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Sizing Equations

Version 2009.1 (9.0.1) October 2009/April 2010 DSPI2-PE-200008A-Updated

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Contents

Preface.................................................................................................................................3

1 Nomenclature ............................................................................................................5

2 Control Valve Sizing ................................................................................................9

2.1 Liquid, Water ........................................................................................................... 9

2.2 Gas, Steam ............................................................................................................. 11

3 Noise Calculation....................................................................................................13

3.1 Hydrodynamic Noise: Masoneilan Standard ......................................................... 13

3.2 Hydrodynamic Noise: IEC Standard...................................................................... 13

3.3 Aerodynamic Noise: ISA Standard ........................................................................ 15

3.4 Aerodynamic Noise: IEC Standard ........................................................................ 19

4 Flow Meter Sizing ..................................................................................................22

4.1 Calculation of Beta Ratio ....................................................................................... 22

4.2 Calculation of Flow rate ......................................................................................... 23

4.3 Calculation of Differential range ........................................................................... 25

5 Restriction Device Sizing .......................................................................................27

5.1 Calculation of Beta Ratio ....................................................................................... 27

5.2 Calculation of Flow Rate ....................................................................................... 32

5.3 Calculation of Pressure Loss .................................................................................. 37

6 Relief Valve Sizing .................................................................................................42

6.1 Blocked Flow: Liquid Relief.................................................................................. 42

6.2 Blocked Flow: Gas Relief ...................................................................................... 44

6.3 Blocked Flow: Steam Relief .................................................................................. 46

6.4 Fire Case: Gas Expansion ...................................................................................... 47

6.5 Fire Case: Liquid Filled Vessel .............................................................................. 48

7 Thermowell Calculation .........................................................................................51

Kf

7.1 Define initial value of constant: ....................................................................... 51

7.2 Calculate Ratio of frequency at fluid temperature to frequency at 70 °F: ............. 51

7.3 Calculate Maximum thermowell length: ................................................................ 51

K

7.4 Define f constant: ............................................................................................... 51

7.6 Calculate Natural Frequency for L=L1 .................................................................. 52

7.7 Calculate Wake Frequency .................................................................................... 53

7.8 Calculate Magnification Factor for L1(R ≤ 0.8) ..................................................... 54

K

7.9 Define K1 , K 2 , 3 constants ................................................................................. 54

7.10 Calculate Maximum Allowable Static Gage Pressure ....................................... 54

7.11 Calculate Maximum thermowell length based on Steady State Stress

Consideration ..................................................................................................... 54

8 Standards.................................................................................................................55

8.1 Control Valve Sizing .............................................................................................. 55

8.2 Noise Calculation ................................................................................................... 55

8.3 Flow Meter Sizing.................................................................................................. 55

8.4 Relief Valve Sizing ................................................................................................ 56

8.5 Thermowell Calculation ......................................................................................... 56

Sizing Equations 1

............................... 59 9.... 58 9...... 57 9............................................................................................................ 58 9............ 59 2 Sizing Equations ....57 9.........5 Venturi Tube .. 58 9..................................8 Segmental Orifice .......................9 Restriction Device ......................................3 Conical Entrance Orifice ...................7 Eccentric Orifice ..........................................................................................................................................................4 Lo-Loss Tube .................................2 Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) Orifice ....... 58 9.......................................................................................................... 58 9........ 58 9.................................................................................1 Square Edge Orifice ......................................................................................................................6 Nozzle .......................................................................Contents 9 Attachment ......................................................................................................................

Preface This document is a reference for sizing equations used by the SmartPlant Instrumentation Calculation module. Send documentation comments or suggestions to PPMdoc@intergraph. 5 Sizing Equations 3 .com.

4 Sizing Equations .

dimensionless fp Peak frequency. mm Dd2 Outlet outside diameter of the pipe. US gallon per minute of water (60 ºF) at 1 psi pressure drop Cr Coefficient for critical flow equation. or differential pressure transmitter range. dimensionless Fs Correction factor for steam quality. dimensionless Fp Piping geometry factor. mm Dj Diameter of the jet. mm D0 Internal pipe diameter (upstream) at ambient temperature. m/s Cp Speed of sound in pipe wall. psi-g Ef Acoustical efficiency factor.Kb1. m DP Pressure differential. dimensionless FF Liquid critical pressure ratio factor. dimensionless FR Reynolds number factor. dimensionless F1 Heat Absorption Factor. mm HS0 Segmental height at ambient temperature. mm HV Heat of vaporization. dimensionless Fk Ratio of specific heats factor. Hz fr Ring frequency.K2. dimensionless Gg Gas specific gravity (ratio of density of flowing gas to density of air with both at standard conditions. bar DPA Maximum allowable pressure drop. inch2 B Diameter at tip. Hz fw Wake frequency. mm D2 Outlet internal diameter of the pipe. P1-P2 .6 °C). dimensionless F2 Coefficient for subcritical flow equation. in D1 Inlet internal diameter of the pipe. ratio of flow coefficient for a gas to that for a liquid at the same Reynolds number. dimensionless Cs Speed of sound. dimensionless FL Liquid pressure recovery factor.1 Nomenclature A Required effective discharge area. bar DPloss Pressure loss. 1/K. m d Valve inlet diameter or orifice (throat) diameter at flow temperature. bar DPn Differential pressure at normal flow rate. dimensionless Sizing Equations 5 . dimensionless HS Segmental height at flow temperature. J/kg K Specific Heat Ratio. mm d0 Orifice (throat) diameter at ambient temperature. which is equal to the ratio of molecular weight of gas to the molecular weight of air). dimensionless Eps Gas expansion factor. Cp/Cv dimensionless K1. dimensionless F Environment Factor. bar Dbh Bleed/Vent hole diameter. inch2 A1 Exposed surface area. dimensionless Fd Valve style modifier.Kb2 Effective velocity head coefficients. m/s D Internal pipe diameter (upstream) at flow temperature. Hz fo Coincidence or Natural frequency. in C Discharge coefficient CV Valve flow coefficient. mm Dt Nominal size of sensing element. mm E Module of Elasticity at 70 °F. Hz Gf Liquid specific gravity (ratio of density of liquid at flowing temperature to density of water at 15. dimensionless FLP Product of the liquid pressure recovery factor of a valve with attached fittings and the piping geometry factor.

psi-g Pup Upstream relieving pressure. dB Tw Vessel Wall Temperature. dimensionless Kf Constant for thermowell calculation. psi-g Pb2 Variable back pressure. m/s V Velocity. CV/d2 KCV Valve cavitation index. dimensionless Kcc Combination capacity factor for rupture disk at the relief valve inlet. % Ps Set pressure. K T1 Gas temperature at relieving conditions. kg/m3 ROp Density of pipe material. dimensionless L Maximum thermowell length. dB TLfo Transmission loss at coincidence frequency. %wt T Flow temperature. dimensionless Ksh Superheat steam correction factor. K Tc Thermodynamic critical temperature. Pa Pa Absolute outside pipe pressure. bar PVC. bar PV Absolute vapor pressure of liquid at inlet temperature. dimensionless Kn Correction factor for Napier equation. ft/s W Flow rate. dimensionless No Number of flow passages . kg/m3 Rf Ratio of frequency at fluid temperature to frequency at 70 °F. psi-a R Limitation on Wake to Natural frequency ratio. dimensionless Mj Mach number in the jet. dB TLfr Transmission loss across the pipe wall at the ring frequency. mm SRF Scale reading factor. dimensionless Remax. dimensionless RO Density at flow conditions (upstream). bar PC Absolute thermodynamic critical pressure. psi-g Pb1 Constant back pressure. dB M Molecular weight. P2b.1 Nomenclature KC Cavitation index. mm Re Valve (pipe) Reynolds number. kg/h 6 Sizing Equations . Pa Pb Total back pressure. in La “A”-weighted sound level. dB(A) Lg Correction for pipe Mach number. psi-g Pb3 Built-up back pressure. dimensionless Kb Capacity correction factor due to back pressure. psi-g Pcf Critical flow throat pressure. 10×Wn/Wmax St Water in steam. dimensionless Kp Correction factor for overpressure. °R T0 Ambient temperature. Ren Pipe Reynolds number at maximum and normal flow rate. Pa P2c. °R U Velocity. dimensionless Kw Correction factor for back pressure. dimensionless KCD Relative capacity. dimensionless P Absolute static pressure. dimensionless MN0 Mach number in valve outlet. psi-a Pover Overpressure. P2ce Border pressures for different noise regimes. PVCC Absolute pressure in vena contracta at subsonic and critical flow conditions. dimensionless RS0 Segmental radius at ambient temperature. atomic mass units MN Mach number in pipe. Κ TL Transmission loss. dimensionless Kd Effective coefficient of discharge. dimensionless Rq Radius of upstream profile of Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) orifice. dimensionless Kv Correction factor for viscosity. dB Lpi Internal sound pressure level.

dimensionless αp. 1/ºC β Diameter ratio of orifice or throat and inside diameter of line ΔLf Correction value for cavitating flow. dB ΔTLfp Correction for ratio of peak frequency and coincidence frequency. Wn Maximum and normal flow rate. dimensionless XT Pressure drop ratio factor. dB η Acoustic efficiency factor. dimensionless Z Compressibility at operating conditions. dimensionless μ Absolute (dynamic) viscosity. dimensionless XTP Value of XT for valve-fitting assembly. Wms Stream powers. Pa×s ν Kinematic viscosity. kg/s Wa Sound power. W Wm. m X Ratio of pressure drop to absolute inlet pressure (DP/P1). centistokes Sizing Equations 7 . 1 Nomenclature Wmax. dimensionless Zb Compressibility at base conditions. αpe Linear expansion coefficient of pipe and primary element material. W wall Pipe wall thickness.

1 Nomenclature Subscripts 0 First estimate 1 Upstream conditions 2 Downstream conditions VC Vena Contracta 8 Sizing Equations .

5 ⎜ 0.3 Calculate K C : P1 − P2 KC = P1 − PV 2.1. − 0.7 Calculate K CV : ( K CV = FL FL ( 166667 .1.2 Calculate ν: ν = 10 6 ⋅ μ / RO 2.1.1. Water 2.3077143 ) 2. 2 Control Valve Sizing 2 Control Valve Sizing 2.1.1 Liquid.1 Calculate FF : PV FF = 0.9 Calculate Re : 0.3 ⋅ ( P1 − P2 ) ⋅ RO 2.428571) + 1869048 . FL − 2.25 76000 ⋅ FD ⋅ W ⎛ ( FL ⋅ CV0 ) 2 ⎞ Re = ⋅⎜ + 1⎟ ν ⋅ RO ⋅ ( FL ⋅ CV0 ) 0.1.10 Calculate DPA : 2 ⎛F ⎞ DPA = ⎜ LP ⎟ ( P1 − FF PV ) ⎝ FP ⎠ Sizing Equations 9 .5 ⋅ 1 − d 2 / D12 K b1 = 1 − ( d / D1 ) Kb 2 = 1 − ( d / D2 ) 4 4 ∑ K = K1 + K 2 + K b1 − K b 2 Ki = K1 + Kb1 2.4 Calculate effective velocity head coefficients: ( ) K 2 = ( 1 − d 2 / D2 2 ) 2 2 K1 = 0.00214 ⋅ d 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2.6 Calculate FP : −1/ 2 ⎛ ∑ K ⋅ CV0 2 ⎞ FP = ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎜ 0.96 − 0.00214 ⋅d 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2.00214 ⋅ d 4 ⎦ 2.1.1.8 Calculate FLP : −1/ 2 ⎡ K i ⋅ FL 2 ⋅ CV0 2 ⎤ FLP = FL ⋅ ⎢ + 1⎥ ⎣ 0.28 PC 2.1.1.5 Calculate first value of CV: W CV0 = 27.

1. A2.Cavitation and Flashing A1 Cavitation case takes place if P2 〉 PV .2 IEC standard: W CV = 27.1.43 ⋅ 10 −2 ⋅ Az + 0.11.2.99 2.3 ⋅ FR ⋅ FLP ⋅ ( P1 − FF ⋅ PV ) ⋅ RO Case B ( P1 − P2 ≤ DPA ) .2.1.3 2470 < Re ≤ 10200 Az = Re/ 2470 − 1 FR = −9.12 The condition P1 − P2 〉 DPA determines: Case A .11.11.Turbulent flow FR = 1 2.1.1. At this stage.11. otherwise flashing case takes place.1 56 < Re ≤ 620 Az = Re/ 56 − 1 FR = −6.11 Calculate FR .4 10200 < Re ≤ 20000 FR = 0.7614 2.184 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Az + 5.5 20000 < Re ≤ 30000 FR = 0.Laminar flow FR = 0.97 2.684 ⋅ 10 −2 ⋅ Az + 0.3 ⋅ FP ⋅ ( P1 − P2 ) ⋅ RO B2 IEC standard: W CV = 27.3 Case Re ≥ 40000 .Transitional flow 2.1 ISA standard: W CV = 27.1.11.1.11.3 ⋅ FR ⋅ ( P1 − P2 ) ⋅ RO B1.2 FR = 1 W CV = 27.88 −3 2 2.98 2.1.844539 ⋅ 10 −2 ⋅ Az 2 + −5 4 −3 3 01708764 .2. the following cases for different Re are possible 2.2 620 < Re ≤ 2470 Az = Re/ 620 − 1 FR = −9.11. ⋅ Az + 0.3 ⋅ FR ⋅ FP ⋅ ( P1 − P2 ) ⋅ RO 10 Sizing Equations .121 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ Az 2 + 6.2.11.6 30000 < Re ≤ 40000 FR = 0.2.1.2 Case 56 < Re < 40000 . A2 Calculate new CV .11.1 Case Re ≤ 56 .019 ⋅ Re 0.1 FR ≠ 1 W CV = 27.082774 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Az + 2.Usual B1 ISA standard: B1.212891 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Az − 2.2 Control Valve Sizing 2.1.2925969 2.67 2.2.3 ⋅ FLP ⋅ ( P1 − FF ⋅ PV ) ⋅ RO A2.1.

13 Calculate the relative change in the CV: CV0 − CV ΔCV = .2.1. 2.2.3 Calculate FK : FK = K / 14 .2.15 Define “Incipient” case.2.5 Calculate first value of CV: *d [in] CV0 = K CD ⋅ d 2 2.6 Calculate FP: −1/ 2 ⎛ ∑ K ⋅ CV 0 2 ⎞ FP = ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎜ 0. Steam 2.2.2.2 Calculate effective velocity head coefficients: ( ) K 2 = ( 1 − d 2 / D2 2 ) 2 2 K1 = 0.8 The condition X > FK ⋅ X TP determines: Case A .1 Calculate XT : X T = 0.2.00214 ⋅d 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2. A2 Calculate new CV : W CV = 27.667 .6 .1.2.14 Paragraphs 2.1.1.7 Calculate XTP: −1 X ⎛ X ⋅ K i ⋅ CV0 2 ⎞ X TP = 2T ⎜ T + 1⎟ FP ⎝ 0.1.16 Calculate outlet pipe velocity: *W [kg/s]. 2 Control Valve Sizing 2.00241 ⋅ d 4 ⎠ 2.1.5 ⋅ 1 − d 2 / D12 K b1 = 1 − (d / D1 ) Kb 2 = 1 − ( d / D2 ) 4 4 ∑ K = K1 + K 2 + K b1 − K b 2 Ki = K1 + Kb1 2.Critical flow A1 Eps = 0. D2 [m] W U2 = 31416 .3 ⋅ FP ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fk ⋅ X TP ⋅ P1 ⋅ RO Sizing Equations 11 .84 ⋅ FL2 2.2 Gas. CV0 = CV CV0 2. 2.001. ⋅ (D2 / 2 ) 2 ⋅ RO 2. The “Incipient” case takes place if P1 − P2 ≤ DPA and KC > KCV 2.2.13 are repeated until the relative change in the CV is less than 0.4 Calculate X : X = ( P1 − P2 ) / P1 2.

2.3 ⋅ FP ⋅ Eps ⋅ X ⋅ P1 ⋅ RO 2.9 Calculate the relative change in CV: CV0 − CV ΔCV = . 3 ⋅ FK ⋅ X TP B2 Calculate new CV : W CV = 27.2.9 are repeated until the relative change in CV is less than 0.2.00214 ⋅ d 4 ⎠ 2.13 Calculate Mach number: Cs2 = 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ T / M MN = U 2 / Cs 2 12 Sizing Equations .6 .2. CV0 = CV CV0 2.2.10 Paragraphs 2. D2 [m] P2 RO2 = RO ⋅ P1 W U2 = 31416 .2.Usual X B1 Eps = 1 − .11 Calculate FLP: −1/ 2 ⎛ K ⋅ F 2 ⋅ CV 2 ⎞ FLP = FL ⋅ ⎜ i L + 1⎟ ⎝ 0. 2.001.2.2 Control Valve Sizing Case B ( X ≤ FK ⋅ X TP ) . ⋅ ( D2 / 2) 2 ⋅ RO2 2.2.12 Calculate outlet pipe velocity: *W [kg/s].

1 Calculate the downstream speed of sound: 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ T1 C s2 = M 3. 3. 3 Noise Calculation 3 Noise Calculation 3.1.2.2.5 ⎢ FL − KCV ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3.1 Case DP < dPi .2.2.2.7 . P2 [Pa-a].[5 ⋅ log(DP + 0.2 Calculate Characteristic pressure ratio X fz = 0.07 − PV ) + ⎢ FL − K CV ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 70.2 Case dPi < DP < dPC .07 . P1 [Pa-a].2 Hydrodynamic Noise: IEC Standard *D2 [m].07 − PV ) + 70.1.1. dPC : dPi = KCV ⋅ ( P1 − PV ) dPC = FL ⋅ ( P1 − PV ) 2 3.2 Calculate hydrodynamic noise.Incipient Cavitation Noise: La = 10 ⋅ log CV + 20 ⋅ log DP − 30 ⋅ log(wall ) + ⎡ DP ⎤ ⎢ P − P − KCV ⎥ 5⋅ ⎢ 1 2 V ⎥ ⋅ log 14.1 Calculate dPi . Pv [Pa-a].5 ⋅ ( P2 + 0.4 Case P2 < PV . Pc [Pa-a].3 Case DP > dPC and P2 > PV .1.3 Calculate Differential pressure ratio Sizing Equations 13 .5 ⋅ ( P2 + 0.dPC ) + 6] 3.Cavitation Noise: La = 10 ⋅ log CV + 20 ⋅ log DP − 30 ⋅ log( wall ) + ⎡ DP ⎤ ⎢ P − P − K CV ⎥ 5⋅ ⎢ 1 2 V ⎥ ⋅ log 14. 3.84 ⋅ F L 2 3.5 3.2.Flashing Noise: There is no method to predict Noise for flashing case.1.1.Flow Noise: La = 10 ⋅ log CV + 20 ⋅ log DP − 30 ⋅ log( wall ) + 70. W[kg/s] 3.1 Hydrodynamic Noise: Masoneilan Standard 3.2.

1 Calculate Liquid critical pressure ratio factor F f = 0.5.8 ΔL f + 180 ⋅ ⋅ 1− X f ⋅ log Xf X fz 1− X f 3.2.5.2.5 T L 1 = 10 + 10 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log ⎢ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ fr C s 2 ⋅ RO ⋅ D d 2 ⎢ 500 ⎜⎝ F fr ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L wi 1 = L wi − 2 .37 ⋅ ⋅ 10 − 0 .5 12 L we 2 = L wi 2 − 17 .5. L wi = 120 + 10 ⋅ log( E f ) + 10 ⋅ log(W ) + 10 ⋅ log( P1 − P2 ) − 10 ⋅ log( RO ) + 1 − X fz 0 .1 ( Case P1 − P2 ≤ FL ⋅ P1 − FF ⋅ Pv 2 ) DP = P1 − P2 3.2.37 ⋅ ⋅ 10 − 0 .4 Calculate Ring frequency Cp F fz = .2.2.96 − 0.2.2.9 1.2.5.1 Case Xf < Xfz .2.1⋅TL 2 − T L 2 + 10 ⋅ log Dd 2 Dd 2 C p ⋅ RO p ⋅ wall ⎡ F ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ⎤ 1.2.2.2.5 Calculate Internal sound power level 3.2.5.Cavitating flow 3.3 Calculate Lwi. 31416 ⋅ Dd 2 3.2.6 Calculate Unweighted external sound power levels C p ⋅ RO p ⋅ wall ⎡F ⎛ 500 ⎞ ⎤ 1.0625 X fz ( ) 0 .5 = 10 + 10 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log ⎢ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ fr TL 2 C s 2 ⋅ RO ⋅ D d 2 ⎢ 1000 ⎜⎝ F fr ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L wi 2 = L wi − 10 ⋅ log ( 2 ) − 2 .2 Case Xf => Xfz .5 12 L we 1 = L wi 1 − 17 .9 1.1⋅TL 1 − T L 1 + 10 ⋅ log Dd 2 Dd 2 C p ⋅ RO p ⋅ wall ⎡ F ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ⎤ 1.5 T L 3 = 10 + 10 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log ⎢ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ fr C s 2 ⋅ RO ⋅ D d 2 ⎢ 2000 ⎜⎝ F fr ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 14 Sizing Equations .3 Noise Calculation P1 − P2 X = P1 − Pv f 3.28 ⋅ ( Pv / Pc ) 3.5.2.2 ( Case P1 − P2 > FL ⋅ P1 − FF ⋅ Pv 2 ) DP = FL ⋅ ( P1 − FF ⋅ Pv ) 2 3.Non-cavitating flow L wi = 120 + 10 ⋅ log( E f ) + 10 ⋅ log(W ) + 10 ⋅ log( P 1 − P 2 ) − 10 ⋅ log( RO ) 3.2 Calculate Differential pressure 3.2.2.5.

2 Calculate the following pressures: Pvc = P1 .9 1.8 Calculate External A-weighted sound pressure level ⎡ ⎛ D ⎞⎤ L a = L wae − 10 ⋅ log ⎢ 3. P1 [Pa-a].37 ⋅ ⋅ 10 − 0 .9 1.1⋅( Lwe 3 +1.3 Aerodynamic Noise: ISA Standard *D2 [m].1⋅( Lwe1 − 3.2.1 Calculate the downstream parameters: RO 2 = RO ⋅ P2 / P1 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ T1 C s2 = M W U2 = 3 .(P1-P2)/FL2 ⎛ K ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎝ K −1 ⎠ PVCC = P1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ Sizing Equations 15 .2 ) + 10 0.3.1⋅TL 3 − T L 3 + 10 ⋅ log Dd 2 Dd 2 C p ⋅ RO p ⋅ wall ⎡ F ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ 1.1⋅TL 4 − T L 4 + 10 ⋅ log Dd 2 Dd 2 C p ⋅ RO p ⋅ wall ⎡ F ⎛ 8000 ⎞ ⎤ 1.1⋅TL 5 − T L 5 + 10 ⋅ log Dd 2 Dd 2 3.5 12 L we 5 = L wi 5 − 17 .2.1⋅( Lwe 2 + 0.5 12 L we 4 = L wi 4 − 17 .0 ) + 10 0.5 = 10 + 10 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log ⎢ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ fr TL 4 C s 2 ⋅ RO ⋅ D d 2 ⎢ 4000 ⎜⎝ F fr ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L wi 4 = L wi − 10 ⋅ log (8 ) − 2 . 3 Noise Calculation L wi 3 = L wi − 10 ⋅ log ( 4 ) − 2 .2 ) + 10 0.0 ) + 10 0.37 ⋅ ⋅ 10 − 0 .7 Calculate External A-weighted sound power level [ Lwae = 10 ⋅ log⋅ 10 0.3.1⋅( Lwe 5 −1.37 ⋅ ⋅ 10 − 0 .5 12 L we 3 = L wi 3 − 17 .1⋅( Lwe 4 +1.1416 ⋅ 3 ⋅ ⎜ 2 + 1⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ Dd 2 ⎠⎦ 3. P2 [Pa-a].9 1. 1416 ⋅ RO 2 ⋅ (D 2 / 2 ) 2 MN 2 = U 2 / C s 2 3.5 = 10 + 10 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log ⎢ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ fr TL 5 C s 2 ⋅ RO ⋅ D d 2 ⎢ 8000 ⎜⎝ F fr ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L wi 5 = L wi − 10 ⋅ log (16 ) − 2 . W[kg/s] *FL=FLP/Fp 3.1) ] 3.

3.3.3 Noise Calculation P2c = P1 .5 ⎛ 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ TVC ⎞ C sVC =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ M ⎠ 1/ 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎟ ⎤ ⎛ K −1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎫ ⎪ 2K ⎢ ⎛ P ⎞ ⎝ K ⎠ ⎥ P1 ⎪ =⎨ 1− ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ RO ⎬ VC U VC ⎪ K − 1 ⎢ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ W ⋅ U VC 2 Wm = 2 U MN = VC C sVC η = 0.FL2(P1-Pvcc) α = Pvcc/P2c ⎛ K ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ P1 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎝ K −1 ⎠ P2b = ⋅⎜ ⎟ α ⎝K⎠ P2ce = P1/(22α) 3.3. Mj: Fd = N o−1/2 D j = 0.6 Wa = η ⋅ Wm ⋅ FL 2 f P = 0.0046 ⋅ Fd CV ⋅ FL 1/2 ⎧ ⎡ K −1 ⎤⎫ ⎪⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎢⎛ P1 ⎞ K ⎪ M j = ⎨⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎢⎝ α ⋅ P2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 3.4.1 Regime I .2 ⋅ U VC / D j 16 Sizing Equations .3 Calculate Fd.P1 > P2 ≥ P2 c ⎛ K −1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ P ⎞⎝ K ⎠ TVC = T1 ⎜ VC ⎟ ⎝ P1 ⎠ 0.4 Now 5 regimes are possible: 3.0001 MN 3. Dj.

6⋅ FL 2 η = 0. Dj M j − 1 2 125 3. P2 c > P2 ≥ Pvcc : η = 0.3.2 M j C sVCC fP = Dj 3.4. P2 ce > P2 ≥ 0 : Sizing Equations 17 .2 Common calculations for II-V Regimes: 2T1 TVCC = K +1 0.0001 ⋅ M 6j . ⎝ P1 − PVCC ⎠ 0. P2b > P2 ≥ P2 ce : M j2 6.5 Regime IV .Pvcc > P2 ≥ P2 b : 2 η = 0.4 Regime III .4.3 Regime II .4.6⋅ F L Wa = η ⋅ Wms 0.3.0001 ⋅ M 6j .4.2 M j C sVCC fP = Dj 3.6 Regime V .5 ⎛ 8314 KTVCC ⎞ C sVCC =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ M ⎠ 1/ 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎟ ⎤ ⎛ K −1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎫ ⎪⎛ 2 K ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ P ⎞ ⎝ K ⎠ ⎥ P1 ⎪ U VCC = ⎨⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ RO ⎬ VCC ⎪⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎢ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ W ⋅ U VCC 2 Wms = 2 3.6⋅ F 2 L ⎛ P − P2 ⎞ Wa = η ⋅ Wms ⎜ 1 ⎟.35C sVCC fP = ( ) 1/ 2 .3.0001 ⋅ 2 2 Wa = η ⋅ Wms 0.4.3. 3 Noise Calculation 3.3.

3.8.9 Calculate transmission loss: TL = TLfo .3.3.8.0001 ⋅ 2 2 Wa = η ⋅ Wms 0.1 fp≤fo ΔTLfp = 20log(fo/fp) 3.ΔTLfp 3.8.5664D2) 3.10 Calculate Lg : ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ L g = 16 log⎢ −5 ⎥ 1.3.11 Calculate sound level La = 5 + Lpi +TL +Lg 18 Sizing Equations .3 Noise Calculation 1/ 2 ⎧⎪⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛⎜ K −1⎞⎟ ⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎝ K ⎠ M j = ⎨⎜ ⎟⎢ 22 − 1⎥⎬ ⎪⎩⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ 2 Mj 6.8 3.5 Calculate Lpi: : ( L pi = 10 ⋅ log 8 ⋅ 10 8 ⋅ Wa ⋅ RO2 ⋅ Cs2 / D2 2 ) 3.6⋅ FL 2 η = 0.7 Calculate fo : fo = 5000/(12.3.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ P1 ⋅ CV ⋅ FL ⎢1 − ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( D2 ) 2 ⋅ P2 ⎥⎦ 3.6 Calculate TLfo : ⎡ 11 . Dj M j − 1 2 125 3.3.3.3.8 Three cases are possible when calculating ΔTLfp: 3.2 fo<fp≤4fo ΔTLfp = 13log(fp/fo) 3. ⋅ 10 −7 ⋅ D23 Pa ⎤ TLfo = 10 log ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ (1 + D2 / 2) ⋅ ( wall ) ( P2 + 101325) ⎥⎦ 2 3.35C sVCC fP = ( ) 1/ 2 .3.3.3 fp>4fo ΔTLfp = 20log(fp/4fo) + 7.

(P1-P2)/FL2 ⎛ K ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎝ K −1 ⎠ PVCC = P1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ P2c = P1 .3 Calculate Fd.1416 ⋅ C s 2 ⋅ RO 2 ⋅ D 2 2 4 ⋅W MN 0 = 3 . Mj: Fd = N o−1/2 D j = 0. Dj. 3 Noise Calculation 3. d [m]. P2 [Pa-a].4.P1 > P2 ≥ P2 c Sizing Equations 19 .4. W[kg/s] *FL=FLP/Fp 3.4. P1 [Pa-a].4 Now 5 regimes are possible: 3.0046 ⋅ Fd CV ⋅ FL 1/2 ⎧ ⎡ K −1 ⎤⎫ ⎪⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎢⎛ P1 ⎞ K ⎪ M j = ⎨⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎢⎝ α ⋅ P2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 3.1 Regime I .1416 ⋅ C s 2 ⋅ RO 2 ⋅ d 2 3.4.2 Calculate the following pressures: Pvc = P1 .4 Aerodynamic Noise: IEC Standard *D2 [m].1 Calculate the downstream parameters: RO 2 = RO ⋅ P2 / P1 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ T1 C s2 = M 4 ⋅W MN 2 = 3 .FL2(P1-Pvcc) α = Pvcc/P2c ⎛ K ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ P1 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎝ K −1 ⎠ P2b = ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ α ⎝K⎠ P2ce = P1/(22α) 3.4.4.

3 Noise Calculation

⎛ K −1 ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎛ P ⎞⎝ K ⎠

TVC = T1 ⎜ VC ⎟

⎝ P1 ⎠

0.5

⎛ 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ TVC ⎞

C sVC =⎜ ⎟

⎝ M ⎠

1/ 2

⎧ ⎡ ⎟ ⎤

⎛ K −1 ⎞

⎜ ⎫

⎪ 2 K ⎢ ⎛ PVC ⎞ ⎝ K ⎠ ⎥ P1 ⎪

=⎨ 1−

⎢ ⎜⎝ P ⎟⎠ ⎥ RO ⎬

U VC

⎪ K − 1 ⎪

⎩ ⎢⎣ 1

⎥⎦ ⎭

W ⋅ U VC 2

Wm =

2

U VC

MN =

C sVC

η = 0.0001 MN 3.6

Wa = η ⋅ Wm ⋅ FL

2

f P = 0.2 ⋅ U VC / D j

3.4.4.2 Common calculations for II-V Regimes:

2 ⋅ T1

TVCC =

K +1

0.5

⎛ 8314 ⋅ K ⋅ TVCC ⎞

C sVCC =⎜ ⎟

⎝ M ⎠

W ⋅ C sVCC

2

Wms =

2

3.4.4.3 Regime II - P2 c > P2 ≥ Pvcc :

2

η = 0.0001 ⋅ M j6.6⋅F L

⎛ P − P2 ⎞

Wa = η ⋅ Wms ⎜ 1 ⎟.

⎝ P1 − PVCC ⎠

0.2 M j C sVCC

fP =

Dj

**3.4.4.4 Regime III - Pvcc > P2 ≥ P2 b :
**

η = 0.0001 ⋅ M 6j .6⋅ F

2

L

Wa = η ⋅ Wms

0.2 M j C sVCC

fP =

Dj

3.4.4.5 Regime IV - P2b > P2 ≥ P2 ce :

20 Sizing Equations

3 Noise Calculation

2

Mj 6. 6⋅ FL 2

η = 0.0001 ⋅ 2

2

Wa = η ⋅ Wms

0.35 ⋅ C sVCC

fP =

( )

1/ 2

. ⋅ Dj ⋅ M j − 1

2

125

3.4.4.6 Regime V - P2 ce > P2 ≥ 0 :

1/ 2

⎧⎪⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛⎜ K −1⎞⎟ ⎤ ⎫⎪

⎝ K ⎠

M j = ⎨⎜ ⎟ ⎢22 − 1⎥⎬

⎪⎩⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

2

Mj 6.6⋅ FL 2

η = 0.0001 ⋅ 2

2

Wa = η ⋅ Wms

0.35 ⋅ C sVCC

fP =

( )

1/ 2

. ⋅ Dj ⋅ M j − 1

2

125

3.4.5 Calculate Lpi: :

(

L pi = 10 ⋅ log 8 ⋅ 10 8 ⋅ Wa ⋅ RO2 ⋅ Cs2 / D2 2 )

3.4.6 Calculate TLfr:

⎡ 3 ⋅ 10 −13 ⋅ C s 2 ⋅ D2

2 2

Pa ⎤

TLfr = 10 ⋅ log ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣ (1 + C s 2 ⋅ RO2 / 415) ⋅ ( wall ) 101325 ⎥⎦

2

3.4.7 Calculate fr and fo :

fr = 5000/(3.1416D2)

fo = fr Cs2/1372

3.4.8 Three cases are possible when calculating ΔTLfp:

3.4.8.1 fp<fo

ΔTLfp = 20log(fo/fp) + 13log(fo/fr)

3.4.8.2 fo≤fp≤fr

ΔTLfp = 13log(fp/fr)

3.4.8.3 fp>fr

ΔTLfp = 20log(fp/fr)

3.4.9 Calculate transmission loss:

TL = TLfr - ΔTLfp

3.4.10 Calculate Lg :

⎡ 1 ⎤

Lg = 16 ⋅ log ⎢ ⎥

⎣1 − M 2 ⎦

3.4.11 Calculate sound level at the outside diameter of the pipe

La0 = 5 + Lpi +TL +Lg

3.4.12 Calculate sound level at a distance of 1 m from the pipe wall

D2 + 2

La = La 0 − 10 ⋅ log

D2

Sizing Equations 21

4 Flow Meter Sizing

4 Flow Meter Sizing

**4.1 Calculation of Beta Ratio
**

4.1.1 Calculate Internal pipe diameter at flow temperature:

D = D0 ⋅ 1 + α [ p ( T − T0 ) ]

4.1.2 Calculate Correction factor for Steam quality (For Liquid, Water,

and Steam, Fs=1):

Fs = 1 + 0.0074 ⋅ S t

4.1.3 Calculate Scale reading factor:

SRF = 10 ⋅ Wn / Wmax

4.1.4 Calculate Differential pressure at normal flow rate:

DPn = DP ⋅ ( SRF / 10)

2

**4.1.5 Calculate Pipe Reynolds number at normal flow rate:
**

12732

. ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ Wn

Re n =

μ⋅D

4.1.6 Calculate first estimate for β - ratio.

4.1.6.1 For Venturi tubes:

0 . 25

⎛ Wn2 ⎞

β0 =⎜ ⎟

⎝ 1.23 ⋅ 10 − 7 ⋅ D 4 ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO + Wn2 ⎠

**4.1.6.2 For other Flow meters:
**

0 . 25

⎛ Wn2 ⎞

β0 = ⎜ −8 2 ⎟

⎝ 4 .6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO + Wn ⎠

4

**4.1.7 Calculate Gas expansion factor (for Liquid and Water, Eps = 1 ).
**

4.1.7.1 For square edge orifice with 2½D & 8D pipe taps:

[

Eps = 1 − 0.333 + 1145

. (

⋅ β 0 + 0.7β 0 + 12 β 0

2 5 13

)] ⋅ ( DP n P1 ) ⋅ K −1

4.1.7.2 For Lo-Loss tube, Venturi tubes and Nozzles:

0 .5

⎡⎛ 2

⎞⎛ ⎞⎛ K −1

⎞⎤

⋅ (Q ) 1− β0 ⎟ ⎜ 1 − (Q ) K

4

⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎥

E ps = ⎢ ⎜

K K

⎢⎜ ⎟⎜

K − 1 ⎟⎜

2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − Q ⎟⎟ ⎥

⎠ ⎝ 1 − β 0 ⋅ (Q ) K

4

⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦

P1 − DPn

where Q =

P1

4.1.7.3 For Eccentric orifices:

(

Eps = 1 − 01926

. + 0.574 ⋅ β 0 + 0.9675 ⋅ β 0 2 − 4.24 ⋅ β 0 3 + 3.62 ⋅ β 0 4 ⋅ ( DPn / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 )

4.1.7.4 For other Flow meters:

( )

Eps = 1 − 0.41 + 0.35 ⋅ β 0 4 ⋅ ( DPn / P1 ) ⋅ K −1

4.1.8 Calculate Discharge coefficient. See Attachment.

22 Sizing Equations

1.1.0001.12.13. 4. Fs=1): Fs = 1 + 0.2. HS and HS0 are analogous to d and d0 respectively. and Venturi tubes: d d0 = 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) 4.β0 = β β0 4.2 Segmental orifices.12.68286 ⎠ 4. 4.ratio is less than 0.1.1.13.06253⎞ Rq = d ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ β − 0.2 Calculation of Flow rate 4.07571 ⋅ β − 0. 4.2 Calculate Segmental height at flow temperature using the equation: 0.1.55 ⋅ ( Dbh d ) 2 d0 = d ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) 4.12.1.2.1 Calculate Segmental radius: RS 0 = 0.1.ratio: β0 − β Δβ = . 4 Flow Meter Sizing 4.05 ⋅ W ⋅ 1 − β 4 ⎤ β=⎢ 2 n 0 ⎥ ⎢ D ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fs ⋅ C ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 4.0074 ⋅ S t Sizing Equations 23 .12. 4.1.12 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature.2 Calculate Correction factor for Steam quality (For Liquid. calculate Radius of upstream profile: ⎛ 0. and Steam. 5 ⎡ 2847.ratio: 0.1. 4.1.1 For Lo-Loss tube.1 Calculate Internal pipe diameter at flow temperature: [ D = D0 ⋅ 1 + α p ( T − T0 ) ] 4.11 Paragraphs 4.1.9 Calculate new β .2.14 For Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) orifice. Water.5 ⎧ ⎡ ⎡ HS ⎛ HS ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎫ ⎪⎪ 1 ⎢ arccos⎛⎜ 1 − 2 ⋅ HS ⎞⎟ − 2 ⋅ ⎛⎜ 1 − 2 ⋅ HS ⎞⎟ ⋅ ⎢ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ ⎪⎪ β=⎨ ⎢ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎢⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎥ ⎬ ⎪π ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ For further calculation of Segmental orifices.10 Calculate the relative change in β .2 For other orifices: 1 − 0.4.7 .49 ⋅ D0 4.1.10 are repeated until the relative change in the β .13 Calculate Orifice diameter at ambient temperature.2.1.1.1 For all Flow Meters except Segmental orifices: d = D⋅β 4. Nozzles.

Eps = 1 ).2.1 Calculate Segmental radius: RS 0 = 0.4.1 For Lo-Loss tube. Venturi tubes and Nozzles: 0 .5.3 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature. 4.2.ratio.4 Flow Meter Sizing 4.2.41 + 0.4 Calculate β . and Venturi tubes: [ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) ] 4.4.2. 4.2.3 For Eccentric orifices: ( Eps = 1 − 01926 . Nozzles.24 ⋅ β 3 + 3.62 ⋅ β 4 ⋅ ( DP / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 ) 4. 4.1 For all Flow Meters except Segmental orifices: d β= D 4.2 Calculate β .2.2. 24 Sizing Equations . + 0.2.49 ⋅ D0 4.2.35 ⋅ β 4 ⋅ ( DP / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 4.2.2.2 For Lo-Loss tube.2 For other orifices: [ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + 0.5.2.7β 5 + 12 β 13 ⋅ DP P1 ⋅ K −1 Eps = 1 − 0.333 + 1145 )] ( ) 4.2.2.5 ⎡⎛ ⎞⎤ ( Q ) K ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ 1 − β 4 ⎞⎛ 2 K −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 − (Q ) K ⎟⎥ E ps = ⎢ ⎜ K ⋅ ⎢⎜ K − 1 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − Q ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 − β ⋅ (Q ) K ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ 4 P1 − DP where Q= P1 4.574 ⋅ β + 0. See Attachment.2 Segmental orifices. 4.5 Calculate Gas expansion factor (for Liquid and Water.1 For square edge orifice with 2½D & 8D pipe taps: [ ( .5. ⋅ β 2 + 0.6 Calculate first estimate for Flow rate: *W0 [kg/s] DP ⋅ RO W0 = 2.107 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ Eps ⋅ d 2 ⋅ 1− β4 4.3.9675 ⋅ β 2 − 4.5.2.2.5 ⎧ ⎡ ⎡ HS ⎛ HS ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎫ ⎪⎪ 1 ⎢ arccos⎛⎜ 1 − 2 ⋅ HS ⎞⎟ − 2 ⋅ ⎛⎜ 1 − 2 ⋅ HS ⎞⎟ ⋅ ⎢ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ ⎪⎪ β=⎨ ⎢ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎢⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎥ ⎬ ⎪π ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ Note: HS is calculated with the help of HS0 in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2.2.2.4 For other Flow meters: ( ) Eps = 1 − 0.3.4.8 Calculate Discharge coefficient.4. 12732 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ W0 Re = μ⋅D 4.3. 4.55 ⋅ ( Dbh d 0 ) 2 ] ⋅ [1 + α pe ⋅ (T − T0 ) ] 4.ratio: 0.7 Calculate Pipe Reynolds number: *W0 [kg/s] .

3.11 are repeated until the relative change in the β . 4.5 Calculate β .2.2.3.11 Calculate the relative change in Flow rate: W 0 −W ΔW = . 4.3.3 Calculation of Differential range 4. 4.2. calculate Radius of upstream profile: ⎛ 0.2.3.07571 ⋅ β − 0.4.06253⎞ Rq = d ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ β − 0.13 For Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) orifice.49 ⋅ D0 4.1 For Lo-Loss tube.10 For Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) orifices.0001.W 0 = W W 0 4.5.ratio.ratio: Sizing Equations 25 .3.3. go to the paragraph 4. Nozzles.3.3. and Steam. Lo-loss tube.2.55 ⋅ ( Dbh d 0 ) ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ (T − T0 ) 2 ] 4. ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ C ⋅ Fs ⋅ Eps ⋅ d 2 ⋅ 1− β4 4.5. and Venturi tubes: [ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) ] 4. Venturi tubes.5.3.2 Segmental orifices.3 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature.1 For all Flow Meters except Segmental orifices: d β= D 4.2 Calculate Correction factor for Steam quality (For Liquid. 4.4 Calculate Pipe Reynolds number: *W [kg/s] 12732 .2.3.2.1 Calculate Internal pipe diameter at flow temperature: D = D0 ⋅ 1 + α [ p ( T − T0 ) ] 4.3. 4 Flow Meter Sizing 4.0074 ⋅ S t 4.2 For other orifices: [ ][ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + 0.3.12 Paragraphs 4.7 .2. Fs=1): Fs = 1 + 0.2.ratio is less than 0. 4.9 Calculate new Flow rate: *W [kg/s] DP ⋅ RO W = 35124 . and Segmental orifices.1 Calculate Segmental radius: RS 0 = 0.2 Calculate β .68286 ⎠ 4.5. ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ W Re = μ⋅D 4. Water.13.2.3.

2 For Lo-Loss tube.5124 ⋅ 10 ⋅ C ⋅ Eps ⋅ ( β ⋅ D) ⋅ Fs ⎥⎦ −4 2 4.5 ⎧ ⎡ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ ⎤ ⎪⎪ 1 ⎢ arccos⎛⎜ 1 − 2 ⋅ HS ⎞⎟ − 2 ⋅ ⎛⎜ 1 − 2 ⋅ HS ⎞⎟ ⋅ ⎢ HS − ⎛⎜ HS ⎞⎟ ⎥ ⎥ ⎪⎪ β=⎨ ⎢ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎢⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎥ ⎬ ⎪π ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ Note: HS is calculated with the help of HS0 in accordance with paragraph 4. 4.5 ⎡⎛ ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ K −1 ⎞⎤ ⎜ ⋅ (Q ) ⎟⎜ 1− β4 ⎟⎜ − ( ) ⎟⎥ E ps = ⎢ ⎜ K K 1 Q K ⎢⎜ ⎟⎜ K − 1 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − Q ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 − β ⋅ (Q ) K ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ 4 P1 − DP where Q = P1 4.3.06253⎞ Rq = d ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ β − 0.8.8.3.9675 ⋅ β 2 − 4. 4.8. 4.3.68286 ⎠ 26 Sizing Equations . DP 0 = DP DP 0 4.07571 ⋅ β − 0.3.3.62 ⋅ β 4 ⋅ ( DP / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 ) 4. go to paragraph 4.12 Paragraphs 4.10 For Liquid and Water. calculate Radius of upstream profile: ⎛ 0.1 For square edge orifice with 2½D & 8D pipe taps: [ ( .7 First estimate for Differential range: DP0 = P1 4.3. 4.11 Calculate the relative change in Differential range: DP 0 − DP ΔDP = .3 For Eccentric orifices: ( Eps = 1 − 01926 .3.3.3.4 For other Flow meters: ( ) Eps = 1 − 0.3.3.11 are repeated until the relative change in the β .8 Calculate Gas expansion factor (for Liquid and Water.3.2.35 ⋅ β 4 ⋅ ( DP / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 4.13 For Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) orifice.3.24 ⋅ β 3 + 3.0001.574 ⋅ β + 0.8.6 Calculate Discharge coefficient.3.9 Calculate new Differential range: *W [kg/s] 2 ⎡ W ⋅ 1− β4 ⎤ DP = ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ RO −1 ⎢⎣ 3. 4. See Attachment. + 0.3.13.41 + 0. ⋅ β 2 + 0.333 + 1145 )] ( ) 4.8 .3.7β 5 + 12 β 13 ⋅ DP P1 ⋅ K −1 Eps = 1 − 0. Eps = 1 ).3.4 Flow Meter Sizing 0.4.ratio is less than 0. Venturi tubes and Nozzles: 0 .

Fs=1): Fs = 1 + 0. Water.1.1. 5.6 Checking for Critical flow. and Steam.1.0074 ⋅ S t 5.5 Calculate Pipe Reynolds number at normal flow rate: 1.1.1.4 Calculate Differential pressure at normal flow rate: DPn = DPloss ⋅ (SRF / 10) 2 5.3 Calculate Scale reading factor: SRF = 10 ⋅ Wn / Wmax 5.1 Calculate Internal pipe diameter at flow temperature: D = D0 ⋅ 1 + α[ p ( T − T0 ) ] 5.1 Liquid / Water case If P1 − DPloss < Pv then the flow is critical. 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5.1.1.6. Sizing Equations 27 .1 Calculation of Beta Ratio 5.2732 ⋅10 3 ⋅ Wn Re n = μ⋅D 5.2 Calculate Correction factor for Steam quality (For Liquid.

6.2.6. 28 Sizing Equations . the flow is SubCritical.ratio. For Venturi tubes: 0 . If not.2 Calculate Critical Pressure Ratio and define whether the flow is critical.1 Calculate first estimate for β .1.6.1. 25 ⎛ Wn2 ⎞ β0 =⎜ −8 2 ⎟ ⎝ 4 .23 ⋅ 10 − 7 ⋅ D 4 ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO + Wn2 ⎠ For other Restriction Devices: 0 .5 Restriction Device Sizing 5. 25 ⎛ Wn2 ⎞ β0 =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO + Wn ⎠ 4 5.1.2 Gas/Steam case 5. ( k + 1 ) / ( k −1 ) −1 ⎛ ⎛k ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 4 ⎞ Fttp ⎜ = 1− ⎜ ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ ⋅ β0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ k +1⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ P1 − DPloss DPrat = Fttp ⋅ P1 k / ( k +1) ⎛ 2 ⎞ A=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1⎠ If A ≥ DPrat then the flow is critical.2.

ratio: 0. 6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D ⋅ DP n ⋅ RO + W n 4 2 ⎠ A3 Eps = 1.ratio is less than 0. A5 Calculate new β .ratio: β0 − β Δβ = .ratio. β0 = β β0 A7 Paragraphs A4 – A6 are repeated until the relative change in the β . Sizing Equations 29 .23 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO + Wn ⎠ 4 For other Restriction Devices: 0 . 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5.5 ⎡ 2847. See Attachment.05 ⋅ W ⋅ 1 − β 4 ⎤ β=⎢ 2 n 0 ⎥ ⎢ D ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fs ⋅ C ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ A6 Calculate the relative change in β . 25 ⎛ Wn2 ⎞ β0 =⎜ −7 2 ⎟ ⎝ 1. Liquid / Water – Critical flow A1 Calculate DP.7 Calculate β . 25 ⎛ W n2 ⎞ β 0 = ⎜⎜ −8 ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 . DP = P1 − Pv A2 Calculate first estimate for β .ratio For Venturi tubes: 0 . A4 Calculate Discharge coefficient.0001. Case A.1.

9625 ) ⋅ P1 ⋅ D 4 ⋅ Eps ( k + 1 ) / ( k −1 ) ⎛k⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ am = aa ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ k + 1⎠ cm = −aa ⋅ D 4 − 1 + 1 − 4 ⋅ am ⋅ cm d2 = 2 ⋅ am d2 β = D B4 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature: d = D⋅β B5 Calculate Bore Reynolds number at normal flow rate: 1. Gas / Steam – Critical flow B1 Calculate Gas expansion factor ⎛ ⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ( k + 1 ) / ( k −1 ) ⎞ 1/ 2 Eps = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Z ⎠ ⎝ k + 1 ⎟⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ B2 Calculate Discharge coefficient. B3 Calculate first estimate for β . See Attachment.ratio (Wn[lb/h]. T[R].5 Restriction Device Sizing Case B.ratio in accordance with equations in paragraph B3. B7 Calculate new β . P1[psi-a]. 591 ⋅ C ⋅ ( M / 28 . 30 Sizing Equations .2732 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ Wn Re n = μ ⋅d B6 Calculate Discharge coefficient. See Attachment. D[in]): Wn ⋅ T aa = 2195 .

SubCritical flow C1 First estimate for DPn: DPn0 = DPloss C2 Calculate first estimate for β . 25 ⎛ W n2 ⎞ β 0 = ⎜⎜ −8 ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 . 5 Restriction Device Sizing Case C. 6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D ⋅ DPn 0 ⋅ RO + W n 4 2 ⎠ C3 Calculate Gas expansion factor (for Liquids/Water. See Attachment. 25 ⎛ W n2 ⎞ β 0 = ⎜⎜ −7 ⎟⎟ ⎝ 1 .35 ⋅ β 0 4 ⋅ ( DPn / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 C4 Calculate Discharge coefficient.5 ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ ⎞⎛ K −1 ⎞⎤ ⋅ (Q ) 1− β0 ⎟ ⎜ 1 − (Q ) K 4 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎥ E ps = ⎢ ⎜ K K ⎢⎜ ⎟⎜ K − 1 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − Q ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎝ 1 − β 0 ⋅ (Q ) K 4 ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ P1 − DPn where Q = P1 For Orifice Plates: ( ) Eps = 1 − 0.41 + 0. Eps = 1) For Venturi tubes and Nozzles: 0 .ratio For Venturi tubes: 0 . Sizing Equations 31 . 23 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D ⋅ DPn 0 ⋅ RO + W n 4 2 ⎠ For other Restriction Devices: 0 .

5 ) DP = ((1 − β ) 4 0.014 ⋅ β − 2.42 ⋅ β + 0.06 ⋅ β 2 + 1.1.38 ⋅ β 2 DPloss DP = 1 + 0.2.9 Calculate Orifice diameter at ambient temperature.1.218 − 0.5 −C⋅β 2 ) C7 Calculate new DPn: 2 ⎛ W ⎞ DPn = DP ⋅ ⎜⎜ n ⎟⎟ ⎝ Wmax ⎠ C8 Calculate the relative change in DPn: DPn0 − DPn ΔDPn = . DPn0 = DPn .ratio: 0.2 Calculation of Flow Rate 5.1 Calculate Internal pipe diameter at flow temperature: D = D0 ⋅ 1 + α[ p ( T − T0 ) ] 32 Sizing Equations . For Venturi tubes and Nozzles: d d0 = 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) For Orifice Plates: 1 − 0.05 ⋅ W ⋅ 1 − β 4 ⎤ β=⎢ 2 n 0 ⎥ ⎢ D ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fs ⋅ C ⋅ DPn ⋅ RO ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ C6 Calculate new DP For Classical Venturi Tube: DPloss DP = 0.8 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature: d = D⋅β 5.5 Restriction Device Sizing C5 Calculate new β . 5 ⎡ 2847.0001 5. β 0 = β DPn0 C9 Paragraphs C3 – C8 are repeated until the relative change in the DPn is less than 0.18 ⋅ β 3 For Nozzles: For Orifice Plates: ( DPloss ⋅ (1 − β 4 ) + C ⋅ β 2 0.55 ⋅ ( Dbh d ) 2 d0 = d ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) 5.

3 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature.2 Calculate Correction factor for Steam quality (For Liquid.0074 ⋅ S t 5.2.55 ⋅ ( Dbh d 0 ) 2 ] ⋅ [1 + α pe ⋅ (T − T0 ) ] 5. Water.4 Calculate β . and Steam.2.2. 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5. Fs=1): Fs = 1 + 0.ratio: d β= D Sizing Equations 33 . For Venturi tubes and Nozzles: [ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) ] For Orifice Plates: [ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + 0.

014 ⋅ β − 2.5.2 Identify Critical flow: If P2 ≤ Pv then the flow is critical.5 ) DP = ((1 − β ) 4 0.5.1.3 Calculate Differential Pressure to be used in Flow Rate calculation.5 −C⋅β 2 ) 34 Sizing Equations .1 Liquid / Water case 5.5.5.42 ⋅ β + 0. 5.2. If not.18 ⋅ β 3 Nozzles: Orifice Plates: ( DPloss ⋅ (1 − β 4 ) + C ⋅ β 2 0.218 − 0.38 ⋅ β 2 DPloss DP = 1 + 0.5 Checking for Critical flow and some initial calculations. the flow is SubCritical 5.2.2.06 ⋅ β 2 + 1.5 Restriction Device Sizing 5.1.2.2. For Critical flow: DP = P1 − Pv For SubCritical flow: Classical Venturi Tube: DPloss DP = 0.1 Calculate downstream pressure: P2 = P1 − DPloss 5.1.

2.2. Differential Pressure to be used in Flow Rate calculation: For Classical Venturi Tube: DPloss DP = 0. P1[psi-a]): 0.4 Calculate first estimate for Flow Rate (W0 [kg/s]): DP ⋅ RO W0 = 2.5 ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1 − (Q ) KK−1 ⎞⎤ ⋅ (Q ) 1− β 4 Eps = ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎥ K K ⎢⎜ K −1 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ 1 − Q ⎟⎥ ⎠ ⎝ 1 − β ⋅ (Q ) K 4 ⎣⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎦ Sizing Equations 35 .38 ⋅ β 2 For Nozzles: DPloss DP = 1 + 0.5 ⎛ M ⎞ W0 = 2195.3 Initial calculations for SubCritical flow.18 ⋅ β 3 ( DPloss ⋅ (1 − β 4 ) + C ⋅ β 2 0.1.014 ⋅ β − 2.107 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ d 2 ⋅ 1− β 4 5. D[in].2.5.2 Initial calculations for Critical flow.9625 ⋅ T ⎠ 5. T[R]. Gas expansion factor: ⎛ ⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ (k + 1 ) / (k −1 ) ⎞ 1/ 2 Eps = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Z ⎠ ⎝ k + 1 ⎟⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ First estimate for Flow Rate (W0 [lb/h].2.5.5 −C ⋅β 2 ) For Orifice Plates: Gas expansion factor: For Venturi tubes and Nozzles: 0 .5.2. 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5.5 ) DP = ((1 − β ) 4 0.591 ⋅ d ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⋅ P1 ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fttp ⎝ 28.42 ⋅ β + 0.06 ⋅ β 2 + 1.5.2 Gas/Steam case 5. the flow is SubCritical 5.2. If not.218 − 0. ( k + 1 ) / ( k −1 ) −1 ⎛ ⎛k ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎞ Fttp ⎜ = 1− ⎜ ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ ⋅β4⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ k +1⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ P1 − DPloss DPrat = Fttp ⋅ P1 k / ( k +1) ⎛ 2 ⎞ A=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1⎠ If A ≥ DPrat then the flow is critical.5.2.1 Calculate Critical Pressure Ratio and define whether the flow is critical.2.

107 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ d 2 ⋅ 1− β 4 36 Sizing Equations .35 ⋅ β 4 )⋅ ( DP / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 First estimate for Flow Rate (W0 [kg/s]): DP ⋅ RO W0 = 2.41 + 0.5 Restriction Device Sizing P1 − DP where Q = P1 For Orifice Plates: Eps = 1 − (0.

6 – 5.3.2 Calculate Correction factor for Steam quality (For Liquid.9 Calculate new Flow rate: For Gas / Steam at Critical flow: 0.2732 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ W0 Re = μ⋅D 5. See Attachment.2.5 Calculate β .2.5 ) DP = ((1 − β ) 4 0.3.3.10 Calculate the relative change in Flow rate: W 0 −W ΔW = .3.6 Calculate Reynolds number. 5.2. calculate DP and Gas Expansion factor: ( DPloss ⋅ (1 − β 4 ) + C ⋅ β 2 0.8 For Orifices in the case of Gas / Steam SubCritical flow.3 Calculate Orifice diameter at flow temperature. ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ W Re = μ⋅D 5.2.W 0 = W W 0 5.5 −C⋅β 2 ) Eps = 1 − (0.10 are repeated until the relative change in the Flow rate is less than 0.0074 ⋅ S t 5.9625 ⋅ T ⎠ For other cases (W [kg/s]): DP ⋅ RO W = 35124 .35 ⋅ β 4 )⋅ ( DP / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 5.5 ⎛ M ⎞ W = 2195.55 ⋅ ( Dbh d 0 ) ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ (T − T0 ) 2 ] 5.3 Calculation of Pressure Loss 5.7 Calculate Discharge coefficient. and Steam.2. Fs=1): Fs = 1 + 0.ratio. For Gas / Steam Critical flow (Bore Reynolds number): 1. 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5.41 + 0.4 Calculate Pipe Reynolds number (W [kg/s]): 12732 .2.2.2732 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ W0 Re = μ ⋅d For Liquid / Water and Gas / Steam SubCritical flow (Pipe Reynolds number): 1.3.11 Paragraphs 5.2. ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ C ⋅ Fs ⋅ Eps ⋅ d 2 ⋅ 1− β4 5. For Venturi tubes and Nozzles: [ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + α pe ⋅ ( T − T0 ) ] For Orifice plates: [ ][ d = d 0 ⋅ 1 + 0.591 ⋅ C ⋅ d ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⋅ P1 ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fttp ⎝ 28. Sizing Equations 37 .0001. 5.1 Calculate Internal pipe diameter at flow temperature: D = D0 ⋅ 1 + α [ p ( T − T0 ) ] 5. Water.

6 Calculate Discharge coefficient.3.5 Restriction Device Sizing d β= D 5. See Attachment. 38 Sizing Equations .

001*Wcr. For Liquid / Water: DP = P1 − Pv DP ⋅ RO Wcr = 3.5 ⎛ M ⎞ Wcr = 2195. User has to check his data.3.999*Wcr and W<1.3. 5 Restriction Device Sizing 5. Critical flow: W>0. Flow rate can not be achieved.591 ⋅ C ⋅ d 2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ P1 ⋅ Eps ⋅ Fttp ⎝ 28. Sizing Equations 39 . For this case. Wrong data: W=>1.7 Calculate Critical flow rate.8 Checking for Critical flow and Pressure Loss calculation. Pressure Loss: DPloss = P1 − Pv Case B.001*Wcr. Case A.5124 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ C ⋅ Fs ⋅ Eps ⋅ d 2 ⋅ 1− β 4 For Gas / Steam ⎛ ⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ (k + 1 ) / (k −1 ) ⎞ 1/ 2 Eps = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Z ⎠ ⎝ k + 1 ⎟⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0.9625 ⋅ T ⎠ 5.

Eps = 1 ). See Attachment.41 + 0. DP 0 = DP DP 0 C6 Paragraphs C3 – C5 are repeated until the relative change in the DP is less than 0. C3 Calculate Gas expansion factor (for Liquid and Water.5124 ⋅ 10 ⋅ C ⋅ Eps ⋅ ( β ⋅ D) ⋅ Fs ⎥⎦ −4 2 C5 Calculate the relative change in Differential range: DP 0 − DP ΔDP = .999*Wcr C1 First estimate for Differential range: DP0 = P1 − Pv C2 Calculate Discharge coefficient.35 ⋅ β 4 )⋅ ( DP0 / P1 ) ⋅ K −1 C4 Calculate new Differential range (W [kg/s]): 2 ⎡ W ⋅ 1− β4 ⎤ DP = ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ RO −1 ⎢⎣ 3. For Venturi tubes and Nozzles: 0 .0001.5 ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ ⎞⎛ K −1 ⎞⎤ ⎜ ⋅ (Q ) ⎟⎜ 1− β4 ⎟ ⎜ 1 − (Q ) K ⎟⎥ E ps = ⎢ ⎜ K K ⎢⎜ ⎟⎜ K − 1 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 1 − Q ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 − β ⋅ (Q ) K ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ 4 P1 − DP0 where Q = P1 For Orifice Plates: Eps = 1 − (0. 40 Sizing Equations .5 Restriction Device Sizing Case C. SubCritical flow: W<=0.

5 Restriction Device Sizing C7 Calculate Pressure Loss ( DP ⋅ (1 − β 4 ) − C ⋅ β 2 0.5 +C⋅β 2 ) Sizing Equations 41 .5 ) DPloss = ((1 − β ) 4 0.

4 Calculate Upstream relieving pressure: *Pup [psi-g] Pup = (1 + 0.1.677 6. : Kw = 1 Case .8.037 ⋅ Y 2 + 5.1. 6. 6.1 Calculate Total back pressure: Pb = Pb1 + Pb 2 + Pb 3 6. 6.1.2 Effective coefficient of discharge: K d = 0.6 Relief Valve Sizing 6 Relief Valve Sizing 6.3 Determine Correction factor for back pressure.1 For Conventional and Pilot operated valves.2 For Bellows valve: Case Pb / Ps < 016.1.2507 ⋅ Y − 4.5 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [US gal/min]. − 0.3.1.1 With Rupture disk: A = A0 / ( K v ⋅ K cc ) 6.1.1.5 : 016 K w = 1152 .1.1. Pup [psi-g] W Gf A0 = ⋅ 38 ⋅ K d ⋅ KW p up − pb 6.1 Blocked Flow: Liquid Relief 6.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 : K w = 0. Kw = 1 .2 Without Rupture disk: A = A0 / K v 42 Sizing Equations .35578 ⋅ Y 3 − 2.7 Calculate Correction factor for viscosity: Y = ln( Re) / ln(10) Case Re ≤ 35 : K v = 0.8.1.1.6 Calculate Reynolds number: *W [US gal/min].65 (if K d is not entered by user).8 Calculate Required effective discharge area.1.1. 6.1.1. 6.1 Requiring ASME capacity certification 6.95 ⋅ Pb / Ps Case Pb / Ps > 0.6611 Case 100 < Re ≤ 50000 : K v = −0. μ [cP] 2800 ⋅ W ⋅ G f Re = μ ⋅ A0 6.2228 Case Re > 50000 : K v = 1. ≤ Pb / Ps ≤ 0.3 Case 35 < Re ≤ 100 : K v = 0.1.3.1.62838 ⋅ Y − 0.1.023362 ⋅ Y 4 + 0.01 ⋅ Pover ) ⋅ Ps 6.1.

08544 Case 2.1.2.3. 6.95 ⋅ Pb / Ps Case Pb / Ps > 0.2.1.2. μ [cP] 2800 ⋅ W ⋅ G f Re = μ ⋅ A0 6. ≤ Pb / Ps ≤ 0.5 ≤ Y ≤ 5 : K p = 0.677 6. 6. : Kw = 1 .35578 ⋅ Y 3 − 2.1 With Rupture disk: A = A 0 / ( K v ⋅ K cc ) 6.023362 ⋅ Y 4 + 0.8 ⋅ Y Case 1 < Y < 2.3 Determine Correction factor for back pressure. − 0.2 Without Rupture disk: A = A0 / K v Sizing Equations 43 .2.1.1.8.8 Calculate Required effective discharge area.1.2.1.1.2 Not requiring ASME capacity certification 6.1. 6.1 For Conventional and Pilot operated valves.2.2 For Bellows valve: Case Pb / Ps < 016.1.3 Case 35 < Re ≤ 100 : K v = 0.2.3.1 Calculate Total back pressure: Pb = Pb1 + Pb 2 + Pb 3 6.1.91334 Case Y > 5 : K p = 1086 .5 : K p = 0.2228 Case Re > 50000 : K v = 1.2. 6.034664 ⋅ Y + 0.1.2.2.30196 ⋅ Y 2 + 0. ⋅ p s − pb 6. 6.7 Calculate Correction factor for viscosity: Y = ln( Re) / ln(10) Case Re ≤ 35 : K v = 0.2 Effective coefficient of discharge: K d = 0.1.6611 Case 100 < Re ≤ 50000 : K v = −0.2 ⋅ Y 2 + 0. 6. 6 Relief Valve Sizing 6.1.2.6 Calculate Reynolds number: *W [US gal/min].5 : Case 016 K w = 1152 .62838 ⋅ Y − 0.2.95464 ⋅ Y − 0.037641 ⋅ Y 3 − 0. Kw = 1 .62 (if K d is not entered by user).4 Calculate correction factor for overpressure: Y = Pover / 10 Case Y ≤ 1 : K p = −0.2507 ⋅ Y − 4.8.5 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [US gal/min] W Gf A0 = ⋅ 38 ⋅ K d ⋅ KW ⋅ K p 125 .037 ⋅ Y 2 + 5.5 : K w = 0.

2.6 Relief Valve Sizing 6.3 Calculate Critical flow throat pressure: K / ( K −1) ⎡ 2 ⎤ Pcf = Pup ⋅ ⎢ ⎣ K + 1⎥⎦ 6.975 .2.2.4 Effective coefficient of discharge: K d = 0. 44 Sizing Equations .1 Calculate Upstream relieving pressure: *Pa [psi-a] Pup = (1 + 0.2 Blocked Flow: Gas Relief 6.2.01 ⋅ Pover ) ⋅ Ps + Pa 6.2 Calculate Total back pressure: Pb = Pb1 + Pb 2 + Pb 3 6.

Kb = 1 .2.2.2. B3 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h].325 : K b20 = 1.1 For Conventional and Pilot operated valves. A2.43 ⋅ Y Case Y ≤ 0. T [°R] W T⋅Z A0 = ⋅ C r ⋅ K d ⋅ Pup ⋅ K b M Case C ( Pb > Pcf ) . − 168 .325 : K b20 = 114 . : Cr = 317 K +1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ K −1 .2 Case Y > 0. A2.2.1 Y = Pb / Ps A2. < K < 2: Case 101 C r = 520 ⋅ K ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ Case K ≥ 2 : C r = 400 B2 If Capacity correction factor due to back pressure is not entered by user.Critical flow. T [°R] W T⋅Z A0 = ⋅ C r ⋅ K d ⋅ Pup ⋅ K b M Case B ( Pb > Pcf ) . 6 Relief Valve Sizing 6.315 : Kb10 = 1.1 R = Pb / Pup Sizing Equations 45 . < K < 2: Case 101 C r = 520 ⋅ K ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ Case K ≥ 2 : C r = 400 A2 Calculate Capacity correction factor due to back pressure (if Kb is not entered by user). A2.4 Case Pover ≥ 20 : Kb = K b 20 Case 10 < Pover < 20 : .5 The condition Pb ≤ Pcf (Pb [psi-a] ) determines: Case A .2 For Bellows valve: A2. ⋅ ( Pover − 10) ⋅ ( K b 20 − K b10 ) K b = K b10 + 01 Case Pover ≤ 10 : K b = K b10 A3 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h]. : Cr = 317 K +1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ K −1 . A2. ⋅Y Case Y ≤ 0.Subcritical flow: Bellows valve. C1 Calculate Coefficient for subcritical flow equation: *Pb [psi-a] C1. B1 Calculate Cr: Case K ≤ 101. − 0.2. A1 Calculate Coefficient for critical flow equation: Case K ≤ 101 .315 : K b10 = 153 .Subcritical flow: Conventional and Pilot operated valves.3 Case Y > 0. K b = 1 .

1 Calculate Upstream relieving pressure: *Pa [psi-a] Pup = (1 + 0. + 32] / 1000 .3 Blocked Flow: Steam Relief 6.3.3.2292 ⋅ Pup − 1061 ) Case Pup > 3215 : Kn = 1 6.2 Calculate Correction factor for Napier equation: Case Pup ≤ 1515 : Kn =1 Case 1515 < Pup ≤ 3215 : ( K n = 01916 .2 F2 = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅R ⋅⎢ ⎥ ⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎣ 1− R ⎦ C2 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h].1 Y1 = [( T − 27316 .01 ⋅ Pover ) ⋅ Ps + Pa 6.389 ⋅ Y1 ⋅ Y 2 2 + 0.3 K sh = 0. ) ⋅ 18 6. 6.2.201 ⋅ Y12 ⋅ Y 2 2 − 0168 .2 Y 2 = Pup / 1000 6.3. 6.3.291 ⋅ Y12 − 0. ) ( ⋅ Pup − 1000 / 0.838 ⋅ Y1 + 0164 . Pb [psi-a].3.3.256 ⋅ Y1 ⋅ Y 2 − 0.3. calculate Required effective discharge area: A = A0 / K cc 46 Sizing Equations .3.4 Effective coefficient of discharge: K d = 0.6 Relief Valve Sizing ( K −1) / K ⎤ ⎛ K ⎞ 2 / K ⎡1 − R C1. ⋅ Pup ⋅ K d ⋅ K n ⋅ K sh 515 6.6 For Rupture disk application.3. ⋅ Y 2 2 − 0.3.3 Calculate Superheat steam correction factor: 6.5 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h] W A0 = .6 For Rupture disk application.975 . calculate Required effective discharge area: A = A0 / K cc 6. ⋅ Y12 ⋅ Y 2 + 0.3.3.025Y 2 + 1276 . T [°R] W T⋅Z A0 = ⋅ 735 ⋅ F2 ⋅ K d ( M ⋅ Pup ⋅ Pup − Pb ) 6.

4 Fire Case: Gas Expansion 6.6 If Vessel Wall temperature is not entered.01 ⋅ Pover ) ⋅ Ps + Pa 6.4.1 Calculate Upstream relieving pressure: *Pa [psi-a] Pup = (1 + 0.4.3 If Heat absorption factor is entered.4 If Normal pressure is not enetered or Normal temperature is not entered.4. : Cr = 317 K +1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ K −1 . go to paragraph 6. 6.8. T [°R] Pup T1 = T ⋅ P 6.5 Calculate Gas temperature at relieving conditions: *Pa [psi-a]. 6. 6 Relief Valve Sizing 6.7 Calculate Heat absorption factor: T [°R] ( Tw − T1) 1. < K < 2: Case 101 C r = 520 ⋅ K ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ Case K ≥ 2 : C r = 400 6.2 Calculate Coefficient for critical flow equation: Case K ≤ 101.4. the following message appears: “Please enter Heat absorption factor or Vessel wall temperature”.6506 Sizing Equations 47 . a message appears: “Please enter Heat absorption factor or Normal pressure and Normal temperature”.4.25 F1 = 01406 . ⋅ Cr ⋅ K d ⋅ T10.4.4.4. 6.

W[lb/h] F ⋅ ( A1) 0.4.5.5.4. Then go to paragraph 6.4.8 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h].4.11.1 Calculate Maximum discharge: *HV [Btu/lb].25 W = 01406 .6 Relief Valve Sizing 6.4.11 For Rupture disk application.10 Calculate Maximum discharge: *Pa [psi-a]. a message appears: “Maximum discharge cannot be calculated because Normal pressure or Normal temperature or Molecular Mass or Vessel wall temperature is not entered”. T [°R] F1 ⋅ A1 A0 = Pup 6.01 ⋅ Pover ) ⋅ Ps + Pa 48 Sizing Equations . 6.9 If Normal pressure is not entered or Normal temperature is not entered or Molecular Mass is not entered or Vessel wall temperature is not entered. ⋅ A1 ⋅ (M ⋅ P ) ⋅ up T11. calculate Required effective discharge area: A = A0 / K cc 6.5 Fire Case: Liquid Filled Vessel 6. W[lb/h] ( Tw − T1) 1.2 Calculate Upstream relieving pressure: *Pa [psi-a] Pup = (1 + 0.82 W = 21000 ⋅ HV 6.1506 6.

5.325 : Kb20 = 1.2 For Bellows valve: A2.975 . : Cr = 317 K +1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ K −1 .Critical flow.5.2. Kb = 1. B1 Calculate Cr: Case K ≤ 101.2 Case Y > 0.315 : K b10 = 1.2. A1 Calculate Coefficient for critical flow equation: Case K ≤ 101 .3 Case Y > 0. ⋅ ( Pover − 10) ⋅ ( K b 20 − K b10 ) K b = K b10 + 01 Case Pover ≤ 10 : Kb = K b10 A3 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h]. < K < 2: Case 101 C r = 520 ⋅ K ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ Case K ≥ 2 : C r = 400 B2 If Capacity correction factor due to back pressure is not entered by user.1 Y = Pb / Ps A2. A2. A2. Kb = 1 .5 Effective coefficient of discharge: K d = 0. Sizing Equations 49 . A2.4 Case Pover ≥ 20 : K b = K b 20 Case 10 < Pover < 20 : .43 ⋅ Y Case Y ≤ 0.315 : Kb10 = 153 . − 0. 6.5.4 Calculate Critical flow throat pressure: K / ( K −1) ⎡ 2 ⎤ Pcf = Pup ⋅ ⎢ ⎣ K + 1⎥⎦ 6.2. < K < 2: Case 101 C r = 520 ⋅ K ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K + 1⎠ Case K ≥ 2 : C r = 400 A2 Calculate Capacity correction factor due to back pressure (if Kb is not entered by user).Subcritical flow: Bellows valve.325 : K b20 = 114 . T [°R] W T⋅Z A0 = ⋅ C r ⋅ K d ⋅ Pup ⋅ K b M Case B ( Pb > Pcf ) .6 The condition Pb ≤ Pcf (Pb [psi-a] ) determines: Case A . − 168 .3 Calculate Total back pressure: Pb = Pb1 + Pb 2 + Pb 3 6. 6 Relief Valve Sizing 6. ⋅Y Case Y ≤ 0.5.2. A2. : Cr = 317 K +1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ K −1 .1 For Conventional and Pilot operated valves.

5. Pb [psi-a]. T [°R] W T⋅Z A0 = ⋅ C r ⋅ K d ⋅ Pup ⋅ K b M Case C ( Pb > Pcf ) . C1 Calculate Coefficient for subcritical flow equation: *Pb [psi-a] C1.7 For Rupture disk application.2 F2 = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅R ⋅⎢ ⎥ ⎝ K − 1⎠ ⎣ 1− R ⎦ C2 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h].Subcritical flow: Conventional and Pilot operated valves. T [°R] W T⋅Z A0 = ⋅ 735 ⋅ F2 ⋅ K d ( M ⋅ Pup ⋅ Pup − Pb ) 6. calculate Required effective discharge area: A = A0 / K cc 50 Sizing Equations .1 R = Pb / Pup ⎛ K ⎞ 2/ K ⎡1 − R ( K −1) / K ⎤ C1.6 Relief Valve Sizing B3 Estimate Required effective discharge area: *W [lb/h].

075 If Dt =3/8 then Kf =2.5 If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.06 If Dt =3/8 then Kf =2.2 Calculate Ratio of frequency at fluid temperature to frequency at 70 °F: * T[°F] For Austenitic steel.965 7.97 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.0.3 Calculate Maximum thermowell length: * ROmaterial[lb/in3] L1 = ( R ⋅ K f ⋅ E ⋅ B ⋅ R f ) /(2.5<L ≤ 6 If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.0000000742 ⋅ T 2 For Ferritic steel.32 If Dt =7/8 then Kf =3.0000036111 ⋅ T . 7 Thermowell Calculation 7 Thermowell Calculation 7.000138 ⋅ T + 0.40 If Dt =7/8 then Kf =3.02 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.42 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =2.01 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.0.84 Case 3.64 ⋅ ROmaterial ⋅ V ) 7.000000000336 ⋅ T 2 3 7.0101 .0.0. R f = 1.000000267 ⋅ T .4 Define Kf constant: Case L ≤ 3. R f = 0.45 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =3.1 Define initial value of Kf constant: If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.99996 .07 If Dt =3/8 then Kf =2.39 Sizing Equations 51 .445 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =3.

4 are repeated until current value equals previous K f value.07 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.47 If Dt =7/8 then Kf =4.46 If Dt =7/8 then Kf =4.09 If Dt =3/8 then Kf =2.09 If Dt =3/8 then Kf =2.09 If Dt =3/8 then Kf =2.06 Case 13.7 Thermowell Calculation If Dt =7/8 then K f =3.03 Case 9<L ≤ 13. 7.08 IfDt =3/8 then Kf =2.7.5 Paragraphs 7.06 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.6 Calculate Natural Frequency for L=L1 * ROmaterial[lb/in3] K f ⋅ E ⋅ Rf fn = (L 1 2 ⋅ ROmaterial ) 52 Sizing Equations .47 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =3.07 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.09 Kf 7.44 If Dt =7/8 then Kf =4.25<L ≤ 20 If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.25 If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.48 If Dt =7/8 then Kf =4.46 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =3.05 If Dt =11/16 then Kf =3.08 Case 20<L If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.47 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =3.96 Case 6<L ≤ 9 If Dt =1/4 then Kf =2.3 .47 If Dt =9/16 then Kf =3.

7 Calculate Wake Frequency V fW = 2. 7 Thermowell Calculation 7.64 ⋅ B Sizing Equations 53 .

K 2 =48.8) 2 ⎛ fw ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ n⎠ f R2 FM = = ⎛ f ⎞ 2 1− R 2 1 − ⎜⎜ w ⎟⎟ ⎝ fn ⎠ 7.1. K 2 =42.334. K 3 =0. K 2 =46.205} If Dt =9/16 then { K1 =0. K 3 =0. constants K1 K 2 K 3 If Dt =1/4 then { K1 =0. K 2 =37.548} If Dt =7/8 then { K1 =0.389} If Dt =11/16 then { K1 =0.7. K 2 =50.3.9 Define . .8. K 3 =0. Convert to OUM used for pressure.8 Calculate Magnification Factor for L1(R ≤ 0. K 3 =0. *S [psi-g] P max = K1 ⋅ S 7.202.7 Thermowell Calculation 7. K 3 =0.116} If Dt =3/8 then { K1 =0.412.155.11 Calculate Maximum thermowell length based on Steady State Stress Consideration *L2 [inch] *ROfluid [lb/ft3] *P [psi-g] – operating pressure K2 (S − K 3 P ) L2 = ⋅ V ROfluid ⋅ (1 + F M ) 54 Sizing Equations .10 Calculate Maximum Allowable Static Gage Pressure *Pmax [psi-g].5.864} 7.223.

Aerodynamic Noise IEC 534-8-3 (1995) IEC 534-8-4 (1994) 8.1 Control Valve Sizing ISA S75. 8 Standards 8 Standards 8.17 (1991) .5D & 8D) Miller AGA Report 3 (Flange Tappings) AGA Rep.3.01 (1995) IEC 60534-2-1 (1998) 8.3 Flow Meter Sizing 8.1 Square Edge Orifice Standard Flange Tappings ISO*/ Miller** Corner Tappings ISO / Miller Radius Tappings ISO / Miller Small-Bore Honed-Orifice Meter Run with Corner Tappings Miller Small-Bore Honed-Orifice Meter Run with Flange Tappings Miller Pipe Tappings (2.3*** AGA Report 3 (Pipe Tappings) AGA Rep.3 Sizing Equations 55 .2 Noise Calculation Masoneilan OZ 3000E (1984) .Hydrodynamic Noise ISA S75.

3.4 Relief Valve Sizing API RP 520.7 Eccentric Orifice Diametrically Opposite Flange Tappings Miller Side (90°) Flange Tappings Miller Diametrically Opposite Vena Contracta Tappings Miller Side (90°) Vena Contracta Tappings Miller 8.3.8 Standards 8. Miller.6 Nozzle ISO Long Radius Nozzle ISO ASME Long Radius Nozzle Miller ISA 1932 Nozzle ISO / Miller Venturi Nozzle ISO / Miller 8.3.3.3 Conical Entrance Orifice Miller 8.3. 3rd edition (1996) *** ANSI/API 2530 (1991) [AGA Report 3] **** British standard 1042.4 Lo-Loss Tube Miller 8.5 Venturi Tube Classical venturi tube with an “as cast” convergent section ISO / Miller Classical venturi tube with a machined convergent section ISO / Miller Classical venturi tube with a rough-welded sheet-iron convergent section ISO / Miller Universal Venturi Tube Miller 8. seventh edition (January 2000) 8.5 Thermowell Calculation ASME PTC 19.8 Segmental Orifice Flange Tappings Miller Vena Contracta Tappings Miller Note: * ISO 5167-1 (1991) ** Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook by R.3.2 Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) Orifice Flange Tappings BS 1042**** Corner Tappings BS 1042 Radius Tappings BS 1042 8.3 (1974) 56 Sizing Equations .3.W. Section 1.2 (1989) 8.

000015*A0) EF = A0*Di*B C = (1-B^4)^0. inch Re Pipe Reynolds Number at Normal Flow Rate Rd Bore Reynolds Number at Normal Flow Rate 9.225/Di)*B^5+1.286*B^4/(D*(1-B^4)) 9.076/Di^0.6-1/Di)^5*(0.5) 9.1.5*(10^6/Re)^0.7 AGA Report 3 (Flange Tappings) A0 = 830-5000*B+9000*B^2-4200*B^3+530/Di^0.039*B^4/(1-B^4)+0.5 Small-Bore Honed-Orifice Meter Run with Flange Tappings C = (0.75 9.1.1.87+8.1 Flange Tappings If D<58.5980+0.039*B^4/(1-B^4) Else C = 0.1+0.0029*B^2.5*(10^6/Re)^0. mm Di Internal Pipe Diameter.1-0.5993+0.1 Square Edge Orifice 9.85598*B^3/D+ 0.5959+0.184^B^8+0.5991+0.1-0.5925+0.364+0.25-B)^(5/2)*(1.5)))*((1-B^4)^0.16/Di)*(B^4+4*B^16))*(Re^(-0.1.75-0.5959+0.25 A1 = (0.0182/Di+(0.5 A3 = (0.0312*B^2.007/Di+(0.75 9.2 Corner Tappings C = 0.5 A1 = 0.35*B^14+A1 EP = A0*Di*B C = (1-B^4)^0.3 Radius Tappings C = 0.1-0.48-1.06/Di)*B^2+(0.935+0.3155+0.009+0.184^B^8+0.0312*B^2.07+0.7 A4 = (B-0.4 Small-Bore Honed-Orifice Meter Run with Corner Tappings C = (0.07+0.5*(10^6/Re)^0.440-0.1.184^B^8+0.5)))*((1-B^4)^0.7)^(5/2)*(65/Di^2+3) K0 = (A1+A2-A3+A4)/(1+0.0029*B^2.0029*B^2.1.5*(10^6/Re)^0.0312*B^2.5*(10^6/Re)^0.5/Di) A2 = 0.5959+0.015839*B^3 9.0044/Di+(0.5/Di-B)^(5/2) A3 = 0 If B<0.48^B^8+0.52/Di-0.75-0.6 Pipe Tappings (2.1.5959+0.039*B^4/(1-B^4)- 0.1.1*B^4)*(Re^(-0.5959+0.0312*B^2.5*K0*(1+EF*B/Re) 9. 9 Attachment 9 Attachment Formulae for Discharge Coefficient Notation B β .5) K0 = 0.0029*B^2.4*(1.5) 9.184^B^8+0.62 C = 0.85598*B^3/D+ 2.5-B)^(3/2)*(0.43/Di^0.5)*B^4 A2 = 0 If B<(0.461*B^2.468*(B^4+10^B^12)+(0.8 AGA Report 3 (Pipe Tappings) A0 = 905-5000*B+9000*B^2-4200*B^3+875/Di A1 = 0 If B<0.192+ (16.1-0.75+0.0029*B^2.5D & 8D) C = 0.034/Di) A4 = 0 If B>0.ratio C Discharge Coefficient D Internal Pipe Diameter.0175/Di)*(B^4+2^B^16)+(0.5*K0*(1+EP*B/Re) Sizing Equations 57 .

4 Universal Venturi Tube C = 0.5.7.984 9.5.8464^B^8+0.9 Attachment 9.564^B^2-0.3366*B^3+ (7.00653*(B^0.196*B^4.3^B^2+2977*B^3-1131.5.2739^B^8-0.5*Re^-0.15 9.2*B^4)/(Re)^0.8^B^2-399.1+0.734 Else C = 0.3*B-2557.4 Lo-Loss Tube C = 1.2+898.3 Conical Entrance Orifice If Re≤ 5000*B C = 0.7.5608*B^3+ (-139.1615^B^2+1.9975-6.1 Classical venturi tube with an “as cast” convergent section C = 0.005-0.75 Else C = 0.5.9965-0.0033*B^4.53*B^0.3 ISA 1932 Nozzle C = 0.6284+0.471*B+0.6.3 Diametrically Opposite Vena Contracta Tappings If D ≤ 100 Dp1 ≤ 100 58 Sizing Equations .75 Else C = 0.3309*B-1.3-15.6.2*B^4)/(Re)^0.2262*B^4.1963*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.4*B^4)/(Re)^0.1 Diametrically Opposite Flange Tappings If D ≤ 100 C = 0.6 Nozzle 9.7*B+170.2 Side (90°) Flange Tappings If D ≤ 100 C = 0.1-( 0.1-0.3813*B^2.5*B^3+486.995 9.99-0.5)*(10^6/Re)^0.8*B-4228.730 9.1+0.1132*B^3+ (-103.3 Classical venturi tube with a rough-welded sheet-iron convergent section C = 0.6.4078*B^2.7.1462*B^2.0547^B^8+0.73823+0.1+0.4*B+1245.0955*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.6.5 9.6^B^2-1287.9797 9.6276+0.6898^B^8-0.9*B^3-2710.3*B^4)/(Re)^0.9558-0.5949+0.5084*B^3 9.4 Venturi Nozzle C = 0.1 ISO Long Radius Nozzle C = 0.7*B^3+332.1-469.2^B^2+5691.00175*B^2-0.2 Classical venturi tube with a machined convergent section C = 0.2 ASME Long Radius Nozzle C = 0.75 9.5 Venturi Tube 9.2603*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.7+1328.5 9.7 Eccentric Orifice 9.985 9.5875+0.2 Quarter of Circle (Quadrant Edge) Orifice C = 0.514*B^3 9.15)*(10^6/Re)^1.75 9.2886*B^3+ (69.5 9.0828*B^2.0934*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.

75 Else DC = 0.1 Square Edge Orifice (Liquid/Water) C = 0.011*(0.0.5 If 3. IF D < 71.2*Bet0^2+1303.2 Classical Venturi Tube C = 0.5*10^6<Rd C = 1 .8*Bet0^4)/(Re1)^0.5922+0.0828*Bet0^2.1046*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.21/Rd^0.4/D L2 = 25.1.3+556.9.0063*A) * B^3.1.Di) 9.3061*Bet0^2.222/Rd^0.1019*Bet0^4/(1-Bet0^4)- 0.12 THEN C = C +0.1-0.5925+0.1 Critical Flow 9.080*exp(-10*L1) - 0.000521*(1000000*B/Re)^0.5*10^5 C = 1 .4*Bet0^4)/(Re1)^0.3343*B^3 Else C = 0.9*Bet0^3+ 1420.3*Bet0^4)/(Re1)^0.2.8*Bet0^2-2722.8 M = 2 * L2 / (1 .5*10^5 C = 1 .2 SubCritical Flow 9.0.7 ASME Long Radius Nozzle If Rd<3.99354 .7.5*10^6<Rd C = 1 .0244*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.222/Rd^0.4 Side (90°) Vena Contracta Tappings If D ≤ 100 DC = 0.3406*Bet0^8-0.2273*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.5917+0.5866+0.7-471.8.1+0.4*Bet0+1721.3212*B^3 Else C = 0.1.1 Flange Tappings If D ≤ 100 C = 0.8-434.4/D A = (19000 * B/Re)^0.196*B^4.6261+0.043+0.5*10^6 C = 0.4 Square Edge Orifice (Gas/Steam) C = 0.9.3 Toroidal Throat Venturi Nozzle C = 0.2.6276+0.9.6*Bet0^3+ 1569.5581*Bet0^8+0.B) * (2.8 Segmental Orifice 9.6*Bet0^3+900.2*Bet0^4)/(Re1)^0.2715*Bet0^3+(-69.4 Cylindrical Throat Venturi Nozzle C = 0.9558-0.1.0. 9 Attachment DC = 0.7308*Bet0^3+( 52.196*B^4.5 * (1000000/Re)^0.9.031*(M .21/Rd^0.5*Bet0^2- 1388.2845*Bet0^3+(23.83932 9.6037+0.1 Square Edge Orifice (Liquid/Water).9887 If 2.9.1.5 9.2*Bet0^2-2460.5 Toroidal Throat Venturi Nozzle C = 0.9558-0.1-1.1+0.11*A)*(B^4/(1 .3917*B^2.985 9.0.3412^B^8-0.1.9.1-0.1+0.4628*B^3 9.2879*Bet0^8+0.9.2 Vena Contracta Tappings If D ≤ 100 C = 0.1+0.3 .8 .5*10^5<=Rd<2.1170*Bet0^4/(1- Bet0^4).9.123*exp(-7*L1)) * (1 .9.6510*Bet0^4/(1-Bet0^4)- 0.3380*B^2.2 Thick Plate Square Edge Orifice (Liquid/Water) C = 0.2 9.2.0569*B^4/(1-B^4)-0.216 *B^8 + 0.0188+0.1.5961 + 0.7 + (0.2*Bet0+1571.1851*Bet0^2.899 9.207*Bet0+821.1132*Bet0^3+( 55.2918^B^8+0. and Square Edge Orifice (Gas/Steam) L1 = 25.7586^B^8-0.75 Else DC = 0.6 9.0790*B^3 9.B^4)) .7*Bet0^3- 394.75 .1)*B^1.5*10^5<=Rd<2.5 Sizing Equations 59 .2 9.0.984 9.7.3 + (0. Thick Plate Square Edge Orifice (Liquid/Water) .0.6 Cylindrical Throat Venturi Nozzle If Rd<3.2739*Bet0^8-0.5 If 3.7.4016^B^8-0.3932*B^2.3.2.0261*B^2 .0.6016+0.1+0.525/Rd^0.9.9.1598*B^2.3 Classical Venturi Tube C = 0.1.75 9.0934*Bet0^4/(1-Bet0^4)- 0.9887 If 2.8.9 Restriction Device 9.9*Bet0-1332.3312*Bet0^2.75 9.5 9.8*M^1.5*10^6 C = 0.9.B) C = 0.9.

2.53*(B^0.5 ASME Long Radius Nozzle C = 0.9.9 Attachment 9.5)*(1/Re)^0.9975-6.5 60 Sizing Equations .

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