moment of its greatest indecision. • De-architecture . • SITE frequently use the following concepts as a source for architectural imagery: indeterminacy. Alison Sky and Michelle Stone Theory: • “To explore new possibilities for changing professional and popular response to the sociological. • Instead of imposing a new design on an existing site. psychological. entropy. SITE expands/ inverts its already established meaning (of the building) by changing the structure very little on a physical level. • SITE rejects modern design’s traditional ideas about form and space – but rather go for architecture as information and thought (a shift in priorities) – physical to mental. but a great deal on a psychological level. • Reversing the appearance of institutional security and replacing it with a message of ambiguity and equivocation.SITE ‘Notes on the Philosophy of SITE’ 1980 About: • SITE: Sculpture in the Environment • An architecture and environmental design organisation • Founded in 1970.