The cardiac cycle is controlled by the sinoatrial node What is atheroma and how may it cause
(SAN) and the atrioventricular node (AVN). Describe myocardial infarction?
how.  Cholesterol / plaque / lipoprotein / LDL / fatty
 SAN initiates heartbeat / acts as a pacemaker / material / cells;
myogenic;  In artery wall / under lining / endothelium of
 (SAN) sends wave of electrical activity / impulses artery / blood vessel;
(across atria) causing atrial contraction;  Atheroma linked to blood clot / thrombosis;
 AVN delays (electrical activity / impulses);  (Blocks) coronary artery / artery supplying heart
 (Allowing) atria to empty before ventricles contract / muscle / tissue / cells;
ventricles to fill before they contract;  Reduces oxygen / glucose supply (to heart
 (AVN) sends wave of electrical activity / impulses muscle / tissues / cells);
 down Bundle of His / Purkyne fibres;  (Heart muscle) is unable to respire and dies
 (Causing) ventricles to contract
(6 Marks)

Many different substances enter and leave a cell by The epithelial cells that line the small intestine
crossing its cell surface membrane. Describe how are adapted for the absorption of glucose.
substances can cross a cell surface membrane Explain how.
 (Simple / facilitated) diffusion from high to low  Microvilli;
concentration / down concentration gradient;  Large/increased surface area;
 Small / non-polar / lipid-soluble molecules pass via  Many mitochondria;
phospholipids / bilayer; OR Large / polar / water-soluble  (Mitochondria/respiration) produce ATP / release
molecules go through proteins; or provide energy (for active transport);
 3 Water moves by osmosis / from high water potential to  Carrier proteins for active transport;
low water potential / from less to more negative water  Channel / carrier proteins for facilitated
potential; diffusion;
 4 Active transport is movement from low to high  Co-transport of sodium (ions) and glucose or
concentration / against concentration gradient; symport / carrier protein for sodium (ions) and
 5 Active transport / facilitated diffusion involves proteins/ glucose;

provide a large surface area. cells produce antibodies /  Lysosome fuses with / empties  (So) fast diffusion. become active / recognise enzymes into vacuole. Describe how these are adapted to allow rapid exchange disease. People with emphysema may diffusion.  Bacteria destroy alveoli / capillary /  (Alveoli / lungs) cannot recoil / spring back / have reduced elasticity / more epithelial cells.  (Damage) leads to less diffusion /less surface area / increases  Less respiration / less energy released / less ATP produced.  Loss of elastin / elastic tissue / elastase involved.  (So) fast diffusion.  Dead pathogens / weakened chemicals /recognise antigens on  Many alveoli / alveoli walls folded pathogens. bacteria as foreign.g. phagocytes /  Maintains a diffusion /  (Bacteria) encased in named structure e. (Bacteria transmitted in) droplets / aerosol.  Herd effect / fewer people to and course of infection of pulmonary  (So) short diffusion distance /  pass on disease. epithelium / lining are thin /  Rapidly produce antibodies /  short distance between alveoli and produces more antibodies.  (Leads to) fibrosis / scar tissue /  Reduced diffusion gradient / air not replenished /less air leaves lungs.  Memory cells made. phagocytic white blood cells destroy of oxygen between air in the alveoli  Vaccines contain antigens / bacteria. tuberculosis pathway.Some white blood cells are Describe and explain how the lungs Vaccines protect people against phagocytic.  Engulf/ingest bacteria. the lungs.  Many capillaries provide a large  On second exposure memory  Bacteria in vacuole / vesicle.  Bacteria digested / hydrolysed. bacteria  Alveoli break down / collapse / rupture / walls thicken. Describe the transmission  Flattened / squamous epithelium. surface area. wall concentration gradient. Explain how.  Less oxygen enters blood / tissues. activate / replicate  Less surface area / increases diffusion distance / less diffusion.  (Bacteria) are dormant feel weak and tired. . fast Emphysema is another disease of the lungs. cavities calcification. Explain why  If immunosuppressed.  / released. diffusion distance. and blood in the capillaries around antigens are injected.  Alveoli or capillary walls / pathogens.  Phagocyte attracted to bacteria by them. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a disease of blood.  Antibodies destroy pathogens.  (Activation / damage allows bacteria) to enter blood / spreads (to other organs).  (Bacteria) engulfed / ingested by  Ventilation / circulation. difficult to expel air.

enzyme). electron transfer chain. to respiring cells/tissues. Elastic tissue ecosystems. Substrate not  Changes flow/pressure. acids/primary light structure. transfer. carriers/passage form.O2.  Muscle contracts. Describebonds.InChange light-dependent in amino acid/  Recoils/springs back. structures of the walls of conjugation) can occur between  Compare same/named arteries and arterioles are bacteria of different species protein. complexes  clots/less Efficiency of transfer to consumers resistance. Explain how the  (Horizontal transmission/ indicates relationship. colonise/survive. required to separate  A few individuals (hybrid) strands heart. 3. Describe blood proteins has transmission and selection how comparisons of indicated a lack of genetic have increased the difficulty of biological molecules in diversity in populations of treating bacterial infections these two species could be some organisms.  Temperature/heat  Founder effect. Change in hydrogen/ionic/ into ATP. diversity of populations of  Sequence of  Resistant bacteria (survive and) organisms bases/nucleotides. different alleles/DNA / generations). to the formation of under pressure/when occurs.Change cells. closely related. present. ecosystem. used to find out if they are the processes that lead to  (Antibiotic) resistant gene/allele. oxyhaemoglobin. principle of . protein/serum/plasma 4. Alters tertiary reflected/not of appropriate wavelength. stages in the environment  Loading/uptake/association/ example in of energy protein/serum generates 2. related to their functions.  DNA hybridisation. smooth.reduced  Increase in frequency of  Separate DNA strands / variety/number of (resistant) allele/gene (in future break hydrogen bonds. low/approximately 2% efficient. transferred through an has a high (Colonisation affinity forby) pioneer oxygen / theImmunological 1. Change in  from other (seahorse) Electrons complementary/cannot pass down bind   Epithelium Respiratory loss / excretion / faeces / not  Unloading diversity/biodiversity. involves redox greater than transfer to . different species). evidence reaction – not a mark of amino (sequence of) the efficiency  Evens out of energy transfer is  In red blood 2. take blood away fromfrom the  Conjugation / pilus (tube).  (Compare) lungs.   Amount enzyme/active of precipitate site) (Electrons) / no reduce  Reduces friction/blood hostile environment. reproduce / population of  Mark for general resistant bacteria increases.  Mix DNA/strands (of reduced gene pool (in  Horizontal (gene) transmission.  Climax community.  Loss as heat. excites/raises energy lumen/vasoconstriction/  Enables  Unloads/ other/ species dissociates releasesto UNIT 4 structure/active site (of  constricts Efficiency of photosynthesis in plants is  Add level of electrons in vessel.O2. chlorophyll.Scientists studied two UNIT 2 species of North American seahorse. a reduction in the genetic  Vertical (gene) transmission. Arteries and arterioles  Plasmid. transported andDescribe unloadedand in  Sequence of amino Explain how acids this mutation /primary  Elastic tissue stretches theexplain blood how succession leads structure.  Epithelium  Stability increases / less (to species. enzyme indicates substrate relationship. in  Inject (seahorse) photosynthesis. They thought that these two species are Scientists’ analysis of Describe how gene closely related. antibodies/serum. different at different pressure/flow. Describe with antibiotics.  at low p. animal. linked to higher eaten.Describe how and explain why (species). Succession Explain how oxygenoccursisin natural loaded. new population). change caused by disulphide   (Obtain) Light (energy)   Reduces Some light energy diameter of fails to strike/is  organisms  at high p. carbon dioxide (concentration).  Haemoglobin carries oxygen / non-functioning PAH heart Energy isbeats.

Describe how. environmental/abiotic/biotic enzymes. single species produceoftwopupfish. blood. plants/plants use more carbon dioxide capillary / blood. a mitochondrion in Advantages  In lightinterbreeding net uptake of(between carbon dioxide by proteins/DNA/nitrogen-  Low water potential in producing ATP. transferred electron  they Variation due rate to mutation. between  Does not membranes. different/advantageous.  Only chain.  Specificdown (to one pest). leave chemical in environment/on  Selection for produced. protons/H+into  Pests spaceresistance. streams. success / (selected) organisms  Nitrifying (bacteria)/ . containing substances. nitrate/ammonia to  Does not get rid of pest completely. respiration. lakes contained a infestations.  Correct reference to  crop Protons/H+ pass back. transport needs one application/ reproduces.  Saprobionts/saprophyte Forces water / fluid out. features/characteristics/mutation nitrite to Disadvantages / /allele. Describe This led to the formation of a number of the part played  (In dark) Geographical plants (andisolation. Large proteins remain in by different the innerspecies membrane ofpupfish. formation of separate. photosynthesis to describe these changes returned to the circulatory Changes  Carbonin ecosystems dioxide can lead to speciation.In the light-independent reaction of The concentrations of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. Use your knowledge of formed and how it is phosphate.  Differential reproductive nitrate.  Extracellular than produce/ of Due to (plasma) proteins. Describe the nitrogen  Highinblood dead/ hydrostatic leaves linked with night/darkness. (By) osmosis. other organisms)  s.Returndown these different species evolved. of Explain how  Separate gene pools / no  Digest/break capillary. Electrons populations).Increasing  To  advantages and disadvantages No photosynthesis of in dark/night / light available to growing pressure / pressure temperatures caused evaporation molecules of glycerate and the using biological agents to control plantsfiltration. concentration with height. the the air at different heights above ground carbon in carbon dioxide in a forest changes over a period of 24 Describe how tissue fluid is becomes carbon in triose hours.such as Describe system the role of In Southern combinesCalifornia 10 000 with ribulos e years ago a wheat fields  High concentration are prone to pest of carbon dioxide bacteria Formationin making the number of interconnecting bisphosphate/RuBP.  May become a pest itself. pests dependent reaction.  Ammonia converted to through  Can membrane/into be used in organic farming. smallerlakes and required for photosynthesis/light- 3 phosphate/GP. /no bioaccumulation. respire.  Different photosynthesis greater than rate of  digestion/release of Water enters capillary /  Keeps/maintains Provide energy tolow take population. do not develop conditions / selection  Ammonia/ammonium  Decrease in carbon dioxide pressures. and explain Managed why ecosystems they occur.

 Ploughing NAD/reduced FAD. the atmosphere).Protection energyof + Pi.  ADP/ADP 3. . photosynthesis / photosynthetic competition. ATP is useful in many allowsbiological  (Electrons) pass denitrification.  Carbon dioxide concentration increases.released. 5. aerates soil/improves  Electrons drainage. Phosphorylates/adds space. Immediate 11.Burning  produces Glass/greenhouses reduced enhance coenzyme/reduced temp/CO2/ light. production in  No/Less vegetation so no/less  Substrate level killers/herbicides/weeding remove photosynthesis.  Selective produced breedingin Krebs / geneticcycle. intermembrane 4. Makes (phosphorylated ATP synthase.g. substances) more reactive /lowers activation energy. Releases Benefit energy of crop in rotation small /inmanageable terms of soil transport chain/through nutrients/fertility/pest series reduction. amounts. (Broken Irrigation/watering down) in a one to step remove /single  bondlimiting Energy broken. factor. carriers/through electron 1. photosynthesise/produc  No/Less carbon dioxide removed (from  Krebs cycle/link modification (of crops).reaction e ATP. of redox reactions. nitrification/decreases along processes. in  In the dark no ATP Clearing  Pesticides/weed mitochondria. 2. phosphate/phosphorus for ATP/DNA. phosphorylation / ATP  Some tissues unable to organisms. Explain why. Clearing the forests and burning the  Role of named nutrient or element Explain why it is important for plants to produce ATP vegetation affects the carbon dioxide e. from crops compound/makes energy  Protons birds/pests/frost move available rapidly. into by covers/netting etc. nitrate/nitrogen for proteins / during respiration in concentration in the atmosphere. phosphate. Describe damage/consumption how ATP is made of crop.  Pesticides/biological control prevents photosynthesis. addition to during Describe how and explain why. released from reduced/coenzymes/  Ploughing/aeration NAD/FAD. Explain how farming practices increase the productivity of agricultural crops  Fertilisers/minerals/named ion(added to soil).

.  Nitrite into nitrate.  Nitrogen to ammonia/ammonium.  Ammonium/ammonia into nitrite.  By saprobionts.  By nitrifying bacteria/microorganisms.  Protein/amino acids/DNA into ammonium compounds / ammonia.Describe how the action of microorganisms in the soil produces a source of nitrates for crop plants.