# For 2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs

)

Strength of Materials
Contents
Chapter – 1: Stress and Strain
Chapter - 2 : Principal Stress and Strain
Chapter - 3 : Moment of Inertia and Centroid
Chapter - 4 : Bending Moment and Shear
Force Diagram
Chapter - 5 : Deflection of Beam
S K Mondal
Chapter - 6 : Bending Stress in Beam
Chapter - 7 : Shear Stress in Beam
Chapter - 8 : Fixed and Continuous Beam
Chapter - 9 : Torsion
Chapter-10 : Thin Cylinder
Chapter-11 : Thick Cylinder
Chapter-12 : Spring
Chapter-13 : Theories of Column
Chapter-14 : Strain Energy Method
Chapter-15 : Theories of Failure
Chapter-16 : Riveted and Welded Joint

S K Mondal
IES Officer (Railway), GATE topper, NTPC ET-2003 batch,
12 years teaching experienced, Author of Hydro Power
Familiarization (NTPC Ltd)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 1 of 473 Rev.1

Note
“Asked Objective Questions” is the total collection of questions from:-
23 yrs IES (2014-1992) [Engineering Service Examination]
23 yrs. GATE (2014-1992) [Mechanical Engineering]
12 yrs. GATE (2014-2003) [Civil Engineering]
and 14 yrs. IAS (Prelim.) [Civil Service Preliminary]

Every effort has been made to see that there are no errors (typographical or otherwise) in the
material presented. However, it is still possible that there are a few errors (serious or
otherwise). I would be thankful to the readers if they are brought to my attention at the

S K Mondal

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 2 of 473 Rev.1

1. Stress and Strain

Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU)
1.1 Stress (σ)
When a material is subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up within the component. The
internal resistanceforce per unit area acting on a material or intensity of the forces distributed over a given
section is called the stress at a point.

 It uses original cross section area of the specimen and also known as engineering stress or
conventional stress.
P
Therefore,  
A

 P is expressed in Newton(N) and A, original area,in square meters (m2), the stress σ will be
expresses in N/ m2. This unit is called Pascal (Pa).

 As Pascal is a small quantity, in practice, multiples of this unit is used.
1 kPa = 103 Pa = 103 N/ m2 (kPa = Kilo Pascal)
1 MPa = 106 Pa = 106 N/ m2 =1 N/mm2 (MPa = Mega Pascal)
1 GPa = 109 Pa = 109 N/ m2 (GPa = Giga Pascal)
Let us take an example: A rod 10 mm  10 mm cross-section is carrying an axial tensile load 10 kN. In
this rod the tensile stress developed is given by
P 10 kN 10103 N
t      100N/mm2  100MPa
A 10 mm  10 mm  100 mm 2

 The resultant of the internal forces for an axially loaded member is
normal to a section cut perpendicular to the member axis.

 The force intensity on the shown section is defined as the normal stress.
F P
  lim and avg 
A0 A A
 Stresses are not vectors because they do not follow vector laws of
addition. They are Tensors.Stress, Strain and Moment of Inertia are
second order tensors.

 Tensile stress (σt)
If σ > 0 the stress is tensile. i.e. The fibres of the component
tend to elongate due to the external force. A member
subjected to an external force tensile P and tensile stress
distribution due to the force is shown in the given figure.

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Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 Compressive stress (σc)
If σ < 0 the stress is compressive. i.e. The fibres of the
component tend to shorten due to the external force. A
member subjected to an external compressive force P and
compressive stress distribution due to the force is shown in
the given figure.

 Shear stress (  )
When forces are transmitted from one part of a body to other, the stresses
developed in a plane parallel to the applied force are the shear stress. Shear
stress acts parallel to plane of interest. Forces P is applied
transversely to the member AB as shown. The corresponding
internal forces act in the plane of section C and are called shearing
P
forces. The corresponding average shear stress   
Area

1.2 Strain (ε)
Thedisplacement per unit length (dimensionless) is
known as strain.

 Tensile strain (  t)
The elongation per unit length as shown in the
figure is known as tensile strain.
εt = ΔL/ Lo
It is engineering strain or conventional strain.
Here we divide the elongation to original length
not actual length (Lo +  L)

Let us take an example: A rod 100 mm in original length. When we apply an axial tensile load 10 kN the
final length of the rod after application of the load is 100.1 mm. So in this rod tensile strain is developed
and is given by
L L  Lo 100.1mm 100 mm 0.1mm
t       0.001 (Dimensionless)Tensile
Lo Lo 100 mm 100 mm

 Compressive strain (  c)
If the applied force is compressive then the reduction of length per unit length is known as
compressive strain. It is negative. Then εc = (-ΔL)/ Lo
Let us take an example: A rod 100 mm in original length. When we apply an axial compressive load 10
kN the final length of the rod after application of the load is 99 mm. So in this rod a compressive strain is
developed and is given by

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 4 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
L L  Lo 99 mm 100 mm 1mm
c       0.01 (Dimensionless)compressive
Lo Lo 100 mm 100 mm

 Shear Strain (  ):When a

force P is applied tangentially to
the element shown. Its edge
displaced to dotted line. Where

 is the lateral displacement of
the upper face
of the element relative to the lower face and L is the distance between these faces.

Then the shear strain is ( ) 
L
Let us take an example: A block 100 mm × 100 mm base and 10 mm height. When we apply a tangential
force 10 kN to the upper edge it is displaced 1 mm relative to lower face.
Then the direct shear stress in the element

10 kN 10103 N
( )    1 N/mm2  1 MPa
100 mm100 mm 100 mm100 mm

1mm
And shear strain in the element (  ) =   0.1 Dimensionless
10 mm

1.3 True stress and True Strain
The true stress is defined as the ratio of the load to the cross section area at any instant.

T  
Instantaneous area

Where  and  is the engineering stress and engineering strain respectively.

 True strain
L
L A  d 
 ln    ln 1   ln  o   2ln  o 
dl
T   
Lo
l  Lo   A   d 

or engineering strain (  ) = e T -1
The volume of the specimen is assumed to be constant during plastic deformation. [
 Ao Lo  AL ] It is valid till the neck formation.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 5 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 Comparison of engineering and the true stress-strain curves shown below
 The true stress-strain curve is also known as
the flow curve.
 True stress-strain curve gives a true indication
of deformation characteristics because it is
based on the instantaneous dimension of
the specimen.
 In engineering stress-strain curve, stress drops
down after necking since it is based on the
original area.

 In true stress-strain curve, the stress however increases after necking since the cross-
sectional area of the specimen decreases rapidly after necking.
 The flow curve of many metals in the region of uniform plastic deformation can be expressed by
the simple power law.
σT = K(εT)n Where K is the strength coefficient
n is the strain hardening exponent
n = 0 perfectly plastic solid
n = 1 elastic solid
For most metals, 0.1< n < 0.5

 Relation between the ultimate tensile strength and true stress at maximum load
Pmax
The ultimate tensile strength u  
Ao

Pmax
The true stress at maximum load u T 
A
 Ao  A
And true strain at maximum load T  ln 

 or o  e T
 A  A
Pmax Pmax Ao
Eliminating Pmax we get , u T     u eT
A Ao A
Where Pmax = maximum force and Ao = Original cross section area
A = Instantaneous cross section area
Let us take two examples:
(I.) Only elongation no neck formation
In the tension test of a rod shown initially it was Ao
= 50 mm2 and Lo = 100 mm. After the application of
load it‟s A = 40 mm2 and L = 125 mm.
Determine the true strain using changes in both
length and area.

Answer: First of all we have to check that does the (If no neck formation
member forms neck or not? For that check Ao Lo  AL occurs both area and
or not? gauge length can be used
Here 50 × 100 = 40 × 125 so no neck formation is for a strain calculation.)
there. Therefore true strain

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 6 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
L
dl 125 
T     ln  0.223
l 100 
Lo

 Ao   50 
T   ln   ln   0.223
A  40 

(II.) Elongation with neck formation
A ductile material is tested such and necking occurs
then the final gauge length is L=140 mm and the
final minimum cross sectional area is A = 35 mm2.
Though the rod shown initially it was Ao = 50 mm2
and Lo = 100 mm. Determine the true strain using
changes in both length and area.

Answer: First of all we have to check that does the (After necking, gauge
member forms neck or not? For that check Ao Lo  AL length gives error but
or not? area and diameter can
Here AoLo = 50 × 100 = 5000 mm3 and AL=35 × 140 be used for the
= 4200 mm3. So neck formation is there. Note here calculation of true strain
AoLo>AL. at fracture and before
Therefore true strain fracture also.)
 Ao   50 
T   ln   ln   0.357
A  35 
L
dl 140 
But not T     ln  0.336 (it is wrong)
l 100 
Lo

1.4 Hook’s law
According to Hook‟s law the stress is directly proportional to strain i.e. normal stress (σ)  normal strain
(ε) and shearing stress (  )  shearing strain (  ).

σ = Eε and   G

The co-efficient E is called the modulus of elasticity i.e. its resistance to elastic strain. The co-efficient G is
called the shearmodulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity.

1.5 Volumetric strain v 
A relationship similar to that for length changes holds for three-dimensional (volume) change. For
P
volumetric strain, v  , the relationship is v  = (V-V0)/V0or v  = ΔV/V0 
K
 Where V is the final volume, V0is the original volume, and ΔV is the volume change.

 Volumetric strain is a ratio of values with the same units, so it also is a dimensionless quantity.

 ΔV/V=volumetric strain = εx+εy + εz= ε1 +ε2 + ε3

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 7 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 Dilation:The hydrostatic component of the total stress contributes to deformation by changing the
area (or volume, in three dimensions) of an object. Area or volume change is called dilation and is
p
positive or negative, as the volume increases or decreases, respectively. e  Where p is pressure.
K
PL σ
1.6 Young’s modulus or Modulus of elasticity (E) = =
Aδ 
 PL
1.7 Modulus of rigidity or Shear modulus of elasticity (G) = = 
 A
p p
1.8 Bulk Modulus or Volume modulus of elasticity (K) =  
v R
v R
1.10 Relationship between the elastic constants E, G, K, µ

9KG
E  2G 1     3K 1  2  
3K  G [VIMP]

Where K = Bulk Modulus,  = Poisson‟s Ratio, E= Young‟s modulus, G= Modulus of rigidity

 For a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material, the number of elastic constants required
to relate stress and strain is two. i.e. any two of the four must be known.

 If the material is non-isotropic (i.e. anisotropic), then the elastic modulii will vary with additional
stresses appearing since there is a coupling between shear stresses and normal stresses for an
anisotropic material.There are 21 independent elastic constants for anisotropic materials.

 If there are axes of symmetry in 3 perpendicular directions, material is called
orthotropicmaterials. An orthotropic material has 9 independent elastic constants.
Let us take an example: The modulus of elasticity and rigidity of a material are 200 GPa and 80 GPa,
respectively. Find all other elastic modulus.
9KG
Answer: Using the relation E  2G 1     3K 1  2   we may find all other elastic modulus easily
3K  G
E E 200
Poisson‟s Ratio (  ) : 1     1   1  0.25
2G 2G 2  80
E E 200
Bulk Modulus (K) : 3K  K    133.33GPa
1  2 3 1  2  3 1  2  0.25 

1.11 Poisson’s Ratio (µ)
Transverse strain or lateral strain  y
= =
Longitudinal strain x
(Under unidirectional stress in x-direction)

 The theory of isotropic elasticity allows Poisson's ratios in the range from -1 to 1/2.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 8 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 Poisson's ratio in various materials
Material Poisson's ratio Material Poisson's ratio
Steel 0.25 – 0.33 Rubber 0.48 – 0.5
C.I 0.23 – 0.27 Cork Nearly zero
Concrete 0.2 Novel foam negative

 We use cork in a bottle as the cork easily inserted and removed, yet it also withstand the pressure
from within the bottle. Cork with a Poisson's ratio of nearly zero, is ideal in this application.

 If a piece of material neither expands nor contracts in volume when subjected to stress,then the
Poisson‟s ratio must be 1/2.

1.12 For bi-axial stretching of sheet
 Lf 1 
1  ln   Lo  Original length
 Lo1 
 Lf 2 
2  ln   L f -Final length
 Lo 2 
Initial thickness(t o )
Final thickness (tf) =
e1  e2
1.13 Elongation
 A prismatic bar loaded in tension by an axial force P
For a prismatic bar loaded in tension by
an axial force P. The elongation of the bar
can be determined as
PL

AE
Let us take an example: A Mild Steel wire 5 mm in diameter and 1 m long. If the wire is subjected to an
axial tensile load 10 kN find its extension of the rod. (E = 200 GPa)
PL
Answer: We know that   
AE
Here given, Force(P)  10 kN  10 1000N
Length(L)  1 m
   0.005 
2
d2
Area(A)   m2  1.963  105 m2
4 4
Modulous of Elasticity (E )  200 GPa  200 109 N/m2
PL 10 1000  1
Therefore Elongation( )   m
AE 1.963  105    200  109 
 2.55  103 m  2.55 mm

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 9 of 473 Rev.1

A2 = 20 mm2. GATE & PSUs) Page 10 of 473 Rev.--------lnrespectively. l2 = 500 mm. l3 = 200 mm E = 200 GPa = 200  109 N/m2 = 200  103 N/mm2 Therefore Total extension of the rod P  l1 l 2 l 3       E  A1 A2 A3  1000 N  300 mm 500 mm 200 mm       200  10 N / mm  40 mm 2 20 mm 2 30 mm 2  3 2  0.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Elongation of composite body Elongation of a bar of varying cross section A1. Answer: Consider the following figure Given. Answer: Consider the figure below d1 be the radius at the smaller end. If the rod is subjected to an axial tensile load of 1000 N.196mm  Elongation of a tapered body Elongation of a tapering rod of length „L‟ due to load „P‟ at the end 4PL δ= (d1 and d2 are the diameters of smaller & larger ends)  Ed1 d 2 PL PL You may remember this in this way. A3 = 30 mm2 Length. The middle portion of the rod is 20 mm2 in area and 500 mm long. compare this extension with that of a uniform cylindrical bar having a diameter equal to the mean diameter of the tapered bar. (A1) = 40 mm2. the value of diameter „dx‟ is equal to For-2015 (IES. A2. Show that the extension produced by a tensile axial load P is 4PL  δ = . (E = 200 GPa). of length L. Then at a X cross section XX located at a distance × from the smaller end. δ= i.1 . its two ends are 40 mm2 and 30 mm2 in area and length are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. Load (P) =1000 N Area. P  l1 l2 l3 ln        E  A1 A2 A3 An  Let us take an example: A composite rod is 1000 mm long.An of lengths l1.----------. tapers uniformly from small diameter d1 at one end to bigger diameter d2 at the other end. l2. find its total elongation.e.  d1 d 2 E If d2 = 2d1. (l1) = 300 mm.   EA eq E  d1 d 2  4  Let us take an example: A round bar.

E 42  16PL  9 Ed12 Extension of taper bar 2 9   Extension of uniform bar 16 8 9 For-2015 (IES.dx 4P .1 .L Elongation of such bar  II    AE   3 2  d1  .dx d         2 AE   d x  2  . Elongation of this section 'd x ' length PL P . d 1  kx E  E 1  4  Therefore total elongation of the taper bar x L 4P dx    d      Ed 1 kx  2 2 x 0 1 4PL   E d1d 2 Comparison: Case-I: Where d2 = 2d1 4PL 2PL Elongation  I     Ed1  2d1  Ed12 Case –II: Where we use Mean diameter d1  d 2 d1  2d1 3 dm    d1 2 2 2 PL P . GATE & PSUs) Page 11 of 473 Rev.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s d x d1 x  d 2 d 1       2 2 L 2 2  x or d x  d1   d 2  d1  L d 2  d1 1  d1 1  kx  Where k   L d1 We now taking a small strip of diameter 'd x 'and length 'dx 'at section XX .

i. when restrained induces stress in the material and it is referred to as thermal stress.  The strain due to temperature change is called thermal strain and is expressed as. For-2015 (IES.1 . it either elongates or contracts depending upon whether temperature is increased or decreased of the material.16 Thermal or Temperature stress and strain  When a material undergoes a change in temperature. a material property. free then the material does not experience any stress despite the fact that it undergoes a strain. (ii) Total extension produced in rod of length „L‟ due to its own weight „  ‟ per with  L2 length. y  Working stress  w   n=1.14 Structural members or machines must be designed such that the working stresses are less than the ultimate strength of the material.  If the elongation or contraction is not restricted. δ= 2EA (iii) Elongation of a conical bar due to its self weight  gL2 WL δ=  6E 2 Amax E 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 12 of 473 Rev.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Elongation of a body due to its self weight (i) Elongation of a uniform rod of length „L‟ due to its own weight „W‟ WL δ= 2AE The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when subjected to a direct axial load equal to its own weight will be half.  The free expansion or contraction of materials.5 to 2  n   factor of safety  ult  n1  2 to 3  n1  p   p  Proof stress n  y or  p or  ult 1.15 Factor of Safety: (n) = w 1. e. and ΔT is the change in temperature.     T   Where α is co-efficient of thermal expansion.

E = Modulus of elasticity  Thermal stress produces the same effect in the material similar to that of mechanical stress.6  106   50  750  1.6 kN Therefore.7025 mm Let us assume the force required to make their elongation vanish be P which is the reaction force at the ends.7025    2  2    0.050  2 4 For-2015 (IES.075 2   4 And compressive stress on copper rod P 116. A compressive stress will produce in the material with increase in temperature and the stress developed is tensile stress with decrease in temperature.6 × 10-6 per °C respectively. compressive stress on steel rod P 116.4 mm.7 × 10-6 per °C respectively and for copper 70 GPa and 21.1025 mm  Compressive  But according to diagram only free expansion is 0. Therefore restrained deflection of rod =1.075     200  10     0.39 MPa ASteel   0.  PL   PL        AE Steel  AE Cu P  500 P  750 or 0. Answer: If we allow this rod to freely expand then free expansion T    T  L  11.6  103  Cu   N/m2  59. GATE & PSUs) Page 13 of 473 Rev. Let us take an example: A rod consists of two parts that are made of steel and copper as shown in figure below. If the temperature of the rod is raised by 50°C. determine the forces and stresses acting on the rod.4 mm = 0.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  t   E  T  Where.6  103  Steel   N/m2  26.050     70 10  9 9 4  4  or P  116. The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion for steel are 200 GPa and 11.1 .38 MPa ACu    0.7  106   50  500   21.1025 mm – 0.

For-2015 (IES.1 . AB = Cross section area of the brass rod. = BD in the above figure. steel tube when the combination is raised by toC then the following analogy have to do. As = Cross section area of the steel tube.  = Expansion of the compound bar = AD in the above figure.e. The assembly is making in such a way that elongation of the combination will be same. L = Ls  LB 2.  Bf = Compression of the brass rod due to internal force developed by the unequal expansion. And in the equilibrium equation Tensile force in the steel tube = Compressive force in the brass rod Where.  b   s  Equilibrium Equation: 3.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 1. (a) Original bar before heating.  s = Tensile stress developed in the steel tube. To calculate the stress induced in the brass rod. Steel  Tension  s As   B AB Brass  Compression Where.  Compatibility Equation: Assumption:    st   sf   Bt   Bf 1. (c) Expanded position of the compound bar i. final position after heating.  B = Compressive stress developed in the brass rod.17 Thermal stress on Brass and Mild steel combination A brass rod placed within a steel tube of exactly same length. Let us take an example: See the Conventional Question Answer section of this chapter and the question is “Conventional Question IES-2008” and it‟s answer.  sf = Expansion of the steel tube due to internal force developed by the unequal expansion. GATE & PSUs) Page 14 of 473 Rev.  Bt = Free expansion of the brass rod due to temperature rise toC =  b L t = AC in the above figure. = BD in the above figure.  st = Free expansion of the steel tube due to temperature rise toC =  s L t = AB in the above figure. (b) Expanded position if the members are allowed to expand freely and independently after heating.

 The materials have its own different melting point. the creep rate decrease with time until reaching the steady state. This is dependent on temperature. Endurance limit is used for reversed bending only while for othertypes of loading. 1) Primary creep is a period of transient creep.1 . it fails at stress below the yield point stress. The average value of the creep rate during this period is called the minimum creep rate. The creep resistance of the material increases due to material deformation. c1 . In this stage intergranular cracking and/or formation of voids and cavities occur. This failureis known asfatigue.5 Melting temperature A typical creep curve shows three distinct stages with different creep rates.18 Maximum stress and elongation due to rotation  2L2  2L3 (i)  max  and  L   8 12E  2L2  2L3 (ii)  max  and  L   2 3E For remember: You will get (ii) by multiplying by 4 of (i) 1. the For-2015 (IES. each will creep when the homologous Testing temperature temperature > 0.19 Fatigue When material issubjected to repeated stress.5. c2 are constants   stress 1. Fatigue failute is caused by means of aprogressive crack formation which are usually fine and of microscopic. GATE & PSUs) Page 15 of 473 Rev.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 1. Creep rate =c1  c2 Creep strain at any time = zero time strain intercept + creep rate ×Time = 0 c1  t c2 Where. After an initial rapid elongation εo. 3) Tertiary creep shows a rapid increase in the creep rate due to effectively reduced cross-sectional area of the specimen leading to creep rupture or failure. 2) Secondary creepprovides a nearly constant creep rate. A stage of balance between competing. Homologous temp = > 0. Strain hardening and recovery (softening) of the material. Usually at elevated temperatures creep is high.18 Creep When a member is subjected to a constant load over a long period of time it undergoes a slow permanent deformation and this is termed as “creep”.

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s term endurance strength may be used when referring the fatigue strength of thematerial.23 Tension Test i) True elastic limit:based on micro-strain measurement at strains on order of 2 × 10-6. Very low value and is related to the motion of a few hundred dislocations. For-2015 (IES. iii) Elastic limit:is the greatest stress the material can withstand without any measurable permanent strain after unloading. GATE & PSUs) Page 16 of 473 Rev.1 .21 Loads shared by the materials of a compound bar made of bars x & y due to load W. It may be defined as the safe maximum stress which can be applied to the machine partworking under actual conditions.   Ax Ex  Ay E y 1. P 2 AEh   1  1   A PL  If a load P is applied suddenly to a bar then the stress & strain induced will be double than those obtained by an equal load applied gradually. 1. Ax Ex Px  W . Ax Ex  Ay E y Ay E y Py  W . Ax Ex  Ay E y PL 1. ii) Proportional limit:the highest stress at which stress is directly proportional to strain.22Elongation of a compound bar. Elastic limit > proportional limit.20 Stress produced by a load P in falling from height ‟h‟  2h     d   1  1     L     being stress & strain produced by static load P & L=length of bar. 1.

is chiefly influenced by uniform elongation.  RA is the most structure-sensitive ductility parameter and is useful in detecting quality changes in the materials.(  = 0.  The offset yield stress is referred to proof stress either at 0.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s iv) Yield strengthis the stress required to produce a small specific amount of deformation.  . values of reduction of area are dependent on specimen geometry.The offset yield strength can be determined by the stress corresponding to the intersection of the stress-strain curve and a line parallel to the elastic line offset by a strain of 0.1%. v) Tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength (UTS)  u is the maximum load Pmax divided by the original cross-sectional area Ao of the specimen. which is dependent on the strain- Lo hardening capacity of the material.001). and deformation behaviour. Ao  Af vii) Reduction of Area: q  Ao  Reduction of area is more a measure of the deformation required to produce failure and its chief contribution results from the necking process.1 or 0.002 or 0. and they should not be taken as true material properties.5% strain used for design and specification purposes to avoid the practical difficulties of measuring the elastic limit or proportional limit. Lf  Lo vi) % Elongation.  Because of the complicated state of stress state in the neck. GATE & PSUs) Page 17 of 473 Rev.1 . viii) Stress-strain response For-2015 (IES.2 or 0.

4.05 . or percent elongation greater than five percent. ε≥ 0. σy and σult. For-2015 (IES. Ductile materials typically have a well defined yield point. GATE & PSUs) Page 18 of 473 Rev. 2. σy.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Characteristics of Ductile Materials 1. 3. The value of thestress at the yield point defines the yield strength. A single tensile test is sufficient to characterize the material behavior of a ductilematerial. For typical ductile materials. The strain at failure is.1 . the yield strength has approximately the same valuefor tensile and compressive loading (σyt≈σyc≈σy).

The load corresponding to the 0. The apparatus for the Izod impact test is shown in Figure. The strain at failure ilure is. a rounded point onthe tip of the pendulum makes contact with a notched specimen 22mm above the centerof the notch. (i) % Elongation (ii) Reduction of Area (RA) % (iii) Tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (iv) Yield strength (v) Fracture strength For-2015 (IES.A pendulum with adjustable weight is released from a known height. Itmeasures the energy required to fracture a notched specimen at relatively high ratebending conditions. are required tocharacterize the material behavior of a brittle material.2% offset is 55 kN and the maximum load is 70 kN. they fail bybrittle fracture.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Characteristics of Brittle Materials 1. 2. (σuc>> σut). σutand σucrespectively.05 or percent elongation less than five percent. Two material tests. Brittle materials do not exhibit an identifiable yield point. 1. σutand σuc. 3.25 Elastic strain and Plastic strain The strain present in the material after unloading is called the residual strain or plastic strain and the strain disappears during unloading is termed as recoverable or elastic strain. ε ≤0. a tensile test and a compressive test. Fracture occurs at 60 kN. 4. The diameter after fracture is 8 mm and the gauge length at fracture is 65 mm. The value of the largest stress in tension and compressiondefines the ultimate strength. The compressive strength of a typical brittle material is significantly higher thanits tensile strength. rather. Equation of the straight line CB is given by  total E  Plastic E Elastic E Carefully observe the following figures and understand which one is Elastic strain and which one is Plastic strain Let us take an example: A 10 mm diameter tensile specimen has a 50 mm gauge length. GATE & PSUs) Page 19 of 473 Rev. Calculate the following properties of the material from the tension test.1 .24Izod Impact Test The Notched Izod impact test is a technique to obtain a measure of toughness. 1.

For-2015 (IES.854 105 Py 55  103 (iv) Yield strength  y    N/m2  700 MPa Ao 7.010  m2  7. All materials are elastic to some extent but the degree varies. The stress-strain relationship in elastic region need not be linear and can be non-linear (example rubber). It is represented by point A in figure. GATE & PSUs) Page 20 of 473 Rev.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s (vi) If E = 200 GPa.1955 1.854 Pmax 70 103 (iii) Tensile strength or Ultimate tensile strength (UTS).854 105 m2 2 4  Area at fracture  Af     0. both mild steel and rubber are elastic materials but steel is more elastic than rubber. for example.027 (ii) Reduction of area (RA) = q   100%   100%  36% A0 7.0045 E 200 109 (vii) Plastic strain  P    total   E  0.027 105 m2 2 4 Original gauge length (L0) = 50 mm Gauge length at fracture (L) = 65 mm Therefore L  L0 65  50 (i) % Elongation   100%   100  30% L0 50 A0  Af 7.854  5. what is the plastic strain at maximum load?  Answer:Given.008  m2  5.0045  0.2000  0.854  105 PFracture 60  103 (v) Fracture strength  F    N/m2  764MPa Ao 7. When the material is in elastic region the strain disappears completely after removal of the load. the elastic recoverable strain at maximum load (vii) If the elongation at maximum load (the uniform elongation) is 20%. The maximum stress value below which the strain is fully recoverable is called the elastic limit. Original area  A0     0.1 .854  105 Pmax / Ao 891106 (vi) Elastic recoverable strain at maximum load   E     0.26 Elasticity This is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation when the external forces are removed.  u   N/m2  891 MPa Ao 7.

Stress in the shank will be more and maximum energy will be absorbed by shank. Due to cyclic strain the elastic limit increases for annealed steel and decreases for cold drawn steel. Considering that the total strain amplitude can be given as Δε = Δεp+ Δεe 1. Δεp and Δεe are the plastic and elastic strain ranges. (Most widely used)  Keeping the depth constant throughout the length and varying the width  By varying both width and depth suitably. This is termed the per unit volume damping capacity. For it M  bh 2 Where b = Width of beam h = Height of beam To make Beam of uniform strength the section of the beam may be varied by  Keeping the width constant throughout the length and varying the depth. the total strain range being Δε. GATE & PSUs) Page 22 of 473 Rev. 1. Here the stress range is Δσ. per stress cycle.1 . For-2015 (IES.30Bolts of uniform strength Diameter of the shank of the bolt is equal to the core diameter of the thread.31 Beam of uniform strength It is one is which the maximum bending stress is same in every section along the longitudinal axis.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s True stress-strain plot with a number of stress reversals The area of the hysteresis loop gives the energy dissipationper unit volume of the material.

GATE & PSUs) Page 23 of 473 Rev.32Fracture Tension Test of Ductile Material Cup and cone fracture in a ductile metal (MS) For-2015 (IES.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 1.1 .

IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Stress in a bar GATE-1. Which of the following observations is correct? [GATE-2003] (a) Both rods elongate by the same amount (b) Mild steel rod elongates more than the cast iron rod (c) Cast iron rod elongates more than the mild steel rod (d) As the stresses are equal strains are also equal in both the rods GATE-1(i). A steel bar of 40 mm × 40 mm square cross-section is subjected to an axial compressive load of 200 kN. Two identical circular rods of same diameter and same length are subjected to same magnitude of axial tensile force.1 . Assume both the materials to be homogeneous and isotropic and the axial force causes the same amount of uniform stress in both the rods.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE.0 100 kN 100 kN (c) 25. The stresses developed are within the proportional limit of the respective materials.0 50 kN [CE: GATE-2003] For-2015 (IES. IES. the normal stress developed at the section- SS is [GATE-2013] ? ?(?1 − ?2 ) ??2 ??1 ? ? ? ? ? ?(?1 + ?2 ) ??1 ??2 GATE-2.0 (b) 20.25 mm (b)2.70 mm (c)4. GATE & PSUs) Page 24 of 473 Rev. Loads shown are placed on one of the axes of 100 mm symmetry of cross-section. the maximum tensile stress in N/ mm2 50 mm anywhere is (a) 16. the elongation of the bar will be: [GATE-2006] (a)1. The other rod is made out of cast iron having the modulus of elasticity of 100 GPa.05 mm (d) 5. One of the rods is made out of mild steel having the modulus of elasticity of 206 GPa.A rod of length L having uniform cross-sectional area A is subjected to a tensile force P as shown in the figure below If the Young's modulus of the material varies linearly from E1. If the length of the bar is 2 m and E = 200 GPa.0 (d) 30.40 mm GATE-2(i) A bar of varying square cross-section is loaded symmetrically as shown in the figure. Ignoring self weight. to E2along the length of the rod.

The Poisson‟s ratio of the rod material is ………. [GATE-2014] True stress and true strain GATE-3. shear force and axial force (b) bending moment and axial force only (c) bending moment and shear force only (d) axial force only Y X [CE: GATE-2003] GATE-2(iii) A metallic rod of 500 mm length and 50 mm diameter. As shown in the figure. Fatigue strength of a rod subjected to cyclic axial force is less than that of a rotating beam of the same dimensions subjected to steady lateral force because (a) Axial stiffness is less than bending stiffness [GATE-1992] (b) Of absence of centrifugal effects in the rod (c) The number of discontinuities vulnerable to fatigue are more in the rod (d) At a particular time the rod has only one type of stress whereas the beam has both the tensile and compressive stresses. the fatigue life of the shaft in the presence of the residual compressive stress is: (a) Decreased (b) Increased or decreased.5 mm and a reduction in its diameter by 0.30 (c)   540 0. Under a given bending load.. when subjected to a tensile force of 100 kN at the ends. Relation between the Elastic Modulii GATE-7. The number of independent elastic constants required to define the stress-strain relationship for an isotropic elastic solid is ……. then the true stress-true strain relation (stress in MPa) in the plastic deformation range is: (a)   540 0. An axial residual compressive stress due to a manufacturing process is present on the outer surface of a rotating shaft subjected to bending. If the material obeys power law of hardening.30 (b)   775 0. The stress resultants in the XY segment are Z (a) bending moment.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s GATE-2(ii)A curved member with a straight vertical leg is carrying a vertical load at Z.35 (d)   775 0..015 mm.1 . This shaft will be designed for [GATE-2002] (a) The maximum compressive stress (static) (b) The maximum tensile stress (static) (c) The maximum bending moment (static) (d) Fatigue loading GATE-6. A static load is mounted at the centre of a shaft rotating at uniform angular velocity. depending on the external bending load[GATE-2008] (c) Neither decreased nor increased (d) Increased GATE-5. The ultimate tensile strength of a material is 400 MPa and the elongation up to maximum load is 35%. experiences an increase in its length by 0.35 [GATE-2006] Elasticity and Plasticity GATE-4. GATE & PSUs) Page 25 of 473 Rev. [GATE-2014] For-2015 (IES.

4. The total change in length of the rod due to loading is: (a)1 µm (b) -10 µm (c) 16 µm (d) -20 µm GATE-12. It is loaded at four points.4Nm (d) 2. K. Bulk modulus (K) and Poisson's ratio (µ) is given by: [GATE-2002] (a) E  3 K 1  2  (b) K  3 E 1  2  (c) E  3 K 1    (d) K  3 E 1    GATE-9(i) For an isotropic material. L. 1998] Assume Esteel = 200 GPa. The figure below shows a steel rod of 25 mm2 cross sectional area.7Nm (b) 1. the relationship between the Young‟s modulus (E). Which of the following is sufficient to calculate the resulting change in diameter? (a) Young's modulus (b) Shear modulus [GATE-2008] (c) Poisson's ratio (d)Both Young's modulus and shear modulus GATE-7(ii) If the Poisson‟s ratio of an elastic material is 0. PI:GATE-2014] E G E E (a) G  (b) E  (c) G  (d) G  2(1  ) 2(1  ) (1  ) 2(1  2) Stresses in compound strut GATE-10.0 Nm (c) 1.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 26 of 473 Rev. A bar having a cross-sectional area of 700mm2 is subjected to axial loads at the positions indicated. In a bolted joint two members are connected with an axial tightening force of 2200 N. then torque required for achieving the tightening force is (a) 0. [GATE-2004.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s GATE-7(i). In terms of Poisson's ratio (µ) the ratio of Young's Modulus (E) to Shear Modulus (G) of elastic materials is [GATE-2004] 1 1 (a) 2(1   ) (b) 2(1   ) (c) (1   ) (d ) (1   ) 2 2 GATE-9.8Nm [GATE-2004] GATE-11. If the bolt used has metric threads of 4 mm pitch. 1997. The relationship between Young's modulus (E). The value of stress in the segment QR is: [GATE-2006] P Q R S (a) 40 MPa (b) 50 MPa (c) 70 MPa (d) 120 MPa For-2015 (IES. IES 1995. [GATE-2014] GATE-8. the ratio of modulus ofrigidity to Young‟s modulus is ……. shear modulus (G) and Poisson‟s ratio () is given by [CE: GATE-2007. M and N. A rod of length L and diameter D is subjected to a tensile load P.

then [GATE-2005] (a)  r  0.  z  0 GATE-16.1 XX is the line of action of the input force and YY is the line of application of gripping force. A solid steel cube constrained on all six faces is heated so that the temperature rises uniformly byΔT. slender cylindrical rod is made of a homogeneous and isotropic material.1 . A uniform. GATE & PSUs) Page 27 of 473 Rev.  z  0 (b)  r  0.3 kN 50 kN [CE: GATE-2007] GATE-13. The figure shows a pair of pin-jointed gripper-tongs holding an object weighing 2000 N. If a downward force of 50 kN is applied to the rigid bar.  z  0 (c)  r  0. The co-efficient of friction (µ) at the gripping surface is 0.67 kN each (b) 30 kN and 15 kN (c) 30 kN and 10 kN (d) 21. The rod is heated uniformly. respectively. respectively. then magnitude of force F required to hold the weight is: (a) 1000 N (b) 2000 N (c) 2500 N (d) 5000 N [GATE-2004] Thermal Effect GATE-15. The area and length of the central rod are 3A and L. If the thermal coefficient of the For-2015 (IES.4 kN and 14. the mass will move up through a distance of (a) 100mm (b) 500mm (c) 981 mm (d) 1000mm [GATE-2004] GATE-14. It is pre-compressed by 100 mm from its free state. The rod rests on a frictionless surface. the forces in the central and each of the outer rods will be (a) 16. respectively while that of the two outer rods are 2A and 2L.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s GATE-12(i) A rigid bar is suspended by three rods made of the same material as shown in the figure.  z  0 (d )  r  0. If the radial and longitudinal thermal stresses are represented by σr and σz. An ejector mechanism consists of a helical compression spring having a spring constant of K = 981 × 103 N/m. If the pin-joint is assumed to be frictionless. If it is used to eject a mass of 100 kg held on it.

If the Young‟s modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion are 200 GPaand 1  105 /ºC. when it is subjected to a uniform increase in temperature. .A 200 mm long. The creep strains are [CE: GATE-2013] (a) caused due to dead loads only (b) caused due to live loads only (c) caused due to cyclic loads only (d) independent of loads Tensile Test GATE-22.The stress-strain curve for mild steel is shown in the figure given below. stress free rod at room temperature is held between two immovable rigid walls. the stress in the bar is (a) zero (b) 12 MPa (c) 24 Mpa (d) 2400 MPa [CE: GATE-2007] GATE-18. A steel cube. A circular rod of length „L‟ and area of cross-section „A‟ has a modulus of elasticity „E‟ and coefficient of thermal expansion '  '. [GATE-2014] GATE-19. Poisson‟s ratio. and coefficient of thermal expansion. with all faces free to deform. respectively. the thermal stress developed in the cube due to heating is   T  E 2  T  E 3  T  E   T  E (a)  (b)  (c )  (d )  [GATE-2012] 1  2  1  2  1  2  3 1  2  GATE-17. [GATE-2014] For-2015 (IES. Creep GATE-21. v. Choose the correct option referring to both figure and table. GATE & PSUs) Page 28 of 473 Rev. The pressure (hydrostatic stress) developed within the cube.  T. then [GATE-2014] (a) stress developed in the rod is E   T and strain developed in the rod is   T (b) both stress and strain developed in the rod are zero (c) stress developed in the rod is zero and strain developed in the rod is   T (d) stress developed in the rod is E   T and strain developed in the rod is zero GATE-20.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s material is α. If the temperature of the rod is increased by  T. the magnitude of the longitudinal stress (in MPa) developed in the rod is ……………. is given by [GATE-2014] (  T)E (  T) E (  T) E (a) 0 (b) (c)  (d) 1  2 1  2 3(1  2) Fatigue. A metal bar of length 100 mm is inserted between two rigid supports and its temperature is increased by 10º C. E. has Young‟s modulus. One end of the rod is fixed and other end is free. If the coefficient of thermal expansion is 12  106 per º C and the Young‟s modulus is 2  105 MPa. Young‟s modulus is E and the Poisson‟s ratiois  . The temperature of the rod is uniformly raised by 250ºC.1 .

GATE & PSUs) Page 29 of 473 Rev. Failure P Q R S T U (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (b) 3 1 4 2 6 5 (c) 3 4 1 5 2 6 (d) 4 1 5 2 3 6 GATE-23. Upper Yield Point Q 2. Under repeated loading a material has the stress-strain curve shown in figure. A solid uniform metal bar of diameter D and length L is hanging vertically from its upper end. A test specimen is stressed slightly beyond the yield point and then unloaded. the better the material damping (b) The larger the shaded area. Lower Yield Point U 6. The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when subjected to a direct axial load equal to its own weight will be: [IES-1998] (a) The same (b) One-fourth (c) Half (d) Double For-2015 (IES. the better the material damping (c) Material damping is an independent material property and does not depend on this curve [GATE-1999] (d) None of these Previous 20-Years IES Questions Stress in a bar due to self-weight IES-1. Elastic Limit T 5.1 . Proportionality Limit S 4. which of the following statements is true? (a) The smaller the shaded area. Point on the graph Description of the point P 1. The elongation of the bar due to self weight is: [IES-2005] (a) Proportional to L and inversely proportional to D2 (b) Proportional to L2 and inversely proportional to D2 (c) Proportional of L but independent of D (d) Proportional of L2 but independent of D IES-2. Its yield strength will [GATE-1995] (a) Decrease (b) Increase (c) Remains same (d) Becomes equal to ultimate tensile strength GATE-24. Ultimate Tensile Strength R 3.

the Poisson's ratio is equal to (symbols have the usual meanings) [IAS 1994. Young's modulus 1. Match List-I (Elastic properties of an isotropic elastic material) with List-II (Nature of strain produced) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IES-1997] List-I List-II A. Both the rods are of same material with Young‟s modulus of elasticity E. Poisson's ratio 4. The extension caused by an axial load P is [IES-2012] 4?? 4?? 4?? 2?? ? ? ? ? ? ?2 − ?2 ? ? ?2 + ?2 ? ???? ???? IES-11(ii). Transverse strain D. Volumetric strain Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 3 4 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 1 2 4 3 For-2015 (IES. The Young‟s modulus of the material is E.5% IES-10. Both the bars will have the same extension if‟d‟ is equal to [IES-1998] d1  d 2 d1d 2 d1  d 2 a  b d1d 2 c  d  2 2 2 IES-11(i). A rod of length L tapers uniformly from a diameter D at one end to a diameter D/2 at the other end and is subjected to an axial load P. What is the approximate error in computed elongation? [IES-2004] (a) 10% (b) 5% (c) 1% (d) 0.1 D at one end to 0. Shear strain B. A tapering bar (diameters of end sections being d1 andd2 a bar of uniform cross- section ‟d‟ have the same length and are subjected the same axial pull. is given [IES-1995] Pl pl. In the case of an engineering material under unidirectional stress in the x-direction. IES-2000] y y y y (a) (b) (c) (d) x x x x IES-13. Bulk modulus 3. 4 pl (a) (b) (c) (d) 4 Ed1d 2 Ed1d 2 4 Ed1d 2  Ed1d 2 IES-11. Modulus of rigidity 2. GATE & PSUs) Page 31 of 473 Rev. Normal strain C. A second rod of length L and uniform diameter D is subjected to same axial load P. Which one of the following is correct in respect of Poisson's ratio (v) limits for an isotropic elastic solid? [IES-2004] (a)   (b) 1/ 4  1/ 3 (c) 1 1/ 2 (d) 1/ 2  1/ 2 IES-14. The stretch in a steel rod of circular section. A rod of length l tapers uniformly from a diameter D at one end to a diameter d at the other.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s diameter of the bar A at its smaller end is D/2 and that of the bar B is D/3. pl. The elongation due to axial pull is computed using mean diameter D. What is the ratio of elongation of the bar A to that of the bar B? [IES-2006] (a) 3 : 2 (b) 2: 3 (c) 4 : 9 (d) 1: 3 IES-9.1 . A bar of length L tapers uniformly from diameter 1.9 D at the other end. having a length 'l' subjected to a tensile load' P' and tapering uniformly from a diameter d1 at one end to a diameter d2 at the other end. The ratio of extension of the first rod to that of the second rod [IES-2014] (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1 Poisson’s ratio IES-12.

The highest stress that a material can withstand for a specified length of time without excessive deformation is called [IES-1997] (a) Fatigue strength (b) Endurance strength (c) Creep strength (d) Creep rupture strength IES-23. Hammer peening Of the above statements (a) 1 and 2 are correct (b) 2 and 3 are correct (c) 1 and 3 are correct (d) 1. steady state (d) Accelerated. CE:GATE-2010] (a) Two (b) Three (c) Four (d) Six IES-26. Torsional stiffness 3. Which one of the following features improves the fatigue strength of a metallic material? [IES-2000] (a) Increasing the temperature (b) Scratching the surface (c) Overstressing (d) Under stressing IES-24.34 respectively. Coating 3. IES-2011] (c) Isotropic materials (d) Anisotropic materials IES-29. The modulus of rigidity of the material is: For-2015 (IES. steady state. called? (a) Homogeneous materials (b) Viscoelastic materials[IES 2007. Ns/m2 D. 2 and 3 are correct Relation between the Elastic Modulii IES-25. K and μ represent the elastic modulus. E.1 . K and μ must be known (c) Any two of the four must be known (d) All the four must be known IES-27. For a linearly elastic. the number of elastic constants required to relate stress and strain is:[IAS 1994. Match List-I (Properties) with List-II (Units) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [IES-2001] List I List II A. transient. Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of a material are 1. Pa B. The correct sequence of creep deformation in a creep curve in order of their elongation is: [IES-2001] (a) Steady state. bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio respectively of a linearly elastic. Dynamic viscosity 1. at least[IES-2006] (a) E. transient IES-22. Consider the following statements: [IES-1993] For increasing the fatigue strength of welded joints it is necessary to employ 1.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s IES-21. isotropic and homogeneous material. The number of elastic constants for a completely anisotropic elastic material which follows Hooke's law is: [IES-1999] (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 21 (d) 25 IES-28. What are the materials which show direction dependent properties. shear modulus. Grinding 2. N/m Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 4 1 (b) 5 2 4 3 (b) 3 4 2 3 (d) 5 4 2 1 IES-31. steady state. accelerated (c) Transient. IES-1998. Modulus of rigidity 4. under plane stress condition will have: [IES-2006] (a) 15 independent elastic constants (b) 4 independent elastic constants (c) 5 independent elastic constants (d) 9 independent elastic constants IES-30. accelerated (b) Transient.25 ×105 MPa and 0. accelerated. m2/s C. To express the stress-strain relations completely for this material. An orthotropic material. G. GATE & PSUs) Page 33 of 473 Rev. Kinematic viscosity 2. G and μ must be known (b) E. isotropic and homogeneous material.

elasticity modulus is 200 GPa 2.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s [IAS 1994. Which of the above statements is /are correct? For-2015 (IES.1 .22 3.4664 ×105 Mpa (c) 0. IES-1995. 2. the modulus of elasticity E in terms of G and K is equal to [IAS-1995. Elasticity modulus is nearly 158 GPa 4. 3.1 × 106 kgf/cm2 and a modulus of rigidity of 0. The modulus of rigidity and the bulk modulus of a material are found as 70 GPa and 150 GPa respectively. 2002. elasticity modulus is 182 GPa 4. Consider the following statements: [IES-2009] 1. Consider the following statements: Modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus of a material are found to be 60 GPa and 140 GPa respectively. If E. Then [IES-2014] 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 34 of 473 Rev. the strain in the direction perpendicular to the plane is zero.5 IES-37. What is the relationship between the linear elastic properties Young's modulus (E). Poisson‟s ratio is 0. Poisson‟s ratio is nearly 0. In a homogenous. respectively. Then [IES-2013] 1.8375 ×105 MPa (d) 0.3 3. 2001. The modulus of elasticity for a material is 200 GN/m2 and Poisson's ratio is 0. G and K denote Young's modulus. for an elastic material. 2007] (a) 0. Elasticity modulus is nearly 200 GPa 2. Poisson‟s ratio is nearly 0. isotropic elastic material.25. Poisson‟s ratio is 0.3 Which of the above statements are correct? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 and 4 IES-32.31 (c) 0. What is the modulus of rigidity? [IES-2004] (a) 80 GN/m2 (b) 125 GN/m2 (c) 250 GN/m2 (d) 320 GN/m2 IES-38.8 × 106 kgf/cm2 then the approximate value of the Poisson's ratio of the material would be: [IES-1993] (a) 0.4025 ×105 Mpa (b) 0. Under plane stress condition. What is the relationship between the liner elastic properties Young‟s modulus (E).9469 ×105 MPa IES-31(i).47 (d) 0.25 Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 IES-31(ii). If a material had a modulus of elasticity of 2.26 (b) 0. Normal and shear stresses may occur simultaneously on aplane. then which one of the following can be possibly true? [IES-2005] (a) G = 2K (b) G = E (c) K = E (d) G = K = E IES-36. rigidity modulus (G) and bulk modulus (K)? [IES-2009] KG 9KG 9 KG 9 KG (a) E (b) E  (c) E  (d) E 9K  G K G K  3G 3K  G IES-35. rigidity modulus (G) and bulk modulus (K)? [IES-2008] 1 9 3 3 9 1 9 3 1 9 1 3 (a)   (b)   (c)   (d)   E K G E K G E K G E K G IES-34. IES .1992] G  3K 3G  K 9 KG 9 KG (a) (b) (c) (d) 9 KG 9 KG G  3K K  3G IES-33. Two-dimensional stresses applied to a thin plate in itsown plane represent the planestress condition. Modulus of rigidity and Bulk Modulus.

1 . (c)  2 (d )  2 A1E1 A2 E2 A1E2 A2 E1 IES-41. For a composite consisting of a bar enclosed inside a tube of another material when compressed under a load 'w' as a whole through rigid collars at the end of the bar. Eight bolts are to be selected for fixing the cover plate of a cylinder subjected to a maximum load of 980·175 kN. Reason (R): The composite unit of these two materials is firmly fastened together at the ends to ensure equal deformation in both the materials. The total change in length of the rod due to loading is (a) 1 µm (b) -10 µm (c) 16 µm (d) -20 µm For-2015 (IES. [IES-2000] Assertion (A): The ratio of normal stresses induced in both the materials is equal to the ratio of Young's moduli of respective materials. The equation of compatibility is given by (suffixes 1 and 2) refer to bar and tube respectively [IES-1998] W1 W W1 W (a) W1  W2  W (b) W1  W2  Const.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s (a)1 only (b)1 and 2(c)2 and 3(d)1 and 3 IES-38(i). M and N. is nearly [IES-2014] (a) 14 mm (b) 17 mm (c) 8 mm (d) 5 mm IES-40. A tension member of square cross-section of side 10 mm and Young‟s modulus E is replaced by another member of square cross-section of same length but Young‟s modulus E/2. required to maintain the same elongation under the same load. When a composite unit consisting of a steel rod surrounded by a cast iron tube is subjected to an axial load. E = 199 GPa and G = 80 GPa Which of these values are correct? (a) 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1 and 4 Stresses in compound strut IES-39.30 4. E = 210 GPa and G = 77 GPa 2. E = 199 GPa and v = 0. [GATE-2004. It is loaded at four points.04% under a tensile force of 16 kN. The average decrease in diameter is found to be 0. 1998] Assume Esteel = 200 GPa.25 3. GATE & PSUs) Page 35 of 473 Rev. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is notthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-42. The side of the new square cross-section. A 16 mm diameter bar elongates by 0. IES 1995.01% Then: [IES-2013] 1. what is the diameter of each bolt? [IES-2008] (a) 10 mm (b) 22 mm (c) 30 mm (d) 36 mm IES-39(i). K. 1997. E = 199 GPa and v = 0. L. If the design stress for the bolt material is 315 N/mm2. The figure below shows a steel rod of 25 mm2 cross sectional area.

IES-2011. 3 and 4 (d) 1. is constrained in all directions and is heated uniformly so that the temperature is raised to T°C. GATE & PSUs) Page 36 of 473 Rev.10/3 kN (b) 10/3 kN. the stepped steel bar ABC is loaded by a load P. (a) 20/3 kN. Which one of the following statements is correct? [GATE-1995.75 mm is: [IES-2013] A B P C 1m 1m Gap 0. the bolt will be subjected to (a) Compression only (b) Tension (c) Shear only (d) Compression and shear IES-45. Which of the following stresses are associated with the tightening of nut on a bolt? [IES-1998] 1. 2011] If a material expands freely due to heating. 4 kN [IES-2002. Tensile stress due to the stretching of bolt 2. Crushing and shear stresses in threads 4. 5 kN (d) 6 kN. 2 and 3 (c) 2. IES 2007. 2 and 4 (b) 1. A cube having each side of length a. 20/3 kN (c) 5 kN.75 mm (a) 10 kN (b) 15 kN (c) 20 kN (d) 25 kN IES-44. Torsional shear stress due to frictional resistance between the nut and the bolt. 3 and 4 Thermal effect IES-46. The reactions at the rigid supports at A and B for the bar loaded as shown in the figure are respectively. it will develop (a) Thermal stress (b) Tensile stress (c) Compressive stress (d) No stress IES-48. Select the correct answer using the codes given below Codes: (a) 1. If α is the thermal coefficient of expansion of the cube material and E the modulus of elasticity. What shall be developed? [IES-2008] (a) Tensile stress (b) Compressive stress (c) Shear stress (d) No stress IES-47. Which one of the following is correct? [IES-2008] When a nut is tightened by placing a washer below it. The material has Young‟s modulus E = 200 GPa and the two portions. A 100 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm steel bar free to expand is heated from 15°C to 40°C. the stress developed in the cube is: [IES-2003]  TE  TE  TE  TE (a) (b) (c) (d)  1  2  2 1  2  For-2015 (IES. IAS-2003] IES-43(i) In the arrangement as shown in the figure. AB and BC have area of cross section 1 cm2 and 2cm2 respectively. The magnitude of load P required to fill up the gap of 0. Bending stress due to the bending of bolt 3.1 .Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s IES-43.

2006] (a) 120 MPa (tensile) (b) 240 MPa (tensile) (c) 120 MPa (compressive) (d) 240 MPa (compressive) IES-51. when 1. at what temperature the aluminium bar will elongate 5 mm longer than the steel bar (the linear expansion coefficients for steel and aluminium are 12 x 10-6/oC and 23 x 10-6/oC respectively? For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 37 of 473 Rev. thermal stress is induced because of the existence of: [IES-2013] (a) Latent heat (b) Total heat (c) Temperature gradient (d) Specific heat IES-50. E = 200 GPa and α = 12 × 10-6 per °C. The temperature stress is a function of [IES-1992] 1.5×10-6 / oC. Coefficient of linear expansion 2. 2012] They are heated to a temperature of 40 ° C. If the rod is not free to expand.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s IES-49. In a body. IES-1997. Modulus of elasticity The correct answer is: (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1. Young‟s modulus and coefficient of linear expansion of the rod material are 200 x 103MPa and 10x10-6/oC respectively. is (a) 60 MPa tensile (b) 80 MPa tensile [IES-2014] (c) 80 MPa compressive (d) 60 MPa compressive IES-54. An aluminium bar of 8 m length and a steel bar of 5 mm longer in length are kept at 30oC. What will be the increase in volume of the cube? (Given coefficient of thermal expansion is α per °C) (a) 3 α cm3 (b) 2 α cm3 (c) α cm3 (d) zero [IES-2004] IES-52. What type of stress is induced in the copper bar? (a) Tensile (b) Compressive (c) Both tensile and compressive (d) Shear IES-53. E = 200GPa If the rod fitted strongly between the supports as shown in the figure. A temperature gradient exists in the component 2.03972 MPa IES-53(i). the thermal stress developed is: [IAS-2003. 2 and 3 IES-54(i). α =12. The stress induced in the rod. the stress induced in it due to 20oC rise in temperature will be: [IES-1999] (a) 0. A steel rod 10 mm in diameter and 1m long is heated from 20°C to 120°C. is heated. The component is free from any restraint 3. 2000. A cube with a side length of 1 cm is heated uniformly 1° C above the room temperature and all the sides are free to expand.03972 MPa (d) 0. Consider the following statements:[IES-2002] Thermal stress is induced in a component in general.07945 MPa (c) -0. If the ambient temperature is raised gradually. [IES-2004. It is restrained to expand or contract freely Which of the above statements are correct? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 3 alone (d) 2 alone IES-49(i).07945 MPa (b) -0. A steel rod. Temperature rise 3. if walls yield by 0. 2 m long.1 . A bar of copper and steel form a composite system. is held between two walls and heated from 20oC to 60oC.2 mm.

Which of the following materials generally exhibits a yield point? [IES-2003] (a) Cast iron (b) Annealed and hot-rolled mild steel (c) Soft brass (d) Cold-rolled steel IES-61.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s (a) 50. Tensile test on CI 1. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Tensile Test IES-57. IAS-2004] (Types of Tests and Materials) (Types of Fractures) A. near the elastic limit zone [IES-2006] (a) Tensile stress increases at a faster rate (b) Tensile stress decreases at a faster rate (c) Tensile stress increases in linear proportion to the stress (d) Tensile stress decreases in linear proportion to the stress IES-59. In a tensile test.7oC [IES-2014] Impact loading IES-55. Assertion (A): Specimens for impact testing are never notched. Granular fracture on a transverse plane Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 2 3 1 (c) 4 1 3 2 (b) 5 1 4 2 (d) 5 2 4 1 IES-60. GATE & PSUs) Page 38 of 473 Rev. the parameters actually measured include [IES-1996] (a) True stress and true strain (b) Poisson‟s ratio and Young's modulus (c) Engineering stress and engineering strain (d) Load and elongation IES-58. Plain fracture on a transverse plane B. Match List-I (Types of Tests and Materials) with List-II (Types of Fractures) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: List I List-II [IES-2002.7oC (d) 33. the ultimate strength in compression is much large then the ultimate strength in tension. [IES-1999] Reason (R): A notch introduces tri-axial tensile stresses which cause brittle fracture.0oC (c) 143. For most brittle materials. The is mainly due to [IES-1992] (a) Presence of flaws andmicroscopic cracks or cavities (b) Necking in tension (c) Severity of tensile stress as compared to compressive stress (d) Non-linearity of stress-strain diagram For-2015 (IES. During tensile-testing of a specimen using a Universal Testing Machine.1 . Cup and Cone 5. Plain granular at 45° to the axis D. Torsion test on MS 2. Granular helecoidal fracture C. Torsion test on CI 4. Assertion (A): Ductile materials generally absorb more impact loading than a brittle material [IES-2004] Reason (R): Ductile materials generally have higher ultimate strength than brittle materials (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is notthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-56.7oC (b) 69. Tensile test on MS 3.

1. If failure in shear along 45° planes is to be avoided. On cooling. 3.5 kN (d) 95 kN IES-63. Tensile radial stress 3. Failure (a) 2. 4 IES-67. 3. Select the proper sequence [IES-1992] 1. [IES-2014] (a)Both statement (I) and (II) are individually correct and statement (II) is the correct explanation of statement (I) (b)Both statement (I) and (II) are individually correct and statement (II) is not the correct explanation of statement (I) (c)Statement (I) is true but statement (II) is false.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s IES-61(i). 1. Tensile hoop stress 2. (d)Statement (I) is false but statement (II) is true. Statement (I): Steel reinforcing bars are used in reinforced cement concrete. 2. 3 and 4 IES-65. Which one of the following properties is more sensitive to increase in strain rate? [IES-2000] (a) Yield strength (b) Proportional limit (c) Elastic limit (d) Tensile strength IES-64. Statement (I): Cast iron is good in compression. Elastic limit 3. 2. 3. [IES-2012] (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true IES-69. Elastic limit of cast iron as compared to its ultimate breaking strength is (a) Half (b) Double [IES-2012] (c) Approximately (d) None of the above IES-68. (d) Half the tensile strength. 4 (b) 2. Statement (II): It is extensively used in members of truss. Statement (II): Concrete is weak in compression. Yielding 4. Proportional Limit 2. A copper rod 400 mm long is pulled in tension to a length of 401. 4 (d) 1. IES-66. Compressive hoop stress 4. 3. the Young‟s modulus of copper is [IES-2012] (a) 110 GPA (b) 110 MPa (c) 11 GPa (d) 11 MPa IES-62. Consider the following factors in this regard: [IES-1994] 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 39 of 473 Rev.1 . 4 (c) 1. If the deformation is entirely elastic. then a material subjected to uniaxial tension should have its shear strength equal to at least [IES-1994] (a) Tensile strength (b) Compressive strength (c) Half the difference between the tensile and compressive strengths.2 mm by applying a tensile load of 330 MPa. a crack developed parallel to the direction of the length of the hub. What is the safe static tensile load for a M36 × 4C bolt of mild steel having yield stress of 280 MPa and a factor of safety 1. Compressive radial stress The cause of failure is attributable to (a) 1 alone (b) 1 and 3 (c) 1.5? [IES-2005] (a) 285 kN (b) 190 kN (c) 142. For-2015 (IES. A steel hub of 100 mm internal diameter and uniform thickness of 10 mm was heated to a temperature of 300oC to shrink-fit it on a shaft. 2 and 4 (d) 2.

[IAS-1999] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is notthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-6. "  " tapers uniformly from a diameter ''D1' to a diameter ''D2' and carries an axial tensile load of "P". [IAS 1994] wl 2  2 wl 3  2 wl 3 3gE (a) (b) (c) (d) gE 3gE gE  2 wl 3 Elongation of a Taper Rod IAS-3. Reason (R): For every linear strain in the direction of force. How is the total elongation of the bar under its own weight expressed? [IAS-2007] 2 L2 g  L2 g  L2 g  L2 g (a) (b) (c) (d) E E 2E 2E IAS-2. Assertion (A): Poisson's ratio of a material is a measure of its ductility. The extension produced in the rod due to centrifugal forces is (w is the weight of the rod per unit length and  is the angular velocity of rotation of the rod). In the case of an engineering material under unidirectional stress in the x-direction. the Poisson's ratio is equal to (symbols have the usual meanings) [IAS 1994. Poisson's ratio of the material gives the lateral strain in directions perpendicular to the direction of force. GATE & PSUs) Page 40 of 473 Rev.1 . A rod of length 'l' and cross-section area „A‟ rotates about an axis passing through one end of the rod. The extension of the rod is (E represents the modulus of elasticity of the material of the rod) [IAS-1996] 4 P1 4 PE1  EP1  P1 (a) (b) (c) (d)  ED1 D2  D1D2 4 D1D2 4 ED1D2 Poisson’s ratio IAS-4. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is notthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true For-2015 (IES. IES-2000] y y y y (a) (b) (c) (d) x x x x IAS-5. A heavy uniform rod of length 'L' and material density 'δ' is hung vertically with its top end rigidly fixed. [IAS-1997] Reason (R): The nature of lateral strain in a uni-axially loaded bar is opposite to that of the linear strain.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Stress in a bar due to self-weight IAS-1. Assertion (A): Poisson's ratio is a measure of the lateral strain in all direction perpendicular to and in terms of the linear strain. A rod of length.

5 kN (d) 6 kN. 2002. A weight falls on a plunger fitted in a container filled with oil thereby producing a pressure of 1. The modulus of rigidity of the material is: [IAS 1994. 2007] (a) 0.10/3 Kn (b) 10/3 kN.25 (b) 0. the volumetric compressive strain produced in the oil will be:[IAS-1997] (a) 400 × 10-6 (b) 800 × 106 (c) 268 × 106 (d) 535 × 10-6 Relation between the Elastic Modulii IAS-8. which obeys Hooke's law. G [IAS-1995] IAS-10. For a linearly elastic. isotropic and homogeneous material. GATE & PSUs) Page 41 of 473 Rev. 4 kN For-2015 (IES.1992] G  3K 3G  K 9 KG 9 KG (a) (b) (c) (d) 9 KG 9 KG G  3K K  3G IAS-14. respectively. Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of a material are 1. IES-1998] (a) Two (b) Three (c) Four (d) Six IAS-9. IES . The Young's modulus of elasticity of a material is 2. 20/3 kN (c) 5 kN.2  ) (c) E = 3k (1 +  ) (d) E = 2K(1 + 2  ) IAS-15. shear modulus and force (c) Shear modulus. The unit of elastic modulus is the same as those of [IAS 1994] (a)Stress. The Bulk Modulus of oil is 2800 N/mm2. K.8375 × 105 MPa (d) 0.25 × 105 MPa and 0. IES-1995.4664 × 105 MPa (c) 0. shear modulus and pressure (b) Strain. For an isotropic.33 (c) 0. [IES-2002. v (b) E. 2001. G. What is the value of the Poisson's ratio of the material? [IAS-2007] (a) 0·30 (b) 0·26 (c) 0·25 (d) 0·24 Stresses in compound strut IAS-17.4025 × 105 MPa (b) 0.1 . the number of independent elastic constant is: [IAS-2000] (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 6 IAS-16. K (c) E. the modulus of elasticity E in terms of G and K is equal to [IAS-1995. In a homogenous. The independent elastic constants for a homogenous and isotropic material are (a) E. IAS-2003] (a) 20/3 kN. Given this situation. G. The moduli of elasticity and rigidity of a material are 200 GPa and 80 GPa. the number of elastic constants required to relate stress and strain is: [IAS 1994.50 (d) 0.5 times its modulus of rigidity. stress and force (d) Stress.9469 × 105 MPa IAS-12. homogeneous and linearly elastic material. v (d) E. isotropic elastic material. G.The Posson's ratio for the material will be: [IAS-1997] (a) 0. The Elastic Constants E and K are related as (  is the Poisson‟s ratio) [IAS-1996] (a) E = 2k (1 – 2  ) (b) E = 3k (1.34 respectively. IAS-11. The reactions at the rigid supports at A and B for the bar loaded as shown in the figure are respectively.5 N/mm2 in the oil. strain and pressure.75 IAS-13.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Elasticity and Plasticity IAS-7.

2. A steel rod 10 mm in diameter and 1m long is heated from 20°C to 120°C. In a simple tension test. α = Coefficient of linear expansion. Bending strength 3.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Thermal effect IAS-18. l= Original length) (a) Temperature strain with permitted expansion  …. The percentage elongation of a material as obtained from static tension test depends upon the [IAS-1998] (a) Diameter of the test specimen (b) Gauge length of the specimen (c) Nature of end-grips of the testing machine (d) Geometry of the test specimen For-2015 (IES. Hooke's law is valid upto the [IAS-1998] (a) Elastic limit (b) Limit of proportionality (c) Ultimate stress (d)Breaking point IAS-24. If the rod is not free to expand. Modulus of elasticity 2. Universal Testing Machine D..1 . Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [IAS-1995] List I (Property) List II (Testing Machine) A. Three-Point Loading Machine C. Impact strength 2. E = 200 GPa and α = 12 × 10-6 per °C. 2000. Its   12 106 / K and E=200 GN/m2. Ductility 4. If the rod is free to expand.. T = Temperature rise. Which one of the following pairs is NOT correctly matched? [IAS-1999] (E = Young's modulus.. steel rod of diameter 1 cm and 1 m long is heated from 20°C to 120°C. IES-1997. 3. Rotating Bending Machine B. the thermal stress developed in it is: [IAS-2002] (a) 12 × 104 N/m2 (b) 240 kN/m2 (c) zero (d) infinity IAS-20. Lueder' lines on steel specimen under simple tension test is a direct indication of yielding of material due to slip along the plane [IAS-1997] (a) Of maximum principal stress (b) Off maximum shear (c) Of loading (d) Perpendicular to the direction of loading IAS-25. Which of the following mechanical properties of the material can be evaluated from such a test? [IAS-2007] 1. ( Tl   ) (b) Temperature stress …. l Impact loading IAS-21. 2006] (a) 120 MPa (tensile) (b) 240 MPa (tensile) (c) 120 MPa (compressive) (d) 240 MPa (compressive) IAS-19. 3. TE (c) Temperature thrust …. Yield stress 3. A. 2. A mild steel specimen is tested in tension up to fracture in a Universal Testing Machine. 3 and 4 IAS-23. 4 and 6 (c) 1. Izod Testing Machine Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 3 2 1 4 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 3 4 2 1 Tensile Test IAS-22. 5 and 6 (d) 1. 5 and 6 (b) 2. Tensile strength 1. the thermal stress developed is: [IAS-2003. Tensile strength 5. Modulus of rigidity Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a)1. TEA E (Tl   ) (d) Temperature stress with permitted expansion …. A = Area of cross-section.. Fatigue strength 4. GATE & PSUs) Page 42 of 473 Rev.

The stress-strain curve of an ideal elastic strain hardening material will be as For-2015 (IES. Cup and Cone 5. Assertion (A): For a ductile material stress-strain curve is a straight line up to the yield point.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s IAS-26. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-29. Match List-I (Types of Tests and Materials) with List-II (Types of Fractures) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: List I List-II [IES-2002. Match List I (Materials) with List II (Stress-Strain curves) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IAS-2001] Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 4 1 (b) 3 2 4 2 (c) 2 4 3 1 (d) 4 1 3 2 IAS-30. Granular helecoidal fracture C. Granular fracture on a transverse plane Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 2 3 1 (c) 4 1 3 2 (b) 5 1 4 2 (d) 5 2 4 1 IAS-27. IAS-2004] (Types of Tests and Materials) (Types of Fractures) A. [IAS-1996] Reason (R): Brittle materials fail without yielding. Tensile test on CI 1. Plain fracture on a transverse plane B. Torsion test on CI 4. [IAS-2003] Reason (R): The material follows Hooke's law up to the point of proportionality. GATE & PSUs) Page 43 of 473 Rev. Plain granular at 45° to the axis D. Torsion test on MS 2.1 . Assertion (A): Stress-strain curves for brittle material do not exhibit yield point. Tensile test on MS 3. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is notthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-28.

Rigid-Strain hardening D. Linearly elastic For-2015 (IES. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given the lists: [IAS-1995] List I List II A. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IAS-2002] List I List II A. An idealised stress-strain curve for a perfectly plastic material is given by [IAS-1996] IAS-32. Conventional strain 3. Stress 4. Change of length per unit instantaneous length C. Ultimate strength 1. Internal structure B. Rigid-Perfectly plastic B. GATE & PSUs) Page 44 of 473 Rev.1 . Change of length per unit gauge length D. What is the cause of failure of a short MS strut under an axial load? [IAS-2007] (a) Fracture stress (b) Shear stress (c) Buckling (d) Yielding IAS-34. Elastic-Perfectly plastic C.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s [IAS-1998] IAS-31. Natural strain 2. Load per unit area Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 4 2 3 1 IAS-33.

(a)  L   m  1. Ans. At this stage the strain produced in the bar is observed to be 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 45 of 473 Rev. Body is in a state of elastic deformation (d) Hooke's law …. There are only two independent elastic constants. The material has ability to withstand shock loading. Material properties are same everywhere. If the modulus of elasticity of the material of the bar is 205000 N/mm2 then the elastic component of the strain is very close to [IAS-1997] (a) 0. to which the body returns whenever all the forces are removed. Force passed through the centroid of the cross-section (b) Elastic deformation …. [IAS-2002] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is notthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-37. 3.0014.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 4 2 (b) 1 3 2 4 (c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 1 3 4 2 IAS-35. Which of the above statements are true for a linearly elastic. Which one of the following materials is highly elastic? [IAS-1995] (a) Rubber (b) Brass (c) Steel (d) Glass IAS-36. Assertion (A): Hooke's law is the constitutive law for a linear elastic material. homogeneous and isotropic material? (a) 1. Ans.04  0.04   200  109 GATE-2(i) Ans. Work done by external forces during deformation is dissipated fully as heat (c) Potential energy of strain …. Reason (R) Formulation of the theory of elasticity requires the hypothesis that there exists a unique unstressed state of the body. 3. Which one of the following pairs is NOT correctly matched? [IAS-1999] (a) Uniformly distributed stress …. (a) PL  200  1000   2 GATE-2.00005 OBJECTIVE ANSWERS PL 1 GATE-1.0001 (d) 0.0004 (b) 0. (c) 50 × 1000 The stress in lower bar = = 20 N/ mm2 50 × 50 250 × 1000 The stress in upper bar = = 25 N/ mm2 100 × 100 For-2015 (IES. L and A is same] AE E  L mild steel ECI 100     L CI   L MS  L C. (c)  L  or  L  [AsP. 2. 3 and 4 (d) 2 and 5 IAS-38.25mm AE  0. 5.I EMS 206 GATE-1(i) Ans. 4. Consider the following statements: [IAS-2002] 1. A tensile bar is stressed to 250 N/mm2 which is beyond its elastic limit. Elastic constants are different in orthogonal directions.0002 (c) 0. Relation between stress and strain IAS-39. 4 and 5 (b) 2.1 . Elastic constants are same in all loading directions. 3 and 4 (c) 1.

Ans. Ans. it is subjected to axial force only.35 to 0. (i.3)0. (d) GATE-7. showing the normal distribution of surface stresses.36 Use E = 2G (1 + μ ) .35 = 0.(a) For-2015 (IES. (d) For longitudinal strain we need Young's modulus and for calculating transverse strain we need Poisson's ratio.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Thus the maximum tensile anywhere in the bar is 25 N/ mm2 GATE-2(ii) Ans. The reduced magnitude of the tensile stresses contributes to increased fatigue life. GATE & PSUs) Page 46 of 473 Rev.3 ??? ?? ??? ? =∈ ? ?? = ?? 1 + 0. We may calculate Poisson's ratio from E  2G(1   ) for that we need Shear modulus. Net stress pattern obtained when loading a surface treated beam. GATE-2(iii)Ans. 0. Ans. G/E = 0.5 / 500 GATE-3. shear force and bending moment.35 = 540 ??? ?? = ? ∈?? 540 = ?(0. tension at the top and compression at the bottom) The residual compressive stresses induced.1 Actual answer is 2 GATE-7(i).3 = 400 1 + 0. (d) There is no eceentricity between the XY segment and the load. GATE-7(ii) Ans.29 to 0.35714 GATE-8. 1.30 x 0.e.015 / 50) Poisson's ratio (  )    0.1 . (d) A cantilever-loaded rotating beam.31  y (0. (a) 9KG GATE-9.. (b) ∈ ? = ln 1 +∈? = ln 1 + 0.3 GATE-4. (a) Remember E  2G 1     3K 1  2   3K  G GATE-9(i) Ans. But the curved YZ segment is subjected to axial force. GATE-5. Ans.9 to 2. Ans. Ans. Ans. (d) GATE-6. So. Ans.0.

004 GATE-10.4Nm 2 GATE-11. GATE-14. So it can‟t move more than 100 mm. (a) No calculation needed it is pre-compressed by 100 mm from its free state. (c) and (d) out.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 0. choice (b).(a) Thermal stress will develop only when you prevent the material to contrast/elongate. then 2P0  Pc  50 …(i) Also. (d) Frictional force required = 2000 N 2000 Force needed to produce 2000N frictional force at Y-Y section =  20000N 0. (c) Temperature stress =  TE  12  106  10  2  105  24 MPa GATE-18. (b) First draw FBD of all parts separately then PL Total change in length =  AE GATE-12. Ans. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 47 of 473 Rev. 3 GATE-16. (a) V p a 1 T   a 3 3   V K a3 p Or  3T E 3 1 2   T  E   T  E Or p  or stress( )   p   i. (a) F. Ans. Ans.Ans. (c) If the force in each of outer rods is P0 and force in the central rod is Pc . Ans.1 So for each side we need (Fy) = 10000 N force Taking moment about PIN Fy  50 10000  50 Fy  50  F  100 or F    5000N 100 100 GATE-15.e.Ans. 499 to 501   tE  1105   250   200 109   500 106 Pa  500 MPa For-2015 (IES. IES-48 in this chapter. Ans.D P 28000  QR   MPa  40MPa A 700 GATE-12(i) Ans. Ans. As here it is free no thermal stress will develop. (c) T  F  r  2200  Nm  1. the elongation of central rod and outer rods is same. GATE-17.B.1 . P0 L0 PC LC   A0E ACE P0  2L PC  L   2A 3A  PC  3P0 …(ii) Solving (i) and (ii) we get PC  30kN and P0  10kN GATE-13. compressive 1  2  1  2  Same question was asked in IES-2003 please refer question no.

(a) GATE-21.1D  0. Ans. (b) IES-4. GATE-22. (c) Actual elongation of the bar  lact        4 d1d2  E  4  1.9D  PL IES-10. (c) IES-3. (d) Actual elongation of the bar  lact     4 d1d2  E   IES-11. Ans. (d) PL IES-8. Ans. (a) Creep is due to constant load but depends on time.1 . Ans. (a) IES-7a.9D  E     PL Calculated elongation of the bar  l Cal   D2 E 4  lact   lcal  D2   Error  %   100    1  100%  1%  lcal  1. (b) GATE-24. Ans. Ans. Ans. (c) IES-7.Ans.Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. (b) IES  D2 L    gL WL 4 IES-1. (b) Elongation of a taper rod  l    d1d2E 4  l  A  d2 B D / 3 2 or     lB  d2 A D / 2 3 PL PL IES-9. Ans. (b) IES-11(i).(c) GATE-20.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s GATE-19. (c) IES-6.Ans. Ans.1D  0. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 48 of 473 Rev. Ans. Ans(c) For-2015 (IES. (d)    or   L2 2AE  D2 2 E 4 IES-2. (c) IES-11(ii). Ans. (c) GATE-23. (d) IES-5. Ans.

Ans.  Microscopically…it involves breaking atomic bonds. (b) IES-22. (a) If Poisson's ratio is zero. (c) IES-21. (d) E  2G 1     3K 1  2   3K  G 9KG IES-34. Ans.34) or G = 0. (d) IES-17. (c) IES-28. Ans.(c) E  2G 1     3K 1  2   3K  G 1 the value of  must be between 0 to 0. Ans. Ans.  Crystalline solids deform by processes – slip and twinningin particular directions.5 so E never equal to G but if   then 3 E  k so ans. is c IES-36. Ans. Ans. IES-18. (d) IES-30. (c) 9KG IES-33. Ans. Ans.   0. (d) E  2G 1     3K 1  2   3K  G 9KG IES-35. Ans. Ans.  Equations relating stress and strain are called constitutiveequations. IES-16. (b) Plastic deformation  Following the elastic deformation. (a) IES-31. Ans(d) G =70GPa. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans.4664 × 105 MPa IES-31(i). E  3K (1  2 )  3 150(1  2 )  2G(1   )  2  70(1   ) On solving the above equations we get.  Stress-Strain relation here is complex because of atomicplane movement. then restoration of bonds. (c) IES-15. K = 150GPa We know.3& E  182GPa IES-32. (d) IES-19b. (a) IES-19. IES-19a. (b) Use E  2G 1    For-2015 (IES. (d) Note: Modulus of elasticity is the property of material. Ans. (c) IES-23. Ans. Ans. then material is rigid. Ans. Ans. IES-20. In Hammer peening residual compressive stress lower the peak tensile stress IES-25. (c) A polished surface by grinding can take more number of cycles than a part with rough surface. (c) Theoretically 1    1/ 2 but practically 0    1/ 2 IES-14. Ans.(b) E  2G(1   ) or 1. It will remain same. (a) Strain energy stored by a body within elastic limit is known as resilience. and the obstaclesthey encounter. Ans.  Amorphous solids deform by viscous flow mechanismwithout any directionality. (a) IES-26. Ans. Ans. (c) IES-27. GATE & PSUs) Page 49 of 473 Rev.  Also characterized by relation between stress and strain atconstant strain rate and temperature. (a) IES-13.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 4Pl Pl Extension of tapered rod = Extension of uniform diameter rod=  ED1 D2 AE 4 Pl  ED1 D2 Ratio = 2 Pl  D2 / 4  E IES-12.  A true stress-strain curve is called flow curve as it gives thestress required to cause the material to flow plastically tocertain strain. material undergoesplastic deformation.25x105 = 2G(1+0. Ans. (a) IES-16a. Ans. (d) IES-31(ii). (d) IES-24.1 . (d) IES-29.moving atoms. Ans. dislocation movement. Ans.

(d) Et  12  106  200  103  120  20   240MPa It will be compressive as elongation restricted. the strain in the direction perpendicular to the plane is not zero. Here (a) is also correct but it is equilibrium equation. Ans. (b) Let compression of the spring = x m Therefore spring force = kx kN Expansion of the rod due to temperature rise = Lt kx   L Reduction in the length due to compression force = AE For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 50 of 473 Rev. [IES-2009] IES-38(i). (b) IES-53. = . Ans. Ans. IES-47. Ans. (b) IES-44. Ans.25  IES-38. (b) Total load P   8    or d    22. Ans. (b) V     p  a 1 T   a 3 3 3 V K a p Or  3T E 3 1 2  IES-49. Ans. Lold  Lnew . IES-51. Ans. (d) 3 IES-48. (a) IES-42. (b) IES-45.Ans.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s E 200 IES-37.  old   new . (a) PL E we know. Ans. (d) Under plane stress condition. (c)     IES-50. Pold  Pnew . (b)  d2 P 980175 IES-39. Ans. (b) First draw FBD of all parts separately then PL Total change in length =  AE IES-43.1 . (d) IES-46. Ans. IES-41. (a) Elongation in AC = length reduction in CB RA  1 RB  2  AE AE And RA + RB = 10 IES-43(i) Ans. Ans.25mm 4 2 2  315 IES-39(i) Ans. Ans. (d) If we resist to expand then only stress will develop. Ans. Ans. (a) co-efficient of volume expansion    3  co  efficient of linear expansion   IES-52. (a) E  2G 1    or G    80GN / m2 2 1    2  1  0. Eold  new AE 2  PL   PL   AE    AE  or Aold Eold  Anew Enew  old  new E A  new  Anew  2  Aold  2 102 E / 2 Aold a 2 new  2 102  anew  2 10  14mm IES-40. Ans. Ans. It has been found experimentally that when a body is stressed within elastic limit. Ans. the lateral strain bears a constant ratio to the linear strain. (c) IES-49(i). (c) Compatibility equation insists that the change in length of the bar must be compatible with the boundary conditions.

Ans. (c) IES-68. Ans(d) IES-54. Ans. Ans. Ans.5  1      0. Ans.125mm    50  0.5  4 IES-63. (c) IES-56. (c) Truss members will be subjected to tension and cast iron is weak in tension. IES-65. (a) A crack parallel to the direction of length of hub means the failure was due to tensile hoop stress only. Ans. (d) IES-67. Ans.  d2 4 4 W  c    d2 280    362 Wsafe    N  190kN fos fos  4 1. (b) For-2015 (IES.5  106  20 Or x   0. (a) IES-61(i). Ans. Ans. (d) Stress in the rod due to temperature rise = t   E IES-54(i) Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. (c) IES-55. (d) Elongation due to self weight =   2 AE 2 AE 2E IAS-2.0102     4  IES-53(i). (d) IES-60.5  12. (b)  c  or W   c  .010  200  106  2  4  kx 50  0. (c) IES-69. Ans. Ans.125  Compressive stress =     0. (b) IES-64.1 . Ans.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Now Lt  kx   L  x AE 0. (d) IES-66. Ans. (d) A is false but R is correct. (b) IES-61. (d) IES-58.07945MPa A    0. GATE & PSUs) Page 51 of 473 Rev. (b) IES-59. (a) W  d2 IES-62. Ans. IES-57. IAS WL  ALg  L  L2 g IAS-1.

34) or G = 0. (a) IAS-9. shear modulus.5  IAS-12. (a) Elongation in AC = length reduction in CB RA  1 RB  2  AE AE And RA + RB = 10     IAS-18. (b) IAS-30. Ans. (d) IAS-6. Ans. K and µ represent the elastic modulus. (d) IAS-28. (a) IAS-33. (b) P P 1. (a) IAS-35. (c) E = 2G (1+  ) or  = 1   1  0. (a) Dimensional analysis gives (a) is wrong IAS-21. Ans.25 2G 2  80 IAS-17. Ans. Ans.25 2G  2G   2  IAS-13.1 . Ans. (c)Steel is the highly elastic material because it is deformed least on loading. (d) Et  12  106  200  103  120  20   240MPa It will be compressive as elongation restricted. (b) E. (c) Thermal stress will develop only if expansion is restricted. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 52 of 473 Rev. (d) IAS-27. (a) IAS-11. E  2G 1     3K 1  3   3K  G E 200 IAS-16. IAS-20. Ans. (d) In compression tests of ductile materials fractures is seldom obtained. Ans. Ans.2  ) IAS-15. Ans. (b) IAS-39. (d) IAS-31. IAS-36. bulk modulus and poisons ratio respectively of a „linearly elastic. (b) IAS-26. Ans. (b) IAS-24. isotropic and homogeneous material. Ans.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Pl IAS-3. Ans. Ans. (d) IAS-10. Ans. Ans. (c) IAS-14. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. at least any two of the four must be 9KG known. (d) IAS-23. (a)The extension of the taper rod =    4 D1D2  .‟ To express the stress – strain relations completely for this material. (a) E  2G 1     1      1    1  0. (d) Bulk modulus of elasticity (K) = or  v    535  106 v K 2800 IAS-8. Ans. (d) IAS-22. Ans. Ans. ans. (b) IAS-25. IAS-19. Ans. Ans. (a) IAS-38. (b) E = 2G (1 +  ) = 3k (1. and regains its original from on removal of the load. (b) For-2015 (IES. Ans. Ans. (a) IAS-5.E   IAS-4. (a) Up to elastic limit. (a) IAS-37. Ans. Ans. Compression is accompanied by lateral expansion and a compressed cylinder ultimately assumes the shape of a flat disc. Ans.5 IAS-7. IAS-34. Ans. Ans. IAS-29.4664 × 105 MPa E  E   2. Ans. G. Ans.(b) E  2G(1   ) or 1.25x105 = 2G(1+0. Ans. (a) IAS-32.

GATE & PSUs) Page 53 of 473 Rev.1 .Est FA1  4 Fst  8 5  300  0.lst  (2) a Al . cross- sectional area 300 mm2 and length 4 m.EAl ast . If a load of 60 kN is applied to a rigid bar suspended by 3 wires as shown in the above figure what force will be resisted by each wire? The outside wires are of Al. The central wire is steel with area 200 mm2 and length 8 m.0005 Fst (3) 60  103 From equation (1) Fst   19.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-2010 Q. Initially there is no slack in the 5 2 wires E  2  10 N / mm for Steel 5 2  0. Aluminium wire FA1 FSt FA1 Steel wire 60kN P  60 kN a A1  300mm2 l A1  4 m ast  200mm 2 lst  8 m EA1  0.001 For-2015 (IES.667  10 N / mm for Aluminum [2 Marks] Ans.99 kN or 20 kN 3.667  10 200  2  105 FA1  1.667  105 N / mm2 Est  2  105 N / mm2 Force balance along vertical direction 2FA1  Fst  60 kN (1) Elongation will be same in all wires because rod is rigid remain horizontal after loading FA1  l A1 Fst .

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s FA1  20 kN FA1  20 kN   Answer.42  0.73MN / m2 125  106 (ii) The displacement of the free end:  l   ls AB   lb BC   lb CD 88. Answer: (i) With the grooved specimens only a small reduction in area took place. GATE & PSUs) Page 54 of 473 Rev.1 .07MN / m2 225  10 6 5  103  b CD   106 MN / m2  12. Fst  20 kN  Conventional Question GATE Question: The diameters of the brass and steel segments of the axially loaded bar shown in figure are 30 mm and 12 mm respectively. And fatigue limit as the limiting value of stress at which failure occurs as N becomes very large (sometimes called infinite cycle) Conventional Question IES-1999 Question: List at least two factors that promote transition from ductile to brittle fracture.42MN / m2 36  106 5  103  b BC   106 MN / m2  7.125  l   9 210  10  10 6  9 105  10  10 6  105  109  106   l  E     9. For-2015 (IES.2 12. Answer: Fatigue strength as the value of cyclic stress at which failure occurs after N cycles. Take Es = 210 GN/m2 and Eb = 105 GN/m2   12  36 mm2  36  106 m2 2 Answer: As  4   Ab BC    30   225 mm2  225  106 m2 2 4   Ab CD  4    302  202  125 mm2  125  106 m2 (i) The maximum normal stress in steel and brass: 10  103 s   106 MN / m2  88.73  0. The diameter of the hollow section of the brass segment is 20 mm. Determine: (i) The maximum normal stress in the steel and brass (ii) The displacement of the free end .15 7. and the appearance of the facture was like that of brittle materials.07  0.09178 mm Conventional Question IES-1999 Question: Distinguish between fatigue strength and fatigue limit.178  105 m  0.

Calculated the stresses induced in the copper rod. Conventional Question IES-2008 Question: What different stresses set-up in a bolt due to initial tightening. 8 cm external diameter and 6 cm internal diameter. The resulting fracture will have the characteristics of a brittle failure without appreciable plastic flow. while used as a fastener? Name all the stresses in detail.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s (ii) By internal cavities. GATE & PSUs) Page 55 of 473 Rev. Answer: Fatigue is a phenomenon associated with variable loading or more precisely to cyclic stressing or straining of a material.75×10-4L m A compressive force (P) exerted by the steel tube on the copper rod opposed the extra expansion of the copper rod and the copper rod exerts an equal tensile force P to pull the steel For-2015 (IES. components subjected to variable loading get fatigue. of exactly the same length. (ii) While it is tightening a torque across some shear stress.t  50o C Free expansion of copper bar=cLt Free expansion of steel tube =s Lt Difference in free expansion =c  s  Lt =17-11.199110 m 4  4 100  100   Rise in temperature. Answer: (i) When the nut is initially tightened there will be some elongation in the bolt so tensile stress will develop.1 . [Take ES=210 GPa.5×106 L 50=2. steel tube and the pins if the temperature of the combination is raised by 50oC. metallic. This is dependent on temperature. Conventional Question IES-2008 Question: A Copper rod 6 cm in diameter is placed within a steel tube. Conventional Question IES-1999 Question: Distinguish between creep and fatigue.0000115 / o C . thermal stresses and residual stresses may combine with the effect of the stress concentration at the cavity to produce a crack. one at each end passing through both rod and the tube. although the material may prove ductile in the usual tensile tests. s  0. The two pieces are rigidly fixed together by two transverse pins 20 mm in diameter. When a member is subjected to a constant load over a long period of time it undergoes a slow permanent deformation and this is termed as ''Creep''. Ec=105 GPa. which leads to their premature failure under specific conditions.000017 / o C ] Answer: c s   t (c  s ) Ec Es d 2   6  2 2 3 2 Area of copper rod(Ac )  =   m  2.8274 10 m 4 4 100  d 2   8   6   2 2 2 3 2 Area of steel tube (A s )  =       m  2. But when tightening will be completed there should be no shear stress. c  0.

1991103 210 109  Difference in length is equated Lc  Ls  2.8275 103 P 49695 Stress in steel tube.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s tube.199110 210 10  3 9 3 9 Or P = 49. Conventional Question IES-2004 Question: Mention the relationship between three elastic constants i. Determine Poisson's ratio of the material.8275 10 105 10  2. Conventional Question IES-2007 Question: Explain the following in brief: (i) Effect of size on the tensile strength (ii) Effect of surface finish on endurance limit. elastic modulus (E).e. subjected to impact.695 kN P 49695 Stress in copper rod.L LS   m As Es 2. and bulk modulus (K) for any Elastic material. (ii) If the surface finish is poor.8275 103 105 109  Increase in length of steel tube due to force P PL P . c   MPa=17.75104 L PL P.75 104 L 2. From the scratch crack propagation will start.58MPa Ac 2.022 4 Conventional Question IES-2002 Question: Why are the bolts. In this combined effect reduction in copper rod and increase in length of steel tube equalize the difference in free expansions of the combined system. s   MPa  22.1991103 Since each of the pin is in double shear.6MPa As 2. shear stress in pins (  pin ) P 49695 =  = 79 MPa 2  Apin 2   0. 9KG Answer: We know that E = 2G(1+ µ ) = 3K(1 . It is due to the reason that if size increases there should be more change of defects (voids) into the material which reduces the strength appreciably.L   2. How is the Poisson's ratio ( μ ) related to these modulli? 9KG Answer: E  3K  G 9KG E  3K (1 2µ) = 2G(1+ µ) = 3K + G Conventional Question IES-1996 Question: The elastic and shear moduli of an elastic material are 2×1011 Pa and 8×1010 Pa respectively.1 . the endurance strength is reduced because of scratches present in the specimen. rigidity modulus (G). made longer? Answer: If we increase length its volume will increase so shock absorbing capacity will increased. Answer: (i) When size of the specimen increases tensile strength decrease.2µ) = 3K + G For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 56 of 473 Rev. Reduction in the length of copper rod due to force P Newton= PL PL LC   m Ac Ec 2.

 (1×105 )  MPa  150MPa (Compressive)  1 So before heating Stress in brass tube (σb )  150MPa (compressive) Stress in steel bolt(σs )  600MPa (tensile) Stress due to rise of temperature Let stress σ b & σ s ' ' are due to brass tube and steel bolt. If the two members had been free to expand.Ab  σs As  E=       L         L  Let assume total length ( )=1m (1. If the temperature of the assembly is raised by 40oC.25 2G 2  (8 1010 ) Conventional Question IES-2003 Question: A steel bolt of diameter 10 mm passes through a brass tube of internal diameter 15 mm and external diameter 25 mm.5 mm. . σb Ab  σS As     (l )b  σ σ  or .2105 / o C and Eb= 1×105 N/mm2  b=1.1416 104 4 Stress due to tightening of the nut Compressive force on brass tube= tensile fore on steel bolt or. The bolt is tightened by a nut so that the length of tube is reduced by 1. For-2015 (IES.854 105 m2 4 π Area of brass tube (A b )= (0.9×10-5/oC Answer: π Area of steel bolt (A s )=  (0.025)2  (0. estimate the axial stresses the bolt and the tube before and after heating. GATE & PSUs) Page 57 of 473 Rev.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s E or.010)2 m2  7.1  µ  2G E 2 1011 or µ  1  1  0. Eb.854×10 -5 1 or s  600 MPa (tensile ) (l )b (1. Material properties for steel and brass are: ES  2105 N / mm2 S  1.015)2   3.1416 104   s  7.5 103 ) and b =Eb.5 103 ) Therefore (1×105 106 )  3.1 .

y or . Total tension (Pull) in steel =Total compression (Push) in brass tube.1.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Free expansion of steel = s t 1 Free expansion of brass tube = b t 1 Since b  σs free expansion of copper is greater than the free expansion of steel. Answer: See in the figure MNH is a solid right cone of length 'h' .33 MPa (Tensile stress) or.1  1  b (t ) 1 1 Es Eb σ's σ'b or . MN d    UV ds y d . while the free expansion of steel is less than  . σ b' = 9. 1  πd 2   Weight of portion UVH=  s  y  g  ( i ) 3  4  From the similar triangles MNH and UVH. Now consider a small strip of thickness dy at a distance y from the lower end. Let us assume its wider end of diameter‟d‟ fixed rigidly at MN.8 104  2 10 11 10   or .33MPa Stress in steel bolt =σ s +σ 's = 600 + 37. Determine its elongation due to its self weight. But they are rigidly fixed so final expansion of each members will be same. σ's  37. ds  (ii )  force at UV Weight of UVH  Stress at section UV =  cross  sec tion area at UV  πds2     4  For-2015 (IES. Hence the steel rod will be subjected to a tensile stress while the brass tube will be subjected to a compressive stress.14 104 Final expansion of steel =final expansion of brass tube σs' b' s (t ). Let us assume this final expansion is ' δ '. Conventional Question IES-1997 Question: A Solid right cone of axial length h is made of a material having density  and elasticity modulus E.854 105 ' σ'b Ab  σs' As or . σb'  σ's   σS  0.9  105 )  40 1  ( ii ) 2 105 106 1105 106 From(i) & (ii) we get  1 0.33 = 637. It is suspended from its circular base. the final stresses due to tightening and temperature rise Stress in brass tube =σb +σb' =150+9.25σS' Ab 3.33MPa (compressive) Therefore. GATE & PSUs) Page 58 of 473 Rev. As 7. The free expansion of brass tube is grater than δ .33MPa.33MPa=159.25  σs'   11   2.2 105  40 1   (1. Let 'ds' is the diameter of the strip.1 . For the equilibrium of the whole system.

Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 1 πds2 .6 mm. . the plane along which it will fail and state the reason for its failure.4% to 1.6 mm. extension in dy= E 1 h y gdy 3 gh 2  Total extension of the bar =  0 E 6E From stress-strain relation ship δ δ . Ec= 100 GPa . If the nut is initially tightened up by hand so as to cause no stress in the copper spacing tube. Conventional Question IAS-1995 Question: The steel bolt shown in Figure has a thread pitch of 1. spring steel has the highest ultimate tensile strength. Answer: Given: p = 1.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 59 of 473 Rev.y . So failure will occurs along a 45o to the axis of the shaft. For-2015 (IES. show with help of a sketch.1%) Conventional Question IES-2003 Question: If a rod of brittle material is subjected to pure torsion. calculate the stresses induced in the tube and in the bolt if a spanner is then used to turn the nut through 90°.3% to 0. d    d E  Conventional Question IES-2004 Question: Which one of the three shafts listed hare has the highest ultimate tensile strength? Which is the approximate carbon content in each steel? (i) Mild Steel (ii) cast iron (iii) spring steel Answer: Among three steel given. So failure will occurs along a 45° helix X X So failures will occurs according to 45°plane. Approximate carbon content in (i) Mild steel is (0. Es = 209 CPa.dy  3  So.8%) (ii) Cost iron (2% to 4%) (iii) Spring steel (0.Take Ec and Es as 100 GPa and 209 GPa respectively.g 1 =3 4 2  y g  πds  3    4  1   y g . In a torsion test the maximum tensile test Occurs at 45°to the axis of the shaft. E=  or . Answer: Brittle materials fail in tension.

854  10  209  10 14.6   0. ls  2 m. If the same weight is suspended from a brass wire.584  105 m2 4  1000   18 2  12 2   5 2 A s       14. Determine the modulus of elasticity of brass if that of steel be 2.64  ---. we get   1   1 0.909  10 N / mm Conventional Question AMIE-1997 For-2015 (IES.64m m and let modulus of elasticity of brass = Eb Pl Hooke's law gives. GATE & PSUs) Page 60 of 473 Rev. db =2 mm  lb  4.14  10  100  10  or P  30386N P P   386.5 m.4  10 3  ls  lc  l A sEs A cEc  100   1 1  or P   5 9  5 9   0. s : 2   10  As      7.  c .0 × 105 N / mm2 Answer: Given.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Stresses induced in the tube and the bolt. 2·5 m long and 2 mm in diameter.0  10  2000   Case II: For bass wire: Plb  lb  A bEb P   2. it is elongated by 4 -64 mm.4mm  0.1 .75   2 5 1  4  3   2. lb  2.89MPa As Ac Conventional Question AMIE-1997 Question: A steel wire 2 m long and 3 mm in diameter is extended by 0·75 mm when a weight W is suspended from the wire.4  10 3  1000  7.e  ls   lc  1.0  105   4.4  10 3 m 360 Pl Pl or   0. ds= 3 mm.75    32   2. Pc = P Also. Ps = compressive force in copper tube.(i) or 0.88MPa and  214.64    22   Eb  4  2500 From (i) and (ii).  ls  0·75 mm.64    22   Eb  4  2000 4  2500 5 2 or Eb  0. Es= 2·0 × 105 N / mm2. Increase in length of bolt + decrease in length of tube = axial displacement of nut 90 i.(ii)  2  4  2   Eb     1 or P  4.  l  [Symbol has usual meaning] AE Case I: For steel wire: Pls  ls  A sEs P   2  1000  ---.5  1000  4.14  10 m 4  1000   1000   Tensile force on steel bolt.

A s      1.104  10 m 4  1000   1000   Forces in the bolt and sleeve: (i) Stresses due to tightening the nut: Let  b = stress developed in steel bolt due to tightening the nut. GATE & PSUs) Page 61 of 473 Rev.5   50   2 2 3 2 Area of steel sleeve.1 . For-2015 (IES. tending to pull them apart.04 or  b  4.908  10 Compressive force in steel sleeve = 0·04 MN  s  A s  0.104  103 (ii) Stresses due to tensile force: Let the stresses developed due to tensile force of 30 kN = 0·03 MN in steel bolt and sleeve be  'b and  's respectively. If an external load 30 kN is then applied to the end blocks. Then.104  103  0.  'b  Ab   's  A s  0. 2  25  4 2 Answer: Area of steel bolt.104  103  0.03  'b  4. estimate the resulting force in the bolt and sleeve.03    (i) In a compound system with an external tensile load. and  s = stress developed in steel sleeve due to tightening the nut.908  104   's  1.908  10 m  1000    62. The nut is tightened up on the tube through the rigid end blocks until the tensile force in the bolt is 40 kN.04 0.04 0.04  b  4  81.908  104  0.23MN / m2  compressive  1.5MN / m2  tensile  4. A b     4.04 or  s  1.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Question: A steel bolt and sleeve assembly is shown in figure below.04  s   36. Tensile force in the steel bolt = 40 kN = 0·04 MN  b  A b  0. elongation caused in each will be the same.

GATE & PSUs) Page 62 of 473 Rev.8  20  16MN / m2  tensile  Re sulting stress in steel bolt.1 .03 gives  's  20MN / m2  tensile  and  'b  0.5   0.5MN / m2 Re sulting stress in steel sleeve.0478MN  tensile  Re sulting force in steel sleeve   b r  A s  16.5  4.23  1.5  16  97.4  Given.5  Given.8 's  Given.8 's  4.104  10 3  0.908  10 4  0.5  Eb  's and  ls   0. we get 0.Chapter-1 Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  'b  lb   lb Eb  'b or  lb   0.4  Es But  lb   s  'b  's   0.23  20  16.  b r   b   'b  81.   b r  A b  97.0179MN  compressive  For-2015 (IES.4 Eb Es or  'b  0.ls  400mm  0.104  10 3  0.  s r   s   's  36.908  10 4   's  1.Eb  Es     (2) Substituting this value in (1).23MN / m2  compressive  Re sulting force in steel bolt.lb  500mm  0.

1 States of stress  Uni-axial stress: only one non-zero principal stress. σ1 = σ2 or σ2 = σ3 Right side figure represents axial state of stress. GATE.e. i. σ1>σ2>σ3 Right side figure represents Tri-axial state of stress. i.e.  Bi-axial stress: one principal stress equals zero. two do not. σ1>σ3 . σ1 Right side figure represents Uni-axial state of stress.e.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 63 of 473 Rev. 2. σ1 = σ2 = σ3 Right side figure represents isotropic state of stress. σ2 = 0 Right side figure represents Bi-axial state of stress.  Tri-axial stress: three non-zero principal stresses.e.e. Principal Stress and Strain Theory at a Glance (for IES. For-2015 (IES. i.  Isotropic stress: three principal stresses are equal. PSU) 2. i. i.  Axial stress:two of three principal stresses are equal.

(c) A Area of the YY Plane = . no distortion occurs in the body. Fig. (b) Fig. Right side figure represents Hydrostatic state of stress.1 . This is depicted in following three ways. Shape of the body remains unchanged i.2 Uni-axial stress on oblique plane Let us consider a bar of uniform cross sectional area A under direct tensile load P giving rise to axial normal stress P/A acting on a cross section XX. gravity. Phydrostatic= ρfluid gh (density. GATE & PSUs) Page 64 of 473 Rev.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Hydrostatic pressure: weight of column of fluid in interconnected pore spaces. depth)  Hydrostatic stress:Hydrostatic stress is used to describe a state of tensile or compressive stress equal in all directions within or external to a body. Now consider another section given by the plane YY inclined at  with the XX. Hydrostatic Or stress causes a change in volume of a material. 2. Now resolve the force P in two perpendicular direction one normal to the plane YY = P cos and another parallel to the plane YY = Pcosθ For-2015 (IES. Let us assume the normal stress in the YY plane is n and there is a cos  shear stress  acting parallel to the YY plane.e. (a) Fig.

e.1 . the failure occurs across the shear planes at 45o (where it is maximum) to the applied load. n A cos   P cos  or n  cos 2  A P and   A P  P sin  or   sin  cos  or  sin 2 cos  A 2A  Note the variation of normal stress n and shear stress  with the variation of  . The angle between the applied load and the plane is 90 . Answer: Here   90o  30o  60o P 10 103 N (a) Normal stress  n   cos2   2  cos2 60o  25MPa A 100 mm For-2015 (IES. As  is increased. the A normal stress  n diminishes.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s P Therefore equilibrium gives. calculate: (a) Normal stress (b) Shear stress (c) Maximum shear stress.  n max  and shear stress   0 .e.  max  2A  In ductile material failure in tension is initiated by shear stress i. Carefully observe the following two figures it will be clear. Let us take an example: A metal block of 100 mm2 cross sectional area carries an axial tensile load of 10 kN. But if angle  increased shear stress  P  increases to a maximum value  max  at    45 and then diminishes to   0 at   90o o 2A 4  The shear stress will be maximum when sin2  1 or   45o P  And the maximum shear stress. Let us clear a concept about a common mistake: The angle  is not between the applied load and the plane. P normal stress  n is maximum i. GATE & PSUs) Page 65 of 473 Rev.  n  0 . But if in any question the angle between the applied load and the plane is given don‟t take it as  . For a plane inclined at 300 with the direction of applied load. . until when   0. When   0 . It is between the planes XX and YY. In this P 2 P case you have to use the above formula as  n  cos (90   ) and   sin(180  2 ) where  is the angle A 2A between the applied load and the plane.

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
P 10 103 N
(b) Shear stress    sin2   sin120o  43.3MPa
2A 2 100 mm 2

P 10 103 N
(c) Maximum shear stress  max     50MPa
2 A 2 100 mm 2

 Complementary stresses
Now if we consider the stresses on an oblique plane Y‟Y‟ which is perpendicular to the previous plane
YY. The stresses on this plane are known as complementary stresses. Complementary normal stress

is  n and complementary shear stress is   .The following figure shows all the four stresses. To

obtain the stresses  n and   we need only to replace  by   900 in the previous equation. The

angle   900 is known as aspect angle.

Therefore

cos2  90o     sin 2 
P P
 n 
A A

sin 2  90o     
P P
  sin 2
2A 2A

P
It is clear  n   n  and    
A
i.e. Complementary shear stresses are always equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

 Sign of Shear stress
For sign of shear stress following rule have to be followed:
The shear stress  on any face of the element will be considered positive when it has a clockwise
moment with respect to a centre inside the element. If the moment is counter-clockwise with respect
to a centre inside the element, the shear stress in negative.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 66 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
Note: The convention is opposite to that of moment of force. Shear stress tending to turn clockwise is
positive and tending to turn counter clockwise is negative.

Let us take an example: A prismatic bar of 500 mm2 cross sectional area is axially loaded with a tensile
force of 50 kN. Determine all the stresses acting on an element which makes 300 inclination with the
vertical plane.

Answer: Take an small element ABCD in 300 plane as shown in figure below,
Given, Area of cross-section, A = 500 mm2, Tensile force (P) = 50 kN

P 2 50×103 N
Normal stress on 30° inclined plane,  n 
σ = cos θ = 2
×cos2 30o =75MPa (+ive means tensile).Shear
A 500 mm

P 50 103 N
stress on 30° planes,    sin2   sin  2  30o   43.3MPa
2A 2  500 mm 2
(+ive means clockwise)
Complementary stress on    90  30  120
o

P 50  103 N
Normal stress on 1200 inclined plane,  n   cos2    cos2 120o  25MPa
A 500 mm 2
(+ ive means tensile)

P 50 103 N
Shear stress on 1200 nclined plane,     sin2   sin  2 120o    43.3MPa
2A 2  500 mm 2

(- ive means counter clockwise)
State of stress on the element ABCD is given below (magnifying)

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
2.3 Complex Stresses (2-D Stress system)
i.e. Material subjected to combined direct and shear stress
We now consider a complex stress system below. The given figure ABCD shows on small element of
material

Stresses in three dimensional element Stresses in cross-section of the element

x and  y are normal stresses and may be tensile or compressive. We know that normal stress may come

from direct force or bending moment.  xy is shear stress. We know that shear stress may comes from direct
shear force or torsion and  xy and  yx are complementary and

 xy =  yx
Let n is the normal stress and  is the shear stress on a plane at angle  .

Considering the equilibrium of the element we can easily get

 x  y  x  y
Normal stress  n    cos 2   xy sin 2 and
2 2
σx  σy
Shear stress    sin2θ -  xy cos2θ
2
Above two transformation equations for plane stress are coming from considering equilibrium. They do not
depend on material properties and are valid for elastic and in elastic behavior.

 Location of planes of maximum stress
(a) Normal stress,  n max
For n maximum or minimum

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 n
 0, where  n 
 x   y    x   y  cos 2   sin 2
 2 2
xy

 x   y   sin 2  2   cos 2  2  0 or tan2 = 2 xy
or    xy  
2 ( x   y )
p

(b) Shear stress,  max
For  maximum or minimum

 x y
 0, where   sin2  xy cos 2
 2
x y
or  cos 2   2   xy   sin 2   2  0
2
2 xy
or cot 2 
x y

Let us take an example: At a point in a crank shaft the stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes
are 30 MPa (tensile) and 15 MPa (tensile). The shear stress across these planes is 10 MPa. Find the normal
and shear stress on a plane making an angle 300 with the plane of first stress. Find also magnitude and
direction of resultant stress on the plane.
Answer: Given  x  25MPa  tensile  ,  y  15MPa  tensile  ,  xy  10MPa and 400

 x  y  x  y
Therefore, Normal stress  n   cos2   xy sin2
2 2
30  15 30  15
  cos  2  30o   10sin  2  30o   34.91 MPa
2 2
 x  y
Shear stress    sin2   xy cos2
2
30  15
 sin  2  30o   10cos  2  30o   1.5MPa
2

Resultant stress  r    34.91
2
 1.52  34.94MPa
 1.5
and Obliquity   , tan     2.460
 n 34.91

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
2.4 Bi-axial stress
Let us now consider a stressed element ABCD where  xy =0, i.e. only  x and  y is there. This type of

stress is known as bi-axial stress. In the previous equation if you put  xy =0 we get Normal stress,  n and
shear stress,  on a plane at angle  .

x  y  x  y
 Normal stress , n   cos 2
2 2
 x  y
 Shear/Tangential stress,  sin 2
2
 For complementary stress, aspect angle =   900
 Aspect angle „ θ ‟ varies from 0 to  /2
 Normal stress  n varies between the values
 x (  0) &  y (   / 2)
Let us take an example: The principal tensile stresses at a point across two perpendicular planes are 100
MPa and 50 MPa. Find the normal and tangential stresses and the resultant stress and its obliquity on a
plane at 200 with the major principal plane
Answer: Given  x  100MPa  tensile  ,  y  50MPa  tensile  and   200

 x  y  x  y 100  50 100  50
Normal stress,  n    cos2   cos  2  20o   94MPa
2 2 2 2
 x  y 100  50
Shear stress,   
2
sin2 
2

sin 2  200  16MPa 
Resultant stress  r   942  162  95.4MPa

   16 
Therefore angle of obliquity,    tan1    tan1    9.70
 n   94 

 We may derive uni-axial stress on oblique plane from

 x  y  x  y
n   cos 2   xy sin 2
2 2

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
and σx  σ y
 sin2θ -  xy cos 2θ
2
Just put  y  0 and  xy =0

Therefore,
x  0 x  0 1
n   cos 2   x 1  cos 2    x cos2 
2 2 2
x  0 x
and   sin2  sin2
2 2
2.5 Pure Shear

 Pure shear is a particular case of bi-axial stress where  x   y
Note:  x or  y which one is compressive that is immaterial but one should be tensile and other

should be compressive and equal magnitude. If  x  100MPa then  y must be  100MPa otherwise if

 y  100MPa then  x must be  100MPa .

 In case of pure shear on 45o planes

 max   x ;  n  0 and  n  0
 We may depict the pure shear in an element by following two ways
(a) In a torsion member, as shown below, an element ABCD is in pure shear (only shear stress is
present in this element) in this member at 45o plane an element ABCD is also in pure shear

where  x   y but in this element no shear stress is there.

(b) In a bi-axial state of stress a member, as shown below, an element ABCD in pure shear where
 x   y but in this element no shear stress is there and an element ABCD at 45o plane is
also in pure shear (only shear stress is present in this element).

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s

Let us take an example:See the in the Conventional question answer section in this chapter and the
question is “Conventional Question IES-2007”

2.6 Stress Tensor

 State of stress at a point ( 3-D)
Stress acts on every surface that passes through the point. We can use three mutually perpendicular
planes to describe the stress state at the point, which we approximate as a cube each of the three planes
has one normal component & two shear components therefore, 9 components necessary to define stress
at a point 3 normal and 6 shear stress.
Therefore, we need nine components, to define the state of stress at a point
 x  xy  xz
 y  yx  yz
 z  zx  zy
For cube to be in equilibrium (at rest: not moving, not spinning)

 xy   yx If they don’t offset, block spins therefore,
 xz   zx only six are independent.
 yz   zy

The nine components (six of which are independent) can be written in matrix form

  xx  xy  xz   xx  xy  xz    x  xy  xz    11  12  13 
       
 ij    yx  yy  yz  or  ij   yx  yy  yz    yx  y  yz     21  22  23 
  zy  zz       
 zx  zx  zy  zz    zx  zy  z    31  32  33 
This is the stress tensor
Components on diagonal are normal stresses; off are shear stresses

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s

 State of stress at an element (2-D)

2.7 Principal stress and Principal plane
 When examining stress at a point, it is possible to choose three mutually perpendicular
planeson which no shear stresses exist in three dimensions, one combination of orientations for
the three mutually perpendicular planes will cause the shear stresses on all three planes to go to
zero this is the state defined by the principal stresses.
 Principal stresses are normal stresses that are orthogonal to
each other
 Principal planes are the planes across which principal
stresses act (faces of the cube) for principal stresses (shear
stresses are zero)

 Major Principal Stress

2
x  y   x  y 
1   
    2
xy
2  2 
 Minor principal stress

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
2
x  y   x  y 
2   
    xy
2

2  2 
 Position of principal planes

2 xy
tan2 p =
( x   y )
 Maximum shear stress(In –Plane)

2
1   2   x  y 
 max   
    xy
2

2  2 
 Maximum positive and maximum negative shear stresses (Out - of - Plane)
?2
???? = ± occurs at 450 to the principal axes -2
2
?1
???? = ± occurs at 450 to the principal axes -1
2

Let us take an example: In the wall of a cylinder the state of stress is given by,  x  85MPa

 compressive ,  y  25MPa  tensile  and shear stress  xy   60MPa
Calculate the principal planes on which they act. Show it in a figure.
Answer: Given  x  85MPa, y  25MPa, xy  60MPa

2
 x  y   x  y 
Major principal stress  1        xy
2

2  2 
2
85  25  85  25 
     60
2
 51.4MPa
2  2 
2
 x  y   x  y 
Minor principalstress  2        xy
2

2  2 
2
85  25  85  25 
     60
2

2  2 
 111.4 MPa i.e. 111.4 MPa  Compressive 

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 74 of 473 Rev.1

now complete the material element as  p is negative that means we are measuring the angles in the opposite direction to the reference plane BC. GATE & PSUs) Page 75 of 473 Rev.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s For principalplanes 2 xy 2  60 tan2P    x  y 85  25 or P  240 it is for  1 Complementary plane P  P  90  660 it is for  2 The Figure showing state of stress and principal stresses is given below The direction of one principle plane and the principle stresses acting on this would be  1 when is acting normal to this plane.  Though the transformation equations are sufficient to get the normal and shear stresses on any plane at a point. now the direction of other principal plane would be 900 +  p because the principal planes are the two mutually perpendicular plane.  Equation of Mohr's circle For-2015 (IES. with Mohr's circle one can easily visualize their variation with respect to plane orientation θ. The following figure gives clear idea about negative and positive  p . 2.8 Mohr's circle for plane stress  The transformation equations of plane stress can be represented in a graphical form which is popularly known asMohr's circle.1 . hence rotate the another plane900 +  p in the same direction to get the another plane.

e.0     2   x  y  andradius. GATE & PSUs) Page 76 of 473 Rev.   n    cos 2   xy sin 2 ……………(i)  2  2 σx  σ y and τ  sin2θ .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s x  y  x  y We know that normal stress.  Tensile stress will be positive and plotted right of the origin O.1 . y and  xy known) I. n   cos 2   xy sin 2 2 2 σx  σ y And Tangential stress. Constant of Mohr’s circle for Bi-axial stress (when only  x and y known) For-2015 (IES. Complex state of stress (  x . If the parameter 2θ is eliminated from the equations.  avg . R      xy 2  2    Construction of Mohr’s circle Convention for drawing  A  xy that is clockwise (positive) on a face resides above the  axis. (i) & (ii) then the significance of them will become clear. a xy anticlockwise (negative) on a face resides below  axis.  An angle  on real plane transfers as an angle 2 on Mohr‟s circle plane. 2 x  y   x  y   avg  and R =     xy 2 2  2     avg    xy2  R 2 2 Or n x  y  It is the equation of a circle with centre. τ sin2θ .τ xy cos 2θ 2  x  y   x  y Rearranging we get. We now construct Mohr‟s circle in the following stress conditions I.0  i.  2 . Bi-axial stress when  x and  y known and  xy = 0 II. Compressive stress will be negative and will be plotted left to the origin O.τ xy cos 2θ ……………(ii) 2 A little consideration will show that the above two equations are the equations of a circle with  n and  as its coordinates and 2θ as its parameter.

in Y-axis Step-III: Using sign convention and some suitable scale.e.. Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s If  x and  y both are tensile or both compressive sign of  x and  y will be same and this state of stress is known as “ like stresses” if one is tensile and other is compressive sign of  x and  y will be opposite and this state of stress is known as „unlike stress‟.  Construction of Mohr’s circle for like stresses (when  x and  y are same type of stress) Step-I: Label the element ABCD and draw all stresses. Step-IV: Bisect ML at C. plot the stresses on two adjacent faces e. in x-axis and shear stress (as ordinate) i. Step-II: Set up axes for the direct stress (as abscissa) i. It is the Mohr‟s circle.e. Let OL and OM equal to  x and  y respectively on the axis O  . draw a circle.g.1 . AB and BC on the graph. GATE & PSUs) Page 77 of 473 Rev. For-2015 (IES. With C as centre and CL or CM as radius.

in the same direction as the normal to the plane makes with the direction of  x .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Step-V: At the centre C draw a line CP at an angle 2 . Step-VI: Calculation. The point P represents the state of stress at plane ZB.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 78 of 473 Rev.] For-2015 (IES.Draw a perpendicular PQ and PR where PQ =  and PR =  n x  y x  y OC  and MC = CL = CP = 2 2 x  y x  y PR =    cos 2 n 2 2 x  y PQ =  = CPsin 2 = sin 2 2 [Note: In the examination you only draw final figure (which is in Step-V) and follow the procedure step by step so that no mistakes occur.

e.  y and  xy known) Step-I: Label the element ABCD and draw all stresses.1 .. in Y-axis For-2015 (IES.e. in x-axis and shear stress (as ordinate) i. Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  Construction of Mohr’s circle for unlike stresses (when  x and  y are opposite in sign) Follow the same steps which we followed for construction for „like stresses‟ and finally will get the figure shown below. Construction of Mohr’s circle for complex state of stress (  x . Note:For construction of Mohr‟s circle for principal stresses when (  1 and  2 is known) then follow the same steps of Constant of Mohr‟s circle for Bi-axial stress (when only  x and  y known) just change the  x   1 and  y   2 II. GATE & PSUs) Page 79 of 473 Rev. Step-II: Set up axes for the direct stress (as abscissa) i.

It is the Mohr‟s circle. Here LS is downward as  xy on AB face is (– ive) and draw MT perpendicular to o axis and equal to  xy i. MT=  xy . LS= xy .g.i.1 .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Step-III: Using sign convention and some suitable scale. plot the stresses on two adjacent faces e. GATE & PSUs) Page 80 of 473 Rev. Step-V: At the centre draw a line CP at an angle 2 in the same direction as the normal to the plane makes with the direction of  x . draw circle. AB and BC on the graph. Let OL and OM equal to  x and  y respectively on the axis O  .e.e. For-2015 (IES. Draw LS perpendicular to o axis and equal to  xy . With C as centre and CS or CT as radius. HereMT is upward as  xy BC face is (+ ive). Step-IV: Join ST and it will cut o axis at C.

as shown below. Let us take an example:See the in the Conventional question answer section in this chapter and the question is “Conventional Question IES-2000” For-2015 (IES.Draw a perpendicular PQ and PR where PQ =  and PR =  n x y Centre. 2 [Note: In the examination you only draw final figure (which is in Step-V) and follow the procedure step by step so that no mistakes occur.] Note: The intersections of o axis are two principal stresses.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Step-VI: Calculation. OC = 2 2 2 2   x  y  Radius CS =  CL  LS      xy 2  CT = CP  2    x  y  x  y PR     cos 2   sin 2 n 2 2 xy  x  y PQ    sin 2  xy cos 2 .1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 81 of 473 Rev.

σ2 and σ3 = 0)  x   y  max   x iv) A shaft compressed all round by a hub σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = Compressive (Pressure) v) Thin spherical shell under internal pressure For-2015 (IES.1 . x y  0 J It is a case of pure shear iii) In the case of pure shear (σ1 = .9 Mohr's circle for some special cases: i) Mohr‟s circle for axial loading: P  x  .  y   xy  0 A ii) Mohr‟s circle for torsional loading: Tr  xy  .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 2. GATE & PSUs) Page 82 of 473 Rev.

strains in y and z directions are  y  and  z  . we may write the three normal strain components u  w x  . GATE & PSUs) Page 83 of 473 Rev. This gives an increase in length of element AB is x  u  u u  u+ x . x z Therefore.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s pr pD 1   2   (tensile) 2t 4t vi) Thin cylinder under pressure pD pr pd pr 1   (tensile) and  2   (tensile) 2t t 4t 2t vii) Bending moment applied at the free end of a cantilever My Only bending stress. x.  1  and  2   xy  0 I 2. y  . that of end B is u+ . x -u   x  x and therefore the strain in x-direction is  x  x    w Similarly.1 . x y z For-2015 (IES. and z  . After deformation of the actual body if u displacement of end A is u.10 Strain Normal strain Let us consider an element AB of infinitesimal length δx.

1 . .  yz   and  zx   y x z y x z Therefore the state of strain at a point can be completely described by the six strain componentsand the strain components in their turns can be completely defined by the displacement components u. and w. the complete strain matrix can be written as    x 0 0      x  0 0 y       y       0 0 u   z  z          xy     0   w     x y   yz     zx  0    y z     0    z x  For-2015 (IES. Therefore.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Change in length of an infinitesimal element.This gives shear strain in x-y plane as  xy    where  is the angle made by the displaced live BC with the vertical and  is the angle made by the displaced line AD with the horizontal. x u    x  and  = x  y y x x We may therefore write the three shear strain components as u   w w u  xy   . y . Shear strain Let us consider an element ABCD in x-y plane and let the displaced position of the element be ABCD . GATE & PSUs) Page 84 of 473 Rev. This gives u  .

 yz  and  zx  G G G In general each strain is dependent on each stress and we may write  x  K11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16   x        y  K 21 K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 K 26   y    K K K K K K     z  31 32 33 34 35 36  z       xy   41 42 43 44 45 46   xy   K K K K K K   K K K K K K     yz   51 52 53 54 55 56   yz   zx  K 61 K 62 K 63 K 64 K 65 K 66   zx  The number of elastic constant is 36(For anisotropic materials) For Anisotropic material only 21 independent elastic constant are there. x y z The three shear strain components are  xy 1  u    yz 1   w   zx 1  u w  xy     . E E Therefore we my write the generalized Hook‟s law as  x    y   z  . where G is the shear modulus and  is shear strain. If there are axes of symmetry in 3 perpendicular directions. Strain Tensor The three normal strain components are u  w  x   xx  . We know from the Hook‟s law    E.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Shear strain associated with the distortion of an infinitesimal element. We may thus write the three strain components as  xy  yz  zx  xy  .   G . Where E is modulus of elasticity x It is known that  x produces a strain of in x-direction E   and Poisson‟s effect gives   x in y-direction and   x in z-direction. An orthotropic material has 9 independent elastic constants For-2015 (IES. material is called orthotropic materials.  y   yy  and  z   zz  . yz      and zx    2 2  y x  2 2  z y  2 2  z x  Therefore the strain tensor is   xy  xz  xx  xx xy xz   2 2      yx  yz  ij  yx yy yz    yy    2 2  zx zy zz    zy   zx   zz   2 2  Constitutive Equation The constitutive equations relate stresses and strains and in linear elasticity.  y    z   x  and z   z    x   y  1 1 1 x  y  E  E   E  It is also known that the shear stress.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 85 of 473 Rev.

and  z  0 Ao 1-D state of stress or Uni-axial state of stress   xx 0 0  xx 0 0   x 0 0        ij   0 0 0  or  ij   0 0 0   0 0 0  0 0 0   0 0 0   0 0 0    Therefore strain components are x x x x  .1 . and z       x E E E Strain x  E 0 0  x 0 0     py 0 0    x     ij   0   x 0   0  0   0 qy 0 0 E  0   x    0 0 qy   0 x    0   E   2-D Stress ( z  0) 1 (i) x   x   y  E 1 y   y   x  E  z    x   y  E For-2015 (IES.  1-D Stress Let us take an example: A rod of cross sectional area Ao is loaded by a tensile force P.  y  0. GATE & PSUs) Page 86 of 473 Rev.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s For isotropic material 1 K11  K 22  K 33  E 1 K 44  K 55  K 66  G  K12  K13  K 21  K 23  K 31  K 32   E Rest of all elements in K matrix are zero. y       x . For isotropic material only two independent elastic constant is there say E and G. P It‟s stresses x  .

GATE & PSUs) Page 87 of 473 Rev.e.1 .8 MPa (i. and Z axis respectively] E (ii) x     y  2  x 1  E y     x  2  y 1   3-D Stress & Strain  x    y   z  1 (i) x  E y   y    z   x   1 E z   z    x   y   1 E 1    x   y  z   E (ii)  x  1   1  2    E y  1    y   z  x   1   1  2   1    z   x  y   E z  1   1  2    Let us take an example: At a point in a loaded member.  y   y   x  E  xy  xy  G E 200  109 This gives  x  1  2  x   y    270 106  0.  and G are 200 GPa.25 and 80 GPa respectively. Determine the normal stress  x and  y and the shear stress  xy at the point.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s [Where. Answer: We know that 1 x  E  x   y  1 .z are strain component in X.  y  90  106 and  xy  360  106 .25  90 106  Pa 1  0. 0. x .y . tensile) For-2015 (IES.252   52. If the elastic constants E. a state of plane stress exists and the strains are  x  270  106 . Y.

Now consider a plane at an angle  with X.8 MPa (i.2       2  2   2  The angle of principal plane  xy tan 2 p  (x  y )  Maximumshearing strain is equal to the difference between the 2 principal strains i.axis in this plane a normal strain  and a shear strain   .25 and  xy   xy .e ( xy )max 1  2 For-2015 (IES. Then x  y x  y  xy     cos 2  sin 2 2 2 2  x  y  xy   sin2  cos 2 2 2 2 We may find principal strain and principal plane for strains in the same process which we followed for stress analysis.8MPa  xy 2.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s E and  y   y   x  1  2  200  109   90  106  0.1 . In the principal plane shear strain is zero.12 An element subjected to strain components x . GATE & PSUs) Page 88 of 473 Rev.compressive) 2  1  0.e. the strain component in Y-direction is y and the shear strain component is  xy . Therefore principal strains are 2 x  y  x  y    xy  2 1.G  360  106  80 109 Pa  28.y & 2 Consider an element as shown in the figure given. The strain component In X-direction is x .25  270  106  Pa   4.

GATE & PSUs) Page 89 of 473 Rev. the place of  y write y  xy and in place of  xy write . After deformation. as very small )  In case of prismatic bar. 2 2.1 .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Mohr's Circle for circle for Plain Strain We may draw Mohr‟s circle for strain following same procedure which we followed for drawing Mohr‟s circle in stress. V x  y  z V0 Proof: Volumetric strain V V  Vo  V0 V0 L 1   x   L 1   y   L 1   z   L3  Before deformation.15 Volumetric Strain (Dilation)  Rectangular block. Everything will be same and in the place of  x write x . L3 x  y  z Volume (Vo) = L3 Volume (V) = L 1   x   L 1   y   L 1   z  (neglecting second and third order term. For-2015 (IES.

16 Measurement of Strain For-2015 (IES. the length L   L 1    and the new cross-sectional area  A   A 1    2 Therefore now volume V    AL=AL 1   1    2 V V -V AL 1   1     AL 2      1  2  V V AL V   1  2  V  Thin Cylindrical vessel 1 2 pr  1=Longitudinal strain =   1  2  E E 2 Et 2 =Circumferential strain =  2   1  pr 2    E E 2Et V pr 1 2 2  [5  4μ] Vo 2 Et  Thin Spherical vessels pr 1 2  [1   ] 2 Et V 3 pr  3  [1   ] V0 2 Et  In case of pure shear  x   y   Therefore  x  1    E  y   1    E z  0 dv Therefore  v   x  y  z  0 v 2. V = A. the volume of the bar.   1  2  v Proof: Before deformation.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s dv Volumetric strain.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 90 of 473 Rev.L After deformation.

Strain Gauge A strain gage is a simple device. Strain Rosette The strain rosette is a device used to measure the state of strain at a point in a plane. the longitudinal strain along the gauge length.e. and through calibration. strain can be measured directly. We have to find out x . The relative orientation between the three gauges is known as  . y . and since a constant current is maintained in the gauge. a proportional change in voltage. Strain Gauge factor (G. The voltage can be easily measured. The thin epoxy layer bonds the gauge to the surface and forces the gauge to shorten or elongate as if it were part of the specimen being strained. each of which is used to read normal strain at the same point but in a different direction. i.  and  The three measurements of normal strain provide sufficient information for the determination of the complete state of strain at the measured point in 2-D. It comprises three or more independent strain gauges. A change in length of the gauge due to longitudinal strain creates a proportional change in the electric resistance. transformed into the change in length of the original gauge length. comprising of a thin electric wire attached to an insulating thin backing material such as a bakelite foil. b . (V = IR).F) The strain gauge factor relates a change in resistance with strain. GATE & PSUs) Page 91 of 473 Rev.1 .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Unlike stress. and  xy form measured value a . and c For-2015 (IES. The foil is exposed to the surface of the specimen on which the strain is to be measured. The most common way of measuring strain is by use of the Strain Gauge.

In the general arrangement above.   45o and   45o Putting the value we get  a x x  x  xy  b   2 2  c y (ii) 60°strain rosette or Delta strain rosette In the general arrangement above. To relate strain we have to use the following formula.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s General arrangement: The orientation of strain gauges is given in the figure. and  xy  Two standard arrangement of the of the strain rosette are as follows: (i) 45° strain rosette or Rectangular strain rosette. put   0o . x  y x  y  xy    cos 2  sin 2 2 2 2 We get x  y x  y  xy a   cos 2  sin 2 2 2 2 x  y x  y  xy b   cos 2      sin2     2 2 2 x  y x  y  xy c   cos 2        sin2       2 2 2 From this three equations and three unknown we may solve x . y . GATE & PSUs) Page 92 of 473 Rev.1 . put   0o .   60o and   60o Putting the value we get  a x x 3 y 3  b   xy  4 4 x 3 y 3 or  c    xy 4 4 Solving above three equation we get For-2015 (IES.

Which of these statements is/are correct? (a) 1 and 4 (b) 2 only (c) 2 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 For-2015 (IES. are respectively.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE. The maximum principal stress on the surface which is at 45° to the axis will have a value [GATE-2003] (a)  cos 45° (b) 2  cos 45° (c)  cos2 45° (d) 2  sin 45° cos 45° GATE-3. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Stresses at different angles and Pure Shear GATE-1. On a principal plane. A shaft subjected to torsion experiences a pure shear stress  on the surface.7 MPa and 172.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 93 of 473 Rev. The number of components in a stress tensor defining stress at a point in three dimensions is: [GATE-2002] (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 9 GATE-4. The deformation of the block is due to [GATE-1992] (a) Shear only (b) Bending only (c) Shear and bending (d) Torsion GATE-2. If   120 MPa and   70MPa. both normal and shear stresses act 3. In a two dimensional stress analysis. On a principal plane. x and  y . The symmetry of stress tensor at a point in the body under equilibrium is obtained from (a) conservation of mass (b) force equilibrium equations (c) moment equilibrium equations (d) conservation of energy[CE: GATE-2005] Principal Stress and Principal Plane GATE-6.5 MPa (b) 54 MPa and 128 MPa (c) 67. A block of steel is loaded by a tangential force on its top surface while the bottom surface is held rigidly. IES. Isotropic state of stress is independent of frame of reference. only normal stress acts 2. the state of stress at a point is shown below. Consider the following statements: [CE: GATE-2009] 1. On a principal plane. only shear stress acts 4.5 MPa and 213.3 MPa (d) 16 MPa and 138 MPa GATE-5. [CE: GATE-2004] y AB = 4 BC = 3 A AC = 5   x B C x y (a) 26.

5 N/ mm2 . The maximum principle stress for the stress state shown in the figure is (a) σ (b) 2 σ (c) 3 σ (d) 1. The maximum principal stress experienced on the shaft is closest to [GATE-2008] (a) 41 MPa (b) 82 MPa (c) 164 MPa (d) 204 MPa GATE-10. The state of two dimensional stresses acting on a concrete lamina consists of a direct tensile stress. GATE-1993]   y  2   x  y  2    xy    xy  2 x 2 (a)  (b)  2  2   x  y  2    xy     y    xy  2 2 2 (c)  (d) x  2  For-2015 (IES. the stresses in x and y directions are (σx = 200 MPa and σy =100 MPa. is: [GATE-2000] (a) 50 (b) 100 (c) 150 (d) 200 GATE-12. The state of stress at a point is given by x   6 MPa. which cause cracking of concrete. It is further subjected to a torque of 10 kNm.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s GATE-7 If principal stresses in a two-dimensional case are –10 MPa and 20 MPa respectively. σy = 2 MPa.5 σ [GATE-2001] GATE-13.08 (c) 2.  y  4 MPa. The maximum principal stress in MPa. GATE & PSUs) Page 94 of 473 Rev.20 N/ mm2 .50 (b) 2. The maximum tensile stress (in MPa) at the point is ………. A solid circular shaft of diameter 100 mm is subjected to an axial stress of 50 MPa.   1. x  1. In a Mohr's circle. the radius of the circle is taken as: [IES-2006. [GATE-2014] GATE-15.17 (d) 2. and shear stress.29 GATE-11. then maximum shear stress at the point is [CE: GATE-2005] (a) 10 MPa (b) 15 MPa (c) 20 MPa (d) 30 MPa GATE-8 For the state of stresses (in MPa) shown in the figure below. the maximum shear stress (in MPa) is___________________ [CE: GATE-2014] GATE-9. The maximum principal stress at this point is: [GATE-1998] (a) 16 MPa (b) 14 MPa (c) 11 MPa (d) 10 MPa GATE-14. and xy   8 MPa.1 . the shear stress at this point is 4MPa. In a bi-axial stress problem. The normal stresses at a point are σx = 10 MPa and. Then the tensile strength of the concrete in N/ mm2 is [CE: GATE-2003] (a) 1.

90° (b) 90°. –175MPa (b) +175 MPa. A two dimensional fluid element rotates like a rigid body. Radius of the Mohr's circle. Mohr‟s circle for the state of stress defined by   MPa is a circle with  0 30  (a) center at (0. At a point within the element. 0) and zero radius [CE: GATE-2006] GATE-19. 0 GATE-22. Determine the directions of maximum and minimum principal stresses at the point “P” from the Mohr's circle [GATE-2003] (a) 0. Then. σyy= 100 MPa and τxy= 40 MPa. GATE-21. 0 (c) 45°. The magnitudes of normal stresses in the x and y direction are 100MPa and 20 MPa respectively. 0) and radius 30 MPa (d) center at (30. +175 MPa (c) 0. 135° (d) All directions For-2015 (IES. GATE-16. 0) and radius 30 MPa (b) center at (0. [GATE-2003] The state of stress at a point "P" in a two dimensional loading is such that the Mohr's circle is a point located at 175 MPa on the positive normal stress axis. Determine the maximum and minimum principal stresses respectively from the Mohr's circle (a) + 175 MPa. the pressure is 1 unit. GATE & PSUs) Page 95 of 473 Rev. The radius of Mohr's stress circle representing this state of stress is: (a) 120 (b) 80 (c) 60 (d) 40 [GATE-2004] Data for Q21–Q22 are given below. The figure shows the state of stress at a certain point in a stressed body. yielding will just begin if the designer chooses a ductile material whose yield strength is: (a) 45 MPa (b) 50 MPa (c) 90 MPa (d) 100 MPa [GATE-2005] GATE-20.5 unit (b) 0 unit (c) 1 unit (d) 2 units GATE-17. is: [GATE-2008] (a) 0. The radius of the Mohr‟s circle representing the given state of stress in MPa is (a) 40 (b) 50 (c) 60 (d) 100 [GATE-2012] 30 0  GATE-18. –175 MPa (d) 0. 0) and radius 60 MPa (c) center at (20.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Where. Solve the problems and choose correct answers. The Mohr's circle of plane stress for a point in a body is shown. The state of stress at a point under plane stress condition is σxx= 40 MPa. σx and σy are normal stresses along x and y directions respectively and τxy is the shear stress. characterizing the state of stress at that point.1 . The design is to be done on the basis of the maximum shear stress theory for yielding.

the normal stress on 45° plane is equal to [IES-1992] (a) The sum of the normal stresses (b) Difference of the normal stresses (c) Half the sum of the normal stresses (d) Half the difference of the normal stresses IES-2(i). Two principal tensile stresses of magnitudes 40MPa and 20MPa are acting at a point across two perpendicular planes. In a two-dimensional problem.5 y and  xy  0 For-2015 (IES. The normal stress on the oblique plane is [IES-2014] (a) 8. is  IES-2a A subjected to biaxial stress as shown in the above figure.66MPa (b) 17. The components of strain tensor at a point in the plane strain case can be obtained by measuring logitudinal strain in following directions. the state of pure shear at a point is characterized by [IES-2001] (a)  x   y and  xy  0 (b)  x   y and  xy  0 (c)  x  2 y and  xy  0 (d)  x  0. cos    B  [IES-2010] IES-3. An oblique plane makes an angle of 30 with the major principal plane.0MPa A point in two-dimensional stress state. The shear stress acting on the plane AB is (a) Zero (b)   (c)  cos2 (d)  sin . then the maximum shear strain is: [GATE-1996] (a) 800 × 10-6 (b) 500 × 10-6 (c) 1600 × 10-6 (d) 200 × 10-6 Strain Rosette GATE-24. In the case of bi-axial state of normal stresses.0MPa (d) 60. (a) along any two arbitrary directions (b) along any three arbitrary direction (c) along two mutually orthogonal directions (d) along any arbitrary direction [CE: GATE-2005] Previous 20-Years IES Questions Stresses at different angles and Pure Shear IES-1. If the two principal strains at a point are 1000 × 10-6 and -600 × 10-6. GATE & PSUs) Page 96 of 473 Rev.1 . then shear stress induced on a plane inclined at θ with the axis will be: [IES-1992]     a  sin 2 b cos 2 c cos 2  d  sin 2  2 2 2 2 IES-2.32MPa (c) 35.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Principal strains GATE-23. If a prismatic bar be subjected to an axial tensile stress σ.

Assertion (A): If the state at a point is pure shear. then the maximum shear stress developed will be equal to [IES-2014] (a) diameter of the Mohr‟s circle (b) radius of the Mohr‟s circle (c) half of the radius of the Mohr‟s circle (d) 1. homogeneous isotropic material having elastic constants E and  will be: [IES-1998] 2 2 2 2 2 (a) 1   (b) 1   (c) 1   (d)  2   E 2E E 2E IES-6. [IES-1996] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-7. [IES-1995] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false For-2015 (IES.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s IES-3a. Which one of the following Mohr‟s circles represents the state of pure shear? [IES-2000] IES-4(i).1 .414 times radius of the Mohr‟s circle IES-5. Reason (R): The state of pure shear caused by torsion of the shaft is equivalent to one of tension at 45° to the shaft axis and equal compression in the perpendicular direction. GATE & PSUs) Page 97 of 473 Rev. Reason (R): Complementary shear stresses are equal in magnitude. Assertion (A): Circular shafts made of brittle material fail along a helicoidally surface inclined at 45° to the axis (artery point) when subjected to twisting moment. What are the normal and shear stresses on the 45o planes shown? (a)  1   2  400 MPa and   0 (b)  1   2  400 MPa and   0 (c)  1   2  400 MPa and   0 (d )  1   2    200 MPa IES-4. If the Mohr‟s circle drawn for the shear stress developed because of torque applied over a shaft. then the principal planes through that point making an angle of 45° with plane of shearing stress carries principal stresses whose magnitude is equal to that of shearing stress. For the state of stress of pure shear  the strain energy stored per unit volume in the elastic. but opposite in direction.

What is the maximum shear produced in the body at some oblique plane due to the above? [IES-2006] (a) 100 units (b) 75 units (c) 50 units (d) 0 unit IES-13. In a strained material one of the principal stresses is twice the other. and 3 are correct (b) 2 alone is correct (c) 1 alone is correct (d) 3 alone is correct IES-11a If the principal stresses and maximum shearing stresses are of equal numerical value at a point in a stressed body. GATE & PSUs) Page 98 of 473 Rev. the state of stress can be termed as (a) Isotropic (b) Uniaxial [IES-2010] (c) Pure shear (d) Generalized plane state of stress Principal Stress and Principal Plane IES-12. 1998] State of stress in two dimensions at a point in a loaded component can be completely specified by indicating the normal and shear stresses on 1. σyy = 200 N/mm2.1 . A body is subjected to a pure tensile stress of 100 units. A state of pure shear in a biaxial state of stress is given by [IES-1994] 1 0   1 0    x  xy  (a)   (b)   (c)   (d) None of the above  0 2   0  1   yx  y  IES-9. what is the value of the maximum principle stress? [IES 2007] (a)  max (b) 2  max (c) 4  max (d) 8  max IES-13(i)The state of plane stress at a point in a loaded member is given by: x   800 MPa  y   200 MPa xy   400 MPa [IES-2013] The maximum principal stress and maximum shear stress are given by: (a) max  800 MPa and max  400 MPa For-2015 (IES. The stress developed in the direction of thickness is: (a) Zero (b) 90 N/mm2 (c) 100 N/mm2 (d) 200 N/mm2 IES-10. An elastic material of Young‟s modulus E and Poisson‟s ratio ν is subjected to a compressive stress of σ1 in the longitudinal direction. The normal stress on the plane inclined at 45° to the x-plane will be: [IES-1998]  a  b 2 c 3  d  2 IES-10(i). Consider the following statements: [IES-1996.3. The state of plane stress at a point is described by  x   y   and xy  0 . Two mutually perpendicular planes passing through the point Of these statements (a) 1. Then. Suitable lateral compressive stress σ2 are also applied along the other twolateral directions to limit the net strain in each of the lateral direction to half of the magnitude that would be under σ1 acting alone.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s (d) A is false but R is true IES-8. The maximum shear stress in the same case is  max . The state of plane stress in a plate of 100 mm thickness is given as [IES-2000] σxx = 100 N/mm2. Any two planes passing through the point 3. The magnitude of σ2 is [IES-2012] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?(? + ?) ? ?(? − ?) ? (? + ?) ? (? − ?) ? IES-11. Young's modulus = 300 N/mm2. Poisson's ratio = 0. A plane containing the point 2.

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
(b) max  800 MPa and max  500 MPa
(c) max  1000 MPa and max  500 MPa
(d) max  1000 MPa and max  400 MPa

IES-14. In a strained material, normal stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes are σx
and σy (both alike) accompanied by a shear stress τxy One of the principal stresses
will be zero, only if [IES-2006]
 x  y
(a)  xy  (b)  xy   x   y (c)  xy   x  y (d)  xy   x2  y2
2
IES-15. The principal stresses σ1, σ2 and σ3 at a point respectively are 80 MPa, 30 MPa and –40
MPa. The maximum shear stress is: [IES-2001]
(a) 25 MPa (b) 35 MPa (c) 55 MPa (d) 60 MPa

IES-15(i). A piece of material is subjected, to two perpendicular tensile stresses of 70 MPa and
10 MPa. The magnitude of the resultant stress on a plane in which the maximum
shear stress occurs is [IES-2012]
(a) 70 MPa (b) 60 MPa (c) 50 MPa (d) 10 MPa

IES-16. Plane stress at a point in a body is defined by principal stresses 3σ and σ. The ratio of
the normal stress to the maximum shear stresses on the plane of maximum shear
stress is: [IES-2000]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
IES-17. Principal stresses at a point in plane stressed element are  x   y  500 kg/cm2 .
Normal stress on the plane inclined at 45o to x-axis will be: [IES-1993]
(a) 0 (b) 500 kg/cm2 (c) 707 kg/cm2 (d) 1000 kg/cm2

IES-18. If the principal stresses corresponding to a two-dimensional state of stress are 1
and 2 is greater than 2 and both are tensile, then which one of the following
would be the correct criterion for failure by yielding, according to the maximum
shear stress criterion? [IES-1993]

(a)
1   2     yp (b)
1

 yp
(c )
2

 yp
(d ) 1  2 yp
2 2 2 2 2 2
IES-19. For the state of plane stress.
Shown the maximum and
minimum principal stresses are:
(a) 60 MPa and 30 MPa
(b) 50 MPa and 10 MPa
(c) 40 MPa and 20 MPa
(d) 70 MPa and 30 MPa

[IES-1992]
IES-20. Normal stresses of equal magnitude p, but of opposite signs, act at a point of a
strained material in perpendicular direction. What is the magnitude of the resultant
normal stress on a plane inclined at 45° to the applied stresses? [IES-2005]
(a) 2 p (b) p/2 (c) p/4 (d) Zero

IES-21. A plane stressed element is subjected to the state of stress given by
 x   xy  100 kgf/cm 2
and σy = 0. Maximum shear stress in the element is equal to
[IES-1997]

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 99 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 a  50 3 kgf/cm 2
 b 100 kgf/cm 2
 c  50 5 kgf/cm 2
d 150 kgf/cm2
IES-22. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer, using the codes given below
the lists: [IES-1995]

Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 2 4 3 1 (d) 3 4 1 2

Mohr's circle
IES-22(i). Statement (I): Mohr‟s circle of stress can be related to Mohr‟s circle of strain by some
constant of proportionality. [IES-2012]
Statement (II): The relationship is a function of yield strength of the material.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the
correct explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

IES-23. Consider the Mohr's circle shown
above:
What is the state of stress
represented by this circle?
(a) x   y  0,  xy  0
(b) x   y  0,  xy  0
(c) x  0,  y  xy  0
(d) x  0,  y  xy  0
[IES-2008]

IES-24. For a general two dimensional stress system, what are the coordinates of the centre
of Mohr‟s circle?
[IES 2007]
x  y x y x y x  y
(a) ,0 (b) 0, (c) ,0(d) 0,
2 2 2 2

IES-25. In a Mohr's circle, the radius of the circle is taken as: [IES-2006; GATE-1993]

  y 
2
  x  y 
2

   xy    xy 
2 x 2
(a)  (b)
 2  2

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 100 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
  x  y 
2

   xy     y    xy 
2 2 2
(c)  (d) x
 2 
Where, σx and σy are normal stresses along x and y directions respectively and τxy is the shear
stress.

IES-25(i). The state of stress at a point under plane stress condition is
 xx  60MPa,  yy  120MPa and  xy  40MPa . [IES-2014]
The radius of Mohr‟s circle representing a given state of stress in MPais
(a) 40 (b) 50 (c) 60 (d) 120

IES-25(ii). Which of the following figures may represent Mohr‟s circle? [IES-2014]

IES-26. Maximum shear stress in a Mohr's Circle [IES- 2008]
(a) Is equal to radius of Mohr's circle (b) Is greater than radius of Mohr's circle
(c) Is less than radius of Mohr's circle (d) Could be any of the above

IES-27. At a point in two-dimensional stress system σx = 100 N/mm2, σy = τxy = 40 N/mm2. What
is the radius of the Mohr circle for stress drawn with a scale of: 1 cm = 10 N/mm2?
[IES-2005]
(a) 3 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 5 cm (d) 6 cm

IES-28. Consider a two dimensional state of stress given for an element as shown in the
diagram given below: [IES-2004]

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 101 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s

What are the coordinates of the centre of Mohr's circle?
(a) (0, 0) (b) (100, 200) (c) (200, 100) (d) (50, 0)

IES-29. Two-dimensional state of stress at a point in a plane stressed element is represented
by a Mohr circle of zero radius. Then both principal stresses
(a) Are equal to zero [IES-2003]
(b) Are equal to zero and shear stress is also equal to zero
(c) Are of equal magnitude but of opposite sign
(d) Are of equal magnitude and of same sign

IES-30. Assertion (A): Mohr's circle of stress can be related to Mohr's circle of strain by some
constant of proportionality. [IES-2002]
Reason (R): The relationship is a function of yield stress of the material.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES-31. When two mutually perpendicular principal stresses are unequal but like, the
maximum shear stress is represented by [IES-1994]
(a) The diameter of the Mohr's circle
(b) Half the diameter of the Mohr's circle
(c) One-third the diameter of the Mohr's circle
(d) One-fourth the diameter of the Mohr's circle

IES-32. State of stress in a plane element is shown in figure I. Which one of the following
figures-II is the correct sketch of Mohr's circle of the state of stress?
[IES-1993, 1996]

Figure-I Figure-II

Strain
IES-33. A point in a two dimensional state of strain is subjected to pure shearing strain of
magnitude  xy radians. Which one of the following is the maximum principal strain?
[IES-2008]
(a)  xy (b)  xy / 2 (c)  xy /2 (d) 2  xy

IES-34. Assertion (A): A plane state of stress does not necessarily result into a plane state of
strain as well. [IES-1996]
Reason (R): Normal stresses acting along X and Y directions will also result into
normal strain along the Z-direction.

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 102 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES-34a Assertion (A): A plane state of stress always results in a plane state of strain.
Reason (R): A uniaxial state of stress results in a three-dimensional state of strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false [IES-2010]
(d) A is false but R is true

IES-34b Assertion (A): A state of plane strain always results in plane stress conditions.
Reason (R): A thin sheet of metal stretched in its own plane results in plane strain conditions.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IES-34c. Consider the following statements:
When a thick plate is subjected to external loads:
1. State of plane stress occurs at the surface
2. State of plane strain occurs at the surface
3. State of plane stress occurs in the interior part of the plate
4. State of plane strain occurs in the interior part of the plate
Which of these statements are correct? [IES-2013]
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3

Principal strains
IES-35. Principal strains at a point are 100  106 and 200  106. What is the maximum shear
strain at the point? [IES-2006]
(a) 300 × 10–6 (b) 200 × 10–6 (c) 150 × 10–6 (d) 100 × 10–6

IES-36. The principal strains at a point in a body, under biaxial state of stress, are 1000×10–6
and –600 × 10–6.What is the maximum shear strain at that point?
[IES-2009]
(a) 200 × 10–6 (b) 800 × 10–6 (c) 1000 × 10–6 (d) 1600 × 10–6

IES-37. The number of strain readings (using strain gauges) needed on a plane surface to
determine the principal strains and their directions is: [IES-1994]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4

Principal strain induced by principal stress
IES-38. The principal stresses at a point in two dimensional stress system are  1 and  2 and
corresponding principal strains are  1 and  2 . If E and  denote Young's modulus and
Poisson's ratio, respectively, then which one of the following is correct?
[IES-2008]
E
(a)  1  E1 (b) 1  1   2 
1 2
E
(c) 1  1   2  (d) 1  E 1   2 
1 2

IES-39. Assertion (A): Mohr's construction is possible for stresses, strains and area moment of
inertia. [IES-2009]
Reason (R): Mohr's circle represents the transformation of second-order tensor.

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

IES-40. A rectangular strain rosette, shown
infigure, gives following reading in a
100010-680010-6
and60010-6
The direction of the major principal
strainwith respect to gauge l is
(a) 0o (b) 15o
(c) 30 o (d) 45o

[IES-2011]

Previous 20-Years IAS Questions

Stresses at different angles and Pure Shear
IAS-1. On a plane, resultant stress is inclined at an angle of 45o to the plane. If the normal
stress is 100 N /mm2, the shear stress on the plane is: [IAS-2003]
(a) 71.5 N/mm2 (b) 100 N/mm2 (c) 86.6 N/mm2 (d) 120.8 N/mm2

IAS-2. Biaxial stress system is correctly shown in [IAS-1999]

IAS-3. The complementary shear stresses of
intensity  are induced at a point in
the material, as shown in the figure.
Which one of the following is the
correct set of orientations of principal
planes with respect to AB?
(a)30° and 120° (b) 45° and 135°
(c) 60° and 150° (d) 75° and 165°
[IAS-1998]

IAS-4. A uniform bar lying in the x-direction is subjected to pure bending. Which one of the
following tensors represents the strain variations when bending moment is about the
z-axis (p, q and r constants)? [IAS-2001]
 py 0 0   py 0 0 

(a) 0
 
(b) 0 qy 0

 qy 0   
 0 0 ry   0 0 0
   

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
 py 0 0   py 0 0 

(c) 0
 
(d) 0 qy 0

 py 0   
 0 py   0 0 qy 
 0  

IAS-5. Assuming E = 160 GPa and G = 100 GPa for a material, a strain tensor is given as:
[IAS-2001]
 0.002 0.004 0.006 
 
 0.004 0.003 0 
 0.006 0 
 0
The shear stress,  xy is:
(a) 400 MPa (b) 500 MPa (c) 800 MPa (d) 1000 MPa

Principal Stress and Principal Plane
IAS-6. A material element subjected to a plane state of stress such that the maximum shear
stress is equal to the maximum tensile stress, would correspond to
[IAS-1998]

IAS-7. A solid circular shaft is subjected to a maximum shearing stress of 140 MPs. The
magnitude of the maximum normal stress developed in the shaft is: [IAS-1995]
(a) 140 MPa (b) 80 MPa (c) 70 MPa (d) 60 MPa

IAS-8. The state of stress at a point in a loaded member is shown in the figure. The
magnitude of maximum shear stress is [1MPa = 10 kg/cm2] [IAS 1994]
(a) 10 MPa (b) 30 MPa (c) 50 MPa (d) 100MPa

IAS-9. A horizontal beam under bending has a maximum bending stress of 100 MPa and a
maximum shear stress of 20 MPa. What is the maximum principal stress in the beam?
[IAS-2004]
(a) 20 (b) 50 (c) 50 + 2900 (d) 100

IAS-10. When the two principal stresses are equal and like: the resultant stress on any plane
is: [IAS-2002]
(a) Equal to the principal stress (b) Zero
(c) One half the principal stress (d) One third of the principal stress

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s

IAS-11. Assertion (A): When an isotropic, linearly elastic material is loaded biaxially, the
directions of principal stressed are different from those of principal strains.
Reason (R): For an isotropic, linearly elastic material the Hooke's law gives only two
independent material properties. [IAS-2001]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IAS-12. Principal stress at a point in a stressed solid are 400 MPa and 300 MPa respectively.
The normal stresses on planes inclined at 45° to the principal planes will be:
[IAS-2000]
(a) 200 MPa and 500 MPa (b) 350 MPa on both planes
(c) 100MPaand6ooMPa (d) 150 MPa and 550 MPa

IAS-13. The principal stresses at a point in an elastic material are 60N/mm2 tensile, 20 N/mm2
tensile and 50 N/mm2 compressive. If the material properties are: µ = 0.35 and E = 105
N/mm2, then the volumetric strain of the material is: [IAS-1997]
(a) 9 × 10–5 (b) 3 × 10-4 (c) 10.5 × 10–5 (d) 21 × 10–5

Mohr's circle
IAS-14. Match List-I (Mohr's Circles of stress) with List-II (Types of Loading) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [IAS-2004]
List-I List-II

1. A shaft compressed all round by a hub

2. Bending moment applied at the free
end of a cantilever

3. Shaft under torsion

4. Thin cylinder under pressure

5. Thin spherical shell under internal
pressure
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 5 4 3 2 (b) 2 4 1 3
(c) 4 3 2 5 (d) 2 3 1 5

IAS-15. The resultant stress on a certain plane makes an angle of 20° with the normal to the
plane. On the plane perpendicular to the above plane, the resultant stress makes an
angle of θ with the normal. The value of θ can be: [IAS-2001]
(a) 0° or 20° (b) Any value other than 0° or 90°
(c) Any value between 0° and 20° (d) 20° only

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
IAS-16. The correct Mohr's stress-circle drawn for a point in a solid shaft compressed by a
shrunk fit hub is as (O-Origin and C-Centre of circle; OA = σ1 and OB = σ2)
[IAS-2001]

IAS-17. A Mohr's stress circle is drawn for a body subjected to tensile stress f x and f y in
two mutually perpendicular directions such that f x > f y . Which one of the following
statements in this regard is NOT correct? [IAS-2000]
fx  f y
(a) Normal stress on a plane at 45° to f x is equal to
2
fx  f y
(b) Shear stress on a plane at 45° to f x is equal to
2
(c) Maximum normal stress is equal to fx .
fx  f y
(d) Maximum shear stress is equal to
2
IAS-18. For the given stress condition  x =2 N/mm2,  x =0 and  xy  0 , the correct Mohr‟s circle
is: [IAS-1999]

IAS-19. For which one of the following two-dimensional states of stress will the Mohr's stress
circle degenerate into a point? [IAS-1996]

Principal strains
IAS-20. In an axi-symmetric plane strain problem, let u be the radial displacement at r. Then
the strain components  r ,  , e are given by [IAS-1995]
u u  2u u u
(a)  r  ,   , r  (b) r  ,   ,  r  o
r r r r r
u u u u  2u
(c)  r  ,   ,  r  0 (d)  r  ,   ,  r 
r r r  r

IAS-21. Assertion (A): Uniaxial stress normally gives rise to triaxial strain.
Reason (R): Magnitude of strains in the perpendicular directions of applied stress is
smaller than that in the direction of applied stress. [IAS-2004]

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

IAS-22. Assertion (A): A plane state of stress will, in general, not result in a plane state of
strain. [IAS-2002]
Reason (R): A thin plane lamina stretched in its own plane will result in a state of
plane strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s

GATE-1.Ans. (a) It is the definition of shear stress. The force is applied tangentially it is not a point load
so you cannot compare it with a cantilever with a point load at its free end.
  y x y
GATE-2. Ans. (d)  n  x  cos2   xy sin2
2 2
Here  x   2  0,  xy   ,   45o
GATE-3. Ans. (d) It is well known that,
 xy   yx,  xz   zx and  yz   zy
so that the state of stress at a point is given by six components  x , y , z and  xy ,  yz , zx
GATE-4. Ans. (c)
Let CAB  
3 4 3
 sin   ; cos   ; tan  
5 5 4

y
A

 

4 
x
5

B C
x
3
y
Thus from force equilibrium,
x  AB  AC  ( cos    sin )
5  4 3
 x   120   70  
4  5 5
 x  67.5 MPa
And, y  BC  AC  ( sin    cos )
5  3 4
 y   120   70  
3  5 5
  y  213.3 MPa
GATE-5. Ans. (c)

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
y
yx

xy

d
2
x x
d
d 2
2 d
2
xy

yx
y
Taking moment equilibrium about the centre, we get
d d d d
 yx    yx   xy   xy 
2 2 2 2
 xy   yx
GATE-6. Ans. (a) On a principal plane, only normal stresses act. No shear stresses act on the principal
plane.
GATE-7.Ans. (b)
1  2
Maximum shear stress =
2
20  ( 10)
  15 MPa
2
GATE-8. Ans. 5.0
16T 16  10000
GATE-9. Ans. (b) Shear Stress (  )=  Pa  50.93 MPa
d 3   (0.1)3
b  
2

Maximum principal Stress =   b    2 =82 MPa
2  2 
GATE-10.Ans. (c)
Maximum principal stress
2 2
x   1.5  1.5 
   x   2    2
  (1.20)  2.17 N/ mm
2

2  2  2  2 
2
x  y x y 
GATE-11. Ans. (d)  1       xy
2
if  xy  0
2  2 
2
x y x y 
     x
2  2 
GATE-12. Ans. (b)  x   ,  y   ,  xy  
2
x  y x  y   
 1 max  0
2
   xy    2  2
2
  
2  2  2
2
x y x y  10  2  10  2 
2

GATE-13. Ans. (c)  1       2
xy   2
 2   4  11.66 MPa
2  2  2  
2
x  y x y  6  4  6  4 
2

GATE-14.Ans. 8.4 to 8.5,  1       xy 
2
  2
  (8)  8.434MPa
2  2  2  2 
GATE-15. Ans. (a)

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s

GATE-16. Ans. (b)
GATE-17. Ans. (b)

 40  100 
2

   40   50 MPa
2

 2 
GATE-18.Ans.(d)
The maximum and minimum principal stresses are same. So, radius of circle becomes zero and
centre is at (30, 0). The circle is respresented by a point.
GATE-19. Ans. (b)
Likestress  1 / 2
GATE-20. Ans. (c)
 x  100MPa,  y  20MPa
x  y 100   20 
Radius of Mohr 's circle    60
2 2
GATE-21. Ans. (b)

1   2   x   y  175 MPa

GATE-22. Ans. (d) From the Mohr‟s circle it will give all directions.
GATE-23. Ans. (c) Shear strain emax  emin  1000   600  106  1600  106
GATE-24.Ans.(b)When strain is measured along any three arbitrary directions, the strain diagram is
called rosette.

IES
IES-1. Ans. (a)
x  y x y
IES-2. Ans. (c)  n   cos2   xy sin2
2 2
x  y
At   45o and xy  0;  n 
2
 x  40MPa,  y  20MPa .
IES-2(i). Ans(c)
  y  x  y
 x  cos 2  30  10cos 60  35MPa
2 2

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
σx  σy
IES-2a Ans. (a) Shear stress    sin2θ -  xy cos2θ
2
Hereσ x  σ, σ y  σ and  xy  0
IES-3. Ans. (b)
IES-3a. Ans. (a)
IES-4. Ans. (c)
IES-4(i). Ans. (b)
IES-5. Ans. (a) 1   ,  2   ,  3  0
1  2 1  2
      2    V 
2
U  V
2E   E
IES-6. Ans. (b)
IES-7. Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation for A.
IES-8. Ans. (b) 1   ,  2   ,  3  0
IES-9. Ans. (a)
x  y x y
IES-10. Ans. (a)  n   cos2   xy sin2
2 2
IES-10(i). Ans. (b)
IES-11. Ans. (d)
IES-11a Ans. (c)
1   2 100  0
IES-12. Ans. (c)  max    50 units.
2 2
1   2 2
IES-13. Ans. (c)  max  , 1  2 2 or  max  or  2  2 max or  1 2 2 = 4 max
2 2
IES-13(i). Ans. (c)
2
x y x y 
IES-14. Ans. (c)  1,2       xy
2

2  2 
2
x y x y 
if  2  0       xy
2

2  2 
2 2
x y  x y 
   xy or  xy   x   y
2
or   
 2   2 
1   2 80  ( 40)
IES-15. Ans. (d)  max    60 MPa
2 2
IES-15(i). Ans. (c)
2 xy
IES-16. Ans. (b) tan 2    0
x y
1   2 3  
 max   
2 2
3  
Major principal stress on the plane of maximum shear =  1   2
2
IES-17. Ans. (b)When stresses are alike, then normal stress σn on plane inclined at angle 45° is
2 2
 1   1  1 1 
 n   y cos    x sin    y 
2
  x 
2
  500  2  2   500 kg/cm
2

 2  2  
IES-18. Ans. (b)
2
x y x y 
IES-19. Ans. (d)  1,2       xy
2

2  2 

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Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s
2
50  ( 10)  50  10 
 1,2      40
2

2  2 
 max  70 and  min  30
x  y x y
IES-20. Ans. (d)  x  cos2

2 2
P P P P
n   cos2  45  0
2 2

x 0  0
2

IES-21. Ans. (c)  1,2    x    xy2  50  50 5
2  2 
 1   2
Maximum shear stress =  50 5
2
IES-22. Ans. (c)
IES-22(i). Ans. (c)
IES-23. Ans. (b) It is a case of pure shear. Just put 1   2
IES-24. Ans. (c)
IES-25. Ans. (a)

IES-25(i). Ans. (c)
IES-25(i). Ans. (b)
 xx  60MPa,  yy  120MPa and  xy  40MPa .

  xx   yy 
2
 60  120 
2

radius      xy 2     40  50
2

 2   2 
IES-26. Ans. (a)

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 113 of 473 Rev.1

(d) IES-34b. (b) 1   2 and 2    1 From these two equation eliminate 2 . Ans. Ans. Ans. (a)  max  1   2  100   200  106  300  106 1   2 don' t confuse withMaximumShear stress  max   2  xy 1   2 1   2 in strain  and  max  that is the difference. Ans.1 .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 2 2  2   x  y  2   x  y  2    x     xy       xy   2    2      Radius of the Mohr Circle 2  x  y  2     xy  2  2 x  y  x  y  2  t       xy 2  2  2 x  y  x  y  2 2       xy 2  2  2 1  2  x  y  2  max  r  max      xy 2  2  IES-27.0    50. Ans. 2 2 2 IES-36. Ans. (b) IES-32. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 114 of 473 Rev. (c) IES-31. Ans. (a) IES-35. Ans. (a) IAS IAS-1. (d) x  y xy 2  2   xy  x  y  1000  106  600  106  1600  106  IES-37. (c) Radius of the Mohr circle    2   100  40 2   x y       2  / 10       402  / 10  50 / 10  5cm   2  xy    2         x   y   200  100  IES-28. Ans. Ans. (c) IES-34. Ans. Ans. (a) IES-34a. (d) IES-34c. Ans.0   2   2  IES-29. (b) Weknow  n   cos  and    sin cos 2 For-2015 (IES. (d) Centre of Mohr‟s circle is  . (c) IES-33. Ans. E E E E IES-39. Ans. (c) Three strain gauges are needed on a plane surface to determine the principal strains and their directions. (d) IES-30. 1  2  IES-38. (a) IES-40. Ans. Ans.0    .

(c)  xx  xy  xz     xy  yx  yy  yz  and  xy      2  zx zy zz   xy  G  xy  100 103   0.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 100   cos 45 or   200 2   200 sin 45 cos 45  100 IAS-2. (a)  max  Maximum normal stress will developed if  1   2   2  x  y  2   40  40  2 IAS-8. IAS-4. y     z  x  and z  z    x   E E E E E E E E E For-2015 (IES. (b)   x  y    x  y  400  300 400  300 n     cos 2   cos 2  45o  350 MPa  2   2  2 2 IAS-13. Ans. (a)  n   cos 2 2 2 [We may consider this as  xy  0 ]  x   y   ( say) So  n   for any plane IAS-11. (c)  max      xy 2 =    30 = 50 MPa 2  2   2  IAS-9.  y   . (d)Stress in x direction =σx x x x Therefore x  .1 . Ans. (d)  max    1 2 2 1   2 IAS-7. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. (c) IAS-3. Ans.2=   b   2 2  2  b   2 2  1. (d) They are same. (b) It is a case of pure shear so principal planes will be along the diagonal. IAS-12. (c)σb=100MPa  =20 mPa b   2 σ1. Ans.2    b    2  2  2  100 2    100   2    20  50  2900 MPa 2    x  y  x  y IAS-10. Ans. (a) x  y z  y      y  x      . GATE & PSUs) Page 115 of 473 Rev.004  2  MPa  800MPa 1   2  1  ( 1 ) IAS-6.  z   E E E IAS-5. Ans. Ans.

35   9  105  E   10  IAS-14.  av . (b) IAS-16. Ans. (b) IAS-22. Ans. Ans. Sketch the Mohr‟s circle and determine  max .0    . Stress in one plane always induce a lateral strain with its orthogonal plane. Conventional Question IES-2009 Q. (b) IAS-21.  xy max for this situation. Here max  3R  min  R 3R  R  v   2R 2    min 3R  R and  xy  max  R 2 2 For-2015 (IES. (d) fx  f y IAS-17. Ans. Ans. (c) R is false. 2 x y     xy   xy  0 and x   y   2 Radius of the Mohr‟s circle =   2  IAS-20. Ans. Ans. [2 Marks] Ans.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s  x   y   z 2 v x  y  z  E   x   y   z  E   x   y   z   60  20  50   1  2    5  1  2  0. No shear stress exists at the principal planes.  min . (d) IAS-15. The Mohr‟s circle for a plane stress is a circle of radius R with its origin at + 2R on  axis. GATE & PSUs) Page 116 of 473 Rev. (d) Maximum shear stress is 2 x  y   2  0  IAS-18. (c) Mohr‟s circle will be a point.0   1. Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-1999 Question: What are principal in planes? Answer: The planes which pass through the point in such a manner that the resultant stress across them is totally a normal stress are known as principal planes. Ans. Ans. 0   2   2  2 x y  2 20  x   2 radius    0 1  2   2  IAS-19.1 . (d) Centre  .

The principal stresses are 2 120  70 120  70  σ1.0) 3R Conventional Question IES-1999 Question: Direct tensile stresses of 120 MPa and 70 MPa act on a body on mutually perpendicular planes.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s R R (2R. shear stress is at 45º with principle plane. The state of stress at a point in a loaded machine member is given by the principle stresses. (i) What is the magnitude of the maximum shear stress? (ii) What is the inclination of the plane on which the maximum shear stress acts with respect to the plane on which the maximum principle stress 1 acts? Ans. 2  0 and 3  600 MPa . Minor principal stress is 2 120  70  120  70  2 σ2      31. 1  3 600   600    2 2  600 MPa (ii) At θ = 45º max. Answer: Let shearing stress is '' MPa. What is the magnitude of shearing stress that can be applied so that the major principal stress at the point does not exceed 135 MPa? Determine the value of minor principal stress and the maximum shear stress.2      2 2  2  Major principal stress is 2 120  70 120  70  σ1       2 2  2   135(Given) or . [ 2 Marks] 1  600 MPa. (i) Maximum shear stress. Hence max.2MPa. Since σ 1 and σ 3 are principle stress does not contains shear stress.2  55MPa 2  2     2 135  55  max  1   40 MPa 2 2 Conventional Question IES-2009 Q.1 . shear stress occurs with σ 1 plane. GATE & PSUs) Page 117 of 473 Rev.   31. Conventional Question IES-2008 For-2015 (IES.

Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s (ii) Magnitude of these stresses σn   xy Sin2θ   xy Sin90o   xy  400 MPa and   ( xy cos2θ)  0 Conventional Question IAS-1997 Question: Draw Mohr's circle for a 2-dimensional stress field subjected to (a) Pure shear (b) Pure biaxial tension (c) Pure uniaxial tension and (d) Pure uniaxial compression Answer: Mohr's circles for 2-dimensional stress field subjected to pure shear. gives the strain reading as 3. Answer: Let us assume maximum shear stress on the cross-sectional plane MU is  . Then For-2015 (IES. It is subjected torsion only.98 × 10–4. Bending effect may be neglected. pure biaxial tension. find the power being transmitted by the shaft. If the modulus of elasticity for bronze is 105 GN/m2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 119 of 473 Rev. An electrical resistance strain gauge mounted on the surface of the shaft with its axis at 45° to the shaft axis.3. pure uniaxial compression and pure uniaxial tension are shown in figure below: Conventional Question IES-2003 Question: A Solid phosphor bronze shaft 60 mm in diameter is rotating at 800 rpm and transmitting power.

Find the magnitudes of shearing stresses on these planes if the magnitude of one of the principal stresses is 100 MPa (tensile). σ1.1 .  σ1  100 MPa  10  702   xy2 .57) 2 2  2  i.2      xy 2 2  2  Jxy 80Mpa 60  80  2 60  80 or .Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 1 Principal stress along. σ1.23 kW   60   60  Conventional Question IES-2002 Question: The magnitude of normal stress on two mutually perpendicular planes.  =1363.  xy  56. GATE & PSUs) Page 120 of 473 Rev.5 Nm 16  2πN  2π×800   Power being transmitted.2       xy 2 2   2  To make principal stress 100 MPa we have to consider '+' .15 106   0.56 106 m4 4 4 Answer: Polar moment of Inertia (J)=  32 For-2015 (IES.15 MPa 1  0. π   0. Answer: Above figure shows stress condition assuming shear stress is '  xy' 80Mpa Jxy Principal stresses  σ  σ y  2 σx  σ y σ1. or. at a point in an elastic body are 60 MPa (compressive) and 80 MPa (tensile) respectively. Find also the magnitude of the other principal stress at this point.063 =1363.3 π  Torque being transmitted (T) =   d 3 16 π  32. P =T.98 104 105 109  or  =  32.57 MPa Therefore other principal stress will be  60  80  2 60  80  σ2     (56.5× W  114. VM = .e. 4 2 = - (compressive) 2 1 Principal stress along.2    x    xy2 60Mpa 60Mpa 2  2  Jxy Jxy 60  80  2 60  80  or .98 104 E 3. LU = 4 2   (tensile) 2 Thus magntude of the compressive strain along VM is  = (1  µ)  3. Calculate the principal stresses and orientations of the principal planes on the outer surface of the tube.110  0.100  = 4.=T. 80 MPa(compressive) Conventional Question IES-2001 Question:A steel tube of inner diameter 100 mm and wall thickness 5 mm is subjected to a torsional moment of 1000 Nm.

 x      xy2  2   2   2   2   σ  σ y   σ x  σ y  2 2 or.56 106  12.07 MPa and σ 2  12. one of the principal stresses will become zero? Answer: Two principal stressdes are σ . determine the principle stresses and the maximum shear stress. It is subject to a tensile force of 10 kN and a torque of 60 Nm. xy   σ x σ y xy  2   2  Conventional Question IES-1996 Question: A solid shaft of diameter 30 mm is fixed at one end.07MPa Conventional Question IES-2000 Question: At a point in a two dimensional stress system the normal stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes are  x and y and the shear stress is  xy.15  106 N / m2 or 14.15 MN / m2   0.  J R For-2015 (IES. 2  and max imum shear stress  max  : 10  103 Tensile stress  t   x   14.07 sin 2700  12. σx  σy 50mm gives θp  450 or 1350  σ1   xy Sin 2θ  12.032 4 T  As per torsion equation. GATE & PSUs) Page 121 of 473 Rev.  xy 2  σ xσ y or.    x 2    or.2    x y    xy2 2  2  Considering (-)ive sign it may be zero  σ  σ y   σ x  σ y   σ  σ y   σ x  σ y  2 2 2   x       xy2 or. Answer: Given: D = 30 mm = 0.07MPa 2 xy Now. P = 10 kN.03 m.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 5mm T  T .R 1000 (0.tan 2θ p  .055) Now  or J   J R J 4. At a point on the surface of the shaft.σ  2 σx  σ y σ1. T= 60 Nm Pr incipal stresses  1.07  sin 900  12. At what value of shear stress.1 .

 xy    11.major principal stress.03  4 D 32 32 or 11.015  Shear stress.3333 σx  σy 140  70 σ1 . 6.7MPa Position of Principal planes θ1. GATE & PSUs) Page 122 of 473 Rev.σ 2 145  75. y  0.15   11.2   x       xy 2  2   2   Here  x  14.35  20.7 2  2  Therefore σ1=145.275  Maximum shear stress.2    2    xy 2  2  2 140  70 140  70     2   35  35  110. max    110.32 MN / m2 The principal stresses are calculated by u sin g the relations :   y    x   y  2   1. Answer: Given 70N/mm 2 B σ x =140MPa(tensile) C σ y =-70MPa(compressive) 2 35Nmm  xy  35MPa 140N/mm 2 Principal stresses.  1  20. Sketch the Mohr circle and mark the relevant data. σ2 .  2  6. Hence.15MN / m2 . θ 2 2 xy 2  35 tan 2θ p    0.32  106 N / m2 J  4    0.1 .425 MN / m 2  tensile  Minor principal stress.35mm / m2 2 2 Conventional Question IES-2000 Question: Two planes AB and BC which are at right angles are acted upon by tensile stress of 140 N/mm2 and a compressive stress of 70 N/mm2 respectively and also by shear stress 35 N/mm2.275MN / m2 .7 MPa and σ 2  75. max    13.     11. σ1.07  13. Determine the principal stresses and principal planes. A 2 σx  σy  σ x  σ y  We know that. Find also the maximum shear stress and planes on which they act.425   6.425 MN / m2 . σ1.32  2   1.15  14.7MPa 2 2 For-2015 (IES.2     2  2   7.275MN / m2  compressive  1   2 24.32 MN / m2 2 14.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s TR TR 60  0.7 Maximum shear stress.

6  0. Use rectangular strain gauge rosette Conventional Question IES-1998 Question: When using strain-gauge system for stress/force/displacement measurements how are in-built magnification and temperature compensation achieved? Answer: In-built magnification and temperature compensation are achieved by (a) Through use of adjacent arm balancing of Wheat-stone bridge.5 We know. Conventional Question AMIE-1998 Question: A cylinder (500 mm internal diameter and 20 mm wall thickness) with closed ends is subjected simultaneously to an internal pressure of 0-60 MPa. M = 64000 Nm = 0·064 MNm. Determine the maximum tensile stress and shearing stress in the wall.02 Next consider effect of combined bending moment and torque on the walls of the cylinder. Answer: Given: d = 500 mm = 0·5 m.02 pd 0.75MN / m2 4t 4  0. T= 16000 Nm = 0·016 MNm.7MPa Conventional Question IES-2010 Q6.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s Y Mohr cirle: OL=σ x  140MPa S 2qp =198.7 MPa OV=σ1  145. [10 Marks] Ans.4 V Joining ST that cuts at 'N' N σ = 140 T SN=NT=radius of Mohr circle =110.7MPa OV  σ2  75. Then the principal stresses  '1 and  '2 are given by For-2015 (IES.5 and 2    3. The data obtained from a rectangular strain gauge rosette attached to a stressed steel member are  0  220 106 .6 MN/m2.3 . (b) By means of self temperature compensation by selected melt-gauge and dual element- gauge. p = 0·60 MPa = 0. Maximum tensile stress: First let us determine the principle stresses  1 and  2 assuming this as a thin cylinder.1 . bending moment 64000 Nm and torque 16000 Nm.  45  120 106 and 90  220 106 . calculate the values of principal stresses acting at the point and their directions.4 OM  σ y  70MPa SM  LT   xy  35MPa U L M O 2q= 78.6  0. pd 0. 1    7. GATE & PSUs) Page 123 of 473 Rev. Given that the 5 2 value of E = 2 10 N / mm and Poisson‟s Ratio   0.5MN / m2 2t 2  0. t = 20 mm = 0·02 m.

75  0.5   16 0.0162   5.08  3.0642  0.5  3   Maximum shearing stress.064  0.016 2   0. max :  I   II We Know.1 .56MN / m2 2 For-2015 (IES.08MN / m2 and  '2     0.  max  2  II   2   '2  3.79  3.064  0.0642  0.29MN / m2   '1  3     0.67MN / m2  tensile  12.67   max   4.Chapter-2 Principal Stress and Strain S K Mondal’s 16   '1  3 M  M2  T 2  d   16 and  '2  3 M  M2  T 2  d   16 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 124 of 473 Rev.

3. 3.  Mass moment of inertia is the measure of resistance of the body to rotation and forms the basis of dynamics of rigid bodies. the moment of inertia depends on where we choose the rotation axis. 3. the moment of inertia „I‟ appears in the same way that mass m does in linear dynamics. For-2015 (IES.1 Centre of gravity The centre of gravity of a body defined as the point through which the whole weight of a body may be assumed to act. PSU) 3.1 .3 Moment of Inertia (MOI)  About any point the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between them is known as moment of a force or first moment of force.  This first moment is again multiplied by the perpendicular distance between them to obtain second moment of force. the bigger the moment of inertia. Moment of Inertia and Centroid Theory at a Glance (for IES.4 Mass moment of Inertia (MOI) I   mi ri2 i  Notice that the moment of inertia „I‟ depends on the distribution of mass in the system.  The furthest the mass is from the rotation axis.  Area moment of Inertia is the measure of resistance to bending and forms the basis of strength of materials.  For a given object. GATE.2 Centroid or Centre of area The centroid or centre of area is defined as the point where the whole area of the figure is assumed to be concentrated. GATE & PSUs) Page 125 of 473 Rev. 3.  In rotational dynamics.  In the same way if we consider the area of the figure it is called second moment of area or area moment of inertia and if we consider the mass of a body it is called second moment of mass or mass moment of Inertia.

Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid  Solid disc or cylinder of mass M and radius R. 1 I ML2 12  Thin rod of mass M and length L. 1 I ML2 3 3.1 . the moment of inertia of the differential area about the x and y axes are dIxx and dIyy  dIxx = y2dAIxx = ∫ y2 dA  dIyy = x2dAIyy = ∫ x2dA 3. I = 2/5 M R2  Thin rod of mass M and length L. INN = ICG + Ah2 For-2015 (IES. about a perpendicular axis through its centre. about an axis through its centre. GATE & PSUs) Page 126 of 473 Rev. about perpendicular axis through its centre. about a perpendicular axis through its end. 1 I MR2 2  Solid sphere of mass M and radius R.5 Area Moment of Inertia (MOI) or Second moment of area  To find the centroid of an area by the first moment of the area about an axis was determined ( ∫ x dA )  Integral of the second moment of area is called moment of inertia (∫ x2dA)  Consider the area ( A )  By definition.6 Parallel axis theorem for an area The rotational inertia about any axis is the sum of second moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the C.G and total area of the body times square of the distance between the axes.

8 Moments of Inertia (area) of some common area (i) MOI of Rectangular area Moment of inertia about axis XX which passes through centroid.  Area of the element (dA) = b  dy.  To find the moment of inertia of the differential area about the pole (point of origin) or z-axis. and Moment of Inertia of the element about XX axis  dA  y  b.1 . we may find. (r) is the perpendicular distance from the pole to dA for the entire area J = ∫ r2 dA = ∫ (x2 + y2 )dA = Ixx + Iyy(since r2 = x2 + y2 ) Where. y & z are mutually perpendicular axes as shown. Take an element of width „dy‟ at a distance y from XX axis. I yy  12 3 hb3 Polar moment of inertia (J) = Ixx + Iyy = bh  12 12 For-2015 (IES. (r) is used.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid 3.dy 2 2 Total MOI about XX axis (Note it is area moment of Inertia) h h 2 2 bh3  by dy  2  by2dy  2 I xx  h 0 12 2 bh3 I xx  12 hb3 Similarly.7 Perpendicular axis theorem for an area If x. GATE & PSUs) Page 127 of 473 Rev.y . J = polar moment of inertia 3. then I zz  J   I xx  I yy Z-axis is perpendicular to the plane of x – y and vertical to this page as shown in figure.

Axis XX and NN are parallel and at a distance h/2.1 .Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid If we want to know the MOI about an axis NN passing through the bottom edge or top edge. Therefore INN = Ixx+ Area  (distance) 2 2 bh3 h bh3   bh   12 2 3 Case-I:Square area a4 I xx  12 Case-II:Square area with diagonal as axis a4 I xx  12 Case-III:Rectangular area with a centrally rectangular hole Moment of inertia of the area = moment of inertia of BIG rectangle – moment of inertia of SMALL rectangle BH 3 bh3 I xx   12 12 For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 128 of 473 Rev.

distance of parallel axis XX and NN is (h) According to parallel axis theory For-2015 (IES. Moment of inertia of the area = moment of inertia of BIG circle – moment of inertia of SMALL circle.e. I xx  I yy   2 64  D4  D4 I xx  I yy  and J  64 32 Case-I: Moment of inertia of a circular area with a concentric hole. It is very easy to find polar moment of inertia about point „O‟. Take an element of width „dr‟ at a distance „r‟ from centre. GATE & PSUs) Page 129 of 473 Rev.  D4  d4 Ixx = Iyy = – 64 64   ( D4  d4 ) 64  and J  ( D4  d4 ) 32 Case-II:Moment of inertia of a semi- circular area. Therefore.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid (ii) MOI of a Circular area The moment of inertia about axis XX this passes through the centroid. the moment of inertia of this element about polar axis d(J) = d(Ixx + Iyy ) = area of ring  (radius)2 or d(J)  2 rdr  r 2 Integrating both side we get R  R4  D4 J   2 r 3dr   0 2 32 Due to summetry I xx  I yy J  D4 Therefore. 1 I NN  of the momemt of total circular lamina 2 1   D4   D4    2  64  128 We know that distance of CG from base is 4r 2D   h  say  3 3 i.1 .

1 .Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid I NN  I G  Area ×  distance  2  D4 1   D2    h 2 or  I xx   128 2 4  D 4 1   D 2   2D  or  I xx     128 2  4   3  or I xx  0.G. 1 I XX  2    0. bh3 I XX  36 (b) Moment of inertia of a triangle about an axis passes through base bh3 I NN  12 For-2015 (IES.055 R4 I XX  0. GATE & PSUs) Page 130 of 473 Rev.11R4  0.11R4 Case – III: Quarter circle area IXX = one half of the moment of Inertia of the Semi- circular area about XX.055 R4 INN= one half of the moment of Inertia of the Semi- circular area about NN. 1  D4  D4  I NN    2 64 128 (iii) Moment of Inertia of a Triangular area (a) Moment of Inertia of a Triangular area of a axis XX parallel to base and passes through C.

9 Radius of gyration Consider area A with moment of inertia Ixx. Imagine that the area is concentrated in a thin strip parallel to the x axis with equivalent Ixx. bh3 We may use standard value for a rectangle about an axis passes through centroid. 150 mm depth flange and web of thickness 20 mm is used in a structure of length 5 m.  -2  m  12 12   1. GATE & PSUs) Page 131 of 473 Rev.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid (iv) Moment of inertia of a thin circular ring: Polar moment of Inertia  J   R2  area of whole ring  R2  2 Rt  2 R3t J I XX  IYY    R 3t 2 (v) Moment of inertia of a elliptical area  ab3 I XX  4 Let us take an example: An I-section beam of 100 mm wide. i.40  0. It has sections with symmetry about the neutral axis.183  10-4 m4 3.e.1303  4 centroid. Answer: Carefully observe the figure below. I  .150 3 0.1 .100   0. Determine the Moment of Inertia (of area) of cross-section of the beam. The 12 section can thus be divided into convenient rectangles for each of which the neutral axis passes the I Beam  I Re c tan gle . For-2015 (IES.I Shaded area  0.

Answer: 2 We know that.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid I xx 2 I xx  kxx A or kxx  A kxx =radius of gyration with respect to the x axis. Similarly I yy 2 I yy  kyy A or kyy  A J J  ko2 A or ko  A ko2  kxx 2 2  kyy Let us take an example: Find radius of gyration for a circular area of diameter „d‟ about central axis.1 . I xx  K xx A For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 132 of 473 Rev.

1 .Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid d 4 I XX 64  d or K XX   A  d2 4 4 For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 133 of 473 Rev.

The linear acceleration of the reel is: gr 2 gk2 grk mgr 2 (a) 2 (b) (c) (d)  r  k2   r 2  k2  r 2 k 2  r 2  k2  GATE-4. Consider the thickness of the thread and its mass negligible in comparison with the radius “r” of the hub and the reel mass “m”. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Moment of Inertia (Second moment of an area) GATE-1.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE. The area moment of inertia of a square of size 1 unit about its diagonal is: [GATE-2001] 1 1 1 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 4 12 6 GATE-2(i) Polar moment of inertia (Ip). GATE & PSUs) Page 134 of 473 Rev.1 . A reel of mass “m” and radius of gyration “k” is rolling down smoothly from rest with one end of the thread wound on it held in the ceiling as depicted in the figure. The tension in the thread is: mgr 2 mgrk mgk2 mg (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) (d) r  k  2  r  k2  r 2 k 2  r 2  k2  For-2015 (IES. IES. [GATE-2003] GATE-3. Solve the problems and choose correct answers. b = 2 cm and depth. in cm4.d = 6 cm is ________________ [CE: GATE-2014] Radius of Gyration Data for Q3–Q4 are given below. Symbol “g” represents the acceleration due to gravity. of a rectangular section having width. The second moment of a circular area about the diameter is given by (D is the diameter) [GATE-2003]  D4  D4  D4  D4 (a) (b) (c) (d) 4 16 32 64 GATE-2.

1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 135 of 473 Rev. For the section shown below. second moment of the area about an axis distance 4 above the bottom of the area is [CE: GATE-2006] b d bd 3 bd 3 7bd3 bd 3 (a) (b) (c) (d) 48 12 48 3 r GATE-6. It is to be replaced by an equivalent dynamical system of two masses placed at A and B. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Radius of Gyration IES-2. The mass at A should be: am bm (a) (b) a b a b m a m b (c)  (d)  3 b 2 a For-2015 (IES. The centroid of the 2 remaining disc(shaded portion) at a radial distance from the centre “O” is r/2 O O [CE: GATE-2010] r r r r (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 3 6 8 Previous 20-Years IES Questions Centroid IES-1. Figure shows a rigid body of mass m having radius of gyration k about its centre of gravity. Assertion (A): Inertia force always acts through the centroid of the body and is directed opposite to the acceleration of the centroid.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid d GATE-5. A disc of radius r has a hold of radius cut-out as shown. [IES-2001] Reason (R): It has always a tendency to retard the motion.

Ans.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid [IES-2003] IES-3. radius of the cylindrical surface in contact with plane is r. 40 cm4 use Izz = Ixx + Iyy GATE-3. To determine v. where f = linear tangential acceleration = rα.a 2 2 2 (c) mk . one should use the principle (s) of conservation of [IAS 1994] (a) Energy (b) Linear momentum (c) Energy and linear momentum (d) Energy and angular momentum OBJECTIVE ANSWERS GATE-1. Ans. radius of gyration of body is k and acceleration of the body is a) is: [IES-2001] (a) m  k / r  1 . T = mk2  therefore mg – T = mf gives f = 2 r 2  r  k2  For-2015 (IES. Force required to accelerate a cylindrical body which rolls without slipping on a horizontal plane (mass of cylindrical body is m. A body of mass m and radius of gyration k is to be replaced by two masses m1 and m2 located at distances h1 and h2 from the CG of the original body. An equivalent dynamic system will result.a 2 IES-4. (d) a 4 1 4 GATE-2. if [IES-2001] (a) h1  h2 k (b) h12  h22  k 2 (c) h1h2  k 2 (d) h1h2  k 2 Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Radius of Gyration IAS-1. α = rotational acceleration. Considering rotational motion Tr  I . GATE & PSUs) Page 136 of 473 Rev.a (d) mk / r  1 . It comes across an obstruction of height 'h' Because of its rolling speed. Ans. it just overcomes the obstruction. (c) I xx   12 12 GATE-2(i) Ans.a 2 2 (b) mk / r  . f gr 2 or.1 . A wheel of centroidal radius of gyration 'k' is rolling on a horizontal surface with constant velocity. (a) For downward linear motion mg–T = mf.

Ans. Answer: I-section has large section modulus. x1  0. (c) It has always a tendency to oppose the motion not retard. (c) IAS-1. It will reduce the stresses induced in the material. (a) Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-2004 Question: When are I-sections preferred in engineering applications? Elaborate your answer.Since I- section has the considerable area are far away from the natural so its section modulus increased. Ans. (a) IES-4.Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid f gr 2 mgk2 GATE-4. Ans. A1  r2 . For-2015 (IES. (c) T  mk2   mk 2   r2  r 2 r 2  k2   r 2  k2  GATE-5. (c) Using parallel axis theorem. IES-2. Ans. Ans. If we want to retard a motion then it will wand to accelerate. (c) The centroid of the shaded portion of the disc is given by A x  A 2 x2 x 1 1 A1  A 2 where x is the radial distance from Q. we get the second moment of inertia as 2 bd3 d d bd3 bd3 7bd3 I  bx       12 2 4 12 16 48 GATE-6.1 . Ans. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 137 of 473 Rev. Ans. 2 r r 2 A2         2 4 r x2  2 r 2 r r 2 r 2  0    x 4 2  2 2 r 3r 2 r 2  4 r  x 6 IES-1. (b) IES-3.

GATE & PSUs) Page 138 of 473 Rev.1 .Chapter-3 Moment of Inertia and Centroid For-2015 (IES.

Therefore downward deflection of the beam will be treated as positive. Here downward direction will be negative i.e. positive Y-axis. If we imagine this beam to be cut by a section X-X. Using the three equations of equilibrium F x 0 . Consider a cantilever beam as shown subjected to external load „P‟.e. 4. This tendency is resisted by internal forces between the two parts of the beam. GATE. negative Y-axis. We use general co-ordinate axis as shown in the figure. Fy  0 and M i 0 We find that Vx  P and M x  P. Therefore downward deflection of the We use above Co-ordinate system beam will be treated as negative. which is fixed in the wall. Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram Theory at a Glance (for IES. Here downward direction will be positive i. GATE & PSUs) Page 139 of 473 Rev. we see that the applied force tend to displace the left-hand portion of the beam relative to the right hand portion. Some books fix a co-ordinate axis as shown in the following figure. This resistance shear force and the bending moment at the cut section is shown in the left hand and right hand portion of the cut beam.1 .1 Shear Force andBending Moment At first we try to understand what shear force is and what is bending moment? We will not introduce any other co-ordinate system. At the cut section a resistance shear force (Vx) and a bending moment (Mx) is induced. As beam is generally deflected in downward directions and this co-ordinate system treats downward Some books use above co-ordinate system deflection is positive deflection. This system will be followed in shear force and bending moment diagram and in deflection of beam. PSU) 4. x In this chapter we want to show pictorially the For-2015 (IES.

What are the benefits of drawing shear force and bending moment diagram? The benefits of drawing a variation of shear force and bending moment in a beam as a function of „x' measured from one end of the beam is that it becomes easier to determine the maximum absolute value of shear force and bending moment. Shear Force (V) ≡ equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the algebraic sum (resultant) of the components in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the beam of all external loads and support reactions acting on either side of the section being considered. The shear force and bending moment diagram gives a clear picture in our mind about the variation of SF and BM throughout the entire section of the beam.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s variation of shear force and bending moment in a beam as a function of „x' measured from one end of the beam. In some book followed totally opposite sign convention. Further.1 .2 Notation and sign convention  Shear force (V) Positive Shear Force A shearing force having a downward direction to the right hand side of a section or upwards to the left hand of the section will be taken as „positive‟. Bending Moment (M) equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the algebraic sum of the moments about (the centroid of the cross section of the beam) the section of all external loads and support reactions acting on either side of the section being considered. It is the usual sign conventions to be followed for the shear force. For-2015 (IES. the determination of value of bending moment as a function of „x' becomes very important so as to determine the value of deflection of beam subjected to a given loading where we will use the formula. dx 2 4. d 2y EI  Mx . GATE & PSUs) Page 140 of 473 Rev.

The downward direction The upward direction shearing shearing force which is on the force which is on the right left hand of the section XX is hand of the section XX is negative shear force. negative shear force. Negative Shear Force A shearing force having an upward direction to the right hand side of a section or downwards to the left hand of the section will be taken as „negative‟. positive shear force. For-2015 (IES.  Bending Moment (M) Positive Bending Moment A bending moment causing concavity upwards will be taken as „positive‟ and called as sagging bending moment. GATE & PSUs) Page 141 of 473 Rev.1 .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s The upward direction shearing The downward direction force which is on the left hand shearing force which is on the of the section XX is positive right hand of the section XX is shear force.

(Note that the sign of this rule may change depending on the sign convention used for the external distributed load). Negative Bending Moment Hogging If the bending moment of If the bending moment of A bending moment causing the left hand of the section the right hand of the convexity upwards will be XX is anti-clockwise then section XX is clockwise taken as „negative‟ and called it is a negative bending then it is a negative as hogging bending moment. moment. B. (Mx) & Load (w) dVx  = -w (load) The value of the distributed load at any point in the beam is equal to dx the slope of the shear force curve. clockwise then it is a called as sagging bending positive bending moment.1 . bending moment.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Sagging If the bending moment of If the bending moment of A bending moment causing the left hand of the section the right hand of the concavity upwards will be XX is clockwise then it is a section XX is anti. taken as „positive‟ and positive bending moment. For-2015 (IES. dM x  = Vx The value of the shear force at any point in the beam is equal to the slope of the dx bending moment curve. GATE & PSUs) Page 142 of 473 Rev. moment.F (Vx). 4.3 Relation between S.M. Way to remember sign convention  Remember in the Cantilever beam both Shear force and BM are negative (–ive).

1 .F & B.M Diagram (i) A Cantilever beam with a concentrated load „P‟ at its free end. The curve then “jumps” by the magnitude of the point moment (+ for CW moment).e.5 Different types of Loading and their S.  When the successive summation process is used.  The shear force curve is continuous unless there is a point force on the beam. The shear at a section is simply equal to the sum of all the vertical forces to the left of the section. The shear force will be zero at each end of the beam unless a point force is applied at the end. If no shear force exists along a certain portion of a beam. Construction of bending moment diagram  The bending moment diagram is obtained by proceeding continuously along the length of beam from the left hand end and summing up the areas of shear force diagrams using proper sign convention. the shear force diagram should end up with the previously calculated shear (reaction at right end of the beam). the moment computed by the summation must be equal to the one calculated initially for the reaction. from the fundamental theorem of calculus the maximum or minimum moment occurs where the shear is zero. The curve then “jumps” by the magnitude of the point force (+ for upward force).4 Procedure for drawing shear force and bending moment diagram Construction of shear force diagram  From the loading diagram of the beam constructed shear force diagram. If the shear force diagram closes in this fashion. 4. i. then it indicates that there is no change in moment takes place. If the end is built in. then it gives an important check on mathematical calculations.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 4.  We know that a constant shear force produces a uniform change in the bending moment.  First determine the reactions. resulting in straight line in the moment diagram. No shear force acts through the beam just beyond the last vertical force or reaction.  The bending moment will be zero at each free or pinned end of the beam.  The process of obtaining the moment diagram from the shear force diagram by summation is exactly the same as that for drawing shear force diagram from load diagram.  Then the vertical components of forces and reactions are successively summed from the left end of the beam to preserve the mathematical sign conventions adopted. GATE & PSUs) Page 143 of 473 Rev. We also know that dM/dx= Vx therefore.  The bending moment curve is continuous unless there is a point moment on the beam. For-2015 (IES.

1 .x (negative sign means that the moment on the left hand side of the portion is in the anticlockwise direction and is therefore taken as negative according to the sign convention) so that the maximum bending moment occurs at the fixed end i. the bending moment at any cross-section XX is x w.M diagram of the section) Mx = -P.x 2 M x   w.w) .x  .x for all values of „x'. At x = 0.M diagram left of XX as a concentrated load of the same value (w.e. If we just take the resultant of all the forces on the left of the X-section. Maximum at fixed end) Plotting the equation Vx = -w. Therefore. Vx = 0 At x = L.  2 2 Therefore the variation of bending moment is according toparabolic law.P (for all values of x) negative in sign i.x Bending Moment: Bending Moment at XX is obtained by treating the load to the S. GATE & PSUs) Page 144 of 473 Rev. Mx = 0 wL2 and x = L.x) acting through the centre of gravity at x/2.e. the shear force to the left of the x-section are in downward direction and therefore negative. Shear force: Consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance of x from the free end. Mmax = . Mx =  2 For-2015 (IES.x. Vx = -wL (i.F and B. then Vx = -w. The extreme values of B.e.PL(at x = L) (ii) A Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load over the whole length When a cantilever beam is subjected to a uniformly distributed load whose intensity is given w /unit length. we get a straight line because it is a equation of a straight line y (Vx) = m(.M would be at x = 0.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Shear force: At a section a distance x from free end consider the forces to the left. Bending Moment: Taking moments about the section gives (obviously to the left S.F and B. then (Vx) = .

x In the region a < x < L Vx =. Answer:In the region 0 < x < 2 m Consider any cross section XX at a distance x from free end. the variation of shear force is linear. Mmax  at fixed end 2 Another way to describe a cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load (UDL) over it‟s whole length. Shear force (Vx) = -7. Vx = -7 kN at x = 2 m .P. at x = 0.3  2 = -13 kN at point Z Vx = -7 -3  2-10 = -23 Kn For-2015 (IES. Draw SF and BM diagram.a S. Vx = -7 . It carries a uniformly distributed load 3 KN/m and a concentrated load of 7 kN at the free end and 10 kN at 3 meters from the fixed end.F and B. and Mx = .P. (iii) A Cantilever beam loaded as shown below draw its S. we get Vx =.P.3x So.x +P  x  a   P.F and B.P+P=0.M diagram (iv)Let us take an example: Consider a cantilever bean of 5 m length.1 . and Mx = . GATE & PSUs) Page 145 of 473 Rev.M diagram In the region 0 < x < a Following the same rule as followed previously.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s wL2 Maximum bending moment.

   7x 2 2 So. the variation of bending force is parabolic. GATE & PSUs) Page 146 of 473 Rev.10 (x . Mx = . at x = 0.32 kN x Bending moment (Mx) = . Mx = -7  2 – (3  2)  = .7x – (3x)    .20 kNm 2 In the region 2 m < x < 5 m Consider any cross section YY at a distance x from free end Shear force (Vx) = -7 . the variation of bending force is parabolic.2) 2 3   x 2  17 x  20 2 So. Mx    2  17  2  20 = . the variation of shear force is linear.3x – 10 = -17.20 kNm 2 at x = 5 m. 3 2 at x = 2 m.1 .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s x 3x 2 Bending moment (Mx) = -7x .102.(3x).5 kNm (v) A Cantilever beam carrying uniformly varying load from zero at free end and w/unit length at the fixed end For-2015 (IES.3x So.23 kN at x = 5 m. Mx = 0 2 at x = 2 m. Vx = . at x = 2 m. Vx = .

 x  . Mx   i.xdx = 0 2 Shear force  Vx   area of ABC (load triangle) 1 w  wx 2   .1 . Vx  0 WL  WL at x = L. Maximum Shear force (Vmax )  at fixed end 2 2 Bending moment Mx   load  distance from centroid of triangle ABC wx 2  x  wx 3 . at x = 0.x L L L w wL  Therefore total load (W)  w x dx  0  L . 6 6 For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 147 of 473 Rev. Vx   i. at x= 0.x   2 L  2L  The shear force variation is parabolic. Maximum Bending moment (Mmax )  at fixed end.e.e. w At this point load (wx) = .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance of x from the free end. Mx  0 wL2 wL2 at x = L.     2L  3  6L  The bending moment variation is cubic.

. GATE & PSUs) Page 148 of 473 Rev.x L Shear force  Vx   RA  area of triangle ANM wL 1  w  wL wx 2  .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Alternative way :  Integration method d  Vx  w We know that   load   . .x . W At this point load (Wx )  .1 .Mx =0  Mx wx 2 x  0 d(Mx )    0 2L .e.x  .dx w x3 wx 3 or Mx  .x = + - 2 2 L  2 2L  The shear force variation is parabolic. Vmax   2 2 at x  L.  . x . dx 2L Integrating both side we get  at x=0.dx L Integrating both side Vx x w  d  Vx    0 0 L . L 2 Again we know that d Mx  wx 2  Vx  - dx 2L wx 2 or d Mx   .dx w x2 or Vx   ..x . Maximum shear force.x dx L w or d(Vx )   . × - 2L 3 6L (vi) A Cantilever beam carrying gradually varying load from zero at fixed end and w/unit length at the free end wL2 wL Considering equilibrium we get. wL wL at x  0.MA 2L 3 For-2015 (IES. Vx  0 wx 2 2x Bending moment  Mx  =RA . Vx   i. MA  and Reaction RA   3 2 Considering any cross-section XX which is at a distance of x from the fixed end.

Mmax    .e.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s wL wx 3 wL2 = . Mx   i. 3 3 at x  L.M. Mx  0 (vii) A Cantilever beam carrying a moment M at free end Consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance of x from the free end. Shear force: Vx = 0 at any point. i. (viii) A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load „P‟ at its mid span. Bending moment (Mx) = -M at any point. For-2015 (IES.x . GATE & PSUs) Page 149 of 473 Rev.1 .Maximum B.e. Bending moment is constant throughout the length. - 2 6L 3  The bending moment variation is cubic wL2 wL2 at x = 0.

P = . maximum 4 PL Maximum bending moment. Pb Pa Considering equilibrium we get.x (its variation is linear) 2 PL at x = 0.x (its variation is linear) 2 2 2 PL at x = L/2 . Mx = 0 4 (ix) A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load „P‟ is not at its mid span. Mx = 0 and at x = L/2 Mx = i.e. Mmax  at x = L/2 (at mid-point) 4 In the region L/2 < x < L P PL P Mx = .1 . R A = RB = 2 Now consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance of x from left end A and section YY at a distance from left end A. For-2015 (IES.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s P Considering equilibrium we get. RA = and RB = L L Now consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section YY at a distance x from end A as shown in figure below.x – P(x . GATE & PSUs) Page 150 of 473 Rev.P/2 (it is constant) 2 Bending moment: In the region 0 < x < L/2 P Mx = . Shear force:In the region 0 < x < L/2 Vx = RA = + P/2 (it is constant) In the region L/2 < x < L P Vx = RA – P = .L/2)=  . as shown in figure below. Mx = and at x = L.

The loading is shown below diagram For-2015 (IES.a)= .1 .x (it is variation is linear) L Pab at x = 0. Mx = 0 and atx = a. Mx = 0 L (x) A Simply supported beam with two concentrated load „P‟ from a distance „a‟ both end.x – P.a) L  x = Pa (1 . Mx = (i.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Shear force: In the range 0 < x < a Pb Vx = RA = + (it is constant) L In the range a < x < L Pa Vx = R A .x + Pa (Put b = L . GATE & PSUs) Page 151 of 473 Rev.e. (it is constant) L Bending moment: In the range 0 < x < a Pb Mx = +RA.P = .Pa  1  )  L  Pab at x = a.x – P(x. Mx = and at x = L.x = . maximum) L In the range a < x < L Pb Mx = RA.

The bending moment varies linearly from the support. Shear and bending-moment diagrams for this loading condition are shown below. This section is applicable for any value of x just to the left of the applied force P. (a) By Method of Section wL Considering equilibrium we get RA = RB = 2 Now Consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance x from left end A. (xi) A Simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load (UDL) through out its length We will solve this problem by following two alternative ways. Only a constant bending moment of +Pa must be resisted by the beam in this zone. GATE & PSUs) Page 152 of 473 Rev. reaching a maximum of +Pa. For-2015 (IES. Shear force is not necessary to maintain equilibrium of a segment in this part of the beam. remains constant and is +P. A section applicable anywhere between the two applied forces.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Take a section at a distance x from the left support. Such a state of bending or flexure is called pure bending.1 . The shear.

Vx = 2 at x = L/2. d Mx   d Mx   For maximum B.x  2 2 (i. Vx = - 2 wL wx 2 Bending moment: M x  .1 . variation is linear) wL at x = 0.  w dx or d Vx   wdx wL Integrating both side we get (at x =0. Vx = 0 wL at x = L.e. variation is parabolic) at x = 0. S.M:  0 i .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Then the section view wL Shear force: Vx =  wx 2 (i. B. Mx = 0 at x = L. Vx = ) 2 For-2015 (IES. Mx = 0 Now we have to determine maximum bending moment and its position.F. Mmax  at x = L/2 8 (a) By Method of Integration Shear force: d Vx  We know that.e.M. Vx  0   Vx  dx  dx  wL L or  wx  0 or x 2 2 wL2 Therefore.e. GATE & PSUs) Page 153 of 473 Rev.maximum bending moment.

Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Vx x  d V    wdx wL x 0  2 wL or Vx   wx 2 wL or Vx   wx 2 Bending moment: d Mx  We know that.1 .x  2 2 Let us take an example: A loaded beam as shown below. GATE & PSUs) Page 154 of 473 Rev.  Vx dx  wL  or d  M x   Vx dx    wx  dx  2  Integrating both side we get (at x =0.M diagram. 200  4   2  3000  4  RB  8  0 or RB  1700N And RA  RB  200  4  3000 or RA  2100N Now consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance 'x' from left end A and as shown in figure For-2015 (IES. Draw its S.F and B. Vx =0) Mx  wL  x  d  M     2  wx  dx o x 0 wL wx 2 or M x  . Considering equilibrium we get M A  0 gives .

1 . x . Vx = 1300 N. Mx = 6800 Nm at x = 8 m.4) = 2100 x – 800 x + 1600 – 3000x +12000 = 13600 -1700 x at x = 4 m.200  4 – 3000 = -1700 Bending moment (Mx) = RA.   = 2100 x -100 x 2 2 at x = 0. Vx = -1700 N. Vx = -1700 N.m In the region 4 m< x < 8 m Shear force (Vx) = RA . GATE & PSUs) Page 155 of 473 Rev.200  4 (x-2) – 3000 (x. Mx = 0 For-2015 (IES. Mx = 6800 N. Mx = 0 at x = 4m.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s In the region 0 < x < 4m Shear force (Vx) = RA – 200x = 2100 – 200 x x Bending moment (Mx) = RA . Vx = 2100 N.x – 200 x .

1 Consider equilibrium of the beam = wL acting at a point C at a distance 2L/3 to the left end A. .XX as shown below. GATE & PSUs) Page 156 of 473 Rev.L . Load at section XX. 0 2 3 wL or R A  6 wL Similarly M A  0 gives RB  3 w The free body diagram of section A . 2 M B  0 gives wL L R A .1 .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (xii) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at one end and w/unit length at other span. (wx) = x L For-2015 (IES.

x  .  .  - 2L 6 2L Therefore the variation of shear force is parabolic wL at x = 0.e. wx 2 wL wx 2 Shear force (Vx)= RA .  0 or x  6 2L 3 3 wL  L  w  L  wL2 and Mmax         6  3  6L  3  9 3 wL2 i. Mmax  at x  L 9 3 3 For-2015 (IES.x  6 2L 3 6 6L The variation of BM is cubic at x = 0.1 . Mx = 0 d Mx   d Mx   For maximum BM. Vx = - 3 wL wx 2 x wL wx3 and Bending Moment (Mx )  . Vx = 6 wL at x = L. distance x/3 from XX section. Mx = 0 at x = L.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 1 w wx 2 The resulted of that part of the distributed load which acts on this free body is   x. x  applied 2 L 2L at a point Z. GATE & PSUs) Page 157 of 473 Rev.e. Vx  0   Vx  dx  dx  wL wx 2 L or . 0 i.

x  2 L L applied at a point. load at section XX (wx)  .1 .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (xiii) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at each end and w/unit length at mid span. Shear force (Vx): In the region 0 < x < L/2 For-2015 (IES.x. distance x/3 from section XX. 1 L  wL Consider equilibrium of the beam AB total load on the beam  2     w  2 2  2 wL Therefore RA  RB  4 2w The free body diagram of section A –XX as shown below. . GATE & PSUs) Page 158 of 473 Rev.x L 1 2w wx 2 The resultant of that part of the distributed load which acts on this free body is  .

Vx = 0 In the region of L/2 < x < L The Diagram will be Mirror image of AC.  0 or x  4 L 2 2 wL and Mmax  12 wL2 i.e.e. wL at x = 0.x. For maximum bending moment d Mx   d Mx   0 i. GATE & PSUs) Page 159 of 473 Rev. Mx = 0 wL2 at x = L/2. .  x / 3   - 4 2 L  4 3L The variation of BM is cubic at x = 0. Vx  0   Vx  dx  dx  wL wx 2 L or .x   . Mx = 12 In the region L/2 < x < L BM diagram will be mirror image of AC. Bending moment (Mx): In the region 0 < x < L/2 wL  1 2wx  wL wx3 Mx  .1 . Mmax  at x  L 12 2 For-2015 (IES.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 2 wx wL wx2  Vx   RA    L 4 L Therefore the variation of shear force is parabolic. Vx = 4 at x = L/4.

Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (xiv) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at mid span and w/unit length at each end. In the range 0 < x < L/2 wL wx 2  Vx 2   4 L wL wx 3 Mx 2  .x  2 2 And (2) a simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at each end and w/unit length at mind span. We now superimpose two beams as (1) Simply supported beam with a UDL through at its length wL  Vx 1   wx 2 wL wx 2 Mx 1  . GATE & PSUs) Page 160 of 473 Rev.x  4 3L Now superimposing we get Shear force (Vx): In the region of 0< x < L/2 For-2015 (IES.1 .

Vx = + 4 at x = L/2. Mx  24 (xv) A simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) w1/unit length at one end and w2/unit length at other end.x     . For-2015 (IES.Mx 2 =  wL wx 2   wL wx3  wx3 wx 2 wL  .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s   wL wx  2  wL Vx   Vx 1   Vx 2   -wx    . Mx  0 wx 2 at x  L / 2.1 . Vx = 0 In the region L/2 < x < L The diagram will be mirror image of AC Bending moment (Mx) = Mx 1 .x  2 2   4 3L  3L 2 4 The variation of BM is cubic at x  0.   2   4 L  w  x .L/2  2  L Therefore the variation of shear force is parabolic wL at x = 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 161 of 473 Rev.x     .

x3 3 6 2  6L  The BM variation is cubic.w1) at other end gives  w 2  w1    w 2  w1  x 2 Vx 2  6 2L L  w 2  w1  x 3  M x 2   w 2  w1  . Mx  0 For-2015 (IES.1 . Vx    w1  2w 2  6 w1L wL 1  w -w  Bending moment  Mx   Mx 1  Mx 2  .w1)/unit length at the other end. Then superimpose the two loadings.x  w1x 2   2 1  .x  1 .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s At first we will treat this problem by considering a UDL of identifying (w1)/unit length over the whole length and a varying load of zero at one end to (w2.x  6 6L Now superimposing we get w1L w 2L x2 Shear force  Vx    Vx 1 +  Vx 2  +  w1x   w 2  w1  3 6 2L  The SF variation is parabolic w1L w 2L L at x  0. GATE & PSUs) Page 162 of 473 Rev. Mx  0 at x  L.x  w1x 2 2 2 And(ii) simply supported beam with (GVL) zero at one end (w2. Vx     2w1  w 2  3 6 6 L at x  L. at x  0. . Consider a section XX at a distance x from left end A (i) Simply supported beam with UDL (w1) over whole length w1L  Vx 1   w1x 2 wL 1 Mx 1  1 .

The intensity of the x  load at any point is.1 . d  Vx  d Mx  We know that  load and  Vx dx dx d  Vx  x  Therefore  w sin   dx  L  x  d  Vx   w sin   dx  L  Integrating both side we get x  w cos   x   L   A   wL cos   x   A  d  V    w  sin  x L  dx or Vx      L    L  where. Where „x‟ is the distance from each end of the beam. GATE & PSUs) Page 163 of 473 Rev.  L  We will use Integration method as it is easier in this case. w x  w sin   .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (xvi) A Simply supported beam carrying a continuously distributed load. A  constant of Integration For-2015 (IES.

Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Again we know that d Mx   wL x    Vx or d Mx   Vx dx   cos    A  dx dx   L   Integrating both side we get wL x  sin    L   Ax + B  wL sin   x   Ax + B 2  Mx   L   2   L [Where B = constant of Integration] Now apply boundary conditions At x = 0.1 . Considering equilibrium we get For-2015 (IES. Mx = 0 This gives A = 0 and B = 0 x  wL wL  Shear force  Vx   cos   and Vmax  at x  0   L   wL2 x  And Mx  2 sin     L  wL2  Mmax  at x = L/2 2 (xvii) A Simply supported beam with a couple or moment at a distance „a‟ from left end. Mx = 0 and at x = L. GATE & PSUs) Page 164 of 473 Rev.

x . GATE & PSUs) Page 165 of 473 Rev.x – M = .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s  MA  0 gives M RB ×L +M  0 or RB   L and M B  0 gives M  R A ×L +M  0 or R A  L Now consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance „x‟ from left end A and another section YY at a distance „x‟ from left end A as shown in figure.x = .M L For-2015 (IES.x L In the region a< x < L M Shear force (Vx) = RA = L M Bending moment (Mx) = RA.1 . In the region 0 < x < a M Shear force (Vx) = RA = L M Bending moment (Mx) = RA.

a (in this case) and a force = P Therefore equivalent load diagram will be Considering equilibrium M A  0 gives -P.a P P. For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 166 of 473 Rev.a orRB =  and RA + RB = P gives RA =  2 L 2 L Now consider any cross-section XX which is at a distance „x‟ from left end A and another section YY at a distance „x‟ from left end A as shown in figure.(L/2) + P.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (xviii) A Simply supported beam with an eccentric load When the beam is subjected to an eccentric load. the eccentric load is to be changed into a couple = Force  (distance travel by force) = P.1 .a + RB  L = 0 P P.

x .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s In the region 0 < x < L/2 P P.L/2 ) – M PL  P Pa  =   .Deflections (Compatibility conditions) along with equilibrium equations should be used to find out reactions.M Diagram Reaction Bending Moment For-2015 (IES.1 .x 2 L  In the region L/2 < x < L P Pa P Pa Shear force (Vx) =  P =.6 Bending Moment diagram of Statically Indeterminate beam Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces cannot be found out from static equilibrium equations alone are called statically indeterminate beam. This type of beam requires deformation equation in addition to static equilibrium equations to solve for unknown forces.Equilibrium conditions sufficient to compute reactions. x – P.Pa 2  2 L  4. Type of Loading & B.a Shear force (Vx) =  2 L  P Pa  Bending moment (Mx) = RA . Statically indeterminate . Statically determinate .( x .  2 L 2 L Bending moment (Vx) =RA . x =   . GATE & PSUs) Page 167 of 473 Rev.

Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s R A= R B = P PL 2 MA = MB = - 8 wL wL2 M =M = - RA = RB = 2 A B 12 Pb 2 Pab 2 R A  3 (3a  b) MA = . GATE & PSUs) Page 168 of 473 Rev. L L2 Pa 2 Pa 2b RB  (3b  a) MB = . L3 L2 3wL R A= R B = 16 5wL Rc = 8 RA RB + .1 . - For-2015 (IES.

the beam changes curvature at this point of zero bending moment and this point is called the point of contra flexure. 4. The point C on the beam where the curvature changes from sagging to hogging is a point of contraflexure. Consider a loaded beam as shown below along with the B.9 General expression d4y  EI   dx 4 d3y  EI  Vx dx3 d2y  EI  Mx dx 2 For-2015 (IES. the bending moment diagram is partly positive and partly negative.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 4.8 Point of Contraflexure In a beam if the bending moment changes sign at a point.  There can be more than one point of contraflexure in a beam. GATE & PSUs) Page 170 of 473 Rev.M diagrams and deflection diagram. the point itself having zero bending moment.1 . In the deflected shape of the beam just below the bending moment diagram shows that left hand side of the beam is „sagging' while the right hand side of the beam is „hogging‟. In this diagram we noticed that for the beam loaded as in this case.

GATE & PSUs) Page 171 of 473 Rev.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s dy  = θ = slope dx  y=  = Deflection  Flexural rigidity = EI For-2015 (IES.1 .

GATE & PSUs) Page 172 of 473 Rev. which of the following statements is FALSE? [CE: GATE-2011] S Fixed R P 2L W Q L (a) The portion RS has a constant twisting moment with a value of 2WL (b) The portion QR has a varying twisting moment with a maximum value of WL. The shear force in a beam subjected to pure positive bending is…… (positive/zero/negative) [GATE-1995] GATE-2(i) For the cantilever bracket. with their free ends in contact through a rigid roller.) GATE-1.F. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Shear Force (S. and QR = 2L).Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE. IES. The equivalent load at a section close to the fixed end is: (a) Force F (b) Force F and bending moment FL (c) Force F and twisting moment FL (d) Force F bending moment F L. A concentrated force.) and Bending Moment (B. Two identical cantilever beams are supported as shown. the free ends will have [GATE-2005] (a) Equal deflections but not equal slopes (b) Equal slopes but not equal deflections (c) Equal slopes as well as equal deflections (d) Neither equal slopes nor equal deflections For-2015 (IES.M.1 . and twisting moment FL [GATE-1999] GATE-2. PQRS. F is applied (perpendicular to the plane of the figure) on the tip of the bent bar shown in Figure. After the load P is applied. loaded as shown in the adjoining figure(PQ = RS = L. (c) The portiona PQ has a varying bending moment with a maximum value of WL (d) The portion PQ has no twisting moment Cantilever GATE-3.

the bending moment at A is: [GATE-2005] PL 3PL (a) Zero (b) (c) (d) Indeterminate 2 2 Cantilever with Uniformly Distributed Load GATE-5. The bending moment at the point of application of the load is given by [GATE-2003] PL 2PL PL 2PL (a) (b) (c ) (d ) 3 3 9 9 For-2015 (IES. by hinging them together at B. A cantilever beam carries the anti- symmetric load shown. Qualitatively. A concentrated load of P acts on a simply supported beam of span L at a distance 3 from the left support. GATE & PSUs) Page 173 of 473 Rev. the correct bending moment diagram for this beam is: [GATE-2005] Simply Supported Beam Carrying Concentrated Load L GATE-7. where ωo is the peak intensity of the distributed load. With the load P acting as shown.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s GATE-4.1 . A beam is made up of two identical bars AB and BC. The shapes of the bending moment diagram for a uniform cantilever beam carrying a uniformly distributed load over its length is: [GATE-2001] (a) A straight line (b) A hyperbola (c) An ellipse (d) A parabola Cantilever Carrying load Whose Intensity varies GATE-6. The end A is built-in (cantilevered) and the end C is simply- supported.

List-I List-II [CE: GATE-2003] A. GATE & PSUs) Page 175 of 473 Rev. A simply supported beam of length 'l' is subjected to a symmetrical uniformly varying load with zero intensity at the ends and intensity w (load per unit length) at the mid span.84 downward Simply Supported Beam Carrying a Load whose Intensity varies Uniformly from Zero at each End to w per Unit Run at the MiD Span GATE-16.31 kN-m [CE: GATE-2004] 20 kN 10 kN 10 kN 5 kN /m E B D F A C G H 4m 4m 4m GATE-14(i)The magnitude of the shear force immediate to the left and immediate to the right of section B are. What is the maximum bending moment? [IAS-2004] 3wl 2 wl 2 wl 2 5wl 2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 8 12 24 12 GATE-16(i)For the simply supported beam of length L. For-2015 (IES.84 kN and 10.84 kN upwards and the hogging moment at section E is 10. 1. For the loading shown.16 kN GATE-14(ii)The vertical reaction at support H is [CE: GATE-2004] (a) 15 kN upward (b) 9. subjected toa uniformly distributed moment M kN-m per unit length as shown in the figure. shear force immediate to the right of section E is 9. respectively [CE: GATE-2004] (a) 0 and 20 kN (b) 10 kN and 10 kN (c) 20 kN and 0 (d) 9. The magnitude of the vertical reaction force in N at the left support is [GATE-2013] (a) zero (b) L/3 (c) L/ (d) 2L/ GATE-17.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s distributed load of magnitude 5 kN/m.84 kN upward (c) 15 kN downward (d) 9. Match the load with the corresponding bending moment diagram. where the distance x is measured from the left support.1 . the bending moment (in kN- m) at the mid-span of the beam is [CE: GATE-2010] Mk N -mp eru nitle n g th L M (a) zero (b) M (c) ML (d) L GATE-16(ii) A simply supported beam of length L is subjected to a varying distributed load ???(???/?) Nm-1. List-I shows different loads acting on a beam and List-II shows different bending moment distributions.

The bending moment diagram for a beam is given below: [CE: GATE-2005] b 200 kN-m a 100 kN-m a b 0. 3.5m 0. 50 kN (d) 100 kN.5m 1m 1m The shear force at sections aa and bb respectively are of the magnitude. 5. C. 2. GATE & PSUs) Page 176 of 473 Rev. 150 kN (b) zero. Codes A B C D A B C D (a) 4 2 1 3 (b) 5 4 1 3 (c) 2 5 3 1 (d) 2 4 1 3 GATE-18.1 . A simply supported beam AB has the bending moment diagram as shown in the following figure: [CE: GATE-2006] The beam is possibly under the action of following loads (a) Couples of M at C and 2M at D (b) Couples of 2M at C and M at D For-2015 (IES. 4. 100 kN (c) zero. D. (a) 100 kN.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s B. 100 kN GATE-19.

) and Bending Moment (B. It carries a force of 3 kN as shown in the above figure. GATE & PSUs) Page 177 of 473 Rev. q q 2 2 q 2+ –q L L L 2 4 4 Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 2 4 (b) 3 4 2 1 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 2 4 3 1 Previous 20-Years IES Questions Shear Force (S.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s M 2M (c) Concentrated loads of at C and at D L L M (d) Concentrated loads of at C and couple of 2M at D L GATE-20.M. 4 C. Match List-I (Shear Force Diagrams) beams with List-II (Diagrams of beams with supports and loading) and select the correct answer by using the codes given below the lists: [CE: GATE-2009] List-I List-II 1 A. D. q / uni tle ng th q q q 2 + 2 +2 L L L –q q – q 4 4 2 2 2 4. L – q L 4 2 q q q 2 2 B. q/u nit len gt h q / un i tle ng th q L q L L L L 2 + 4 + 4 4 – q 2. The bending moment at B will be (a) 3 kN-m (b) 2 kN-m (c) 1 kN-m (d) Zero For-2015 (IES.) IES-1. L L L q L 4 4 4+ –q L 3.F.1 . A lever is supported on two hinges at A and C.

1 . The shearing force will also be constant over this length and is given by [IES-1996] (a) M/l (b) M/2l (c) M/4l (d) None of the above IES-4. 2 and 3 IES-5a Shear force and bending moment 200 N diagrams for a beam A D ABCD are shown in B C 300 N figure. It can be concluded that 10 m 25 m (a) The beam has three supports (b) End A is fixed (c) A couple of 2000 3000 Nm 3000 Nm Nm acts at C (d) A uniformly distributed load 1000 Nm is confined to A B C D portion BC only 10 m 10 m 15 m [IES-2010] Cantilever IES-6. dV/dx = w 3. If the depth of the section is constant. then 1. dw/dx = y (the deflection of the beam at the section) Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1. The bending moment at B is: [IES-1995] (a) Zero (b) 100 kg-m (c) 150 kg-m (d) 200 kg-m IES-7. The beam and the cantilever carry forces of 100 kg and 200 kg respectively. then its width will vary as [IES-1995] (a) M (b) M (c) M2 (d) 1/M IES-5.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s [IES-1998] IES-2. GATE & PSUs) Page 178 of 473 Rev. M represents the bending moment. The given figure shows a beam BC simply supported at C and hinged at B (free end) of a cantilever AB. A beam subjected to a load P is shown in the given figure. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [IES-1993. V the shear force and w the intensity of loading. The bending moment (M) is constant over a length segment (I) of a beam. dM/dx = V 2. Consider the following statements: [IES-1995] If at a section distant from one of the ends of the beam. A rectangular section beam subjected to a bending moment M varying along its length is required to develop same maximum bending stress at any cross-section. 2011] List-I List-II (Condition of beam) (Bending moment diagram) For-2015 (IES. The bending moment at the support AA of the beam will be (a) PL (b) PL/2 (c) 2PL (d) zero [IES-1997] IES-3.

(b) Overhung beam having equal overhang at both supports and carrying equal concentrated loads acting in the same direction at the free ends. GATE & PSUs) Page 179 of 473 Rev.1 . Triangle end of a cantilever B. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: [IES-2009] Code: A B C D A B C D (a) 1 5 2 4 (b) 4 5 2 3 (c) 1 3 4 5 (d) 4 2 5 3 For-2015 (IES. If the shear force acting at every section of a beam is of the same magnitude and of the same direction then it represents a [IES-1996] (a) Simply supported beam with a concentrated load at the centre. A uniformly distributed load  (in kN/m) is acting over the entire length of a 3 m long cantilever beam. Cantilever carrying uniformly distributed 2. (d) Simply supported beam having concentrated loads of equal magnitude and in the same direction acting at equal distances from the supports. A beam having load at the centre and 4. what is the value of  ? [IES-2009] (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 IES-10. If the shear force at the midpoint of cantilever is 6 kN. Rectangle supported at the ends Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 3 4 1 2 IES-8. Cubic parabola load over the whole length C. (c) Cantilever subjected to concentrated load at the free end. Parabola from zero at the fixed end to maximum at the support D. Cantilever carrying linearly varying load 3.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s A. Cantilever with Uniformly Distributed Load IES-9. Subjected to bending moment at the 1.

it indicates that the beam is loaded by a uniformly distributed moment all along the length. The maximum shear force in the beam will be (a) Zero (b) W (c) 2W (d) 4W [IES-1998] IES-19.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-16. Which of the following statements is true? [IES-2013] (a) The bending moment is minimum at the mid-span For-2015 (IES. A loaded beam is shown in the figure. then the shear force will [IES-1997] (a) Also have a constant value everywhere along its length (b) Be zero at all sections along the beam (c) Be maximum at the centre and zero at the ends (d) zero at the centre and maximum at the ends IES-20. If a beam is subjected to a constant bending moment along its length. The bending moment diagram of the beam is best represented as: [IES-2000] IES-21. GATE & PSUs) Page 181 of 473 Rev. Bending moment over the length between the supports [IES-2003] (a) Is zero (b) Is a non-zero constant (c) Varies uniformly from one support to the other (d) Is maximum at mid-span IES-21(i).1 . A simply supported beam has equal over-hanging lengths and carries equal concentrated loads P at ends. A beam simply supported at equal distance from the ends carries equal loads at each end. A simply supported beam is loaded as shown in the above figure. [IES-2002] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-17. The maximum bending moment in a simply supported beam of length L loaded by a concentrated load W at the midpoint is given by [IES-1996] WL WL WL (a) WL (b) (c) (d) 2 4 8 IES-18. Reason (R): The BMD is a representation of internal forces in the beam and not the moment applied on the beam. Assertion (A): If the bending moment diagram is a rectangle.

For the beam shown in the above figure. A beam is simply supported at its ends and is loaded by a couple at its mid-span as shown in figure A. The bending moment diagram for the case shown below will be q as shown in (a) (b) (c) (d) [IES-1992] IES-23.1 . Constant bending moment over span "l" will occur in [IES-1995] IES-25. Shear force diagram for the beam is given by the figure. GATE & PSUs) Page 182 of 473 Rev. [IES-1994] (a) B (b) C (c) D (d) E For-2015 (IES. the elastic curve between the supports B and C will be: (a) Circular (b) Parabolic (c) Elliptic (d) A straight line [IES-1998] IES-26. Which one of the following portions of the loaded beam shown in the given figure is subjected to pure bending? (a) AB (b)DE (c) AE (d) BD [IES-1999] IES-24.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (b) The bending moment is minimum at the support (c) The bending moment varies gradually between the supports (d) The bending moment is uniform between the supports IES-22.

Shear force changes sign C. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IES-2000] List-I List-II A. diagram from S. Shear force is zero over the portion of the beam Code: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 4 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4 Loading and B. Diagram IES-34. Point of contraflexure B.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s The Points of Contraflexure IES-32.F.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 184 of 473 Rev. The point· of contraflexure is a point where: [IES-2005] (a) Shear force changes sign (b) Bending moment changes sign (c) Shear force is maximum (d) Bending moment is maximum IES-33. Bending moment is zero 3.M. Bending moment is maximum or minimum 2. I correspond to the shear force diagram in [IES-1999] IES-35. Slope of shear force diagram is zero over the portion of the beam D. Bending moment is constant 1. Loading is constant 4. The bending moment diagram shown in Fig. Bending moment distribution in a built beam is shown in the given The shear force distribution in the beam is represented by [IES-2001] For-2015 (IES.

Then the load acting on the beam is: (a) A concentrated force at C (b) A uniformly distributed load over the whole length of the beam (c) Equal and opposite moments applied at A and B (d) A moment applied at C [IES-1994] IES-39. Bending moment in the portion BC of the beam [IES-1996] (a) Is a non-zero constant (b) Is zero (c) Varies linearly from B to C (d) Varies parabolically from B to C IES-37. The given figure shows the shear force diagram for the beam ABCD.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IES-36. Figure shown above represents the BM diagram for a simply supported beam. The beam is subjected to which one of the following? (a) A concentrated load at its mid- length (b) A uniformly distributed load over its length (c) A couple at its mid-length (d) Couple at 1/4 of the span from each end [IES-2006] IES-38.1 . If the bending moment diagram for a simply supported beam is of the form given below. The figure given below shows a bending moment diagram for the beam CABD: Load diagram for the above beam will be: [IES-1993] For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 185 of 473 Rev.

A part of shear force diagram of the beam is shown in the figure If the bending moment at B is -9kN. The shear force diagram shown in the following figure is that of a [IES-1994] (a) Freely supported beam with symmetrical point load about mid-span. then bending moment at C is [IES-2014] (a) 40kN (b) 58kN (c) 116kN (d) -80kN Statically Indeterminate beam IES-41 Which one of the following is NOT a statically indeterminate structure? P T C (b) A B (a) B A C For-2015 (IES.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IES-40. (b) Freely supported beam with symmetrical uniformly distributed load about mid-span (c) Simply supported beam with positive and negative point loads symmetrical about the mid- span (d) Simply supported beam with symmetrical varying load about mid-span IES-40(i). GATE & PSUs) Page 186 of 473 Rev.1 .

M..M.1 . B.F. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-3. The ratio of the area under the bending moment diagram to the flexural rigidity between any two points along a beam gives the change in [IAS-1998] (a) Deflection (b) Slope (c) Shear force (d) Bending moment Cantilever IAS-4. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-2.F.) and torque at the fixed end of the handle have been determined respectively as 400 N. and torque are correct (b) S. and torque are correct For-2015 (IES. Assertion (A): The change in bending moment between two cross-sections of a beam is equal to the area of the shearing force diagram between the two sections. those of [IAS-1999] (a) S.[IAS-1998] Reason (R): The change in the shearing force between two cross-sections of beam due to distributed loading is equal to the area of the load intensity diagram between the two sections.) and Bending Moment (B. [IAS-2004] Reason (R): The bending moment variation along the beam length is zero. Bending Moment (B.) IAS-1. Among these values. A beam AB of length 2 L having a concentrated load P at its mid-span is hinge supported at its two ends A and B on two identical cantilevers as shown in the given figure. GATE & PSUs) Page 187 of 473 Rev. A load perpendicular to the plane of the handle is applied at the free end as shown in the given figure. and torque are correct (d) S.M.F.).F. 340 Nm and 100 by a student. and B. The correct value of bending moment at A is (a) Zero (b) PLl2 (c) PL (d) 2 PL [IAS-1995] IAS-5. The values of Shear Forces (S.F. are correct (c) B. Assertion (A): A beam subjected only to end moments will be free from shearing force.M.M.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (c) Steel (d) F Y Aliminium X T [IES-2010] O Z Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Shear Force (S.

A structural member ABCD is loaded as shown in the given figure. The shearing force at any section on the length BC of the member is: (a) Zero (b) P (c) Pa/k (d) Pk/a [IAS-1996] Cantilever Carrying load Whose Intensity varies IAS-9. A cantilever carrying a uniformly distributed load is shown in Fig. Select the correct B.M. If the SF diagram for a beam is a triangle with length of the beam as its base. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true For-2015 (IES. I. The beam is loaded as shown in Fig.1 . both the shear force and bending moment diagrams are triangular in nature without any change in sign. diagram of the cantilever. I.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Cantilever with Uniformly Distributed Load IAS-6. Select the correct B.M. Assertion (A): In a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load at mid-span. [IAS-1999] Reason (R): When the shear force at any section of a beam is either zero or changes sign. GATE & PSUs) Page 188 of 473 Rev. [IAS-1999] IAS-8. diagram [IAS-1999] Simply Supported Beam Carrying Concentrated Load IAS-10. the beam is: [IAS-2007] (a) A cantilever with a concentrated load at its free end (b) A cantilever with udl over its whole span (c) Simply supported with a concentrated load at its mid-point (d) Simply supported with a udl over its whole span IAS-7. the bending moment at that section is maximum.

2 Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 3 1 2 4 (c) 3 2 1 4 (d) 2 4 1 3 For-2015 (IES. 8 w D. Maximum shear force 2.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IAS-11.1 . match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IAS-1997] List-I List-II 5w 4 A. 384 E I B. Which one of the following figures represents the correct shear force diagram for the loaded beam shown in the given figure I? [IAS-1998. For the shear force to be uniform throughout the span of a simply supported beam. it should carry which one of the following loadings? [IAS-2007] (a) A concentrated load at mid-span (b) Udl over the entire span (c) A couple anywhere within its span (d) Two concentrated loads equal in magnitude and placed at equal distance from each support IAS-12. For a simply supported beam of length fl' subjected to downward load of uniform intensity w. GATE & PSUs) Page 189 of 473 Rev. Magnitude of maximum bending moment 4. IAS-1995] Simply Supported Beam Carrying a Uniformly Distributed Load IAS-13. w w 4 C. Maximum deflection 3. Slope of shear force diagram 1.

A simply supported beam of length 'l' is subjected to a symmetrical uniformly varying load with zero intensity at the ends and intensity w (load per unit length) at the mid span. The reaction at the right support is: [IAS-2003] wl wl wl wl (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 5 4 3 Simply Supported Beam with Equal Overhangs and carrying a Uniformly Distributed Load IAS-16. Bending moment is constant over the entire length of the beam 3. Consider the following statements for a simply supported beam subjected to a couple at its mid-span: [IAS-2004] 1. Shear force is constant over the entire length of the beam 4. Bending moment is zero at the ends and maximum at the centre 2. Shear force is zero over the entire length of the beam Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1. A simply supported beam of span l is subjected to a uniformly varying load having zero intensity at the left support and w N/m at the right support. 3 and 4 (b) 2.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Simply Supported Beam Carrying a Load whose Intensity varies Uniformly from Zero at each End to w per Unit Run at the MiD Span IAS-14. 3 and 4 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 IAS-17. Match List-I (Beams) with List-II (Shear force diagrams) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IAS-2001] Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 2 5 3 (b) 1 4 5 3 (c) 1 4 3 5 (d) 4 2 3 5 For-2015 (IES. What is the maximum bending moment? [IAS-2004] 3wl 2 wl 2 wl 2 5wl 2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 8 12 24 12 Simply Supported Beam carrying a Load whose Intensity varies IAS-15. GATE & PSUs) Page 190 of 473 Rev.1 .

1 . is known as the point of [IAS-1996] (a) Inflexion (b) Maximum stress (c) Zero shear force (d) Contra flexure IAS-19. Assertion (A): In a loaded beam. A point. [IAS 1994] Reason (R): When shear force at any section of a beam is zero or changes sign. GATE & PSUs) Page 191 of 473 Rev. the bending moment at that section is maximum. Which one of the given bending moment diagrams correctly represents that of the loaded beam shown in figure? [IAS-1997] For-2015 (IES.F. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Loading and B. The bending moment for a loaded beam is shown below: [IAS-2003] The loading on the beam is represented by which one of the followings diagrams? (a) (b) (c) (d) IAS-22. The shear force diagram of a loaded beam is shown in the following figure: The maximum Bending Moment of the beam is: (a) 16 kN-m (b) 11 kN-m (c) 28 kN-m (d) 8 kN-m [IAS-1997] IAS-21. diagram from S. if the shear force diagram is a straight line parallel to the beam axis. along the length of a beam subjected to loads. then the bending moment is a straight line inclined to the beam axis.M.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s The Points of Contraflexure IAS-18. Diagram IAS-20. where bending moment changes its sign.

Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IAS-23. GATE & PSUs) Page 192 of 473 Rev. The bending moment diagram for a simply supported beam is a rectangle over a larger portion of the span except near the supports. The shear force diagram is shown above for a loaded beam. What type of load does the beam carry? [IAS-2007] (a) A uniformly distributed symmetrical load over a larger portion of the span except near the supports (b) A concentrated load at mid-span (c) Two identical concentrated loads equidistant from the supports and close to mid-point of the beam (d) Two identical concentrated loads equidistant from the mid-span and close to supports For-2015 (IES.1 . The corresponding bending moment diagram is represented by [IAS-2003] IAS-24.

Ans. Ans. (b) GATE-3. But slope unequal. Ans. (b) GATE-5.1 . (d) GATE-6. GATE & PSUs) Page 193 of 473 Rev. (c) wx 2 wx 3 Mx   2 6L GATE-7. (b) GATE-9. (c) For-2015 (IES. Ans. (c) GATE-2. Ans. Ans. Ans. GATE-4. because after deflection they also will be in contact. Ans. deflection must be same. Zero GATE-2(i).Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE ANSWERS GATE-1. (a) As it is rigid roller. Ans. Ans. (d)  L   2L  P   Pab  3   3   2PL Mc   l L 9 GATE-8.

75  3 GATE-12.(b) For-2015 (IES. Ans.075  2 GATE-14(i) Ans.1 .75kNm But not in choice. Ans.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 3000 N/m R1 R2 R1  R 2  3000  2  6000N R1  4  3000  2  1  0 R1  1500.375 10 N  mm 6 3.5  62 GATE-13. Ans.12   0.75mm 384 EI 384 200  109  4. Nearest choice (a) 8 8 32M 32  6. R1  3000   x  2   0 for x  2m} x  2. S.375 106  50 12   67.5 MPa 30 1003 wl2 120  152 GATE-11. (a) Moment of inertia (I) =   4.F. (a) The moment about B from left = 0 If RA  2  0  RA  0  Shear force immediate to the left of B  RA  0 Shear force immediate to the right of B  20kN() GATE-14(ii) Ans. (b) Binding stress will be maximum at the outer surface So taking y = 50 mm ld 3 m  50 and I  &  3 12 ld 12 x2 m x  1.22  103 m4 12 12 5 wl4 5 120  103  154 max    m  93. (a) Mmax   kNm  3375kNm 8 8 bh3 0.5 m.5 103[2000  x]  2  m2500  3. (a) Mmax    6. GATE & PSUs) Page 194 of 473 Rev. Ans.75  103 GATE-14. Ans.98MPa  d3    0. (a)    Pa  162. GATE-10.22  103 wl2 1. at any section x from end A. eqn .

(b) GATE-16(i).  Moment at the mid-span L L  M  M 0 2 2 Infact the bending moment through out the beam is zero.37  RH   9. GATE-16(ii) Ans. (a) For-2015 (IES.31kN -m 1m G RG H RH 1m 4m Taking moments about G RH  4  5  4  2  10. Taking moments about left hand support. Ans. (b) GATE-17. Ans. Ans.31  9. (c) The bending moment to the left as well as right of section aa is constant which means shear force is zero at aa.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 10 kN 5 kN /m E 9. 200  100 Shear force at bb   50kN 2 GATE-19.84 kN 4 GATE-16. GATE & PSUs) Page 195 of 473 Rev. Ans.84kN F 10. we get VR  L  ML  0  VR  M Thus. the reaction at the left hand support VL will be M downwards.84  2  10  1  0 39.1 . (a) The shear force diagram is C D A B M – M L L SFD M 2M RA Loading diagram RB 3M M R A  RB   3L L GATE-20. (a) Let the reaction at the right hand support be VR upwards. Ans. Ans. (d) GATE-18.

(b) IES-11. (d) Dimensional analysis gives choice (d) M bh3 IES-4.1 . (a) For-2015 (IES. (a) IES-7. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 196 of 473 Rev. Ans. (b) Uniformly distributed load on cantilever beam. Ans. (b) IES-8. IES-12. Ans. Net moment at AA is PL/2. Ans. (b) IES-14. and I I 12 IES-5. IES-3. (c) A vertical increase in BM diagram entails there is a point moment similarly a vertical increase in SF diagram entails there is a point shear force. Ans. Ans. IES-6.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IES IES-1. (c) IES-9. Ans. (a)  const. (a) PL IES-2.(b) Load P at end produces moment in 2 anticlockwise direction. Load P at end produces moment of PL in clockwise direction. Ans. Ans. (b) IES-5a Ans. (d) IES-13. Ans. (c) Shear force at mid point of cantilever l  6 2  3  6 2 62    4 kN / m 3 IES-10.

1 .Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 4 M = 37. Ans. Ans. Ans. (d) IES-17. then taking moments about B. Ans. (d) IES-25. Ans. (a) IES-16. (d) IES-27. Ans. Ans. (d) If F be the shearing force at section x (at point A). Ans. (d) IES-22. (d) Pure bending takes place in the section between two weights W IES-24. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. (b) IES-20. (c) IES-18. (b) IES-21(i). GATE & PSUs) Page 197 of 473 Rev. (a) IES-23. Ans. F x 2L = Pc Pc Pc or F  Thus shearing force in zone x  2L 2L IES-28.5  KNm = 50  106 Nmm 3 IES-15. (b) IES-26. (c) IES-19. Ans. (a) IES-21. (b) For-2015 (IES. Ans.

(b) If shear force is zero. (a) Load diagram at (a) is correct because B. Ans. (d) A vertical line in centre of B. diagram will be curved line.M.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s WL B. (b) The shear force diagram is possible on simply supported beam with symmetrical varying load about mid span. (c) For-2015 (IES. IES-35.M. (a) IES-36. (d) IES-32. B. Ans. B.D. diagram between A and B is parabola which is possible with uniformly distributed load in this region.1 . diagram is possible when a moment is applied there. Ans. (d) 1 WL Total load  L  W  2 2   WL 1  W  WL Wx 2 Sx   x. (a) IES-37.   X    4 2  L  4 L    2  WL Smax at x 0  4 IES-30.MMax  M 4 Where the Load is U. Ans. (c) IES-38. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 198 of 473 Rev. Ans. Ans. IES-39. (b) IES-33. Maximum Bending Moment  W  L  2      L  8  WL 1  WL  M     8 2  4  2 IES-29. Ans. Ans. IES-40.M. (b) IES-34. (b) IES-41 Ans. Ans. will also be zero. IES-40(i) Ans. Ans. Ans. (d) IES-31.M.L. If shear force varies linearly with length.

(a) IAS-2. (c) Mx   wx   2 2 IAS-8. (c) IAS-12. Ans. (d) For-2015 (IES. (a)Because of hinge support between beam AB and cantilevers.2   240Nm Torque  400  0. Ans. Ans. (d) A is false. IAS-5. Ans. (d) IAS-10.1 . (b) IAS-4.25  100Nm IAS-6. (b) x wx 2 IAS-7. (a) IAS-9. Ans. (d) S. the bending moment can't be transmitted to cantilever. Ans. (a) IAS-13. Ans. Ans.4  0. Ans. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 199 of 473 Rev. (b) IAS-3. Thus bending moment at points A and B is zero. Ans.F  400N and BM  400   0.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IAS IAS-1. Ans. Ans. IAS-11.

Ans. (c) IAS-17. Ans.1 . (d) IAS-18. Ans. (d) IAS-19. (d) IAS-22. Ans.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s IAS-14. (d) IAS-16. (a) IAS-24. (b) IAS-15. Ans. Ans. (b) IAS-20. (a) IAS-21. GATE & PSUs) Page 200 of 473 Rev. (c) Bending moment does not depends on moment of inertia. Ans. (d) For-2015 (IES. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. IAS-23.

F =12.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-2005 Question: A simply supported beam of length 10 m carries a uniformly varying load whose intensity varies from a maximum value of 5 kN/m at both ends to zero at the centre of the beam.5 x2  V = -5x +  12.   0 These two bounday condition gives a = 5 and b = -1    5 x dV We know that shear force(V). It is desired to replace the beam with another simply supported beam which will be subjected to the same maximum 'bending moment‟ and „shear force' as in the case of the previous one. M = 0 gives C2  0 M = 12.5 2 It is clear that maximum S.2.F = 12.5 x  C2 2 2 6 at x = 0.5 kN dM For a beam V dx x2 5x 2 x 3 or .5x 2  x 3 / 6 For-2015 (IES. =5 kN / m and at x = 5. For 0  x  5 m we get rate of loading   a  bx [as lineary varying] at x=0.   dx x2 or V = dx =   (5  x )dx  5 x   c1 2 at x = 0.5)dx = . Answer: X 5KN/m 5KN/m B X RA 10m RB 10 Total load on beam =5×  25 kN 2 25  RA  RB   12. GATE & PSUs) Page 201 of 473 Rev.5 kN (RB ) so c 1  12.5 kN 2 Take a section X-X from B at a distance x.5x . Determine the length and rate of loading for the second beam if it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over its whole length.   12.1 . M = Vdx   (5 x   12. Draw the variation of 'SF' and 'BM' in both the cases.

5  2. GATE & PSUs) Page 202 of 473 Rev.83 (ii ) dx 2 2  2  8 Solving (i ) & (ii ) we get L=6.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s dM for Maximum bending moment at 0 dx x2 or-5x+  12.F .83 kNm X wKNm A B RA L RB X Now we consider a simply supported beam carrying uniform distributed load over whole length ( KN/m). x  5 means at centre.at section X-X W Vx    x 2 Vmax  12. x  10 x  25  0 or .5 kN B. So.5  52  53 / 6  20.5  0 2 2 or . WL Here R A  RB  2 S.75kN/m For-2015 (IES.666m and =3.1 . Mmax  12.5  2.M at section X-X W Wx 2 Mx   x 2 2 2 2 dM x WL   L  WL       20.

M to be maximum we dM x have to  0 that gives.e.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Conventional Question IES-1996 Question: A Uniform beam of length L is carrying a uniformly distributed load w per unit length and is simply supported at its ends. at mid point.1 . dx W Bending Moment Diagram x  0 + 2 or x=  i. What would be the maximum bending moment and where does it occur? Answer: By symmetry each support W reactionis equal i. 2   2   w 2 And Mmax=       2 2 2  2  8 Conventional Question AMIE-1996 Question: Calculate the reactions at A and D for the beam shown in figure. For-2015 (IES. Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams showing all important values.e. GATE & PSUs) Page 203 of 473 Rev. RA=RB= 2 B.M at the section x-x is W Wx 2 Mx=+ x 2 2 For the B.

Show U. Let ue assume RA= reaction at roller A. and RDH horizontal component of the reaction at the hinged support D. and a horizontal load of 2 3 kN as shown. For-2015 (IES. (1 kN/m) over the port AB. This will be equivalent to a anticlockwise couple of the value of (4 x 0. For reaction and A and D. In the figure. RDV vertically component of the reaction at the hinged support D.5 m away from the point C.5) = 2 kNm acting at C together with a vertical downward load of 4 kN at C. a point load of 2 kN vertically downward at F. GATE & PSUs) Page 204 of 473 Rev. a load of 4 kN is applied through a bracket 0.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Answer: Equivalent figure below shows an overhanging beam ABCDF supported by a roller support at A and a hinged support at D.1 . Now apply equal and opposite load of 4 kN at C.D.L.

. takings moments about D.1 .08kN 5 Inclination with horizontal    tan1  55. we get 2  R A  6  2  1  1 2    2  2   2  4  2 2  or R A  3kN Also R A  RDV  1 2   4  2  8 or RDV  5kNvetrically upward  R   R    2 2 2  Re action at D.5kNm MA  0 Conventional Question GATE-1997 Question: Construct the bending moment and shearing force diagrams for the beam shown in the figure. GATE & PSUs) Page 205 of 473 Rev.F.30 2 3 S.Calculation : MF  0 MD  2  1  2kNm MC   2 1  2   5  2  2  6kNm The bending moment increases from 4kNm in i.Calculation : VF  2kN VD  2  5  3kN VC  3  4  1kN VB  1kN VA  1  1 2   3kN B.e. RD  DV DH  52  2 3  6.M. 2 1  2   5  2  to 6kNm as shown MB  2 1  2  2   5  2   4  2  2  4kNm  2 1 MP  2  1  2  2    5  2  2  1  4  2  1  2  1 1  2 2  2.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Obviously RDH= 2 3 kN (  ) In order to determine RA. Answer: For-2015 (IES.

Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Calculation: First find out reaction at B and E.1 .5  50  40 or RB  45kN  RE  55kN S.5   100  50  3  40  5 2 or RE  55kN Also. 0.5  20  0.5  50  2  67.5   2. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the combined beam AC.5kNm The bending moment increases from  62.5kNm to 100.5 RE  4.5 MB  20  0. RB  RE  20  0. GATE & PSUs) Page 206 of 473 Rev. Taking moments. about B.F. The assembly is supported and loaded as shown in figure below. Calculation : VF  40kN VE  40  55  15kN VD  15  50  35kN VB  35  45  10kN B. clearly labelling the important values. we get 0.5kNm MC  40  4  55  3.5  2.5kNm 2 Conventional Question GATE-1996 Question: Two bars AB and BC are connected by a frictionless hinge at B. For-2015 (IES. Also indicate your sign convention.M.Calculation : MG  0 MF  0 ME  40  0.5  20kNm MD  40  2  55  1.

GATE & PSUs) Page 207 of 473 Rev.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Answer: There shall be a vertical reaction at hinge B and we can split the problem in two parts. Fy  0.100  2  100  3 R2  4  0 500 or R2   125kN 4  R1  200  125  75kN Again. 5 mm thick and 1. and R1  R2  200kN From M B  0.5kNm. Then the FBD of each part is shown below Calculation: Referring the FBD. Conventional Question IES-1998 Question: A tube 40 mm outside diameter. For-2015 (IES.1 .5  112.5 m long simply supported at 125 mm from each end carries a concentrated load of 1 kN at each extreme end. R3  R1  75kN and M  75  1. we get.

a  125mm  0.03m.5.M  W  a  1 103  0.03    8.125m Calculation: (ii) Radius of coordinate R As per bending equation: M  E   I y R EI or R     i M Here.59  108 m4 4 4  64  Substituting the values in equation i  . GATE & PSUs) Page 208 of 473 Rev. sketch the shearing force and bending moment diagrams. di  d0  2t  40  2  5  30mm  0. d0  40mm  0. W  1kN.1 . Take the modulus of elasticity of the material as 208 GN/m2 Answer: (i) Given. l  1. (ii) Calculate the radius of curvature and deflection at mid-span.125  125Nm  I 64 d 4 0  d14     0.59  10 8 R  142. we get 208  108  8.04    0.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s (i) Neglecting the weight of the tube.9m 125 Deflection at mid  span : d2 y EI  Mx   Wx  W  x  a    Wx  Wx  Wa   Wa dx 2 For-2015 (IES.04m. E  208GN / m2  208  102 N / m2.

5       208  109  8. the beam changes curvature at this point of zero bending moment and this point is called the point of contra flexure. we get dy EI   Wax  C1 dx 1 dy When.59  10 8  8 2 2   0.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s Integrating. GATE & PSUs) Page 209 of 473 Rev. x  l / 2 Wa   l / 2  l  l / 2  a2 al  2 y      EI  2 2 2 2   Wa  l 2 a 2 al       EI  8 2 2  1 1000  0.125 2 0.. y  0 Wa3 Wa2l  0   C2 2 2 Wa3 Wa2l or C2   2 2 Wax 2 Walx  Wa3 Wa2l   EIy       2 2  2 2  Wa  x 2 lx a2 al  or y      EI  2 2 2 2  At mid  span.001366m  1.125  1. the point itself having zero bending moment. we get x 2 Wal EIy   Wa  x  C2 2 2 When x  a.i.e.52 0. For-2015 (IES.125 1. x .5kN/m 20kN A C B D 4M 4M 2m Answer: In a beam if the bending moment changes sign at a point.1 .366mm It will be in upward direction Conventional Question IES-2001 Question: What is meant by point of contraflexure or point of inflexion in a beam? Show the same for the beam given below: 17. 0 2 dx 1 Wal  0   Wa  C1 or C1  2 2 dy Wal  EI   Wax  dx 2 Integrating again.

1 .] For-2015 (IES. [If marks are more we should calculate exact point.5kN/m 20kN A C B D 4M 4M 2M BMD From the bending moment diagram we have seen that it is between A & C. GATE & PSUs) Page 210 of 473 Rev.Chapter-4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram S K Mondal’s 17.

e. positive Y-axis. GATE.1 Introduction  We know that the axis of a beam deflects from its initial position under action of applied forces. GATE & PSUs) Page 211 of 473 Rev. Selection of co-ordinate axes We will not introduce any other co-ordinate system. Here downward direction will be positive i. EI  Mx . Deflection of Beam Theory at a Glance (for IES. PSU) 5. Therefore downward deflection of the beam will be treated as positive. This system will be followed in deflection of beam and in shear force and bending moment diagram.1 .e. Some books use above co-ordinate system To determine the value of deflection of beam subjected to a given loading where we will use the d 2y formula. We use above Co-ordinate system To determine the value of deflection of beam subjected to a given loading where we will use the d 2y formula.  In this chapter we will learn how to determine the elastic deflections of a beam. We use general co-ordinate axis as shown in the figure. As beam is generally deflected in downward directions and this co-ordinate system treats downward deflection is positive deflection. negative Y-axis. dx 2 Some books fix a co-ordinate axis as shown in the following figure. 5. Here downward direction will be negative i. Therefore downward deflection of the beam will be treated as negative. dx 2 Why to calculate the deflections?  To prevent cracking of attached brittle materials  To make sure the structure not deflect severely and to “appear” safe for its occupants  To help analyzing statically indeterminate structures  Information on deformation characteristics of members is essential in the study of vibrations of machines For-2015 (IES. EI  M x .

where bending moment varies from section to section.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 212 of 473 Rev.e. Methods to find deflection Double integration Geometrical Energy Method method Method Moment area Conjugate method beam method Castiglian‟s Virtual theorem Work  Work/ Method Energy Assumptions in Simple Bending Theory metho  Beams are initially straight ds  The material is homogenous and isotropic i.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Several methods to compute deflections in beam  Double integration method (without the use of singularity functions)  Macaulay‟s Method (with the use of singularity functions)  Moment area method  Method of superposition  Conjugate beam method  Castigliano‟s theorem  Work/Energy methods Each of these methods has particular advantages or disadvantages. it has a uniform composition and its mechanical properties are the same in all directions  The stress-strain relationship is linear and elastic  Young‟s Modulus is the same in tension as in compression  Sections are symmetrical about the plane of bending  Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending Non-Uniform Bending  In the case of non-uniform bending of a beam. there will be shear force at each cross section which will induce shearing stresses  Also these shearing stresses cause warping (or out-of plane distortion) of the cross section so that plane cross sections do not remain plane even after bending For-2015 (IES.

2 Elastic line or Elastic curve We have to remember that the differential equation of the elastic line is 2 d y EI 2 =M x dx Proof: Consider the following simply supported beam with UDL over its length.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 5.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 213 of 473 Rev. From elementary calculus we know that curvature of a line (at point Q in figure) d2 y 1 dx 2  where R  radius of curvature R  2 3/2  dy   1       dx   dy For small deflection. 0 dx 1 d2 y or  R dx 2 For-2015 (IES.

3 General expression d2y From the equation EI  M x we may easily find out the following relations. analyze the problem to be solved d2y Step 2: Write governing equations for.4 Double integration method (without the use of singularity functions)  V x=   dx   Mx = Vx dx d2y  EI  Mx dx 2 1 EI     Slope  M x dx    Deflection    dx 4-step procedure to solve deflection of beam problems by double integration method Step 1: Write down boundary conditions (Slope boundary conditions and displacement boundary conditions).1 .y x  EI From strain relation we get 1  x   x and  x  R y E 1 Mx   R EI d2 y Mx Therefore  dx 2 EI d2 y or EI  Mx dx 2 5. GATE & PSUs) Page 214 of 473 Rev. EI  Mx dx 2 For-2015 (IES.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Bending stress of the beam (at point Q)  Mx  . Displacement  Flexural rigidity = EI 5. dx 2 d4y  EI 4   Shear force density (Load) dx d3y  EI 3  Vx Shear force dx d2y  EI 2  M x Bending moment dx dy  = θ = slope dx  y =  = Deflection.

 y   0 Slope.  y   0 i.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Step 3: Solve governing equations by integration.  y   0 i.e.  M   0 End restrained against rotation but free to deflection Deflection. Types of support and Boundary Conditions Figure Clamped or Built in support or Fixed end : ( Point A) Deflection.A finite value Slope.  y   0 Slope. results in expression with unknown integration constants Step 4: Apply boundary conditions (determine integration constants) Following table gives boundary conditions for different types of support.  y   0 i.  M   kr dx Shear force. V   k.A finite value Slope.e.    0 i.A finite value Moment . y For-2015 (IES.A finite value dy Moment . Deflection.    0 Moment .A finite value Free end: (Point B) Deflection.e.e.  M   0 Roller (Point B) or Pinned Support (Point A) or Hinged or Simply supported.    0 Shear force.e.1 .e.A finite value Moment . GATE & PSUs) Page 215 of 473 Rev.    0 i. V   0 Flexible support Deflection.  M   0 i.    0 i.e.A finite value Slope.

   2EI For-2015 (IES...   6EI 2EI 3EI The slope as well as the deflection would be maximum at free end hence putting x = 0 we get PL3 ymax = ..(0) = ...(ii) 6 Where A and B is integration constants. y=.....    3EI PL2 And slope at free end. 3 PL Downward deflection at free end.(iii) 6 PL2 from equation (i) EI.. 0 dx PL3 from equation (ii) EIL = ..  Ax +B ... +A …....... (Negative sign indicates the deflection is downward) 3EI PL2 (Slope)max =  max = 2EI Remember for a cantilever beam with a point load at free end. GATE & PSUs) Page 217 of 473 Rev.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Again integrating both side we get  x2  EI dy =   P 2  A  dx Px 3 or EIy = . + AL +B .. Now apply boundary condition at fixed end which is at a distance x = L from free end and we also know that at fixed end at x = L... y=0 dy at x = L..(iv) 2 PL2 PL3 Solving (iii) & (iv) we get A = and B = - 2 3 Px3 PL2 x PL3 Therefore.1 .

... at x = L.x ..(ii) 24  where A and B are integration constants Now apply boundary condition at fixed end which is at a distance x = L from free end and we also know that at fixed end. + A.  2 2 We know that differential equation of elastic line d2 y wx 2 EI   dx 2 2 Integrating both sides we get d2 y wx 2  EI dx 2    2 dx dy wx 3 or EI   A . GATE & PSUs) Page 218 of 473 Rev. =0 dx -wL3 +wL3 from equation (i) we get EI  (0) = + A or A = 6 6 wL4 from equation (ii) we get EI.L + B 24 wL4 or B=- 8 The slope as well as the deflection would be maximum at the free end hence putting x = 0.. we get For-2015 (IES.... x wx 2  Mx    w..(i) dx 6 Again integrating both side we get  wx 3  EI dy      A  dx  6  4 wx or EIy = .1 . Consider any section XX at a distance „x‟ from free end which is left end as shown in figure..Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s (ii) A Cantilever beam with UDL (uniformly distributed load) We will now solve this problem by double integration method.  Ax  B.. for that at first we have to calculate (Mx).y = . y=0 dy at x = L.

GATE & PSUs) Page 219 of 473 Rev. 4 wL Maximum deflection at free end    8EI wL3 Maximum slope. Consider a section XX at a distance „x‟ from free end.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 4 wL ymax   8EI Negative sign indicates the deflection is downward wL3  slope max  max  6EI Remember: For a cantilever beam with UDL over its whole length...(i) dx For-2015 (IES. the bending moment at section XX is (Mx) = -M We know that differential equation of elastic line d2 y or EI  M dx 2 Integrating both side we get d2 y or EI    M dx dx 2 dy or EI  Mx + A .1 .    6EI (iii) A Cantilever beam of length ‘L’ with an applied moment ‘M’ at free end.

GATE & PSUs) Page 220 of 473 Rev.1 . PL3 Due to point load „P‟ at free end „A‟ downward deflection    3EI For-2015 (IES.a) act on free end A of the cantilever beam. A vertical downward force P is applied to free end C of the bracket.   2EI EI 2EI Which is the equation of elastic curve. [ISRO – 2008. GATE-2014] We may consider this force „P‟ and a moment (P...  0 gives A = ML dx ML2 ML2 at x = L.(ii) 2 Where A and B are integration constants. Find the ratio a/L required in order that the deflection of point A is zero. applying boundary conditions in equation (i) &(ii) dy at x = L. 2 ML Maximum deflection at free end   = (It is downward) 2EI ML Maximum slope at free end    EI Let us take a funny example: A cantilever beam AB of length „L‟ and uniform flexural rigidity EI has a bracket BA (attached to its free end. y = 0 gives B =  ML2   2 2 2 Mx MLx ML2 Therefore deflection equation is y = .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Again integrating both side we get EI dy =  M x +A  dx Mx 2 or EI y    Ax + B .

GATE & PSUs) Page 221 of 473 Rev.a at free end „A‟ upward deflection     2EI 2EI For zero deflection of free end A PL3 (P.x 2 and In the region L/2 < x < L P Mx =  x  L / 2 2 We know that differential equation of elastic line d2 y P EI  .x In the region 0 < x < L/2 dx2 2 Integrating both side we get d2 y P or EI  dx2   2 x dx dy P x 2 or EI  .a)L2 = 3EI 2EI a 2 or  L 3 (iv) A simply supported beam with a point load P at its midpoint.1 .a)L Due to moment M = P. A simply supported beam AB carries a concentrated load P at its midpoint as shown in the figure.  A (i) dx 2 2 Again integrating both side we get P  EI  dy =   x 2  A  dx 4  3 Px or EI y =  Ax + B (ii) 12  Where A and B are integrating constants For-2015 (IES. We want to locate the point of maximum deflection on the elastic curve and find its value.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 2 2 ML (P. In the region 0 < x < L/2 Bending moment at any point x (According to the shown co-ordinate system) P Mx =   .

Taking co-ordinate axes x and y as shown below For-2015 (IES. 0 dx PL2 A=. y=0 dy at x = L/2.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Now applying boundary conditions to equation (i) and (ii) we get at x = 0. x 12 16 3 PL Maximum deflection at mid span (x = L/2)   = 48EI PL2 and maximum slope at each end    16EI (v) A simply supported beam with a point load ‘P’ NOT at its midpoint. We have to locate the point of maximum deflection on the elastic curve and find the value of this deflection. GATE & PSUs) Page 222 of 473 Rev.1 . A simply supported beam AB carries a concentrated load P as shown in the figure. and B = 0 16 Px3 PL12  Equation of elastic line. y = .

B2are constants of Integration..a x 3 EI y  P.   = Same for equation (i) & (ii)  dx  (d) at x = a.. B2  Pa3 / 6EI Therefore we get two equations of elastic curve For-2015 (IES. + A1 . Mx    .. In the region a  x  L.(ii) for a  x  L dx L P.a  .a And..x  for a  x  L dx L Successive integration of these equations gives dy P..  A 2 x + B2 .x  L So we obtain two differential equation for the elastic curve.a and EI 2   ..1 .a x 3 EI y  .(iv) for a  x  L 2 L 6 Where A1. +A1x+B1 . Now we have to use Boundary conditions for finding constants: BCS (a) at x = 0. y = same from equation (iii) & (iv) Pb 2 P..a 2 EI  P. A2.(i) for o  x  a dx L 2 dy P...a x .x for 0  x  a dx 2 L d2 y P.x  L  P.. B1.a  In the region 0  x  a.. A2  6L  2L2  a2  and B1  0..(iii) for 0  x  a L 6 x 2 P.a x 2 EI  . x  A2 ...a We get A1  6L L  b2 . Mx   L .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s For the bending moment we have  P. d2 y P. y = 0  dy  (c) at x = a... y = 0 (b) at x = L. L .a EI  ... GATE & PSUs) Page 223 of 473 Rev..

dx 2 2 2 Integrating both sides we get dy wL x2 w x3 EI  . A .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Pbx 2 EI y = - 6L  L  b2  x 2  . We want to develop the equation of the elastic curve and find the maximum deflection  at the middle of the span.. L/2   L2  L/2  2 PL3 and ymax      9 3 EIL 48EI (vi) A simply supported beam with UDL (Uniformly distributed load) A simply supported beam AB carries a uniformly distributed load (UDL) of intensity w/unit length over its whole span L as shown in figure..1 .w.a   L2  b2 x .  ..w. (v) for 0  x  a Pb  L   EI y =    6L  b     x . ..e.x .b(L2  b2 )3/2 into equation (v). 2 2 Then the differential equation of deflection becomes d2 y wL x2 EI  Mx  . we have for the bending moment at any point x wL x2 Mx  . the maximum deflection will occur in the left portion of the span.x3  . ymax  9 3. Setting the derivative of this expression equal to zero gives a(a+2b) (L-b)(L+b) L2  b2 x=   3 3 3 at that point a horizontal tangent and hence the point of maximum deflection substituting this value of x P.(i) dx 2 2 2 3 For-2015 (IES.. to which equation (v) applies. Taking co-ordinate axes x and y as shown.(vi) 3 for a  x  L  For a > b. EIL Case –I: if a = b = L/2 then L2  L/2  2 Maximum deflection will be at x =  L/2 3 i.x .. GATE & PSUs) Page 224 of 473 Rev.. at mid point   3/2 P.... we find.

0 gives A dx 24 Therefore the equation of the elastic curve wL 3 w wL3 wx y ..  . at x = 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 225 of 473 Rev. A simply supported beam carries a triangular distributed load (GVL) as shown in figure below.x  . we get For-2015 (IES. To evaluate these constants we have to use boundary conditions.(ii) 2 6 2 12 Where A and B are integration constants.x 4  ..Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Again Integrating both side we get wL x3 w x 4 EI y  . We have to find equation of elastic curve and find maximum deflection   . y = 0 gives B=0 dy wL3 at x = L/2.    (It is downward) 384EI And Maximum slope  A  B at the left end A and at the right end b is same putting x = 0 or x = L Therefore wL3 we get Maximum slope    24EI (vii) A simply supported beam with triangular distributed load (GVL) gradually varied load.  Ax + B .x 2  x3  12EI 24EI 12EI 24EI The maximum deflection at the mid-span.. we have to put x = L/2 in the equation and obtain 4 5wL Maximum deflection at mid-span..x = L3  2L. In this (GVL) condition.1 .

x . D=0 6 360 wx Therefore y = - 360EIL  7L4  10L2 x 2  3x 4  (negative sign indicates downward deflection) dy To find maximum deflection  .(v) 120L 6 2 Where A. Mx  ... y=0 at x = L.00652 EI (viii) A simply supported beam with a moment at mid-span A simply supported beam AB is acted upon by a couple M applied at an intermediate point distance „a‟ from the equation of elastic curve and deflection at point where the moment acted.(ii) dx3 2L Again integrating thrice we get d2 y wx3 EI  Mx   + Ax +B ...1 . Mx  x-M L So we obtain the difference equation for the elastic curve For-2015 (IES.(iv) dx 24L 2 wx5 Ax3 Bx2 EI y   + + +Cx +D . GATE & PSUs) Page 226 of 473 Rev. B = 0.... we have =0 dx wL4 And it gives x = 0... Mx = 0.. B..(iii) dx2 6L dy wx 4 Ax 2 EI  + +Bx +C . .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 4 dy w EI 4  load   ... y = 0 gives wL 7wL3 A= .. Mx = 0. C and D are integration constant.(i) dx L Separating variables and integrating we get d3 y wx 2 EI   Vx    +A ....x L M In the region a  x  L. Boundary conditions at x = 0.519 L and maximum deflection   = 0. we have for bending moment M In the region 0  x  a. M M Considering equilibrium we get R A  and RB   L L Taking co-ordinate axes x and y as shown. C = ....

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 2 dy M EI  .1 .x  M for a  x  L dx L Successive integration of these equation gives dy M x 2 EI ... y = same form equation (iii) & (iv) ML Ma2 ML Ma2 A1  M.2a2  L2  (ix) A simply supported beam with a continuously distributed load the intensity x of which at any point ‘x’ along the beam is wx  w sin    L  At first we have to find out the bending moment at any point „x‟ according to the shown co-ordinate system. y = 0  dy  (c) at x = a.. We know that For-2015 (IES. y = 0 (b) at x = L. B1 and B2 are integration constants.x for 0  x  a dx 2 L d2 y M and EI 2  . GATE & PSUs) Page 227 of 473 Rev...... B2  2 With this value we get the equation of elastic curve Mx y=- 6L  6aL ....  A1 .3a2  x 2  2L2  for 0  x  a  deflection of x = a.(iii) for 0  x  a L  M x 3 Mx 2 EI y =   A 2 x + B2 .(iv) for a  x  L L  2 Where A1..(ii) for a  x  L dx L 2 M x3 and EI y = .a + + .   = same form equation (i) & (ii)  dx  (d) at x = a. To finding these constants boundary conditions (a) at x = 0..Mx+ A 2 .(i) for 0  x  a dx L 2 dy M x 2 EI   .. A2.... Ma y= 3EIL  3aL .  A1x + B1 . A2   3 2L 3 2L 2 Ma B1  0.

.. y=0 at x = L. Therefore Mx  sin    2  L  So the differential equation of elastic curve d2 y wL2 x  EI  Mx  sin   dx 2  2  L  Successive integration gives dy wL3 x  EI   3 cos  C . to find out C and D we have to use boundary conditions at x = 0... We have to use boundary conditions at x = 0. Mx = 0 and at x = L.(ii)   L  Where C and D are integration constants. Mx = 0 wL2 x  From these we get A = B = 0.1 .cos  A   L  and we also know that d Mx  wL x   Vx  cos  A dx   L  Again integrating both sides we get  wL x    d M    x   cos    L   A  dx  x  2 wL or Mx  2 sin    Ax +B   L  Where A and B are integration constants... GATE & PSUs) Page 228 of 473 Rev. to find out the values of A and B.(i) dx   L  wL4 x  EI y   4 sin    Cx  D .. y=0 and that give C = D = 0 dy wL3 x  Therefore slope equation EI   3 cos   dx   L  wL4 x  and Equation of elastic curve y   4 sin   EI  L  (-ive sign indicates deflection is downward) x  Deflection will be maximum if sin   is maximum  L  For-2015 (IES.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s d  Vx  x    w sin   dx  L  Integrating both sides we get x   d  V    w sin  x L  dx +A wL x  or Vx   ....

Answer: We solve this problem using Macaulay‟s method.. 2 3  x2  not   ax  and integration of (x-a)2 will be 2  2  3 Step – IV: After first integration write the first integration constant (A) after first terms and after second time integration write the second integration constant (B) after A.x . (i) Let us take an example: A simply supported beam AB length 6m with a point load of 30 kN is applied at a distance 4m from left end A.5 Macaulay's Method (Use of singularity function)  When the beam is subjected to point loads (but several loads) this is very convenient method for determining the deflection of the beam. (x-a) is negative (-ive) the term will be neglected.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s x  sin  =1 or x = L/2  L  WL4 and Maximum downward deflection   = (downward). Procedure to solve the problem by Macaulay’s method Step – I: Calculate all reactions and moments Step – II: Write down the moment equation which is valid for all values of x. d2 y EI  Mx  10x -30  x . This must contain brackets.m ..(i) dx 2 By successive integration of this equation (using Macaulay‟s integration rule  x  a 2 e.  4EI 5. Determine the equations of the elastic curve between each change of load point and the maximum deflection of the beam.  After integrating this equation we will find the integration constants which are valid for entire length of the beam.1 .  In this method we will write single moment equation in such a way that it becomes continuous for entire length of the beam in spite of the discontinuity of loading. Step – V: Using Boundary condition find A and B at a point x = p if any term in Macaulay‟s method. Constant A and B are valid for all values of x. for that first writes the general momentum equation for the last portion of beam BC of the loaded beam. Step – III: Integrate the moment equation by a typical manner. This method is known as method of singularity constant.g   x  a dx  2 ) We get For-2015 (IES.4  N.. Integration of (x-a) will be  x-a   x-a  so on. GATE & PSUs) Page 229 of 473 Rev.

.53 = 0 or x = 3. at x = 3. x .5  x . dy Deflection (y) will be maximum for that = 0 or 5x2 . y = 0 Note: When we put x = 0.15  x .25 3 For-2015 (IES..25 m as our calculated x is in the dx region 0  x  4m .. x-4 is positive (+ive) and this term will be considered for x = 6.. and at x = 0 . To evaluate its value we have to use following boundary conditions... GATE & PSUs) Page 230 of 473 Rev.4  2 EI dx 5 and EI y  x 3 . iii 3 Where A and B are two integration constants. y=0 and at x = 6m.5  x .6  A. ii  2 EI N.253 – 53  3..53x 3 But in the region 4m  x  6m .53x + 0 .6  0  5(6  4)3 3 or A = .25 m deflection will be maximum 5 or EI ymax =  3. at x = 0.4)3 N.1 .53 So our slope and deflection equation will be dy  5x 2 .m3 .4  2 EI dx 5 EI y  x3 .5 (x . That so why in the region o  x  4m we will neglect (x – 4) term and ourslope and deflection equation will be dy EI 5x 2 -53 dx 5 and EI y  x3 . but we don‟t know at what value of „x‟ it will be maximum.4 is negativre (–ive) and this term will notbe considered for x = 0 .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s dy  5x 2  A -15  x-4  .53 .4  3 3 Now we have to find out maximum deflection. y = 0 so our equation 5 3 will be EI y = x + Ax + 0 – 5 (x – 4)3 3 This gives 5 3 EI . y = 0 gives B = 0 3 But when we put x = 6.53x .m2 dx 5 and EI y = x 3  Ax + B .(0) = . so our 5 3 equation will be EI y = x  Ax +B.4  3 3 Now we have two equations for entire section of the beam and we have to understand how we use these equations.53 . For this assuming the value of „x‟ will be in the region 0  x  4m . Here if x < 4 then x – 4 is negative so this term will be deleted.15  x .. (x – 4) is positive so we include this term and our slope and deflection equation will be dy  5x2 .

41 m or 8. UDL and Moment applied simultaneously in a beam: Let us consider a simply supported beam AB (see Figure) of length 3m is subjected to a point load 10 kN.25 . The value of x will be absurd that indicates the maximum deflection will not occur in the region 4  x  6m . GATE & PSUs) Page 231 of 473 Rev. (ii) Now take an example where Point load. Answer: Considering equilibrium M A  0 gives -10  1 . (-ive sign indicates downward deflection) EI But if you have any doubt that Maximum deflection may be in the range of 4  x  6m . 5  x-2 2 d2 y -10  x-1 25  x-2   0 EI  Mx  0. Find the deflection of the beam at point D if flexural rigidity (EI) = 50 KNm2. UDL = 5 kN/m and a bending moment M = 25 kNm.53 . 5  1  1  1  1/ 2   RB  3  0 or RB  15.4  = 0 2 or or 10x2 -120x + 293 = 0 or x = 3.15  x .83x dx 2 2 By successive integration of this equation (using Macaulay‟s integration rule  x  a 2 e.g   x  a dx  2 ) We get For-2015 (IES.6 m Both the value fall outside the region 4  x  6m and in this region 4  x  6m and in this region maximum deflection will not occur. use EIy = 5x2 – 53x – 5 (x – 4)3 and find out x.83kN R A  RB  10  5  1 gives R A  0.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 115 or ymax = .83kN We solve this problem using Macaulay‟s method. for that first writing the general momentum equation for the last portion of beam.1 . dy Deflection (y) will be maximum for that =0 dx 5x2 . DB of the loaded beam.

x  M  x-a  0 EI 2 dx Successive integration gives dy M x 2  .93  2  1.5  12   14 6 3 24 or A = 1.  33  A  3 + 0 .93x -1.177mm  downward .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s dy 0.138x3  1. y = 0 gives B = 0 M L-a  2 ML at x = L.x  A -5  x  1 25  x  2    x  2  2 3 EI  dx 2 6 0.67  x  1 12. M(x – a)0. GATE & PSUs) Page 232 of 473 Rev.83 3 5 25 5 x  Ax +B .1 .21 x  2  3 2 4 Deflextion at point D at x = 2m EIyD  0. we have to use boundary conditions to find out A & B.93 EIy = . at x = 0.83 5 5 and 0 = . i. d2 y  M  RA.85 or yD    m  ive sign indicates deflection downward EI 50  103  0. Power is zero because (x – a)0 = 1 and unit of M(x – a)0 = M but we introduced the distance which is needed for Macaulay‟s method. y = 0 gives A =  2L 6 For-2015 (IES. 23 12.M  x-a  1 EI dx L 2 M  x-a  2 M 3 EI y  x  Ax + B - 6L 2 Where A and B are integration constants.83 2 5 .5  x  2   0. at x = 0. (iii) A simply supported beam with a couple M at a distance ‘a’ from left end If a couple acts we have to take the distance in the bracket and this should be raised to the power zero.e.67  13  8.0. x  1   x  2   x  2 3 2 4 and EIy =  6 3 2 24 Where A and B are integration constant we have to use following boundary conditions to find out A & B.  A .85 8.85 8. y = 0 Therefore B = 0 0. y=0 at x = 3m.138  23  1.

θ AB 1 θ AB =  Area of the bending moment diagram between A&B EI A B.e. Moment area method  This method is used generally to obtain displacement and rotation at a single point on a beam.  Angle between the tangents drawn at 2 points A&B on the elastic line. B) EI A B. i.t.G from one edge  x  is shown in the following table.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 8.r. A1  A2 Then. deflection yBA  EI Important Note If A1 = Area of shear force (SF) diagram A2 = Area of bending moment (BM) diagram.1 .M. [Note the distance will be different from other end] For-2015 (IES.M  x i.  The moment area method is convenient in case of beams acted upon with point loads in which case bending moment area consist of triangle and rectangles.e. Change of slope over any portion of the loaded beam = EI Some typical bending moment diagram and their area (A) and distance of C. slope  AB  EI  Deflection of B related to 'A' M yBA = Moment of diagram between B&A taking about B (or w. GATE & PSUs) Page 233 of 473 Rev.

Parabola 5. Sine curve Determination of Maximum slope and deflection by Moment Area.Method (i) A Cantilever beam with a point load at free end Area of BM (Bending moment diagram) For-2015 (IES.Cubic Parabola 6.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 234 of 473 Rev. y = k xn 7. Parabola b x 4 4. Rectangle b A  bh x 2 2. Triangle b x 3 3.G 1.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Shape BM Diagram Area Distance from C.

(at free end) EI 2EI  3  (iii) A cantilever beam with UDL over its whole length 1  wL2  wL3 Area of BM diagram  A   L    3  2  6 Therefore A wL3 Maximum slope     (at free end) EI 6EI Ax Maximum deflection    EI  wL   3  3   L  6   4  wL4   (at free end) EI 8EI (iv) A simply supported beam with point load at mid-spam For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 235 of 473 Rev.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 1 PL2  A    L  PL  2 2 Therefore A PL2 Maximum slope     (at free end) EI 2EI Ax Maximum deflection    EI  PL   2  2   L  2   3  PL3   (at free end) EI 3EI (ii) A cantilever beam with a point load not at free end 1 Pa2 Area of BM diagram  A    a  Pa  2 2 Therefore A Pa2 Maximum slope     ( at free end) EI 2EI Ax Maximum deflection    EI  Pa   a  2    L-  2   3  Pa2  a    . L.1 .

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Superpose the deformations due to Loading I and Loading II as shown. Corresponding support condition for the conjugate beam For-2015 (IES. and the corresponding support condition for the conjugate beam is given by the rules as shown below. the loading diagram (showing the loads acting) on the conjugate beam is simply the bending- moment diagram of the actual beam divided by the flexural rigidity EI of the actual beam. GATE & PSUs) Page 237 of 473 Rev. Conjugate beam method In the conjugate beam method.1 . the length of the conjugate beam is the same as the length of the actual beam. 10.

the slope and deflection of the actual beam can be found by using the following two rules:  The slope of the actual beam at any cross section is equal to the shearing force at the corresponding cross section of the conjugate beam. Procedure for Analysis  Construct the M / EI diagram for the given (real) beam subjected to the specified (real) loading. Vconj = θreal  Determine the bending moments in the conjugate beam at locations where deflections is desired in the real beam. you may use M-diagram by parts  Determine the conjugate beam corresponding to the given real beam  Apply the M / EI diagram as the load on the conjugate beam as per sign convention  Calculate the reactions at the supports of the conjugate beam by applying equations of equilibrium and conditions  Determine the shears in the conjugate beam at locations where slopes is desired in the real beam.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Conjugates of Common Types of Real Beams Conjugate beams for statically determinate Conjugate beams for Statically real beams indeterminate real beams By the conjugate beam method. GATE & PSUs) Page 238 of 473 Rev.1 . Mconj = yreal For-2015 (IES. If a combination of loading exists.  The deflection of the actual beam at any point is equal to the bending moment of the conjugate beam at the corresponding point.

Mmax = . wL wL at x  0.Maximum B.x = + - 2 2 L  2 2L  The shear force variation is parabolic. Mx   i. .Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s The method of double integration.e.e. .PL ( at x = L) wL2 wL Considering equilibrium we get.. all of them become helpless.x . Mx  0 For-2015 (IES. If not. Vx   i. rather than the boundary conditions. GATE & PSUs) Page 239 of 473 Rev. moment-area theorems.  . (i) A Cantilever beam with a point load ‘P’ at its free end. For Real Beam: At a section a distance „x‟ from free end consider the forces to the left.e. W At this point load (Wx )  . the conjugate beam method is able to proceed and yield a solution for the possible deflections of the beam based on the support conditions.x  . - 2 6L 3  The bending moment variation is cubic wL2 wL2 at x = 0. of the beams.x (negative sign means that the moment on the left hand side of the portion is in the anticlockwise direction and is therefore taken as negative according to the sign convention) so that the maximum bending moment occurs at the fixed end i. Vmax   2 2 at x  L.1 . and Castigliano‟s theorem are all well established methods for finding deflections of beams. Taking moments about the section gives (obviously to the left of the section) Mx = -P.MA 2L 3 wL wx 3 wL2 = . method of superposition. but they require that the boundary conditions of the beams be known or specified.M. Mmax    .x . MA  and Reaction RA   3 2 Considering any cross-section XX which is at a distance of x from the fixed end. Vx  0 wx2 2x Bending moment Mx  = RA . Maximum shear force. 3 3 at x  L. However.x L Shear force  Vx   RA  area of triangle ANM wL 1  w  wL wx 2  .

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s

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Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE, IES, IAS)

Previous 20-Years GATE Questions

Beam Deflection
GATE-1. A lean elastic beam of given flexural
rigidity, EI, is loaded by a single force F
as shown in figure. How many boundary
conditions are necessary to determine
the deflected centre line of the beam?
(a) 5 (b) 4
(c) 3 (d) 2
[GATE-1999]
GATE-1(i) A “H” shaped frame of uniform felxural rigidity EI is loaded as shown in the figure.
The relative outward displacement between points K and O is [CE: GATE-2003]
R R
I M

h

J N

h

K O
L

RL h2 RL2 h
(a) (b)
EI EI
RL h2 RL2 h
(c) (d)
3EI 3EI

GATE-1(ii). The „plane section remains plane‟ assumption in bending theory implies:
(a) strain profile is linear [CE: GATE-2013]
(b) stress profile is linear
(c) both strain and stress profiles are linear
(d)shear deformations are neglected

Double Integration Method
GATE-1(iii). A cantilever beam of length L, with uniform cross-section and flexural rigidity, EI,
is loaded uniformly by a vertical load, w per unit length. The maximum vertical
deflection of the beam is given by [GATE-2014]
4 4
wL wL wL 4
wL 4
(a) (b) (c) (d)
8 EI 16 EI 4 EI 24 EI

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 241 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s
GATE-1(iv)The following statement are related to bending of beams [CE: GATE-2012]
I. The slope of the bending moment diagram is equal to the shear force.
II. The slope of the shear force diagram is equal to the load intensity
III. The slope of the curvature is equal to the flexural rotation
IV. The second derivative of the deflection is equal to the curvature.
The only FALSE statement is
(a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV

GATE-2. A simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load W at mid-span deflects by δ1
under the load. If the same beam carries the load W such that it is distributed
uniformly over entire length and undergoes a deflection δ2 at the mid span. The ratio
δ1: δ2 is: [IES-1995; GATE-1994]

(a) 2: 1 (b) 2:1 (c) 1: 1 (d) 1: 2

GATE-3. A simply supported laterally loaded beam was found to deflect more than a specified
value. [GATE-2003]
Which of the following measures will reduce the deflection?
(a) Increase the area moment of inertia
(b) Increase the span of the beam
(c) Select a different material having lesser modulus of elasticity
(d) Magnitude of the load to be increased

GATE-4. A cantilever beam of length L is subjected to a moment M at the free end. The momentof
inertia ofthe beam cross section about the neutral axis is I and the Young’s modulus is E. The
magnitude ofthe maximum deflection is
ML2 ML2 2ML2 4ML2
(a) (b) (c) (d ) [GATE-2012]
2EI EI EI EI

GATE-4(i)The flexural rigidity (EI) of a cantilever beam is assumed to be constant over the
PL
length of the beam shown in figure. If a load P and bending moment are applied at
2
the free end of the beam then the value of the slope at the free end is [GATE-2014]
P

P
L/
2
L

1 PL2 PL2 3 PL2 5 PL2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 EI EI 2 EI 2 EI

GATE-4(ii)A force P is applied at a distance x from the end of the beam as shown in the figure.
What would be the value of x so that the displacement at „A‟ is equal to zero? [GATE-2014]

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 242 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s
L

A

x P

L

(a) 0.5L (b) 0.25L (c) 0.33L (d) 0.66L

A triangular-shaped cantilever beam of
t P
uniform-thickness is shown in the figure.
The Young‟s modulus of the material of the
beam is E. A concentrated load P is applied l
at the free end of the beam

x

b

[GATE-2011]
GATE-5. The area moment of inertia about the neutral axis of a cross-section at a distance x
measure from the free end is
bxt 3 bxt 3 bxt 3 xt 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6 12 24 12

GATE-6.The maximum deflection of the beam is[GATE-2011]
24Pl3 12Pl3 8Pl3 6Pl3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Ebt 3 Ebt 3 Ebt 3 Ebt 3

GATE-7. For the linear elastic beam shown in the figure, the flexural rigidity, EI is 781250
kN- m2 . When w = 10 kN/m, the vertical reaction R A at A is 50 kN. The value of R A for
w = 100 kN/m is [CE: GATE-2004]
w(kN/m)

B
A
6 mm gap
5m Rigid
platform

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 243 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s

(a) 500 kN (b) 425 kN
(c) 250 kN (d) 75 kN

GATE-8. Consider the beam AB shown in the figure below. Part AC of the beam is rigid while
Part CB has the flexural rigidity EI. Identify the correct combination of deflection at
end B and bending moment at end A, respectively [CE: GATE-2006]
P

A C B

L L
3 3
PL PL
(a) , 2PL (b) , PL
3EI 3EI
8 PL3 8 PL3
(c) , 2PL (d) , PL
3EI 3EI

In the cantilever beam PQR shown in figure below, the segment PQ has flexural rigidity EI and
the segment QR has infinite flexural rigidity. [CE: GATE-2009]

GATE-8(i) The deflection and slope of the beam at Q are respectively [CE: GATE-2009]
3 2 3 2
5WL 3WL WL WL
(a) and (b) and
6EI 2EI 3EI 2EI
WL3 WL2 WL3 3WL2
(c) and (d) and
2EI EI 3EI 2EI

GATE-8(ii) The deflection of the beam at R is [CE: GATE-2009]
3
8 WL 3
5 WL
(a) (b)
EI 6 EI
7 WL3 8 WL3
(c) (d)
3EI 6 EI

Common Data for Questions 9 and 10:
Consider a propped cantilever beam ABC under two loads of magnitude P each as shown in the
figure below. Flexural rigidity of the beam is EI. [CE: GATE-2006]
P a
B C

A P a

L L

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 244 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s

GATE-9. The reaction at C is [CE: GATE-2006]
9Pa 9Pa
(a) (upwards) (b) (downwards)
16 L 16 L
9Pa 9Pa
(c) (upwards) (d) (downwards)
8L 8L

GATE-10. The rotation at B is [CE: GATE-2006]
5PL a 5PL a
(a) (clockwise) (b) (anticlockwise)
16 EI 16 EI
59 PL a 59 PL a
(c) (clockwise) (d) (anticlockwise)
16 EI 16 EI

GATE-11. The stepped cantilever is subjected to moments, M as shown in the figure below. The
vertical deflection at the free end (neglecting the self weight) is [CE: GATE-2008]

ML2 ML2 ML2
(a) (b) (c) (d) Zero
8 El 4 El 2El

Beam GHI is supported by three pontoons as shown in the figure below. The horizontal cross-
sectional area of each pontoon is 8m2 , the flexural rigidity of the beam is 10000 kN- m2 and the
unit weight of water is 10kN/ m3 .

GATE-12. When the middle pontoon is removed, the deflection at H will be
(a) 0.2 m (b) 0.4 m
(c) 0.6 m (d) 0.8 m [CE: GATE-2008]

GATE-13. When the middle pontoon is brought back to its position as shown in the figure above, the
reaction at H will be [CE: GATE-2008]
(a) 8.6 kN (b) 15.7 kN (c) 19.2 kN (d) 24.2 kN

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Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s
A rigid beam is hinged at one end and supported on linear elastic springs (both having a
stiffness of „k‟) at points „1‟ and „2‟, and an inclined load acts at „2‟, as shown. [CE: GATE-2011]
Hinge 2 P

1 45° 2

45°

Fixed L L
GATE-14. Which of the following options represents the deflections 1 and 2 at points „1‟ and „2‟?
2  2P  4  2P  2P 4P
(a) 1    and 2    (b) 1    and 2   
5 k  5 k  5 k  5 k 
2 P  4 P  2 2P 4 2P
(c) 1  and 2   (d) 1    and 2   
5  2k  5  2k  5 k  5 k 
[CE: GATE-2011]

GATE-15. If the load P equals 100 kN, which of the following options represents forces R1 and R2 in the
springs at points „1‟ and „2‟? [CE: GATE-2011]
(a) R1  20kN and R2  40kN (b) R1  50kN and R2  50kN
(c) R1  30kN and R2  60kN (d) R1  40kN and R2  80kN

GATE-16. The simply supported beam is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity w per unit
length, on half of the span from one end. The length of the span and the flexural stiffness are
denoted as l and El respectively. The deflection at mid-span of the beam is
5 wl4 5 wl4
(a) (b) [CE: GATE-2012]
6144 E l 768 E l
5 wl4 5 wl4
(c) (d)
384 E l 192 E l

GATE-17. For the cantilever beam of span 3 m (shown below), a concentrated load of 20 kN
applied at thefree end causes a vertical displacement of 2 mm at a section located at a
distance of 1 m from thefixed end. If a concentrated vertically downward load of 10
kN is applied at the section located at adistance of 1 m from the fixed end (with no
other load on the beam), the maximum verticaldisplacement in the same beam (in
mm) is __________ [CE: GATE-2014]

GATE-18. A simply supported beam of uniform rectangular cross-section of width b and depth h
is subjected to linear temperature gradient, 0º at the top and Tº at the bottom, as
shown in the figure. The coefficient of linear expansion of the beam material is .
The resulting vertical deflection at the mid-span of the beam is [CE: GATE-2003]

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 246 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s

0
°

T
emp
.Gr
nt

L

 T h2  TL2
(a) upward (b) upward
8L 8h
 T h2  TL2
(c) downward (d) downward
8L 8h

GATE-19. The beam of an overall depth 250 mm (shown below) is used in a buildingsubjected to
twodifferent thermal environments. The temperatures at the top and bottom surfaces
of the beam are36°C and 72°C respectively. Considering coefficient of thermal
expansion (α) as 1.50×10−5 per °C,the vertical deflection of the beam (in mm) at its
mid-span due to temperature gradient is ________ [CE: GATE-2014]

Previous 20-Years IES Questions

Double Integration Method
IES-1. Consider the following statements: [IES-2003]
In a cantilever subjected to a concentrated load at the free end
1. The bending stress is maximum at the free end
2. The maximum shear stress is constant along the length of the beam
3. The slope of the elastic curve is zero at the fixed end
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1 and 2

IES-1(i). If E = elasticity modulus, I = moment of inertia about the neutral axis and M =
of curvature of the beam: [IES-2013]
1. Increases with E 2. Increases with M
3. Decreases with I 4. Decreases with M
Which of these are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 4

IES-2. A cantilever of length L, moment of inertiaI. Young's modulus E carries a
concentrated load W at the middle of its length. The slope of cantilever at the free
end is: [IES-2001]
WL2 WL2 WL2 WL2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 EI 4 EI 8 EI 16 EI

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 247 of 473 Rev.1

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s

IES-3. The two cantilevers A
and B shown in the
figure have the same
uniform cross-section
and the same
material.Free end
deflection of cantilever [IES-2000]
'A' is δ.
The value of mid- span deflection of the cantilever „B‟ is:
1 2
a   b   c    d  2
2 3

IES-4. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross-section is subjected to a load W at its free end.
If the depth of the beam is doubled and the load is halved, the deflection of the free
end as compared to original deflection will be: [IES-1999]
(a) Half (b) One-eighth (c) One-sixteenth (d) Double

IES-5. A simply supported beam of constant flexural rigidity and length 2L carries a
concentrated load 'P' at its mid-span and the deflection under the load is  . If a
cantilever beam of the same flexural rigidity and length 'L' is subjected to load 'P' at
its free end, then the deflection at the free end will be: [IES-1998]
1
a   b  c  2  d  4
2

IES-6. Two identical cantilevers are
respective figures. If slope at
the free end of the cantilever in
figure E is θ, the slope at free
and of the cantilever in figure Figure E Figure F
F will be:
[IES-1997]
1 1 2
(a)  (b)  (c)  (d) 
3 2 3

IES-7. A cantilever beam carries a load W uniformly distributed over its entire length. If the
same load is placed at the free end of the same cantilever, then the ratio of maximum
deflection in the first case to that in the second case will be:
[IES-1996]
(a) 3/8 (b) 8/3 (c) 5/8 (d) 8/5

IES-8. The given figure shows a
cantilever of span 'L' subjected to
a concentrated load 'P' and a
moment 'M' at the free end.
Deflection at the free end is
given by
[IES-1996]
2 2 2 3 2 3 2
PL ML ML PL ML PL ML PL3
(a)  (b)  (c)  (d) 
2 EI 3EI 2 EI 3EI 3EI 2 EI 2 EI 48EI

IES-9. For a cantilever beam of length 'L', flexural rigidity EI and loaded at its free end by a
concentrated load W, match List I with List II and select the correct answer.
List I List II
A. Maximum bending moment 1. Wl
B. Strain energy 2. Wl2/2EI
C. Maximum slope 3. Wl3/3EI

For-2015 (IES, GATE & PSUs) Page 248 of 473 Rev.1

GATE & PSUs) Page 251 of 473 Rev.F. of conjugate beam (d) B.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s IAS-3. By conjugate beam method. l = 0.M.1 .M. of the conjugate beam (c) S.F. the deflection at the free end will increase by [IAS-1996] (a) 2. In a cantilever beam.66 times (b) 3 times (c) 6 times (d) 8 times Conjugate Beam Method IAS-4. I = 375 × 10-6 m4. the slope at any section of an actual beam is equal to: [IAS-2002] (a) EI times the S.5 m E = 200 GPa Determine the stiffness of the beam shown in the above figure (a) 12 × 1010 N/m (b) 10 × 1010 N/m (c) 4 × 1010 N/m (d) 8 × 1010 N/m [IES-2002] For-2015 (IES. of the conjugate beam IAS-5. of the conjugate beam (b) EI times the B. if the length is doubled while keeping the cross-section and the concentrated load acting at the free end the same.

outward displacement between points K and O RhL RhL R h2 L  h h 2EI 2EI EI GATE-1(ii). (d) 1  Wl  and  2   l   5Wl Therefore δ : δ = 8 : 5 1 2 48EI 384EI 384EI Wl3 GATE-3.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE ANSWERS d2 y GATE-1. (a) GATE-1(iii). GATE-4.(d) EI  M . increase the area moment of Inertia. GATE & PSUs) Page 252 of 473 Rev. “Let us take an funny example” ISRO-2008 GATE-5. Ans. (a) GATE-1(iv) Ans. (a) Maximum deflection (δ) = 48EI To reduce. Ans. (a) GATE-4(i)Ans. δ.(b)At any distance x X-Section at x distance Area moment of inertia about P b h Neutral-axis of cross-section b 3 t x bxt 3 Ix  l  12 121 l GATE-6. (c) Refer theory of this book. Ans.Ans.Since it is second order differential equation so we need two boundary dx 2 conditions to solve it. M dx 2 d2 y M   dx 2 EI M  E M 1 Also     I y R EI R d2 y 1   dx 2 R W 3 5   l4 3 GATE-2. (a) The bending moment in the member JN = R × h(sagging) Rh  L  Slope at J or N = 2EI Thus. Ans. Ans.(d)From strain energy method For-2015 (IES. Ans. (c) We know that ds W dx dM S dX d2 y EI . GATE-1(i) Ans. (b) GATE-4(ii)Ans. Ans.1 .

M  Px ] 0 2EI 1 1 P 2x 2 6l P 2 6l P 2 l 2 3l3 P 2  3  3  x dx    bxt Ebt 0 Ebt3 2 Ebt3 0 2E  dx 121 Deflection at free end U 6P l3   P Ebt3 GATE-7. w = 100 kN/m will induce a reaction RB at B. (a) The given cantilever beam can be modified into a beam as shown below W E l P W L L Q 3 2 WL WL  L Deflection at Q =  3EI 2EI 2 WL3  3 WL3 5 WL3   6 EI 6 EI WL2 WL × L WL2  2WL2 3WL2 Slope at Q    2EI EI 2EI 2EI GATE-8(ii) Ans.1 . (c) Since the portion QR of the beam is rigid. Thus. no reaction will be developed when w = 10 kN/m Now. w L4 PB L3   = Permissible deflection 8 EI 3EI 100  (5)4 RB  (5)3 6    8  781250 3  781250 1000 10 6 RB  125    1000 1000 3  781250  RB  75 kN  RA  (100  5  75)  425 kN GATE-8. Ans. (a) Part AC of the beam is rigid. Ans. Hence. deflection at the free end for w(100 kN/m) will be = 10 × 1 mm = 10 mm But. GATE & PSUs) Page 253 of 473 Rev. (b) The deflection at the free end for w L4 10  (5)4  1000 w(10 kN/ m)    1mm 8EI 8  781250 The gap between the beam and rigid platform is 6 mm. this cannot be possible because margin of deflection is only 6m. Thus the deflection at B will be PL3 given as B  3EI But the bending moment does not depend on the rigidity or flexibility of the beam  BM at P = P × 2L = 2PL GATE-8(i) Ans. Hence C will act as a fixed end. QR will remain straight. Deflection of R = Deflection at Q + Slope at Q × L 5WL3 3WL2 5WL3  9 WL3   L 6EI 2EI 6EI For-2015 (IES.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 1 2 M dx U [Here.

1 . Ans.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 3 3 14 WL 7 WL   6 EI 3EI GATE-9. (a) The rotation at B (i) Due to moment 2P a  L B1  (clockwise) EI (ii) Due to reaction R RL2 RL2 3RL2 27 P a L B2     (anti clockwise) 2EI EI 2EI 16 EI  B  B1  B 2  27  P a L 5 P a L  2    (clockwise)  16  EI 16 EI GATE-11. the deflection at C due to meoment 2Pa will be given as 2P a  L  L c  L   EI  2 3P a L2  (downwards) EI  The reaction at C will be upwards R(2 L)3 8RL3 c   (upwards) 3EI 3EI Thus. (c) The moment at point B = 2 Pa In the cantilever beam ABC.r. Ans.t. c  c 3P a L2 8 RL3  EI 3EI 9Pa  R (upwards) 8L GATE-10. (c) Using Moment Area Method M M A 2El El B L L 2 2 + 2M M BMD M El M diaghram El M Deflection at B w. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 254 of 473 Rev. A = Moment of area of diagram between A and B about B El M L ML2 = L  El 2 2E l For-2015 (IES.

both the pontoons will be immersed to same height.1 = 0. Using principle of buoyancy.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s GATE-12. ( x  ) × area of cross-section of Pontoon  w = R R  x 80 Q R   [from (ii)] 80 80 48  R R   [from (iii)] 2  80 80 For-2015 (IES. Ans. the beam GHI acts as a simply supported beam. Let the reaction at each G and I be Q. (P  R)L3   …(i) 48 EI The reactions at G and I will be same. 48 k N G H I 24 k N 24k N The deflection at H will be due to the load at H as well as due to the displacement of pontoons at G and I in water. we get x × area of cross-section of pontoon × w  Q  x × 8 × 10 = Q Q  x …(ii) 80 P G I  H x x x+ Q Q R Also.  x × area of cross section of pontoon × unit weight of water = 24  x × 8 × 10 = 24  x = 0.3 + 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 255 of 473 Rev.1 . as the beam is symmetrically loaded. Ans. Hence when the middle pontoon is removed. (b) The reactions at the ends are zero as there are hinges to left of G and right of I.1m 48 EI 48  104  Final deflection at H = 0.4 m GATE-13. we have Q+Q+R=P  2Q + R = 48 …(iii) Also. (c) Let the elastic deflection at H be . Since the loading is symmetrical. Let it be x.3 m Also. deflection at H due to load PL3 48  (10)3 P   0.

Ans.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 2R  48  R   160 3R  48   160 (48  R)  103 3R  48   [from (i)] 48  104 160  R = 19.1 . we get 2P 4 P 2  2   5k 5k GATE-15. Ans. we get L 2L  1 2  2  21 …(i) Taking moments about hinge. (d) 2P 2  100 R1  k1  k    40kN 5k 5 4 P 4  100 R2  k2  k    80kN 5k 5 GATE-16. (b) For-2015 (IES. we get P  2L  k2  2L  k1  L  0  2P  k(22  1 )  0 [  from (i)]  2P  k(41  1 )  0 2P  1  5k From (i). GATE & PSUs) Page 256 of 473 Rev. Ans. 2 P P 45° P RH K1 K2 RV K1 K2 L L L L 1 2 From similar triangles.2 kN GATE-14. (b) The free diagram of the beam is shown below.

Ans. from the equation of pure bending. Ans. Ans. 2. we have L2 Deflection. from the property of circle. Now. the elongation in bottom most fibre   L  2 LT T  Strain. (d) 2 L  W    2  WL2 IES-2.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s +   =   2   5 wl4  2  384 E l 5 wl4   768 E l GATE-17. (b) IES-1(i). 0   L2 2 Therefore deflection at midpoint is downward. we have M E    I R y 1   Curvature.38 to 2. (c)    L  3EI  2EI  6EI For-2015 (IES.  8R L2  T  TL2    downward 8 h 8h GATE-19. Ans.  R Ey Strain  h   y  2  y 20  T   h h Also. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 257 of 473 Rev. (d) T The average change in temperature = 2 T The compression in the top most fibre =   L  2 T Similarly. Ans. Ans.0 mm GATE-18. (c)    2EI 8EI WL  WL2  3 5WL3 IES-3.45 mm use same funda like GATE-18 IES IES-1.1 . 1.

and W is halved. Ans. then   2 EI 3 3 Wl Wl 3 IES-7. Ans. (d) Use above explanation For-2015 (IES. (b) Wl3 Wl3 IES-16. (c)  for simply supported beam   48EI 6 EI 3 WL and deflection for Cantilever   2 3EI ML  PL / 2  L PL2 IES-6. Ans. Ans. Ans.1 . Ans. (c) Moment Area method gives us 1  2Pl   2l   l 4      l Area 2  3   3   3 9  A  x EI EI Pl3 2 7 14 Pl3     EI 9 9 81 EI 2  2l  W  Wa2  l a   3   l  2l / 3  Alternatively Ymax       EI  2 6  EI  2 6  Wl3 4  9  2     EI 9 18 3 14 Wl  81 EI IES-11(i).     EI EI 2 EI PL2 When a cantilever is subjected to a single concentrated load at free end. And we know that shear force is same throughout its length and equal to load at free end. (b) Deflection at center    48EI  bd3  48E    12  Wl 3 Wl 3 Wl 3 d2 d2 In second case. (c) Reaction force on B and C is same 100/2 = 50 kg. Ans. New deflection  =  2 Ea  2h  3 16 Eah3 W  2L  3 WL3 IES-5. (b) IES-10. Ans. Ans.Ans. Ans. IES-13. M is applied at the free end of cantilever. (a)   8EI 3EI 8 IES-8. (d) When a B. (c) IES-11. GATE & PSUs) Page 258 of 473 Rev. Ans.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s W  2Lx2 x  3 5WL3 ymid       EI  2 6 at x L 6EI Wl 3 Wl 3 12 4Wl 3 IES-4. deflection         48EI   db3   bd 3  b 2 b 2 48E   48E    12   12  IES-17. Ans. (a) IES-15. (a) IES-14. (c) IES-12. Ans. (b) IES-9. Ans. (c) Deflectionin cantilever    3EI 3Eah3 Eah3 4Wl 3 1 4Wl 3 If h is doubled.

Ans. (d) 1   and  2  48EI 384EI 384EI IES-18(i). (c) udl or point load both vary with x. dM and 0 dx IAS-3. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 259 of 473 Rev.5 For-2015 (IES. Ans(d) Pl 3 Deflection of simply supported beam with concentrated load at the mid span = 48EI Pl 3 Deflection of beam fixed horizontally at both ends with concentrated load at the mid span= 192 EI Pl 3 Ratio of central deflections= 48 EI 4 Pl 3 192 EI IES-19. Ans. (a) IAS-2. But if we apply Bending Moment (M) = const. Ans. (c) Stiffness means required load for unit deformation. Ans.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s W 5   l4 3 Wl3  l   5Wl Therefore δ1: δ2 = 8: 5 IES-18. (d) 3 PL3  L     L 3  2  2 8 3EI 1  L1  IAS-4. (c) IAS-5. (c) IAS IAS-1. Ans.1 . Ans.BMD of the given beam Loading diagram of conjugate beam The deflection at the free end of the actual beam = BM of the at fixed point of conjugate beam 1 ML  2L  WL   L   1 WL   2L  3WL3 y    L       L    L      L    L    2 EI  3  2EI   2   2 2EI   3  2EI W 2EI 2 200 10 375 10  9 6 Or stiffness =  3  3  4 1010 N / m y 3L 3 0.

t The system of signboard mounting can be considered as a cantilever loaded at A i.e.1 .5mm 2 2 Conventional Question IES-2003 Question: Find the slope and deflection at the free end of a cantilever beam of length 6m as loaded shown in figure below.Deflection of cantilever having concentrated load at the free end.15 4  di4  or di  0. W = 100 N and also having anticlockwise moment of M = 100 x 1 = 100 Nm at the free end. GATE & PSUs) Page 260 of 473 Rev. using method of superposition.0  1011  I 2  2. Evaluate their numerical value using E = 200 GPa.0  1011 2  2.417  10 m 5  103  3  2.141m or 141 mm d0  di 150  141  t   4.0  1011  I 1  100  53 100  53  6 4 or I     5. The wind load acting perpendicular to the plane of the figure is F = 100 N. Answer: We have to use superposition theory.0 X 1011 N/m2] Answer: Given: F = 100 N. 0. at point A of the hollow cylindrical pole of outer diameter 150 mm to 5 mm.417  106  64 0. E = 2. We wish to limit the deflection. due to bending.15 my = 5 mm.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question GATE-1999 Question: Consider the signboard mounting shown in figure below.0  1011   But I 64 d 4 0  di4    5. 1st consider For-2015 (IES. I = 1×10-4 m4 and W = 1 kN. [Assume E = 2. Find the wall thickness for the pole.0 X 1O11 N/m2 Thickness of pole. WL3 ML2 y  3EI 2EI 100  53 100  53 5  103   3  2. d0 = 150 mm.

within elastic limit.1 .(6  2) =  4  EI EI EI 2nd consider: 2W  43 128W δB   3EI 3EI 2 (2W )  4 16W B   2EI EI Deflection at A due to this load(δ 2 ) 224W =δB  B  (6  4)= 3EI . We know that a cantilever beam of length 'L' end load 'P' will deflect at free end PL3 ( ) = 3EI For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 261 of 473 Rev.002 EI EI EI EI  200 109  104 32W 224W 72W 536W   1   2   3     EI 3EI EI 3EI 536 10 3   8.Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 3 3 PL (3W )  2 8W δc    3EI 3EI EI PL2 (3W ). 3rd consider : W  63 72W (δ3 )  δ A   3EI EI 2 W 6 18W A   2EI EI Apply Superpositioning Formula 6W 16W 18W 40W 40 103    A   B  C       0. which one will deflect more and why? Answer: Grey cost iron will deflect more.2 2 6W θc    2EI 2EI EI 8W 6W 32W Deflection at A due to this load(δ1 ) = δc  c .93mm 3   200 109  104 Conventional Question IES-2002 Question: If two cantilever beams of identical dimensions but made of mild steel and grey cast iron are subjected to same point load at the free end.

Chapter-5 Deflection of Beam S K Mondal’s 1   E ECast Iron  125 GPa and EMild steel  200 GPa Conventional Question IES-1997 Question: A uniform cantilever beam (EI = constant) of length L is carrying a concentrated load P at its free end. GATE & PSUs) Page 262 of 473 Rev. What would be its slope at the (i) Free end and (ii) Built in end PL2 Answer: (i) Free end.1 . θ  0 For-2015 (IES. θ= 2EI (ii) Built-in end.

GATE & PSUs) Page 263 of 473 Rev.1 .  Beams are initially straight  The material is homogenous and isotropic i. In such case  The shear force at each c/s is zero.1 Euler Bernoulli’s Equation or (Bending stress formula) or Bending Equation  M E   y I R Where  = Bending Stress M = Bending Moment I = Moment of Inertia E = Modulus of elasticity R = Radius of curvature y = Distance of the fibre from NA (Neutral axis) 6.3 For-2015 (IES. constant B.e. GATE. Bending Stress in Beam Theory at a Glance (for IES.e.M along the length of the beam.  Normal stress due to bending is only produced. PSU) 6.2 Assumptions in Simple Bending Theory All of the foregoing theory has been developed for the case of pure bending i. it has a uniform composition and its mechanical properties are the same in all directions  The stress-strain relationship is linear and elastic  Young‟s Modulus is the same in tension as in compression  Sections are symmetrical about the plane of bending  Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending 6. 6.

Zmax = for b = 9 3 6. It is proposed to cut out a strongest beam from it. For-2015 (IES. Z = 6 2 d3  Circular c/s of diameter "d".7 Beam of uniform strength It is one is which the maximum bending stress is same in every section along the longitudinal axis.4 Section Modulus (Z) I Z= y  Z is a function of beam c/s only  Z is other name of the strength of the beam  Section modulus is the first moment of area about the axis of bending for a beam cross-section  The strength of the beam sections depends mainly on the section modulus M  The flexural formula may be written as. Then b( d 2  b 2 ) Z= 6 bd 3 d Therefore. Z = 6 a3  Square c/s with diagonal horizontal.  Z bh 2  Rectangular c/s of width is "b" & depth "h" with sides horizontal.5 Flexural Rigidity (EI) Reflects both  Stiffness of the material (measured by E)  Proportions of the c/s area (measured by I ) 6.1 . Z = 32 A log diameter "d" is available. Z = 6 a3  Square beam with sides horizontal.6 Axial Rigidity = EA 6.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Mc1  max   t  I Mc2  min   c  (Minimum in sense of sign) I 6. GATE & PSUs) Page 264 of 473 Rev.

If P is compressive then P My  At top fibre    (compressive) A I P  At mid fibre  (compressive) A P My  At bottom fibre  – (compressive) A I 6. GATE & PSUs) Page 265 of 473 Rev.8 Bending stress due to additional Axial thrust (P). A I P  P  e y   min   A I For-2015 (IES.9 Load acting eccentrically to one axis P  P  e y   max   where „e‟ is the eccentricity at which „P‟ is act. If P = Axial thrust Then direct stress (  d ) = P / A (stress due to axial thrust) This direct stress (  d ) may be tensile or compressive depending upon the load P is tensile or compressive. 6. My And the bending stress (  b ) = is varying linearly from zero at centre and extremum (minimum or I maximum) at top and bottom fibres.1 .Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s For it M  bh 2 Where b = Width of beam h = Height of beam To make Beam of uniform strength the section of the beam may be varied by  Keeping the width constant throughout the length and varying the depth. This type of situation arises in various machine elements. (Most widely used)  Keeping the depth constant throughout the length and varying the width  By varying both width and depth suitably. A shaft may be subjected to a combined bending and axial thrust.

e  i.e. k = radius of gyration of c/s] h h  For rectangular section (b x h) . e  i. 8D 4D For-2015 (IES.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 266 of 473 Rev.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Condition for No tension in any section 2k 2  For no tension in any section. the eccentricity must not exceed d [Where d = depth of the section. 2e  . 6 3 d d  For circular section of diameter „d‟ . 2e  8 4 D2  d 2 D2  d 2 For hollow circular section of diameter „d‟ . diameter of the kernel. diameter of the kernel.e. e  i.e load will be 2e  of the middle section.

A cantilever beam has the square cross section 10mm × 10 mm. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Bending equation GATE-1. the correct representation of the longitudinal variation of [GATE-2005] the bending stress is: GATE-1(i) A homogeneous. Considering only the bottom fibres of the beam. The load can be placed anywhere along the span of the beam. The maximum flexural stress developed in beam is 2 PL 3 PL (a) 2 (b) [CE: GATE-2004] 3 BD 4 BD2 4 PL 3 PL (c) 2 (d) 3 BD 2 BD2 GATE-1(ii) Consider a simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load having a neutral axis (NA) as shown.1 . It carries a transverse load of 10 N. IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 267 of 473 Rev. For points P (on the neutral axis) and Q(at the bottom of the beam) the state of stress is best represented by which of the following pairs? NA Q P L L [CE: GATE-2011] (a) (b) P Q P Q (c) (d) For-2015 (IES. depth D and span L is subjected to a concentrated load of magnitude P. simply supported prismatic beam of width B.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE.

R – 1. Q – 2. Q – 4.9 kN (d) 17. Gear (a) P – 4.8 kN Section Modulus GATE-3. R – 1. If the cross sectional area as well as the material of both the beams are the same then [GATE-2003] (a) Maximum bending stress developed in both the beams is the same (b) The circular beam experiences more bending stress than the square one (c) The square beam experiences more bending stress than the circular one (d) As the material is same both the beams will experience same deformation GATE-2(i) A beam with the cross-section given below is subjected to a positive bending moment(causing compression at the top) of 16 kN-m acting around the horizontal axis. GATE & PSUs) Page 268 of 473 Rev. S – 1 (c) P – 3. are subjected to the same amount of bending moment. S – 2 Combined direct and bending stress GATE-4.Match the items in Columns I and II [GATE-2006] Column-I Column-II P. The first moment of area about the axis of bending for a beam cross-section is (a) moment of inertia (b) section modulus[CE: GATE-2014] (c) shape factor (d) polar moment of inertia GATE-3(i). Prime circle 4. Instantaneous centre of velocity 2. Beam R. For the component loaded with a force F as shown in the figure.1 . The tensile force acting on the hatched area of the cross-section is 75 mm 25 mm 50 mm 50 mm 50 mm [CE: GATE-2006] (a) zero (b) 5.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s P Q P Q GATE-2. S – 4 (d) P – 3. the axial stress at the corner point P is: [GATE-2008] For-2015 (IES. R – 3. S – l (b) P – 4. one having square cross section and another circular cross-section. Linkage S. Q – 3. Q – 2. R – 2. Addendum 1. Cam Q.9 kN (c) 8. Section modulus 3. Two beams.

Cross-section of a member of truss experiences uniform stress 2. If σA and σB denote the maximum bending stresses developed in beams A and B. Cross-sections of truss members experience only compressive stress. respectively. Consider the following statements [IES-2014] 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 269 of 473 Rev. The two beams are of same length and have same cross-sectional area. Beam B is cantilever and carries a udl of intensity w/4 over its entire length. Beam A is simply supported at its ends and carries udl of intensity w over its entire length. The maximum tensile stress at the section X-X shown in the figure below is L L L 3 3 3 X b d/2 d d/2 X L L 2 2 8P 6P (a) (b) [CE: GATE-2008] bd bd 4P 2P (c) (d) bd bd Previous 20-Years IES Questions Bending equation IES-1.1 .0 (c) σA/σB > 1. then which one of the following is correct? [IES-2005] (a) σA/σB (b) σA/σB < 1.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s F (3L  b) F (3L  b) F (3L  4b) F (3L  2b) (a) (b) (c) (d) 4b3 4b3 4b3 4b3 GATE-5.0 (d) σA/σB depends on the shape of cross-section For-2015 (IES. Which of the above statements are correct? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 3 and 4 IES-1(i). It is made of steel having Young's modulus E. Cross-section of a beam experiences minimum stress 3. It is made of brass having Young's modulus E/2. Cross-section of a beam experiences linearly varying stress 4.

Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s IES-2. 8 B. Rate of change of shear force is equal to the rate of loading at a particular section 2. 1 C. Maximum shear force in a beam occurs at a point where bending moment is either zero or bending moment changes sign Which of the above statements are correct? (a) 1 alone (b) 2 alone (c) 1 and 2 (d) 1. 1/16 Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 2 4 (b) 2 4 3 1 (c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 2 1 3 4 IES-3. 3. Deflection 2. Tie bar subjected to tensile force Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 2 1 3 4 (b) 3 4 2 1 (c) 2 4 3 1 (d) 3 1 2 4 IES-4a. Consider the following statements in case of beams: [IES-2002] 1. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: [IES-2006] List-I (State of Stress) List-II (Kind of Loading) 1. Combined bending and torsion of circular shaft 2.1 . A rotating shaft carrying a unidirectional transverse load is subjected to: (a) Variable bending stress (b) Variable shear stress [IES-2013] (c) Constant bending stress (d) Constant shear stress For-2015 (IES. Thin cylinder subjected to internal pressure 4. support conditions and material of the beam unchanged. then the qualities (List-I) will change through different factors (List-II). 2 and 3 IES-4. If the area of cross-section of a circular section beam is made four times. Torsion of circular shaft 3. Rate of change of bending moment is equal to the shear force at a particular suction. Maximum longitudinal stress at [IES-2011] (a) Top fibre of the flange (b) The junction of web and flange (c) The mid-section of the web (d) The bottom fibre of the web IES-4b. 1/8 D. A T-section beam is simply supported and subjected to a uniformdistributed load over itswhole span. keeping the loads. GATE & PSUs) Page 270 of 473 Rev. length. Maximum BM 1. Bending Stress 3. Match the List-I with the List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:[IES- 2005] List-I List-II A. Section Modulus 4.

Two beams of equal cross-sectional area are subjected to equal bending moment. the reduction in load carrying capacity would be [IES-2012] 1 1 1 1 ? ? ? ? 4 3 2 6 IES-7. designed to be placed vertically is placed horizontally by mistake. [IES-2013] 4 Statement (II): We can drill and take out a cylindrical volume of material with d diameter ' ' in order to make the column lighter and still maintaining the same 4 buckling (crippling) load carrying capacity. then[IES-1999] (a) Both beams will be equally strong (b) Circular section beam will be stronger (c) Square section beam will be stronger (d) The strength of the beam will depend on the nature of loading IES-6.1 . The maximum bending stresses induced in cases (A) and (B) are related as: (a)  A  4 B (b)  A  2 B B B A B (c) A  (d) A  2 4 [IES-1997] IES-6(i). The ratio of the moments of resistance of a square beam (Z) when square section is placed (i) with two sides horizontal (Z1) and (ii) with a diagonal horizontal (Z2 ) as shown is [IES-2012] For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 271 of 473 Rev. Statement (I): A circular cross section column with diameter „d‟ is to be axially loaded in compression. A horizontal beam with square cross-section is simply supported with sides of the square horizontal and vertical and carries a distributed loading that produces maximum bending stress  in the beam.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s IES-4c. A beam with a rectangular section of 120 mm × 60 mm. When the beam is placed with one of the diagonals horizontal the maximum bending stress will be: [IES-1993] 1 (a)  (b)  (c) 2 (d) 2 2 IES-7(i). If one beam has square cross-section and the other has circular section. (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true Section Modulus IES-5. A beam cross-section is used in two different orientations as shown in the given figure: Bending moments applied to the beam in both cases are same. If the maximum stress is to be limited. For this the core of the section is considered to be a concentric d circulation area of diameter ' '.

the stress in fibre AB is given by: [IES-1995]  P P.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s ?? ?? ?? ?? ? = ?.e.5  (a) P/A (tensile) (b)    (Compressive)  A I xx  For-2015 (IES.1 . A bar of rectangular cross section (bx2b) and another beam of circular cross-section (diameter=d) are made of the same material. and subjected to same bending moment and have the same maximum stress developed. Assertion (A): For structures steel I-beams preferred to other shapes. ? ?? ?? ?? ?? IES-8. Reason (R): In I-beams a large portion of their cross-section is located far from the neutral axis. Which one of the following combinations of angles will carry the maximum load as a column? [IES-1994] IES-9. Assertion (A): A column subjected to eccentric load will have its stress at centroid independent of the eccentricity. GATE & PSUs) Page 272 of 473 Rev. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-11. ? ? = ?. For the configuration of loading shown in the given figure. ? ? = √? ? = ?. IES-2014] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Combined direct and bending stress IES-10. [IES-1994] Reason (R): Eccentric loads in columns produce torsion. [IES-1992. The ratio of weights of rectangular bar and circular bar [IES-2014] 1 2 (2 ) 3 33 (a) (b)  (c) 3 (d) 3 1 2( ) 3 IES-8(i).

e. fixed to the ground carries an eccentric load P of 1600 N as shown in the figure. the eccentricity e should be less than or equal to: (a) h/12 (b) h/6 (c) h/3 (d) h/2 [IES-2001] IES-14. A short column of external diameter D and internal diameter d carries an eccentric load W.2 N/mm2.8 N/mm2 (d) –0.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s  P P. Toe greatest eccentricity which the load can have without producing tension on the cross-section of the column would be: [IES-1999] For-2015 (IES.1 .2 N/mm2 (b) +1 N/mm2 (c) +0. the stress along the edge AB will be: (a) –1. To avoid tensile stress in the short column. GATE & PSUs) Page 273 of 473 Rev.8 N/mm2 [IES-1999] IES-13.5  (c)    (Compressive) (d) P/A (Compressive)  A I xx  IES-12. A short column of symmetric cross- section made of a brittle material is subjected to an eccentric vertical load P at an eccentricity e. If the stress developed along the edge CD is –1. A column of square section 40 mm × 40 mm.

1 .Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Dd D d 2 2 D d2 2 D  d2 2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 8 8d 8D 8 IES-15 The ratio of the core of a rectangular section to the area of the rectangular section when used as a short column is [IES-2010] 1 1 1 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) 9 36 18 24 Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Bending equation IAS-1. It carries a point load of 65 N at its centre. If E of the material is 100 GPa. A 0.0 IAS-2.5 (d) 3.0 (c) 2. A pipe of external diameter 3 cm and internal diameter 2 cm and of length 4 m is supported at its ends. GATE & PSUs) Page 274 of 473 Rev.0 (b) 2. Consider the cantilever loaded as shown below: [IAS-2004] What is the ratio of the maximum compressive to the maximum tensile stress? (a) 1. The sectional modulus of the pipe will be: [IAS-2002] 65 3 65 3 65 3 65 3 (a) cm (b) cm (c) cm (d) cm 64 32 96 128 For-2015 (IES.2 mm thick tape goes over a frictionless pulley of 25 mm diameter. then the maximum stress induced in the tape is: [IAS 1994] (a)100 MPa (b) 200 MPa (c)400 MPa (d) 800 MPa Section Modulus IAS-3.

If the T-beam cross-section shown in the given figure has bending stress of 30 MPa in the top fiber. The distance of the neutral axis from D is (all dimensions are in mm) (a) Zero (b) 109 mm (c) 125 mm (d) 170mm [IAS-2001] IAS-6.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s IAS-4.1 . A T-beam shown in the given figure is subjected to a bending moment such that plastic hinge forms. GATE & PSUs) Page 275 of 473 Rev.6 times (c) Be strengthened 0. [IAS-2000] Reason(R): A beam cross-section should be such that the greatest possible amount of area is as far away from the neutral axis as possible.6 times (d) Have the same strength as the original beam because the cross-sectional area remainsthe same IAS-5. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-7. [IAS-1999] (a) Be weakened 0. [IAS-1999] Reason (R): The modulus of the square section is less than of circular section of same area of cross-section.5 times (b) Be weakened 0. A Cantilever beam of rectangular cross-section is 1m deep and 0. T and channel sections are preferred for beams. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Bimetallic Strip IAS-9. Assertion (A): A square section is more economical in bending than the circular section of same area of cross-section. It is free at ends. The strip. A straight bimetallic strip of copper and steel is heated. will: [IAS-2002] (a) Expand and remain straight (b) Will not expand but will bend (c) Will expand and bend also (d) Twist only For-2015 (IES.6 m thick.6 m deep and 1m thick. If the beam were to be 0. Assertion (A): I. then the beam would. then the stress in the bottom fiber would be (G is centroid) (a) Zero (b) 30 MPa (c) –80 MPa (d) 50 Mpa [IAS-2000] IAS-8.

Maximum compressive stress occurs at point (a) S (b) Q (c) R (d) P [IAS-2002] IAS-11. (a) Mx  P.(x) MPa  0. M  PL  Now.  I y  M  4  PL D  3PL  4 32  BD 2BD2 12 GATE-1(ii) Ans.x  or     60.005 GATE-1. Ans. (d) When the concentrated load is placed at the midspan. maximum bending moment will develop at the mid span. k) as shown in the given figure.   60MPa And it is linear as   x GATE-1(i) Ans. A short vertical column having a square cross-section is subjected to an axial compressive force. (c) There can be two stresses which can act at any point on the beam viz. A strut's cross-sectional area A is subjected to load P a point S (h. For-2015 (IES.1 . centre of pressure of which passes through point R as shown in the above figure.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Combined direct and bending stress IAS-10. The stress at the point Q (x. GATE & PSUs) Page 276 of 473 Rev.01 4 I y I 12 At x  0. y) is: [IAS-2000] P Phy Pkx (a)   A Ix Iy P Phx Pky (b)    A Iy Ix P Phy Pkx (c)   A Iy Ix P Phx Pky (d)   A Iy Ix OBJECTIVE ANSWERS M  My 10   x   0.  0 At x  1m. flexural stress and shear stress. M   ymax I SA y  Ib Where all the symbols have their usual meaning.

88  8. (b) GATE-4. Ans.  cir   4      a2  1 a d  d3 a3 a3  4  a. Ans. or   .1 .a3 12 64   sq   cir GATE-2(i) Ans. (c) 75 mm 25 mm 50 mm x fmax 50 mm 100 mm Bending stress distribution M fmax   ymax I 16  106  12  3  75  42. we have 42. Ans. (d) Total Stress = Direct stress + Stress due to Moment = P  My  F  F (L  b )  b A I 4b2 2b  (b)3 12 GATE-5.67 N/ mm2 100  150 From similar traingles. (b) GATE-3(i). Ans.22  50  103  8. (b)   .Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s M E  My GATE-2.9 kN 2 GATE-3. GATE & PSUs) Page 277 of 473 Rev.27M   d2   sq     3 . Ans.22 N/ mm2 1  Tensile force =  25  14.67 x  75 25  x  14. I  y I a  d M  M  2 6M 2 32M 4  M 22. (a) The section at X – X may be shown as in the figure below: P b d 4 d 2 The maximum tensile stress at the section X – X is P M   A Z d P 6 P 4 2P 6 P 8 P      d  d2  bd bd bd b  b  2  4  For-2015 (IES.

deflection ratio 1     EI2  4  16 My M  d / 2  3  d 1 C. Z = 6 2  Ratio of two stresses = 2 IES-7(i). (d) Bending stress    . A  Z B . (c) M IES-7. D = 2d. (b) Diameter will be double. (c)  4 IES-5. Ans. (c) IES-8. y and I both depends on the I A Shape of cross  sec tion sodepends on the shape of cross  sec tion B IES-2. Ans. Ans. (a) IES-4c. GATE & PSUs) Page 278 of 473 Rev. Ans. Ans.1 . ZA  2  . (d) IES-4b.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s IES IES-1 Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. (c) IES-4. (d) For-2015 (IES. Maximum BM will be unaffected 4 EI  d 1 B. Ans.Ans. (b) Z for rectangular section is . Z = 6 a3 For same section with diagonal horizontal. Selection Modulus ratio     8 Z1 y1 I1  d  IES-3. and Z for square section = 32 4  6 2 b b 2 bd 2 b  3 b b3 IES-6. or  A  2 B 24 12 IES-6(i). Ans.Ans. b ZB  2  6 6 24 6 12 3 3 b b M  Z A. (c) If D is diameter of circle and 'a' the side of square section. B or  A   B . d 2  a 2 or d  a 4  d2 a3 a3 Z for circular section =  . (c) IES-4a. (b) My IES-1(i). Bending stress    or Bending stress ratio  2     I d 4 1  D  8 64 3 Z2 I2 y1  D  D. (c) Bending stress = Z a3 For rectangular beam with sides horizontal and vertical. A. Ans.

Ans. (b) IES-14. GATE & PSUs) Page 279 of 473 Rev. (c) A is true and R is false. Ans.. Ans.... (c) 1 b h bh IES-15 Ans.1 x 10-3 m.2. Ans.  x   (tensile) A Ix Ix P  6e  1600  6e  IES-12. (a) IES-10. R = mm = 12.. P My Pky IES-11. (d) Compressive stress at CD = 1..1  10 3 or   MPa = 800MPa 12. Max     at lower end of A.5  10 3  I 64  34  24  65 3 IAS-3.( from(i) 3  )  / 4 d 2  d   64  b 3 2 33 Ratio of the weights  1 2 3 IES-8(i)..2 N/mm2 = 1    1   A b  1600  20  6e 1600 or  0..1 mm = 0. I I  3  h M    at upper end of B σ tensile.. Ans.. (b) σ=  compressive. Ans. Ans.(i )  I rectangular  I circular 8b 4 /12  d 4 / 64 b3 3 weight of rectangular bar A L g Ratio of the weights=  rect weight of circular bar Acircular L  g 2 2b 2 8 b 2 8  3  3 d 3 64 Ratio of the weights    2     .. (c) Section modulus (z)   cm3  cm y 3 96 2 For-2015 (IES..5 x 10-3 m y R 2 2 100  103  0. = I In the given question since bending stress and moment both are same for the two bars  y  y b/2 d /2 d 3 64     or  or  . Ans. Ans. max= 3 I  E 0.8 N/mm2 (com) 20 1600 IES-13. (b)  d  (compressive). Sostress at AB   1  0. (c) A     4  2 6 6 18 IAS My M  2h  IAS-1. (a) IES-9.2 25 IAS-2.1 ...2  0. Ans.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s My We know. (d)  Here y =  0.

Ans. IAS-10.5 I 1 0.3 z2 0. Ans. Ans. (a) As direct and bending both the stress is compressive here. ans. Ans.2m3 y 0. Ans. (b) All stress are compressive. P My Pky d  (compressive). (c) As expansion of copper will be more than steel. direct stress.2 IAS-5. IAS-8. (b) z1    1. (b) IAS-6.  x   (compressive) A Ix Ix Mx Phx and  y   (compressive) Iy Iy For-2015 (IES. (c)   or  2  y2  1  110  30    80 MPa I y1 y2 y1 30 As top fibre in tension so bottom fibre will be in compression.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s 3 I 0. strength of the beam.6 times z1 1. (c) IAS-9. IAS-11.72m3 y 0.6  1 IAS-4. Ans. i. Ans. (a) Because it will increase area moment of inertia. M 1  2  30 IAS-7.e. GATE & PSUs) Page 280 of 473 Rev.72    0.63 and z2    0.1 .

.1875  218752  9..1875 m in(i) gives maximum bending movement dM [Just find for both the casses] dx Mmax  8.. The beam is constructed of a rectangular cross-section with width b = 10 cm and depth d = 20 cm.(i) -RA ×4 + 2×(4-1.2x 2 + 5 ...1 N max    14..5 m from left end A.355 MPa and maximum compressive stress in the topmost fiber of the beam is -14.5) Mx =RB ×x .25 kN...1 .10.1m My (9.(ii) From (i) & (ii) we find out that bending movment at x = 2.5) + (4×4)×2=0.25  2.23 Area movement of Inertia (I) =   6.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-2008 Question: A Simply supported beam AB of span length 4 m supports a uniformly distributed load of intensity q = 4 kN/m spread over the entire span and a concentrated load P = 2 kN placed at a distance of 1. The second moment of area of the joist about the principal bending axis is 35060 cm4. x =8..57103 )0.75x ..6667105 m2 Therefore maximum tensile stress in the lowest point in the beam is 14.6667 105 m4 12 12 Maximum distance from NA is y = 10 cm = 0.4x.2x2 . Answer: RA + RB = 2 + 4×4..75x . The flanges are strengthened by two 300mm × 20mm plates.. Calculate (i) The greatest central load the beam will carry if the bending stress in the 300mm/20mm plates is not to exceed 125 MPa. one riveted to each flange over the entire length of the flanges... GATE & PSUs) Page 281 of 473 Rev.. For-2015 (IES.75 kN if 0  x  2. Conventional Question IES-2007 Question: A simply supported beam made of rolled steel joist (I-section: 450mm×200mm) has a span of 5 m and it carriers a central concentrated load W..355 MPa.(ii) or RA = 9. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses developed in the beam to bending.355MPa I 6.2x + 5 = 6. RB =18-RA = 8.5 m  2-2(x-2.57K 7kNm bh3 0.

Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s (ii) The minimum length of the 300 mm plates required to restrict the maximum bending stress is the flanges of the joist to 125 MPa.76 kN (ii) Suppose the cover plates are absent for a distance of x-meters from each support.25W = 517194 or W = 413.I 35060108   125 10  6  178878Nm y 0.1 .I 125 10 101370 10  6 8 M   517194Nm y 0. Answer: Moment of Inertia of the total section about X-X (I) = moment of inertia of I –section + moment of inertia of the plates about X-X axis.  30  23  45 2   2   35060  2    30  2     101370 cm4  2  12 2   (i) Greatest central point load(W): For a simply supported beam a concentrated load at centre. Then at these points the bending moment must not exceed moment of resistance of „I‟ section alone i. GATE & PSUs) Page 282 of 473 Rev.e σ.245  Bending moment at x metres from each support For-2015 (IES.245  1. WL W  5 M=   1.25W 4 4 σ.

050(0. Conventional Question IES-2002 Question: A beam of rectangular cross-section 50 mm wide and 100 mm deep is simply supported over a span of 1500 mm.333 x  50( x  0. 500 mm from the left support.x Therefore maximum bending moment will occur at 'c' Mmax=16.001 M σ E My 16. RL  RR  50  RL  50  16.27 m the cover plate should be provided.667 kN or .100)3 4 (I )   m = 4.  x  178878 2 or x  0.5) dx For-2015 (IES. Calculate: (i) The maximum tensile stress in the beam and indicate where it occurs: (ii) The vertical deflection of the beam at a point 500 mm from the right support.86464 m Hence leaving 0. Bending moment (Mx )  RR .1 .Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s W =  x  178878 2 41760 or .86464 = 3.333 kN Take a section from right R. d2y M x  EI 2  33.166710 It will occure where M is maximum at point 'C' (ii) Macaulay's method for determing the deflection of the beam will be convenient as there is point load. x-x at a distance x.86464 m from each support. E for the material of the beam = 2×105 MPa.667=33. σ max   6 N / m2  200MPa I y  I 4. RR  16.1667×106 m4 12 12 Applying bending equation  0. It carries a concentrated load of 50 kN.2×0. for the middle 5 .67103   2    or. Answer: Taking moment about L RR 1500  50  500 or . GATE & PSUs) Page 283 of 473 Rev.667×1 KNm (i) Moment of Inertia of beam cross-section bh3 0.

For-2015 (IES. y=0 gives c2  0 at x=1.5)3  6. the product bd2 must be a maximum. y = .333( x  0.33313  c1 1. c1  6.43 2.    (ii) 6 For the condition of maximum strength i.9167 mm[downward so -ive] (2×10 10 )(4.9451  2.e. Any fibre at a distance y from N.43 or . . The bending is considered to take place about the horizontal neutral axis N. say. maximum moment M.5) 2  c1 x  c2 dx 2 2 at x=0. The maximum bending stress occurs at the outer fibres of the rectangular d section at a distance above or below the neutral axis. since  max is constant for a given material.333  ( x  0. y=0 gives 0=5. b.A. To maximize the quantity bd2 we realise that it must be expressed in terms of one independent variable.e. and we may do this from the right angle triangle relationship. d: Figure below shows a rectangular section of width b = 0·075 m and depth d metres.   . shown in the figure.A.5. where I denotes the second moment of area of the I bd3 rectangular section about the N.  max =40 MN/m2 Depth of the beam.Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Integrate both side we get d2 y x 2 50 EI 2  33. i.556×(1.A.556 x3 8.5)3  8. determine the required depth such that maximum bending stress induced in the beam does not exceed 40 MN/m2 Answer: Given: b =75 mm =0·075 m.1 .1667106 ) 5 6 Conventional Question AMIE-1997 Question: If the beam cross-section is rectangular having a width of 75 mm. 12 d At the outer fibres. GATE & PSUs) Page 284 of 473 Rev. y  m = -2.945  EIy  5. the maximum bending stress there becomes 2  d M    max  2  M     i bd3 bd2 12 6 2 bd or M   max . is 2 My subjected to a bending stress.5 or .

106  2 M = 40 × = 0. the required depth d = 0·106 m = 106 mm Conventional Question IES-2009 Q..075   0. depth d 2 b . It is to be noted that the expression appearing in the denominator of the right side of eqn. At what distance from the free end will the bending stresses in the cantilever be maximum? Also calculate the value of the maximum bending stress if the concentrated load P = 30 kN [15-Marks]  M Ans.005618  max    40MN / m2 Z  0..005618 MNm 6 M 0. The diameter at the free end is 200 mm and increases uniformly to 400 mm at the fixed end over a length of 2 m. we get 0. We have  .075   0.1 .. (i)A cantilever of circular solid cross-section is fixed at one end and carries a concentrated load P at the free end. we have. bd2 e.m x y = 100 +  200  100 2  100  50x mm d4 and I = 64 Let d be the diameter at x from free end.106  2 / 6  Hence.. (i) y I Taking distance x from the free end we have M = 30x kN. we have For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 285 of 473 Rev.(iii) This is the desired radio in order that the beam will carry a maximum moment M. we get bd2  bD2  b3 To maximize bd2 we take the first derivative of expression with respect to b and set it equal to zero. is the section modulus (Z) of a rectangular bar. Thus. 4   200   400  200  x   2    64 4   200  100x   mm 4 64 From equation (i).m = 30x × 103 N. M =  max x Z =  max x 6 Substituting the values. (i) i. the section modulus is 6 actually the quantity to be maximized for greatest strength of the beam. we have d= 2 x 0·075 = 0·0106 m bd2 Now. as follows: d d db   bd2  db   bD2  b3  D2  3b2  b2  d2  3b2  d2  2b2  0 Solving. it follows..Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s 2 2 2 b d D or d2  D2  b2 Multiplying both sides by b. Using the relation (iii).

Chapter-6 Bending Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s  100  50x   103 30x  103    200  100x 4  1012 64 960x    200  100x  3  1012 . (ii)  960x   200  100x  3  1012  d For max ..32 MPa    300  For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 286 of 473 Rev.300x + 200 + 100x = 0  x = 1m 30kN 200 400 2000mm (2m) Hence maximum bending stress occurs at the midway and from equation (ii)..  200  100x  3   0    .1 .. maximum bending stress 960  1 200  100 3  1012  960  1012  3  11... 0 dx 1012  960   x  3100 200  100x  4  1.

V = Shear force = dx c1 Q = Statical moment =  ydA y1 I = Moment of inertia b = Width of beam c/s.A 3V  max = 2A  max  1.33  mean For-2015 (IES. Shear Stress in Beam Theory at a Glance (for IES. 7. y1 3. 2.5 mean from N. GATE & PSUs) Page 287 of 473 Rev.A 6  NA = 1. Statical Moment (Q) c1 Q=  ydA = Shaded Area × distance of the centroid of the shaded area from the neutral axisof the c/s. Variation of shear stress Section Diagram Position of  max  max Rectangular N.A 4  max   mean 3 Triangular h  max  1. GATE.5 mean   NA Circular N.1 . PSU) 1. Shear stress in bending (  ) vQ  = Ib dM Where.

Variation of shear stress for some more section [Asked in different examinations] Non uniform I-Section Diagonally placed square section L-section Hollow circle T-section Cross 5.A 6 Section Diagram  max Uni form In Flange. I-Section V  2h12  (  max )  max  y  h1  h 1 2 8I    max  y  1 h 2 o In Web v  max  y o  b(h12 h12 )  th12  1 8It   vb 2  mim  y  h1   h  h12  1 2 8It   4.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 288 of 473 Rev. Rectangular section For-2015 (IES.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Trapezoidal h from N.

Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s 3V  Maximum shear stress for rectangular beam:  max = 2A  For this. Shear stress in beams of thin walled profile section.  Shear stress at any point in the wall distance "s" from the free edge s V  x It  ydA o where Vx  Shear force  = Thickness of the section I = Moment of inrertia about NA  Shear Flow (q) s Vx I NA o q = t  ydA  Shear Force (F) F=  qds  Shear Centre (e) Point of application of shear stress resultant For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 289 of 473 Rev.1 . A is the area of the entire cross section  Maximum shear occurs at the neutral axis  Shear is zero at the top and bottom of beam 6.

the glue at any of the four joints will be subjected to a shear force (in kN per meter length) of 50 mm 200 mm 50 mm 50 mm 75 mm 200 mm [CE: GATE-2006] (a) 3. The ratio of average shear stress to the maximum shear stress in a beam with a square cross-section is: [GATE-1994. is: (a) Variable with maximum at the bottom of the beam (b) Variable with maximum at the top of the beam (c) Uniform (d) Variable with maximum on the neutral axis [IES-1995.0 (d) 10.7 GATE-4(i). If a beam of rectangular cross-section is subjected to a vertical shear force V.A symmetric I-section (with width of each flange = 50 mm. subjected to a transverse shear load. GATE-2008] GATE-2. I-section of a beam is formed by gluing wooden planks as shown in the figure below. The transverse shear stress acting in a beam of rectangular cross- section. 1998] 2 3 (a) 1 (b) (c) (d) 2 3 2 GATE-3. __________ [CE: GATE-2013] For-2015 (IES. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Shear Stress Variation GATE-1.1 . Find the magnitude of the shear stress(in N/mm2) in the web at its junction with the topflange. and thickness of web = 10 mm) of steel is subjected to a shear force of 100 kN.depth of web = 100 mm. If this beam transmits a constant vertical shear force of 3000 N.thickness of each flange = 10 mm.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE.0 (b) 4. the shear force carried by the upper one third of the cross-section is [CE: GATE-2006] 7V 8V V (a) zero (b) (c) (d) 27 27 3 GATE-4. GATE & PSUs) Page 290 of 473 Rev.0 (c) 8. IES.

P. In case of a beam of circular cross-section subjected to transverse loading.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s GATE-5.10 (c) 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 291 of 473 Rev. shear force is F with zero BM. A wooden beam of rectangular cross-section 10 cm deep by 5 cm wide carries maximum shear force of 2000 kg. 2004. The cross-section is square with side a. i. The possible location of shear centre of the channel section.05 (d) 0. What is the nature of distribution of shear stress in a rectangular beam? [IES-1993. The ratio of the maximum shear stress to the maximum bending stress in the beam is(a) 0. 2008] For-2015 (IES. subjected to a shear force of 3 kN is [CE: GATE-2007] (a) 3 MPa (b) 6 MPa (c) 10 MPa (d) 20 MPa GATE-6. shown below. h.1 . The point within the cross sectional plane of a beam through which the resultant of the external loading on the beam has to pass through to ensure pure bending without twisting of the cross-section of the beam is called [CE: GATE-2009] (a) moment centre (b) centroid (c) shear centre (d) elastic centre GATE-7. at its mid-point.01 [GATE-2014] Shear Centre GATE-8. Shear stress at neutral axis of the beam section is: [IES-1997] (a) Zero (b) 40 kgf/cm2 (c) 60 kgf/cm2 (d) 80 kgf/cm2 IES-3. Consider a simply supported beam of length. 2008] (a) 50% (b) 33% (c) 25% (d) 10% IES-4. is [CE: GATE-2014] (a) P (b) Q (c) R (d) S Previous 20-Years IES Questions Shear Stress Variation IES-1.02 (b) 0. and width. At a section of a beam. Point A lies on neutral axis and point B is mid way between neutral axis and top edge. The shear stress at the neutral axis in a beam of triangular section with a base of 40 mm and height 20 mm. If  A and  B denote shear stresses at points A and B. The beam carries a vertical point load. with a rectangular cross-section of depth. the maximum shear stress developed in the beam is greater than the average shear stress by: [IES-2006. 2h.e. 50h. at distance a/4 above the neutral axis. then what is the value of  A /  B? [IES-2005] (a) 0 (b) ¾ (c) 4/3 (d) None of above IES-2.

The transverse shear stress acting in a beam of rectangular cross-section. subjected to a transverse shear load.1 . is: (a) Variable with maximum at the bottom of the beam (b) Variable with maximum at the top of the beam (c) Uniform (d) Variable with maximum on the neutral axis [IES-1995. The average shear stress developed due to the external loading at a particular cross- section is t avg . A cantilever is loaded by a concentrated load P at the free end as shown. GATE-2008] IES-8. The shear stress in the element LMNOPQRS is under consideration.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s (a) Linear (b) Parabolic (c) Hyperbolic (d) Elliptic IES-5. What is the maximum shear stress developed at the same cross-section due to the same loading? [IES-2009] 1 3 (a) tavg (b) tavg (c) tavg (d) 2 tavg 2 2 IES-7. GATE & PSUs) Page 292 of 473 Rev. shear stress develops on (a) Top fibre of rectangular beam (b) Middle fibre of rectangular beam (c) Bottom fibre of rectangular beam (d) Every horizontal plane IES-6. A beam having rectangular cross-section is subjected to an external loading. Which of the following figures represents the shear stress directions in the cantilever? [IES-2002] For-2015 (IES. Which one of the following statements is correct? [IES 2007] When a rectangular section beam is loaded transversely along the length.

In I-Section of a beam subjected to transverse shear force.1 . Reason (R): Average value of the shearing stress in the web is equal to the value of shearing stress in the flange. The beam is of (a) Equal flange I-Section (b) Unequal flange I-Section (c) Circular cross-section (d) T-section [IES-2003] For-2015 (IES. [IES-2012] Statement (II): The shear force acting on the beam will be zero everywhere along its length. the shearing force at any section of the beam is resisted mainly by the web portion. then the beam cross-section will not experience any shear stress.2008] (a) At the centre of the web (b) At the top edge of the top flange (c) At the bottom edge of the top flange (d) None of the above IES-10. (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true Shear stress distribution for different section IES-12. Statement (I): If the bending moment along the length of a beam is constant. The shear stress distribution over a beam cross- section is shown in the figure above. The shear stress at point P (very close to the bottom of the flange) is 12 MPa. [IES. [IES-1995] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-11(i).Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s IES-9. GATE & PSUs) Page 293 of 473 Rev. The stress at point Q in the web (very close to the flange) is: (a) Indeterminable due to incomplete data (b) 60MPa (c) 18 MPa (d) 12 MPa [IES-2001] IES-11. Assertion(A): In an I-Section beam subjected to concentrated loads. The given figure (all dimensions are in mm) shows an I-Section of the beam. the maximum shear stress is developed.

Maximum bending stress at that section will depend upon the elastic modulus of the beam material. 4. 2 and 3 (d) 2. The distribution of shear stress of a beam is shown in the given figure. 2. then 1. 3 and 4 IAS-2. 3 and 4 (c) 1.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Shear Stress Variation IAS-1.1 . 3. In a loaded beam under bending [IAS-2003] (a) Both the maximum normal and the maximum shear stresses occur at the skin fibres (b) Both the maximum normal and the maximum shear stresses occur the neutral axis (c) The maximum normal stress occurs at the skin fibres while the maximum shear stress occurs at the neutral axis (d) The maximum normal stress occurs at the neutral axis while the maximum shear stress occurs at the skin fibres Shear stress distribution for different section IAS-3. A channel-section of the beam shown in the given figure carries a uniformly distributed load. Curvature of the beam having greater value of E will be larger. The maximum shearing stress at that section in the two beams will be same. [IAS-2000] For-2015 (IES. Consider the following statements: [IAS-2007] Two beams of identical cross-section but of different materials carry same bending moment at a particular section. The maximum bending stress at that section in the two beams will be same. Select the correct shear stress distribution diagram for a square beam with a diagonal in a vertical position: [IAS-2002] IAS-4. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1.The cross- section of the beam is: [IAS-2000] IAS-5. GATE & PSUs) Page 294 of 473 Rev.

The beam twists besides bending.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s Assertion (A): The line of action of the load passes through the centroid of the cross- section. GATE & PSUs) Page 295 of 473 Rev.1 . Reason (R): Twisting occurs since the line of action of the load does not pass through the web of the beam. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true For-2015 (IES.

Ans. (b) VQ Shear flow. we get d V b 2  d2   F   2I d  4  y2  dy  6 d V b  d2 y3  2 V b  d 3 d 3 d 3 d3    y  d       2I  4 3 2I  8 24 24 648  6 3 Vb d 28 V b d3 28 7V        12  2I 8 81 2bd3 8 81 27 GATE-4. GATE & PSUs) Page 296 of 473 Rev.Ans(d)  max   mean 2 GATE-2. (b) 3  max   mean 2 GATE-3.1 . Ans. (b) d 2 y SA y  Ib d  d     y V    y  b    2    2   2  Ib  d2  V  y2     4  2I  d F    b dy  d2  V  y2    4   b dy 2I Integrating both sides. q  I 50  3003 150  503  I  2   150  50  1252  12  12  For-2015 (IES.Ans.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE ANSWERS 3 GATE-1.

Ans.0 kN/ m 3.5  10 mm For any of the four joints. (a) For-2015 (IES. (d) GATE-8. Ans.Ans.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s 8 4  3. (c) SA y Shear stress. 40 mm 3 20 mm 40 mm 40 40 40 80 Width at a distance of mm from the top =   mm 3 20 3 3  1 80 40   1 40  3  103          2 3 3  3 3   40  203  80    36  3 3  103  3200  40  36  3   10 MPa 162  3200  203 Alternatively. Therefore. GATE-4(i). (c) GATE-7. Ans.1 . 12S q (hy  y2 ) bh3 12  3  103  20  20   2   20       10 MPa 40  203  3  3   GATE-6. there seems to be an error in the question. it was mentioned as T-section.5  108 Note: In the original Question Paper. 70 to 72 GATE-5.Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 297 of 473 Rev. the figure of the beam was draw as I-section but in language of the question.  Ib Where S = Shear force A = Area above the level where shear stress is desired y = Distance of CG of area A from neutral axis I = Moment of Inertia about neutral axis b = Width of the section at the level where shear stress is desired. Q = 50 × 75 × 125 = 468750 mm3 3000  468750  q  4.0 N/ mm  4.

h For-2015 (IES. maximum shear stress. (c) Shear stress at neutral axis =     60 kg/cm2 2 bd 2 10  5 IES-3.1 .5 (average) 2b. Ans. Ans.Ans. .  a  4     2 a  3 4   3 F 3 2000 IES-2.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s IESANSWERS a  a2  3 V V    y2  . Ans. 3F max   1. Ans. (b) V  h2 2    y1  indicating a parabolic distribution of shear stress across the cross-section. the ratio of the maximum shear stress to average shear stress 4:3 IES-4. the beam. Ans. maximum shear stress. 4I  4  IES-5.(b) In the case of beams with circular cross-section. (c)   Ib  a 4 2 a3   or A  2 a3  B 3 V  2 2   3 a a  12 . (b) IES-6.a2 VAy 2 4   3 V a2  4y 2  4 IES-1. GATE & PSUs) Page 298 of 473 Rev. (c) Shear stress in a rectangular Shear stress in a circular beam.

Ans. Ans. (c)Twisting occurs since the line of action of the load does not pass through the shear. Ans. Ans. 4I  4  IAS-3. (b) IES-11. (a) IES-12. (b) IAS-5. GATE & PSUs) Page 299 of 473 Rev. (a) Bending stress  = and shear stress (  ) = both of them does not depends on I Ib material of beam. Ans (d)  max   mean 2 IES-8. For-2015 (IES.1 . If the permissible stresses are 30 N/mm2 longitudinally and 3 N/mm2 transverse shear. (c) V  h2 2    y1  indicating a parabolic distribution of shear stress across the cross-section. Ans. (d) IAS-4. (d) IES-9. calculate the maximum load which can be carried by the timber beam. Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-2006 Question: A timber beam 15 cm wide and 20 cm deep carries uniformly distributed load over a span of 4 m and is simply supported. (b) My VAy IAS-1.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s 4F 4 max   (average)  3 3  d2 4 3 IES-7. (a) IES-10. Ans. Ans. Ans. IAS-2. Ans. (c) IES-11(i). Ans. Ans.

GATE & PSUs) Page 300 of 473 Rev.20 3 3 bh Answer: Moment of inertia (I)    104 m4 12 12 20 Distance of neutral axis from the top surface y   10 cm  0.    66.4 Maximum shear force    2 2 2 2 Therefore average shear stress ( mean )   66.15   0.1 104 or.1 m 2 M  My We know that  or   I y I Where maximum bending moment due to uniformly  2   4 2 distributed load in simply supported beam ( M )    2 8 8 Considering longitudinal stress 30  106   2   0.Chapter-7 Shear Stress in Beam S K Mondal’s  0.   15 kN/m Now consideng Shear .67  100  2 2 Now 3  106  100 .1 .15  0.   30 kN/m So maximum load carring capacity of the beam = 15 kN/m (without fail).L . For-2015 (IES.67  0.2 For rectangular cross-section 3 3 Maximum shear stress( max ) .

GATE & PSUs) Page 301 of 473 Rev. PSU) What is a beam? A (usually) horizontal structural member that is subjected to a load that tends to bend it. Continuous beams are used when the span of the beam is very large. deflection under each rigid support will be equal zero. For-2015 (IES.1 . GATE. Fixed and Continuous Beam Theory at a Glance (for IES. Types of Beams Simply supported beam Cantilever beam Simply Supported Beams Cantilever Beam Single Overhang Beam Continuous Beam Single Overhang Beam with internal hinge Double Overhang Beam Fixed Beam Continuous beam Continuous beams Beams placed on more than 2 supports are called continuous beams. 8. Analysis of Continuous Beams (Using 3-moment equation) Stability of structure If the equilibrium and geometry of structure is maintained under the action of forces than the structure is said to be stable.

Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces cannot be found out from static equilibrium equations alone are called statically indeterminate beam. Example: P P RA RB Rc RD For-2015 (IES. Internal stability is provided by proper design and geometry of the member of the structure. Yi  0 and M  0i is sufficient to calculate RA & RB. Example: X i  0. GATE & PSUs) Page 302 of 473 Rev.Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-300 External stability of the structure is provided by the reaction at the supports.1 . Statically determinate and indeterminate structures Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces can be found out from static equilibrium equations alone are called statically determinate beam. This type of beam requires deformation equation in addition to static equilibrium equations to solve for unknown forces.

Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-301 Advantages of fixed ends or fixed supports  Slope at the ends is zero.  In case of fixed beams. Bending moment diagram for fixed beam Example: BMD for Continuous beams BMD for continuous beams can be obtained by superimposing the fixed end moments diagram over the free bending moment diagram. stronger and more stable than SSB. GATE & PSUs) Page 303 of 473 Rev. For-2015 (IES. fixed end moments will reduce the BM in each section.  Fixed beams are stiffer.  The maximum deflection is reduced.1 .

GATE & PSUs) Page 304 of 473 Rev.Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-302 Three .1 .moment Equation for continuous beams OR Clapeyron’s Three Moment Equation For-2015 (IES.

IAS) Previous 20-Years IES Questions Overhanging Beam IES-1. [IES-2009] (a) 6 kN-m at the right support (b) 6 kN-m at the left support (c) 4. IES. one each at free ends and the third at the mid-span. as shown in the above figure.Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-303 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE. A beam of length 4 L is simply supported on two supports with equal overhangs of L on either sides and carries three equal loads.1 . A horizontal beam carrying uniformly distributed load is supported with equal overhangs as shown in the given figure The resultant bending moment at the mid-span shall be zero if a/b is: [IES-2001] (a) 3/4 (b) 2/3 (c) 1/2 (d) 1/3 For-2015 (IES. An overhanging beam ABC is supported at points A and B. GATE & PSUs) Page 305 of 473 Rev.5kN-mat the midpoint between the supports IES-2. Which one of the following diagrams represents correct distribution of shearing force on the beam? [IES-2004] IES-3.5 kN-m at the right support (d) 4. Find the maximum bending moment and the point where it occurs.

1 .Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-304 Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Overhanging Beam IAS-1. Which one of the following correctly shows the bending moment diagram of the beam? [IAS 1994] For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 306 of 473 Rev. the overhang x should be: [IAS-2000] (a) wl 2 / 4P (b) wl 2 / 6P (c) wl 2 / 8P (d) wl 2 /12P IAS-2. The ratio b/a for zero bending moment at mid- span is: [IAS-1997] 1 3 (a) (b) 1 (c) (d) 2 2 2 IAS-3. A beam carrying a uniformly distributed load rests on two supports 'b' apart with equal overhangs 'a' at each end. If the beam shown in the given figure is to have zero bending moment at its middle point. A beam carries a uniformly distributed load and is supported with two equal overhangs as shown in figure 'A'.

(a)Taking moment about A VB  2 =  2  1   6  3   2VB  2  18  VB  10 kN VA  VB  2  6  8kN  VA  8  10   2 kN  Maximum Bending Moment = 6 kN-m at the right support IES-2. Ans. Ans. IES-3. (a) For-2015 (IES.Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-305 OBJECTIVE ANSWERS IES-1.1 .M of cantilever is (-) ive. (c) wl IAS-1. Ans.F & B. Ans. (d) (i) By similarity in the B. GATE & PSUs) Page 307 of 473 Rev. (d) They use opposite sign conversions but for correct sign remember S. Ans.M diagram a must be b/2   b2 2 (ii) By formula M    a   0 gives a = b/2 24  IAS-3. (c) Rc  RD  P  2 wl l l  l wl 2 Bending moment at mid point (M) =    RD   P  x    0 gives x  2 4 2  2 8P IAS-2. Ans.

1 . Example: X i  0. Answer: Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces can be found out from static equilibrium equations alone are called statically determinate beam. GATE & PSUs) Page 308 of 473 Rev.Chapter-8 Fixed and Continuous Beam Page-306 Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES-2006 Question: What are statically determinate and in determinate beams? Illustrate each case through examples. Yi  0 and M  0 i is sufficient to calculate RA & RB. Example: P P RA RB Rc RD For-2015 (IES. Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces cannot be found out from static equilibrium equations alone are called statically indeterminate beam. This type of beam requires deformation equation in addition to static equilibrium equations to solve for unknown forces.

Torsion of circular shafts 1. For-2015 (IES. which supports gears. Equation for shafts subjected to torsion "T" Torsion Equation  T G = = R J L Where J = Polar moment of inertia  = Shear stress induced due to torsion T.… and carries no torque. wheels.1 . Terms such as lineshaft. PSU)  In machinery. GATE & PSUs) Page 309 of 473 Rev. etc. and which is subjected to torsion and to transverse or axial loads acting singly or in combination. transmission shaft. G = Modulus of rigidity  = Angular deflection of shaft R.. L = Shaft radius & length respectively Assumptions  The bar is acted upon by a pure torque. usually of circular cross- section. and flexible shaft are names associated with special usage. sprockets. headshaft.  Adjacent cross sections originally plane and parallel remain plane and parallel after twisting. countershaft. GATE. 9.  A “spindle” is a short shaft. Torsion Theory at a Glance (for IES.  The section under consideration is remote from the point of application of the load and from a change in diameter.  An “axle” is a rotating/non-rotating member that supports wheels. and any radial line remains straight. the general term “shaft” refers to a member. stub shaft. rotors. pulleys.

"J” = (do 4  di 4 ) 32 For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 310 of 473 Rev. the polar second moment of area.  d4  Solid shaft “J” = 32   Hollow shaft.1 . J is defined as J = z 0 R 2 r 3 dr J = 2 LM r OP 4 R  2  R4  D4  For a solid shaft N4Q 0 4 32 (6) For a hollow shaft of internal radius r: z R 2 r 3 dr LM r OP 4 R   cD h = 2  ( R4  r 4 )  d4 4 J = 0 N4Q r 2 32 (7) Where D is the external and d is the internal diameter. i.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s  The material obeys Hooke’s law  Cross-sections rotate as if rigid.e. every diameter rotates through the same angle 2. Polar moment of inertia As stated above.

In twisting 16T  Solid shaft.] 5. where c = r = D/2  For a solid circular cross-section. G in N/mm2] 7.  max = T / Zp  If design shears stress.  max =  d3 16Td o  Hollow shaft.  d is known. L in mm. Zp = π (Do4 .9 × 4 G [Where T in N-mm. GATE & PSUs) Page 311 of 473 Rev. Zp = π D3 / 16  For a hollow circular cross-section. Power Transmission (P) 2 NT  P (in Watt ) = 60 2 NT  P (in hp) = (1 hp = 75 Kgm/sec).  max =  ( d o 4  di 4 ) TL  Diameter of a shaft to have a maximum deflection "  " d= 4. required polar section modulus can be calculated from: Zp = T /  d Torsional Stiffness ? ?? The tensional stiffness k is defined as the torque per radius twist (?? ) = = ? ? 4.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s 3. Safe diameter of Shaft (d)  Stiffness consideration T G  J L  Shear Stress consideration T   J R We take higher value of diameter of both cases above for overall safety if other parameters are given. 4500 [Where N = rpm.1 . T = Torque in N-m. The polar section modulus Zp= J / c. Comparison of solid and hollow shaft  A Hollow shaft will transmit a greater torque than a solid shaft of the same weight & same material because the average shear stress in the hollow shaft is smaller than the average shear stress in the solid shaft For-2015 (IES. 6.Di4 ) / (16Do)  Then.

if only by virtue of the self-weight of the gears they carry.1 .  For shafts subjected to the simultaneous application of a bending moment M and torque T the principal stresses set up in the shaft can be shown to be equal to those produced by an equivalent bending moment. n= [ONGC-2005] 2 Ts n n  1 Internal diameter of hollow shaft  Weight comparison (same Torque. For-2015 (IES. Combined Bending and Torsion  In most practical transmission situations shafts which carry torque are also subjected to bending. di =   2  Strength comparison (same weight. length and  max ) Uh n 2  1 1  2  1 2 Us n n 8.  In the case of shafts.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s  If solid shaft dia = D  ( max )holloow shaft 16    D ( max ) solid shaft 15  Hollow shaft. Many other practical applications occur where bending and torsion arise simultaneously so that this type of loading represents one of the major sources of complex stress situations. material. Shaft in parallel 1  2 and T  T1  T2 Electrical analogy gives torque(T) = Current (I) 10. n= External diameter of hollow shaft [WBPSC-2003]   2/3 Ws n4  1 Internal diameter of hollow shaft  Strain energy comparison (same weight. bending gives rise to tensile stress on one surface and compressive stress on the opposite surface while torsion gives rise to pure shear throughout the shaft. Shaft in series   1  2 Torque (T) is same in all section Electrical analogy gives torque(T) = Current (I) 9. of a certain value Me acting alone. length and  max ) Wh    n 2  1 n 2/3 Where. material. length and  max ) Th n2  1 External diameter of hollow shaft  Where. material. d o = D. GATE & PSUs) Page 312 of 473 Rev.

Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s  Figure  Maximum direct stress (  x ) & Shear stress ( ( xy ) in element A 32M P x   d3 A 16T  xy  3 d  Principal normal stresses (  1. GATE & PSUs) Page 313 of 473 Rev.1 .2 =   x    xy2 2  2  1   2   2  max     x   ( xy )2 2  2   Maximum Principal Stress (  max ) & Maximum shear stress (  max ) 16   max = M  M 2 T 2  d3   16  max = M 2 T2 d 3  Location of Principal plane (  ) 1 T   = tan 1   2 M   Equivalent bending moment (Me) & Equivalent torsion (Te). M  M 2 T 2  Me     2  Te  M 2  T 2  Important Note o Uses of the formulas are limited to cases in which both M & T are known. Under any other condition Mohr’s circle is used.2 ) & Maximum shearing stress (  max ) x  2  1. For-2015 (IES.

3  0 E E For-2015 (IES. d = 3  w 16Te o w in shear . d= 3  w 11. . 0 i. GATE & PSUs) Page 314 of 473 Rev.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s  Safe diameter of shaft (d) on the basis of an allowable working stress. n =  sin 2 t =  cos2  Maximum normal & shear stress on AB  (  n )max  max 0 0 + 45° – 0 90 0 – 135 + 0  Important Note  Principal stresses at a point on the surface of the shaft = +  . Shaft subjected to twisting moment only  Figure  Normal force ( Fn ) & Tangential for ( Ft ) on inclined plane AB Fn     BC sin  + AC cos  Ft   × BC cos .1 . 32M e o w in tension . 2   (1   ).AC sin   Normal stress (  n ) & Tangential stress (shear stress) (  t ) on inclined plane AB. .2    sin2  Principal strains   1  (1   ).e 1.

v 1  2  3  0  No change in volume for a shaft subjected to pure torque. Because no key or keyway is needed.1 .  Saint Venant (1855) showed that  max in a rectangular b×c section bar occurs in the middle of the longest side b and is of magnitude formula T T  1. S  2 r For-2015 (IES. Ao   r 2 . Torsion of thin walled tube  For a thin walled tube T Shear stress.   2 A0t  sL Angle of twist.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s  Volumetric strain. 12.8   max   2  3  bc2 bc  b / c  Where b is the longer side and  factor that is function of the ratio b/c. GATE & PSUs) Page 315 of 473 Rev. AO = Area enclosed by mean centre line]  Special Cases o For circular c/s J  2 r 3t. The angle of twist is given by Tl    bc3G Where  is a function of the ratio b/c Shear stress distribution in different cross-section Rectangular c/s Elliptical c/s Triangular c/s 13. Torsional Stresses in Non-Circular Cross-section Members  There are some applications in machinery for non-circular cross-section members and shafts where a regular polygonal cross-section is useful in transmitting torque to a gear or pulley that can have an axial change in position.  2 AO G [Where S = length of mean centre line. the possibility of a lost key is avoided.

1 .r T  =   2 r t 2 J 2 Aot TL L TL    GJ Ao JG 2 r 3tG o For square c/s of length of each side ‘b’ and thickness ‘t’ A0  b 2 S =4b o For elliptical c/s ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the half axis lengths. GATE & PSUs) Page 316 of 473 Rev. A0   ab 3  S    (a  b)  ab  2  For-2015 (IES.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s [r = radius of mean Centre line and t = wall thickness] T T .

A solid circular shaft of 60 mm diameter transmits a torque of 1600 N.72 MPa (c) 57. Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under pure torsion is 240 MPa. The expression for d to produce an [GATE-2011] angular twist  at the free end is 1 1 1 1  32 TL  4  18 TL  4  16 TL  4  2 TL  4 (a)   (b)   (c)   (d)     G    G    G    G  For-2015 (IES. The maximum normal stress acting at its cross-section is equal to[CE: GATE-2006] 16 T 32 T 64 T (a) zero (b) 3 (c) 3 (d) d d d3 GATE-3.1 . For a circular shaft of diameter d subjected to torque T. in MPa.5l is also subjected to the same torque 'T'.m. is: [GATE-2000] (a) 40 (b) 50 (c) 100 (d) 250 GATE-4. A steel shaft 'A' of diameter 'd' and length 'l' is subjected to a torque ‘T’ Another shaft 'B' made of aluminium of the same diameter 'd' and length 0. If  2. the maximum value of the shear stress is: [GATE-2006] 64T 32T 16T 8T (a) (b) (c) (d) d3 d3 d3 d3 GATE-4(i). The R1  maximum shear stressesdeveloped in the two shafts are 1 and 2 .72 MPa GATE-2. [GATE-2014] GATE-4a. GATE & PSUs) Page 317 of 473 Rev. The shear modulus of the material of the rod is G.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE. The shear modulus of steel is 2. A torque T is applied L L/2 at the free end of a T stepped rod of circular cross.72 MPa (d) 67.5 times the shear modulus of aluminium.72 MPa (b) 47. The value of maximum shear stress developed is: [GATE-2004] (a) 37. IES. If the shaft diameter is doubled then the maximum shear stress developed corresponding to the same torque will be: [GATE-2003] (a) 120 MPa (b) 60 MPa (c) 30 MPa (d) 15 MPa GATE-2(i) A long shaft of diameter d is subjected to twisting moment T at its ends. 2d d sections as shown in the figure. then 2 R2 1 is ……….Two solid circular shafts of radii R1 and R2 are subjected to same torque. The shear stress in the steel shaft is 100 MPa. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Torsion Equation GATE-1. The shear stress in the aluminium shaft.

subjected to a torque of 92.0 rad (c) 5.0 kNm (b) 3.0 kNm Comparison of Solid and Hollow Shafts GATE-7. then the maximum torque that can be applied is: [GATE-1996] (a) 7. IES-2001] 15 3 1 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) 16 4 2 16 GATE-7(i) The maximum and minimum shear stresses in a hollow circular shaft of outer diameter 20 mm and thickness 2 mm. the maximum power transmitted by B is: [IES-2001.5 kN-m Combined Bending and Torsion GATE-6.7 N-m will be (a) 59 MPa and 47. GATE-1994] (a) The same as that of A (b) Half of A (c) 1/8th of A (d) 1/4th of A GATE-5(i) A hollow circular shaft has an outer diameter of 100 mm and a wall thickness of 25 mm.5 kNm (c)4.1 . the maximum shear stress in the shaft will be [CE: GATE-2008]   (a) 2 (b)  (c) (d) 2 4 Shafts in Series GATE-8.5 rad (b) 1.0 kNm and a twisting moment of 4.5 kNm (d) 5.0 rad (d) 10. A torque of 10 Nm is transmitted through a stepped shaft as shown in figure. The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. A solid shaft can resist a bending moment of 3.0 rad For-2015 (IES. 30 Nm/rad and 60 Nm/rad respectively.0 kNm together. The torsional stiffness of individual sections of lengths MN. The angular deflection between the ends M and P of the shaft is: [GATE-2004] (a) 0. NO and OP are 20 Nm/rad. Assuming both the shafts to rotate at the same speed. If the torque is increased by four times and the diameter of the shaft is increased by two times. GATE & PSUs) Page 318 of 473 Rev. The diameter of shaft A is twice the diameter of shaft B and both are made of the same material.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Power Transmitted by Shaft GATE-5.5 kN-m (c) 23 kN-m (d) 11. The ratio of its torque carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and the same outside diameter is: [GATE-1993. The allowable shear stress in the shaft is 125 MPa.2 MPa (b) 100 MPa and 80 MPa [CE: GATE-2007] (c) 118 MPa and 160 MPa (d) 200 MPa and 160 Mpa GATE-7(ii)The maximum shear stress in a solid shaft of circular cross-section having diameter d subjected to a torque T is . The maximum torque the shaft can transmit is [CE: GATE-2009] (a) 46 kN-m (b) 24.

If a solid circular shaft of steel 2 cm in diameter is subjected to a permissible shear stress 10 kN/cm2. then [GATE-2005] (a) TC = TA (b) TC =8 TA (c) TC =16 TA (d) TA=16 TC GATE-10. The rotations of shaft at points A and B are 1 and 2 . What is the diameter of the shaft? [IES-2008] 16T 32T 16T T (a) 3 (b) 3 (c) 3 (d) 3     IES-2(i).1 . The torsional rigidity of portions CA and BD is GJ1 and that of portion AB is GJ2 . 3. Directly proportional to its polar moment of inertia. respectively.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Shafts in Parallel GATE-9. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1. 2. The two shafts AB and BC. Directly proportional to torque being transmitted. GATE & PSUs) Page 319 of 473 Rev. Consider the following statements: [IES. If TA and TC represent the twisting moments at the ends A and C. then what is the maximum shear stress developed corresponding to the same torque? [IES-2009] (a) 120 MPa (b) 60 MPa (c) 30 MPa (d) 15 MPa For-2015 (IES. are made of the same material. of equal length and diameters d and 2d. If the shaft diameter is doubled.2008] Maximum shear stress induced in a power transmitting shaft is: 1. Inversely proportional to the cube of its diameter. They are joined at B through a shaft coupling. A circular shaft shown in the figure is subjected to torsion T at two points A and B. The rotation 1 is [CE: GATE-2005] C A B D T T L L L TL TL (a) (b) GJ1  GJ 2 GJ1 TL TL (c) (d) GJ 2 GJ1  GJ 2 Previous 20-Years IES Questions Torsion Equation IES-1. A solid shaft transmits a torque T. then the value of the twisting moment (Tr ) will be (a) 10 kN-cm (b) 20 kN-cm (c) 15 kN-cm (d) 5 kN-cm[IES-2012] IES-3. The allowable shearing stress is  . 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 3 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 2 only IES-2. A twisting moment T is applied to the coupling. Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under pure torsion is 240 MPa. while the ends A and C are built-in (cantilevered).

but length l/2 is also subjected to the samemoment. How many times is its torque carrying capacity increased? [IES-1995. Anothershaft B of brass having same diameter d. (a) Both A and R areindividually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-9. The ratio of maximum shear to maximum normal stress at any point would be: [IES-1999] (a) 1 : 1 (b) 1: 2 (c) 2: 1 (d) 2: 3 IES-8. to maximum at the circumference IES-6.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s IES-4. A solid circular shaft is subjected to pure torsion. Angle of twist of a shaft of diameter ‘d’ is inversely proportional to [IES-2000] (a) d (b) d2 (c) d3 (d) d4 IES-6a A solid steel shaft of diameter d and length l is subjected to twisting moment T.84 × 105 N/mm2) [IES-2012] (a) 500 mm (b) 250 mm (c) 625 mm (d) 375 mm IES-5(ii). If shear modulus of steel is two times that of brass. the torque shared by each shaft is directly proportional to its polar moment of inertia. all other conditions remaining unchanged. Then the maximum compressive stress in the material is: [IES-2003] (a) 30 MPa (b) 60 MPa (c) 90 MPa (d) 120 MPa IES-5(i). the ratio of the angular twistof steel to that of brass shaft is: (a) 1:2 (b) 1:1 (c) 2:1 (d) 4:1 [IES-2011] IES-7.01 radians and is subjected to a shear stress of 42 N/mm2. [IES-2002] Which of the following figures represents the shear stress on the element LMNOPQRS? For-2015 (IES. The diameter of a shaft is increased from 30 mm to 60 mm. the angle of twist for each shaft depends upon its polar moment of inertia. [IES-1999] Reason (R): In a composite shaft having concentric shafts of different materials. The magnitude of stress induced in a shaft due to applied torque varies (a) From maximum at the centre to zero at the circumference (b) From zero at the centre to maximum at the circumference [IES-2012] (c) From maximum at the centre to minimum but not zero at the circumference (d) From minimum but not zero at the centre. GATE & PSUs) Page 320 of 473 Rev. 2004] (a) 2 times (b) 4 times (c) 8 times (d) 16 times IES-5. A shaft is subjected to torsion as shown. The boring bar of a boring machine is 25 mm in diameter. Assertion (A): In a composite shaft having two concentric shafts of different materials.1 . the bar gets twisted though 0. During operation. A circular shaft subjected to twisting moment results in maximum shear stress of 60 MPa. The length of the bar is (Taking G = 0.

1 . In power transmission shafts. if its speed is doubled. One-half length of 50 mm diameter steel rod is solid while the remaining half is hollow having a bore of 25 mm. The maximum strain energy/unit volume in the shaft is given by: [IES-2013] 2max 2max 22max 2max (a) (b) (c) (d) 4G 2G 3G 3G Hollow Circular Shafts IES-11. GATE & PSUs) Page 321 of 473 Rev. The maximum allowable shear stress is max . the maximum shear stress in the hollow portion is: [IES-2003] 15 4 16 (a)  (b)  (c)  (d)  16 3 15 Power Transmitted by Shaft IES-12. If the maximum shear stress in solid portion is τ or. then what is the torque required to produce the same angle of twist? [IES-2006] (a) 1/4 of the original value (b) 1/2 of the original value (c) Same as the original value (d) Double the original value IES-13. what should be its new diameter if the maximum shear stress induced in the shaft remains same? [IES-2006] 1 1 (a) of the original diameter (b) of the original diameter 2 2 For-2015 (IES. at a distance of 1/4 from A (see figure). The torsional stresses in the parts AC and CB will be: (a) Equal (b) In the ratio 1:3 (c) In the ratio 3 :1 (d) Indeterminate [IES-1997] IES-10(i). if the polar moment of inertia of a shaft is doubled. The rod is subjected to equal and opposite torque at its ends. While transmitting the same power by a shaft. A power transmission solid shaft of diameter d length l and rigidity modulus G is subjected to a pure torque. A round shaft of diameter 'd' and length 'l' fixed at both ends 'A' and 'B' is subjected to a twisting moment 'T’ at 'C'.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s IES-10.

its diameter is proportional to: [IES-2005] 1/3 1/2 2/3 P P P P (a)   (b)   (c)   (d)   N N N N IES-15. 2007] (a) M2 + T2 (b) M + T (c) M2 T2 (d) M – T IES-20. Assuming both the shafts to rotate at the same speed. then the equivalent twisting moment for the shaft is: [IES-1994] (a) 2000N-m (b) 2050N-m (c) 2100N-m (d) 2136 N-m IES-21. For a power transmission shaft transmitting power P at N rpm. GATE-1994] (a) The same as that of A (b) Half of A (c) 1/8th of A (d) 1/4th of A IES-17. 2004] (a) 450 Nm and 500 Nm (b) 900 Nm and 350 Nm (c) 900 Nm and 500 Nm (d) 400 Nm and 500 Nm IES-21(i). A shaft is subjected to fluctuating loads for which the normal torque (T) and bending moment (M) are 1000 N-m and 500 N-m respectively. What respectively are the equivalent bending moment and equivalent torque? [IES-1994. If this shaft is replaced by a shaft of diameter double of the previous one and rotated at half the speed of the previous. The diameter of shaft A is twice the diameter or shaft B and both are made of the same material. A member is subjected 29. A shaft can safely transmit 90 kW while rotating at a given speed. GATE & PSUs) Page 322 of 473 Rev. IAS-1996] 1 (a) M2 T2 (b) M  M 2 T 2  2   1 1 (c) M  T  (d)  M  T  2 2 2 4  IES-19. the power that can be transmitted by the new shaft is: [IES-2002] (a) 90 kW (b) 180 kW (c) 360 kW (d) 720 kW IES-16. A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment M and twistingmoment T. If the combined shock and fatigue factor for bending is 1.The maximum normal stress induced in the shaft [IES-2014] For-2015 (IES. 2008.1 .5 and combined shock and fatigue factor for torsion is 2. the shaft experiences [IES-1997] (a) Torsional stresses alone (b) Bending stresses alone (c) Constant bending and varying torsional stresses (d) Varying bending and constant torsional stresses Combined Bending and Torsion IES-18. When a shaft transmits power through gears.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s 1 (c) 2 of the original diameter (d) of the original diameter  2 1 3 IES-14. What is the equivalent twisting moment Te which will produce the same maximum shear stress as the above combination? [IES-1992. A member is subjected to the combined action of bending moment 400 Nm and torque 300 Nm. the maximum power transmitted by B is: [IES-2001. A shaft of diameter 8 cm is subjected to bending moment of 3000Nm and twisting moment of 4000 Nm. The equivalent bending moment under combined action of bending moment M and torque T is: [IES-1996.

If the magnitude of bending moment is found to be the same as that of the torque. bending moment M and an axial thrust F. them M is equal to: [IES-1992] T (a) (b) T (c) 2T (d) 4T 2 IES-26. A shaft is subjected to simultaneous action of a torque T. Which one of the following statements is correct for this situation? [IES-2004] (a) One extreme end of the vertical diametral fibre is subjected to maximum compressive stress only (b) The opposite extreme end of the vertical diametral fibre is subjected to tensile/compressive stress only (c) Every point on the surface of the shaft is subjected to maximum shear stress only (d) Axial longitudinal fibre of the shaft is subjected to compressive stress only IES-24.0 IES-23. A shaft was initially subjected to bending moment and then was subjected to torsion. Bending moment M and torque is applied on a solid circular shaft. the torque should be equal to (a) T (b) Wl  T 1   wL   2 2 (c) Wl    2     2   1  wL2  2 2 (d)  Wl    T 2    2   [IES-1999] IES-25. then the ratio of maximum bending stress to shear stress would be: [IES-1993] (a) 0. A circular shaft is subjected to the combined action of bending. For obtaining the maximum shear stress induced in the shaft shown in the given figure. Which one of the following statements is correct? Shafts used in heavy duty speed reducers are generally subjected to: [IES-2004] (a) Bending stress only (b) Shearing stress only (c) Combined bending and shearing stresses (d) Bending. twisting and direct axial loading. The maximum compressive normal stress produced in the shaft will be: [IES-1998] (a) 3 σ (b) 2 σ (c) σ (d) Zero IES-27.1 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s 250 500 157.50 (c) 2. maximum shearing force 3 and a uniform axial stress σ(compressive) are produced.5 315 a   b   c  d   IES-22. shearing and axial thrust simultaneously For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 323 of 473 Rev. If the maximum bending stress equals to maximum shear stress developed.0 (d) 4. The maximum bending stress σ.25 (b) 0.

The value of maximum shear stress in the hollow shaft will be: [IES-1994. What should be the diameter of the solid shaft? [IES 2007] (a) 30 mm (b) 35 mm (c) 10  (60)1/3 mm (d) 10  (20)1/3 mm IES-30. Two hollow shafts of the same material have the same length and outside diameter. If both the shafts are subjected to the same torque. Di = Inside diameter of hollow shaft and Do = Outside diameter of hollow Do shaft. The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. IES-29. The ratio of its torque carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and the same outside diameter is: [GATE-1993. IES-2001] 15 3 1 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) 16 4 2 16 IES-34. GATE & PSUs) Page 324 of 473 Rev. Shaft 1 has internal diameter equal to one-third of the outer diameter and shaft 2 has internal diameter equal to half of the outer diameter. Shaft material is the same. The diameter of a solid shaft is D. Maximum shear stress in a solid shaft of diameter D and length L twisted through an angle θ is τ. A hollow shaft of the same cross-sectional area and material as that of a solid shaft transmits: [IES-2005] (a) Same torque (b) Lesser torque (c) More torque (d) Cannot be predicted without more data IES-33. What is the 3 3 ratio of the weight of the hollow shaft to that of the solid shaft? [IES 2007] (a) 1:1 (b) 1: 3 (c) 1:2 (d) 1:3 IES-31. What is the maximum torque transmitted by a hollow shaft of external radius R and internal radius r? [IES-2006]      R4  r 4  (a) R 3  r3  fs (b) R 4  r 4  fs (c) R 4  r 4  fs (d)  32   fs 16 2R 8R R  ( f s = maximum shear stress in the shaft material) IES-32. the ratio of their twists 1 /  2 will be equal to: [IES-1998] (a) 16/81 (b) 8/27 (c) 19/27 (d) 243/256 IES-35. 1997] 16 8 4 a   b  c    d  15 7 3 For-2015 (IES.1 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Comparison of Solid and Hollow Shafts IES-28. The ratio of torque carrying capacity of a solid shaft to that of a hollow shaft is given by: [IES-2008]     1 (a) 1  K 4 (b) 1  K 4 (c)K 4 (d)1/ K 4 Di Where K = . A hollow shaft of same material and length having outside and inside diameters of D and D/2 respectively is also twisted through the same angle of twist θ. A hollow shaft of outer dia 40 mm and inner dia of 20 mm is to be replaced by a solid shaft to transmit the same torque at the same maximum stress. The inside and outside diameters of a hollow D 2D shaft of same material and length are and respectively.

For the two shafts connected in parallel.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s IES-36. [IES-1994] Reason (R): The average shear stress in the hollow shaft is smaller than the average shear stress in the solid shaft. then the maximum shear stress will be: [IES-1994] (a) 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 325 of 473 Rev. (a) Both A and R areindividually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-39. To develop a maximum shear stress of 60 N/mm2 in the hollow shaft. It is subjected to torque T at B. What is the total angle of twist of the stepped shaft subject to torque T shown in figure given above? 16Tl 38Tl (a) (b)  Gd 4  Gd 4 64Tl 66Tl (c) (d)  Gd 4  Gd 4 [IES-2005] Shafts in Parallel IES-41. A solid shaft of diameter 'D' carries a twisting moment that develops maximum shear stress τ. Assertion (A): A hollow shaft will transmit a greater torque than a solid shaft of the same weight and same material. A circular section rod ABC is fixed at ends A and C. A hollow shaft is subjected to torsion. find which statement is true? (a) Torque in each shaft is the same [IES-1992. If the shaft is replaced by a hollow one of outside diameter 'D' and inside diameter D/2.1 . length 1000 mm is subjected to a twisting moment 'T’ The maximum shear stress developed in the shaft is 60 N/mm2. The shear stress variation in the shaft along the radius is given by: [IES-1996] Shafts in Series IES-40. 2012] (a) T/4 (b) T/8 (c) T/12 (d)T/16 IES-38.143 τ (c) 1. A hole of 50 mm diameter is now drilled throughout the length of the shaft. 2011] (b) Shear stress in each shaft is the same (c) Angle of twist of each shaft is the same (d) Torsional stiffness of each shaft is the same IES-42. A solid shaft of diameter 100 mm.067 τ (b) 1.AB = BC = L and the polar moment of inertia of portions AB and BC are 2 J For-2015 (IES.333 τ (d) 2 τ IES-37. the torque 'T’ must be reduced by: [IES-1998.

Assertion (A): In theory of torsion. (c) Directly proportional to the applied torque and polar moment of inertia (d) inversely proportional to the applied torque and the polar moment of inertia IAS-3. [IAS-2001] Reason (R): Plane transverse sections before loading remain plane after the torque is applied. What is the maximum shear stress developed in the rod? [IES-2004] 16T 12T 8T 4T (a) (b) (c) (d)  D3  D3  D3  D3 IES-44. then they should have equal. one of which is hollow. These two shafts will be torsionally equivalent to each other if their (a) Polar moment of inertias are the same (b) Total angle of twists are the same (c) Lengths are the same (d) Strain energies are the same [IES-1998] Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Torsion Equation IAS-1. shearing strains increase radically away from the longitudinal axis of the bar. Two shafts are shown in the above figure. A torque T is applied at a section X such that AX = L/4 and BX = 3L/4. If the maximum For-2015 (IES. [IAS-1994] (a) Polar moment of inertia (b) Polar modulus of section (c) Polar moment of inertia (d) Angle of twist Hollow Circular Shafts IAS-4.1 . A solid circular rod AB of diameter D and length L is fixed at both ends. The shear stress at a point in a shaft subjected to a torque is: [IAS-1995] (a) Directly proportional to the polar moment of inertia and to the distance of the point form the axis (b) Directly proportional to the applied torque and inversely proportional to the polar moment of inertia. If two shafts of the same length. what is the angle of twist at point B? [IES-2005] TL TL TL 2TL (a) (b) (c) (d) 3GJ 2GJ GJ GJ IES-43. A hollow circular shaft having outside diameter 'D' and inside diameter ’d’ subjected to a constant twisting moment 'T' along its length.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s and J respectively. transmit equal torque and have equal maximum stress. If G is the modulus of rigidity. GATE & PSUs) Page 326 of 473 Rev. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-2.

(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Combined Bending and Torsion IAS-7. The outside diameter of hollow shaft while the inside diameter 3 d is . Flexural rigidity 4.m (c) 500 N. GATE & PSUs) Page 327 of 473 Rev. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [IAS-1996] List-I (Mechanical Properties) List-II ( Characteristics) A. What is the reaction torque at the other end of 3 the shaft? [IAS-2007] 2T T T T (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 2 3 4 IAS-9. Torsional rigidity 1.m (d) 450 N. A hollow shaft of length L is fixed at its both ends. It is subjected to torque T at L a distance of from one end.m Comparison of Solid and Hollow Shafts IAS-8.m alld torque T = 300 N. Strain energy per unit volume C. Loss of mechanical energy due to local yielding Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 1 3 4 2 (b) 3 2 4 1 (c) 2 4 1 3 (d) 3 1 4 2 IAS-6. Assertion (A):Angle of twist per unit length of a uniform diameter shaft depends upon its torsional rigidity.m (b) 700 N. A solid shaft of diameter d is replaced by a hollow shaft of the same material 2d and length. Torque unit angle of twist D. What is the ratio of the torsional stiffness of the hollow shaft to that of 3 the solid shaft? [IAS-2007] 2 3 5 (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 3 5 3 For-2015 (IES. [IAS-2004] Reason (R):The shafts are subjected to torque only. A shaft is subjected to a bending moment M = 400 N.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s shear stress produced in the shaft is s then the twisting moment 'T' is given by: [IAS-1999]  D4  d 4  D4  d 4  D4  d 4  D4  d 4 (a)  s (b) s (c) s (d) s 8 D 16 D 32 D 64 D Torsional Rigidity IAS-5.m The equivalent bending moment is: [IAS-2002] (a) 900 N. Modulus of resilience 2. Bauschinger effect 3.1 . Product of young's modulus and secondmoment of area about the plane of bending B.

2 radian (T.4 radian (b) 0. If the ratio of the diameter of the first shaft to that of the second shaft is 2. The assembly is rigidity held at its ends and is twisted by a torque through the coupling. Modulus of rigidity of steel is twice that of brass. Two steel shafts. A circular shaft fixed at A has diameter D for half of its length and diameter D/2 over the other half. 2003] (a) 16 (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 2 IAS-12.6 radian (d) 3.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s IAS-10. one solid of diameter D and the other hollow of outside diameter D and inside diameter D/2. then the value of the torque in brass shaft will be: [IAS-2001] (a) 250 Nm (b) 354 Nm (c) 500 Nm (d) 708 Nm IAS-15. A stepped solid circular shaft shown in the given figure is built-in at its ends and is subjected to a torque To at the shoulder section. L and C remaining same in both cases) Shafts in Parallel IAS-13. then the ratio of the angle of twist of the first shaft to that of the second shaft is: [IAS-1995. Steel shaft and brass shaft of same length and diameter are connected by a flange coupling. The ratio of reactive torque T1 and T2 at the ends is (J1 and J2 are polar moments of inertia): J 2  l2 J 2  l1 (a) (b) J1  l1 J 1  l2 J l J l (c) 1 2 (d) 1 1 J 2  l1 J 2  l2 [IAS-2001] IAS-14. [IAS-1997] For-2015 (IES. What is the rotation of C relative of B if the rotation of B relative to A is 0. Two shafts having the same length and material are joined in series.1 radian? [IAS-1994] (a)0.1 . If torque of the steel shaft is 500 Nm.8 radian (c) 1. are twisted to the same angle of twist per unit length. A steel shaft with bult-in ends is subjected to the action of a torque Mt applied at an intermediate cross-section 'mn' as shown in the given figure. The ratio of maximum shear stress in solid shaft to that in the hollow shaft is: [IAS-1998] 4 8 16 (a)  (b)  (c)  (d)  9 7 15 Shafts in Series IAS-11. GATE & PSUs) Page 328 of 473 Rev.

Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Assertion (A): The magnitude of the twisting moment to which the portion BC M ta is subjected is ab Reason(R): For geometric compatibility. then the torque carried by the hollow portion of the shaft will be: [IAS-1997] (a) 16000 kg-m (b) 15000 kg-m (c) 14000 kg-m (d) 12000 kg-m For-2015 (IES. The shaft if held rigidly at two ends and a pulley is mounted at its midsection i. at the junction of solid and hollow portions.e. angle of twist at 'mn' is the same for the portions AB and BC. If the torque carried by the solid portion of the shaft is 16000kg-m. The shaft is twisted by applying torque on the pulley. Inside diameter of hollow portion is 50 mm.1 . (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-16. GATE & PSUs) Page 329 of 473 Rev. A steel shaft of outside diameter 100 mm is solid over one half of its length and hollow over the other half..

Ans.Ans. (a)   or T  if  is const. (a) 16 T Maximum shear stress = d 3 Normal stress = 0 16T GATE-3. then      30MPa d d   2d 3 3 3 8 GATE-2(i) Ans. 240  if diameter doubled d  2d.1 Using it is 8. (c) 16T GATE-4(i). 7. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 330 of 473 Rev. (c) T   J R J    T R  2  125   (1004  504 )   106  23. (b)  T  R J For-2015 (IES. (c) Power. P  T  and   or T  60  d3 16  d3 2 N or P   or P  d3 16 60 GATE-5(i) Ans. (d) Equivalent torque  Te   M  T  3  4  5kNm 2 2 2 2 T G  J GATE-7.0 d3 GATE-4a. Ans. Ans.00 k   m 32 100 GATE-6. (c)   . (c)   as T & d both are same τ is same  d3 GATE-4. T  J J L R R    4 4 D D     Th J 32  2  15  h   T J  4 16 D 32 GATE-7(i) Ans.9 to 8. Ans. Ans.(b)Angular twist at the L L/2 free end   1   2 T L T d T L 2 1 2   2d  4  4 G (2d ) G (d ) 32 32 2TL 16TL 18TL    G d 4 G d 4 G d 4 1  18TL  4  d    G  2 N 16T  d3 GATE-5. Ans. Ans. (a)    d3 16T 16T 16T 240 GATE-2.1 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE ANSWERS 16T GATE-1.

(a) IES-2(i). GATE & PSUs) Page 331 of 473 Rev. Ans. (d) 16T IES-3. Ans. (c) We know that  T  R J 1 R1 T1 J 2     2 R2 T2 J1 4 1 R T  2R1    1  1   2 2R1 4 T1  R1  1 1 1     16 2 2 4 1  2  2   2  2 TL GATE-8. (b) We know that   or T  k. Ans.7  103  10 1    99. (c)Maximum shear stress = = 240 MPa =  d3 Maximum shear stress developed when diameter is doubled For-2015 (IES.1 .0 rad kMN kNO k OP 20 30 60 TAL A TL TA TC TC GATE-9. 2 T = 92.7 N-m. TL  Rotation. Ans. 16 R2   8 mm 2 TR1 92.(c)  AB  BC or  C C or  or TA   d4   2d 4 GA JA GC JC 16 32 32 GATE-10. J (204  164 )mm4 .7  103  8 and 2    79. 1  GJ1 IES-10(i). 32 20 R1   10 mm. [let k  tortional stiffness] GJ TMN T T 10 10 10   MN  NO  OP   NO  OP     1.96 MPa  80 MPa J    4 4    (20  16 )  32  GATE-7(ii)Ans. Ans.Ans. (b) The symmetry of the shaft shows that there is no torsion on section AB.96 MPa  100 MPa J    4 4    (20  16 )  32  TR2 92. (a) IES T  r 16T IES-1. (d)    J  d3 IES-2. Ans.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s  Here. Ans.

P  T  and   or T  60 d3 16 1/3  d3 2 N 480 P P or P   or d3  2 or d    16 60  JN N IES-15.m 2 2 For-2015 (IES. Ans. Ans.(b) IES-19. (c) Power. (d) IES-6a Ans. (b) IES-7. d3 16 3 3 T2  d2   60   T  d3 or     8 T1  d1   30  IES-5. (d)  or T  J r r J  J  D or s  h h . Ans.  rs  rh   rs rh  2  D4 Js 32 1 1  16  or  h                 d     25    15  4 4 Jh D4  d 4 32 1     1       D     50   IES-12. Ans. (c)   or     J R L L L T  J IES-11.L   or Q  if  is const.T  if or T    T / 2   T  2 16T 16  T / 2   d  1   3  or    3 d   d  3 d 2 2 N 16T  d3 IES-14. Ans. (c)Te = M2  T2  1. (a) IES-8. Ans. Ans. (d) T G  T.Ans. (a) Equivalent Bending Moment Me     450N. (d) T  G GR 1 IES-10. Ans. Ans. GATE & PSUs) Page 332 of 473 Rev. Ans. (c) IES-9. Ans. Ans. (b) IES-5(i).J IES-13. J L R G. (d) Power (P)  torque  T   angular speed   T  1 1 if P is const. Ans. Ans. Ans.5  500   2 1000  2136 Nm 2 2 IES-20. Ans. T  J if J is doubled then T is also doubled. Ans. (c) 2 N 16T  d3 IES-16. (a) Power.1 . (c)   or T  for same material   const. (d) IES-18. P  T  and   or T  60  d3 16  d3 2 N or P   or P  d3 16 60 IES-17. (b) IES-6. Ans.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s 16 1  16T   240      30MPa   2d 3 8  d3  8 8 16T  d3 IES-4. Ans. (d) Teq M  M2  T2 400  4002  3002 IES-21. (b) IES-5(ii).

Ans. Ans.Ans. (a)   and   d 3  d3 IES-26.1 .fs . (a) M  3000 Nm. Where n  H TS n n  1 2 dH T G  J IES-33. d3 = (10)3  60 or d = 10 3 60 mm   4D D 2 2    L   g WH 4 3 3  IES-30. Ans. 1st case: Equivalent bending moment (Me) = M 0  02  T 2 T 2nd case: Equivalent bending moment (Me) =  2 2 IES-23. Ans. T  J J L R R For-2015 (IES. Ans. Ans. Ans. (d) wL2 IES-24. (d) Bending Moment. GATE & PSUs) Page 333 of 473 Rev. (c)Section modules will be same  (404  204 ) JH J 32  d4 -= s or =  RH Rs 40 32 d 2 2 or.Ans.(a) = 1 WS  2 D  L   g 4  T fs J R4  r 4    IES-31. (b)  J R or T   fs  2 R R  fs  2R R4  r 4 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Equivalent torque  Te   M  T  400  300  500N. Ans.   T n2  1 D IES-32.m 2 2 2 2 IES-21(i) Ans. M = Wl  2 32  M 16T IES-25. Ans. (b)  should be same for both hollow and solid shaft 1 Ts   Di   4 Ts Th Ts D4    4 o 4   1      4 D 32 o  32 o  D4  Di4  Th Do  Di Th   Do     Ts   1  1 k4 Th IES-29. (a)Maximum normal stress = bending stress σ + axial stress (σ) = 2 σ We have to take maximum bending stress σ is (compressive)   b 2 The maximum compressive normal stress =   b    xy2 2  2  2  2  2   2      3  3 2  2  IES-27. (c) IES-28. (c)Use equivalent bending moment formula. T  4000 Nm 16  16 250  M  M 2  T 2   3000  30002  40002   d3    83 106    IES-22. (c) H  .(a)   or T  if  is const. Ans.

GATE & PSUs) Page 334 of 473 Rev. Ans.06666  Jh 4 D 4 15 D   2 Tr 16T T 32(d / 2) T  15 IES-37. Ans. (d) Q  1  Q1   2   243 4 d14   1  J Q2 d 256   3  T G  G. 4 3 16  T 16TA 4 12T  max     D3  D3 4  D3 IES-44. Ans.2J G. (d)  s    4 or  J d d   d / 2 3 4 T 16 1  Reduction  16 IES-38. (b) IAS IAS-1. Note: Required torque will be different. (b)  AX   XB & TA  TB  T 3L TB  T L/4 4 or A.   32 32 IES-41.   R and outer diameter is same in both J L R L the cases. (a)  AB  BC TABL TBC. (d)   or   if  is const.   J L R J J h J D4 16     1. (c) IES-42.R. Ans. T G  TR 1 IES-36.  GJ GJ 3T or TA  3TB or TA  .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s    4 4 D D     Th J 32  2  15  h   T J  4 16 D 32 4 d14   1  d  IES-34.J TAB  TBC  T or TBC  T / 3 T L TL or QB  QAB  . Ans. IES-35. Ans. Ans. (a)   or   if T is const.1 . (a) IES-39. Ans. Ans. Ans.L or  or TAB  2TBC G. (b) For-2015 (IES. (d)   1  2     d4 G    2d 4 Gd4 64  2  Gd4 G. Ans.  3 GJ 3GJ IES-43. Ans. (c) T  2l T l Tl 66Tl IES-40.

(b)  Here T &  are same. 0. Ans. (a)  TsL THL JH 32 1004  504   IAS-16. (c)Torsional stiffness =     H or   L KS  4 3 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s T  IAS-2. Ans. Ans.  T G  J s  32 D 4  d4   D 4  d4  IAS-4. (d) Me    450 Nm 2 2 IAS-8. 1 1 IAS-11. (c) M  M 2  T 2 400  4002  3002 IAS-7. Ans. Ans. (a) Angle of twist is proportional to  J d4 T G 1 1 d 4 IAS-12. (c)   2d   d   4 4      T  GJ K 32   3   3   5 IAS-9. Ans. Ans.(b) s  H or  or TH  TS   16000   15000kgm GJs GJH Js  32 1004   For-2015 (IES. Ans.Ans. Ans. so should be same i. (b)   gives T    s J L R R D 16 D 2 IAS-5.1 d / 24 T1l1 T2l2 T1  J1 l2  IAS-13. (c)  or  or  4  J  J L J d 32  d 4 Here  or   1. (d)   or   as outside diameter of both the shaft is D so  is J R L L same for both the cases. (a) Ts ls Tl Ts Tb Tb Gb 1 Ts 1  2 or  bb or  or   or Tb   250 Nm Gs J s Gb J b Gs Gb Ts Gs 2 2 IAS-15.d 32 T  G G R IAS-10.Ans.e. GATE & PSUs) Page 335 of 473 Rev.6 radian. (c) 1  2 or  or    GJ1 GJ 2 T2  J 2 l1  IAS-14.Ans. (b) IAS-6.polar modulus of section will be J R R same. (b) J R T  J IAS-3. Ans.1 . Ans. Ans.

1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 336 of 473 Rev.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s For-2015 (IES.

Value of G is 8 104 N/mm2 . d1 = 9.93  10 3 m. The material of the bar has an allowable shear stress of 300 MPa and its young's modulus is 200 GPa. Conventional Question GATE . d2  2d1  J= 32   d 42 .93 = 19.5 and assuming a coefficient of thermal expansion for the material of the bar as 12 × 10–6/°C. Length of a hollow steel rod = 200mm Ratio of inside to outside diameter = 1 : 2 Stiffness of torsional spring = 100 Nm /degree. The component is assembled on earth when the temperature is 30°C.m /degree.2 32 5729.2  32 10 = d14 8  10    15 d1 = 9.578 N m/rad 4 2 Rigidity of modulus (G) = 8 10 N / mm Find outside diameter of rod : - We know that T G.J θ = twist angle in rad  L L = length of rod.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question IES 2010 Q.93mm. The ratio of inside to outside diameter is 1 : 2.1998 Question: A component used in the Mars pathfinder can be idealized as a circular bar clamped at its ends.578Nm / rad =   d14  15 0. Determine the outside diameter of the rod. Temperature on Mars at the site of landing is -70°C. Design the diameter of the bar taking a factor of safety of 1. [10 Marks] Ans. The required stiffness of this spring is 100 N. d 2 = 2  9. GATE & PSUs) Page 337 of 473 Rev. The bar should withstand a torque of 1000 Nm. = 5729.d14   d1 1 J= 32   16d14 .578  . Where T = Torque = J L T NM  Stiffness   θ  rad  J = polar moment Stiffness = T = G. A hollow steel rod 200 mm long is to be used as torsional spring.86 mm Ans.d14   d2 = 2  J=  d14  15 32 8  104  106 N / m2  5729.1 . Answer: Given: For-2015 (IES.

O.1 ..S 1... t m  70 C. L  L  t. GATE & PSUs) Page 338 of 473 Rev.6  103 N-m  = 0.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Tmax  1000Nm.92 GPa For-2015 (IES.2 m E = 200 × 109 N/m 2 T G From equation (i)  J L    G  0..4    5. The Young’s modulus of elasticity obtained from a tensile test has been found to be 200 GPa..6  103  180   5.   12  10 / C 6 0 Diameter of the bar.338  107  85. We have T  G   .69 mm    1.4º measured on a length of 0.2 1.S. 0 tE  30 C.. [10-Marks] Ans. (ii) Poisson’s ratio. Change in lengthat Mars  L  12  10 6  30   70   12  10 4 L meters Change in length 12  10 4 L Linear strain    12  10 4 original length L 2  a  axial stress  E  linear strain  200  109  12  10 4  2.O.5 Substituting the values.03169 m  31.5.D : Change in length..6  108  D3 1/3  16  1000  or D   8   0.4  108 N / m From max imum shear stress equation.4º l = 0.  max   200MPa  F.6 kN  m  1.338  107 T  1.  1. An applied torque of 1.2  103  180  G= 0. F. we get 2  16  1000    2 4  1016     1.m.338  107 0.6 kN-m is found to produce an angular twist of 0.2 m of the shaft. 0  allowable  300MPa E  200GPa. (i) J r L Where J = polar moment of inertia J=  32  D4  d4    32   504  304  1012  5.. In a torsion test.we have  16T  2    2   max   3    a     D   2    allowable 300 where.6  0.2  10 8   D 3  16  1000 or  1.6  10  Conventional Question IES-2009 Q.where L  original length. the specimen is a hollow shaft with 50 mm external and 30 mm internal diameter. Find the values of (i) Modulus of rigidity.4   1.

Answer: For shaft of tapering's section.2  1 3 3   32TL   2.R and for solid shaft (  s)=  4 .92 1  v   1 + v = 1.164  v = 0.2 D.1 .D4 3G D4      ' 2.2D  D Now. we have 2TL  R12  R1R2  R22  32TL  D12  D1D2  D22       3G  R13R32  3G  D13D32  32TL  1. Determine the error introduced of its angular twist for a given length is determined on the uniform mean diameter of the shaft.15 s R r 4  r  1 0.1065  2.6 and Th  Ts  T Out side (R) T .73%  2.6 times of the outside radius.1D 6  3G 1.  0.2 4 .2   1. Both the shafts are subjected to the same torque.1065 3G D4 1.2  1  1  2 2     D1  D and D2  1.0273 or 2.049 3G  1. The inside radius of the hollow shaft is 0. Davg   1. with a small angle oftaper is subjected to a torque T.1065 Conventional Question ESE-2008 Question: A hollow shaft and a solid shaft construction of the same material have the same length and the same outside radius.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s We also have E = 2 G (1 + v)  200 = 2 × 85.1D 2 32TL  3 1.R 2 n R4 1 1 Therefore  4  4   1.R (i)  = gives .164 Conventional Question IAS .64 1    R  For-2015 (IES. For hollow shaft (h )   4 J 2 R  r 4  T . The diameter at the two ends of the shaft are D and 1.2D 3G D4  1.R T .1D   32TL 2 3 32TL  '      2. GATE & PSUs) Page 339 of 473 Rev.049 Error    0. (i) What is the ratio of maximum shear stress in the hollow shaft to that of solid shaft? (ii) What is the ratio of angle of twist in the hollow shaft to that of solid shaft? T  Gθ Solution: Using = = J R L Inside radius (r) Given.1996 Question: A solid circular uniformly tapered shaft of length I.

shear stress develops in the weld. What will be the maximum torque that the welded joint can sustain if the permissible shear stress in the weld material is not to exceed 8 kN/cm2? Deduce the expression for the shear stress at the throat from the basic theory. .15 θs R 4  r 4  r  1 0. Thus.L T . Conventional Question ESE-2002 Question: A 5 cm diameter solid shaft is welded to a flat plate by 1 cm filled weld. One shaft is rotating at 1000 rpm while the other at 1200 rpm. the maximum shear stress occurs in the throat area. GATE & PSUs) Page 340 of 473 Rev. N So the shaft rotating at 1000 rpm will experience greater stress then 1200 rpm shaft. D and d are constant. Assuming that the weld thickness is very small compared to the diameter of the shaft. What will be the nature and magnitude of the stress on the surfaces of these shafts? Will it be the same in two cases of different? Justify your answer.64 1    R  Conventional Question ESE-2006: Question: Two hollow shafts of same diameter are used to transmit same power. D And shear stress (  ) =   2  J  2 N  π  D  d  J 4 4  60  32 1 Therefore   as P. R 4  r 4  G.L (ii) = gives h  and s  GJ     G. If the shaft is subjected to a torque. d = outer diameter of the shaft t = throat thickness J =polar moment of area of the throat section    d  2t   d 4   d 3  t 4 =  32  4 d T [As t <<d] then max  2 = 2T  3 πtd 2 d t 4 For-2015 (IES. Answer: Consider a circular shaft connected to a plate by means of a fillet joint as shown in figure. for a given torque the maximum shear stress in the weld is d  T   t   2  max  J Where T = Torque applied.1 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s TL T . Answer: We know power transmitted (P) = Torque (T) ×rotation speed (  ) T .R 4  2  2  θh R4 1 1 Therefore   4   1.R PR P.

 3  1.0 Nm and a pending Load F = 1.05 m & t = 1cm = 0. Find the thickness of the tube limiting the outside diameter to 50 mm so as to ensure a factor of safety of 4.052  0.6D internal diameter of hollow shaft And Ds=diameter of solid shaft From torsion equation T   J R π {D 4  (0. GATE & PSUs) Page 341 of 473 Rev.T    for hollow shaft R D / 2 π Ds4 J 32 and T= J for solid shaft R Ds 2 πD3 πD3s  {1 (0.01 80 106 T    3.1 m 8000N max  8 kN / cm 2   80MPa  80 106 N / m 2 10  m 4 2 πd 2t max π  0. If there is a solid shaft with same torsional strength.1 .Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Given d = 5 cm = 0. what is the ratio of the outside diameter of hollow shaft to the diameter of the equivalent solid shaft. A torsional moment T = 72.6)4 Conventional Question ESE-2001 Question: A cantilever tube of length 120 mm is subjected to an axial tension P = 9.6)4 }   16 16 D 1 or .6D )4 } J 32 or . Answer: Let D = external diameter of hollow shaft So d = 0. The material is aluminum alloy with an yield strength 276 MPa.0 kN. πD3t Answer: Polar moment of inertia (J) =2πR 3t  4 For-2015 (IES.142 kNm 2 2 Conventional Question ESE-2000 Question: The ratio of inside to outside diameter of a hollow shaft is 0.072 Ds 1 (0.6.75 kN at the free end.

The shear stress is not to exceed 63 MPa and the twist in a length of 3 m not to exceed 1.4°.40  radian 180 For-2015 (IES. [T is average torque] 60 60 P 60(60010 ) 3 or T= =  52087Nm 2πN 2 π×110  Tmax  1. t  2.050)3 t t 164248  Total longitudinal stress (σb )  σ1  σ 2  t Maximum principal stress 2 2 2 σ σ  164248 164248  18335   276 10 6  σ1  b   b    2             2t   t   2 2 2t 4  or .050)2  t t 2 4 P 9000 9000 57296 Direct stress (σ1 )     A πdt π(0. the maximum torque being 20% greater than the mean.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s T  T.1 .R T .375 D )   32   2(63106 ) or D  0.7mm (i ) 171. speed (N) =110 rpm.4 Second we consider angle of twist is not exceed 1.D or J    2 π  4 4 62504 D or  D  (0. Determine the diameter of the shaft.  =      J R J 2J πD 3 t πD 2t π  (0. Answer: Let d = internal diameter of the hollow shaft And D = external diameter of the hollow shaft (given) d = 3/8 D = 0.050  4 106952   π  (0.120  0.R TD TD 2T 2  72 18335  or.375D Power (P)= 600 kW. Shear stress(  )= 63 MPa. Angle of twist ( θ )=1. ω = T.1727m  172.050)t t d My M 2 Md Maximum bending stress (σ 2 )    [ J  2I ] I I J 1750  0. modulus of rigidity (G) = 84GPa 2πN We know that.4 degrees.2T  1.252087 =62504 Nm First we consider that shear stress is not to exceed 63 MPa T  From torsion equation  J R T .4 103 m  2. (P) = T.4 mm Conventional Question ESE-2000 & ESE 2001 Question: A hollow shaft of diameter ratio 3/8 required to transmit 600kW at 110 rpm. GATE & PSUs) Page 342 of 473 Rev. Length (  ) =3m . Assume modulus of rigidity for the shaft material as 84 GN/m2.

were found to be 120 MN/m2 and 80 MN/m2 respectively.4Gd 4 or T    L L L Conventional Question AMIE-1996 Question: The maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress analysed for a shaft of 150 mm diameter under combined bending and torsion.053        v  16 For-2015 (IES.54  1) GJ 32 0.15  3   80     0. d (1. find by how much the torque can beincreased if the bending moment is kept constant.15   16  M2  T 2           iv  80     0.15m Part  1: M. we have the following expressions: 16   max  M  M2  T 2     i  d3   16 and  max  3  M2  T 2      ii  d   Substituting the given values in the above equations. Answer: Given:  max  120MN / m2 .5mm (ii ) So both the condition will satisfy if greater of the two value is adopted so D=175. GATE & PSUs) Page 343 of 473 Rev. The shear modulus of the material is G.5 d π π Polar modulus of the shaft (J) = 32  D4  d 4   d 4 (1.5 times inside diameter d.d  150mm  0. T We know that for combined bending and torsion.375D) 4   32  π 1.15  3 or M2  T 2   0. max  80MN / m2.5  (84109 )   180  or D  0.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s T Gθ From torsion equation  J  T Gθ or  J   625043 or  D 4  (0. Find the bending moment and torque to which the shaft is subjected. If the maximum shear stress be limited to 100 MN/m2.1755m  175.1 . we have 16 M  M2  T 2        iii  120  3     0.54 1) 32 T  G We know that   J R L π 4 G.5 mm Conventional Question ESE-1997 Question: Determine the torsional stiffness of a hollow shaft of length L and having outside diameter equal to 1. Answer: Outside diameter (D) =1.

we have  0. If the shear stress is not to exceed 100 MPa.0607  0. Ds: 2πNT 2π120T We know that P= or 300= or T=23873 Nm 601000 601000 T  We know that  J R π 4 100106  Ds  . N = 120 rpm. GATE & PSUs) Page 344 of 473 Rev.1503   M  0.J 32 or. d H  0.6DH Diameter of solid shaft. 23873 = R Ds 2 or.0148MNm Conventional Question ESE-1996 Question: A solid shaft is to transmit 300 kW at 120 rpm.  =100 MPa. What percent saving in weight would be obtained if this shaft were replaced by a hollow one whose internal diameter equals 0. T= or.1 .0459MNm Part II : [ max  100MN / m2 ] Increase in torque : Bending moment M to be kept cons tan t  0. Find the diameter of the shaft. we get 16 120  M  0.15 3   0. material and maximum allowable shear stress being the same? Answer: Given P= 300 kW.0607 MNm The increased torque  0.Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s Substituting this values in equation iii  .0265  2  T 2  0.7mm Percentage saving in weight: TH  Ts For-2015 (IES.053    0.0459  0.0265MNm Substituting for M in equation  v  .053 or T  0.004391  16   T  0.1067 m =106. Ds= 0.6 of the external diameter.0265MNm 2 100     0.0265  2 2 or T    0. the length.

Chapter-9 Torsion S K Mondal’s    J     J        R H  R s {DH4  dH4 } DH4  (0.8 mm 3 4 (1 0.8% For-2015 (IES.7 or .8 2      1 0.  Ds3 DH DH Ds 106.  Ds3 or .6DH )4 or .702)×100 = 29.1 .62 ) 111.7  4  W   Percentage savings in weight = 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 345 of 473 Rev.62  0.H 100  Ws  = (1-0.6 ) 3 1 0. DH    111.64 WH A L  g A Again  H H H  H WS As Ls s g As π AH 4 DH2  dH2  DH2 (1 0.702 As π Ds2 2 Ds   106.

1 . General Formula 1 2 p   r1 r2 t Where  1 =Meridional stress at A  2 =Circumferential / Hoop's stress P = Intensity of internal gas pressure/ fluid pressure t = Thickness of pressure vessel. r2  r  1   2 pr pD  max    (in plane) 2 4t 8t pr 0 1   3 pr pD  max   t   (out of plane) 2 2 2t 4t  Spherical vessel pr pD 1   2   [r1 = r2 = r] 2t 4t 1   2  max   0 (in plane) 2 pr 0 1   3 pr pD  max   2t   (out of plane) 2 2 4t 8t  Conical vessel py tan  py tan  1  [r1  ] and 2  2t cos  t cos  Notes:   Volume 'V' of the spherical shell. V= Di3 6 1/3  6V   Di        Design of thin cylindrical shells is based on hoop's stress 5. Volumetric Strain (Dilation) V  Rectangular block. GATE & PSUs) Page 347 of 473 Rev.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s 3. x  y  z V0  Cylindrical pressure vessel For-2015 (IES. 4. Some cases:  Cylindrical vessel pr pD pr pD 1   2  = t 2t 2t 4t r1  .

v   longitudinal strain 1   2  circumferential strain 2   Spherical vessels pr 1 2  [1   ] 2 Et V 3 pr  3  [1   ] V0 2 Et 6. GATE & PSUs) Page 348 of 473 Rev.  D2/4 =  1  Dt pd pr or  1   4t 2t Now consider the equilibrium of forces in the x-direction acting on the sectioned cylinder shown in figure. t1= wall thickness of cylindrical portion t1 2   t2 = wall thickness of hemispherical portion 7. It is assumed that the circumferential stress  2 is constant through the thickness of the cylinder.1 .e. 1 2 2  [5  4μ]  [5  4μ] Vo 2 Et 4 Et i.  D2/4 Force due to longitudinal stress sL acting on area  Dt =  1  Dt Equating: p. Thin cylindrical shell with hemispherical end Condition for no distortion at the junction of cylindrical and hemispherical portion t2 1    Where. Force due to internal pressure p acting on area Dz = pDz Force due to circumferential stress  2 acting on area 2tz =  2 2tz Equating: pDz =  2 2tz pD pr or  2   2t t For-2015 (IES. Alternative method Consider the equilibrium of forces in the z-direction acting on the part cylinder shown in figure. Volumetric strain.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s 1 2 pr  1=Longitudinal strain =   1  2  E E 2 Et 2 pr 1 2 =Circumferential strain =  1  2   E E 2 Et V pr pD Volumetric Strain. Force due to internal pressure p acting on area  D2/4 = p.

A thin walled spherical shell is subjected to an internal pressure. t and diameter d is fitted with gas to a gauge pressure of p. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and acceleration due to gravity is 10 m/s2.  c ) experienced by the cylinder wall at mid-depth (1 m as shown) are For-2015 (IES.5 (b) 1.5 GATE-3. A thin walled cylindrical vessel of wall thickness.2) [GATE-1998] (a) 2. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Stresses GATE-1. IES. is (taking Young's modulus as 200 GPa and Poisson's ratio as 0.A thin gas cylinder with an internal radius of 100 mm is subject to an internal pressure of 10 MPa. The minimum cylinder wall thickness (in mm) for safe design must be ………. The maximum permissible working stress is restricted to 100 MPa. A thin cylinder of inner radius 500 mm and thickness 10 mm is subjected to an internal pressure of 5 MPa.25 (c) 2.0 (d) 4.1 .0 (c) 2. The ratio of the hoop stress (circumferential stress) to longitudinal stress developed in the shell is [GATE-2013] (a) 0. The maximum shear stress on the vessel wall will then be: [GATE-1999] pd pd pd pd (a) (b) (c) (d) t 2t 4t 8t Statement for Linked Answers and Questions 5 and 6 A cylindrical container of radius R = 1 m.25 × 10–4 (b) 2. GATE & PSUs) Page 349 of 473 Rev.25 × 10–6 (d) 22. The average circumferential (hoop) stress in MPa is [GATE-2011] (a) 100 (b) 250 (c) 500 (d) 1000 GATE-2. is subjected to an internal pressure. A long thin walled cylindrical shell.the percentage change in the circumferential (hoop) stress is [GATE-2012] (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1.02 GATE-3(i).0 GATE-3(ii). with the internal pressure remaining the same. closed at both the ends. having a radius of 25 cm and wall thickness of 5 mm when subjected to an internal pressure of 1MPa. The axial and circumferential stress (  a .Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE.08 (d) 2. [GATE-2014] Maximum shear stress GATE-4. The self-weight of the cylinder is negligible. The formula for hoop stress in a thin-walled cylinder can be used at all points along the height of the cylindrical container. [GATE-2008] GATE-5. The maximum principal strain in a thin cylindrical tank. If the radius of the shell isincreased by 1% and the thickness is reduced by 1%. wall thickness 1 mm is filled with water up to a depth of 2 m and suspended along its upper rim.

10) MPa (c) (10. The hoop stress developed is [CE: GATE-2009] (a) 14 MPa (b) 1. which one of the following is correct? (a) Normal stress is zero in the z-direction [GATE-2014] (b) Normal stress is tensile in the z-direction (c) Normal stress is compressive in the z-direction (d) Normal stress varies in the z-direction GATE-9. the axial strain in the cylinder wall at mid-depth is: (a) 2 × 10–5 (b) 6 × 10–5 (c) 7 × 10–5 (d) 1.1 .014 MPa GATE-8. F should be equal to (a) pr 2 (b) 2pr 2 [CE: GATE-2006] (c) 3pr 2 (d) 4pr 2 Previous 20-Years IES Questions Circumferential or hoop stress IES-1.14 MPa (d) 0.0 B.2 × 10–5 GATE-7.3. then the tangential strain caused is: [IES-2002] For-2015 (IES. respectively. A thin walled cylindrical pressure vessel having a radius of 0.10) MPa (b) (5. If the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the container material are 100 GPa and 0.0 C.A thin plate of uniform thickness is subject to pressure as shown in the figure below y y x z Under the assumption of plane stress. 2.5 m and wall thickness of 25 mm is subjected to an internal pressure of 700 kPa. 3. Thin sphere under internal pressure 2. In order to produce ‘pure shear’ state of stress in the wall of the cylinder. Thin cylinder under internal pressure 1.0 Codes: A B C A B C (a) 4 2 3 (b) 1 3 2 (c) 4 3 2 (d) 1 2 3 IES-2.5)MPa GATE-6. A thin-walled long cylindrical tank of inside radius r is subjected simultaneously to internal gas pressure p and axial compressive force F at its ends. A thin cylinder of radius r and thickness t when subjected to an internal hydrostatic pressure P causes a radial displacement u. Shaft subjected to torsion 3. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer: [IES-2002] List-I List-II (2-D Stress system loading) (Ratio of principal stresses) A. 1.5) MPa (d) (5.4 MPa (c) 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 350 of 473 Rev. –1.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s (a) (10.0 4.

The state of stress at point X is as represented in [IES-1999] IES-8. Maximum shear stress at the surface will be equal to: [IES-1999] For-2015 (IES. A thin cylindrical shell of diameter d. A thin cylinder contains fluid at a pressure of 500 N/m2. the internal diameter of the shell is 0. The longitudinal stress at the surface has been calculated as σo. A thin cylinder with both ends closed is subjected to internal pressure p.425 (b) 2.3. length ‘l’ and thickness t is subjected to an internal pressure p. What is the ratio of longitudinal strain to hoop strain in terms of Poisson's ratio (1/m)? [IES-2004] m2 m2 2m  1 2m  2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 2m  1 2m  1 m2 m 1 IES-5. (c) (d) dr r dr r r IES-3.25 IES-4. When a thin cylinder of diameter 'd' and thickness 't' is pressurized with an internal pressure of 'p'. The Poisson's ratio of the material of the shell is 0. The ratio of circumferential strain to axial strain is: [IES-2001] (a) 0. (1/m =  is the Poisson's ratio and E is the modulus of elasticity). the shell is subjected to circumferential strain and axial strain. A thin cylinder with closed lids is subjected to internal pressure and supported at the ends as shown in figure. GATE & PSUs) Page 351 of 473 Rev.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s du 1 du u 2u (a) (b) . A thin cylindrical shell is subjected to internal pressure p.25 (c) 0. The shell must have a minimum wall thickness of nearly [IES-2000] (a) 9 mm (b) 11 mm (c) 17 mm (d) 21 mm IES-7. Due to internal pressure.225 (d) 4. then [IES-1998] pd  1 1  (a) The circumferential strain will be equal to    2tE  2 m  pd  1  (b) The longitudinal strain will be equal to 1   2tE  2m  pd (c) The longitudinal stress will be equal to 2t (d) The ratio of the longitudinal strain to circumferential strain will be equal to m2 2m  1 IES-6.1 .6 m and the tensile stress in the material is to be limited to 9000 N/m2.

Circumferential stress in a cylindrical steel boiler shell under internal pressure is 80 MPa.12MPa (d) 90. A penstock pipe of 10m diameter carries water under a pressure head of 100 m. thickness t. Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio are respectively 2 × 105 MPa and 0. The permissible tensile stress in the material of the water main is 25 MPa.5MPa (b) 39. A seamless pipe of diameter d m is to carry fluid under a pressure of p kN/cm2. if the maximum stress is not to exceed σ kN/cm2. Hoop stress and longitudinal stress in a boiler shell under internal pressure are 100 MN/m2 and 50 MN/m2 respectively.5 o c  o d  0. The volumetric strain in case of a thin cylindrical shell of diameter d. μ = Poisson's ratio for the shell material) For-2015 (IES.5MPa.5 o IES-8(i) If a thin walled cylinder with closed hemispherical ends with thickness 12mm and inside diameter 1250mm is to withstand a pressure of 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 352 of 473 Rev.3 respectively.28.5MPa IES-9. If the wall thickness is 9 mm.  4  5  2tE 3tE 4tE 4tE (Where E = Modulus of elasticity. subjected to internal pressure p is: [IES-2003.44 × 10–4 (b) 3.1 .  4  3  (c) .Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s  a  2 o  b  1. then maximum shear stress induced is [IES-2014] (a) 19. The necessary thickness t of metal in cm. A metal pipe of 1m diameter contains a fluid having a pressure of 10 kgf/cm2. 2 [IES-2009] (a) 10 mm (b)20mm (c) 50 mm (d) 60 mm IES-12(i).  3  2  (b) .  5  4  (d) .585 10 (d) 0. The magnitude of circumferential strain in the boiler shell will be: [IES-1999] (a) 3.05MPa (c) 78.5 10 (c) 0. What is the minimum thickness of the water main? (Take g = 10 m/ s ).425 10 (b) 0. IAS 1997] pd pd pd pd (a) . IAS 2003] (a) 1  2 2 (b)   2 1 2 (c) 21   2 (d) 12 2 IES-16. Circumferential and longitudinal strains in a cylindrical boiler under internal steam pressure are  1 and  2 respectively. Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of the shell material are 200 GN/m2 and 0.75 10 Volumetric strain IES-15. then the thickness of the metal required for making the pipe would be: [IES-1993] (a) 5mm (b) 10 mm (c) 20 mm (d) 25 mm IES-10. what is the tensile stress in the pipe wall in MPa? [IES-2009] (a) 2725 (b) 545·0 (c) 272·5 (d) 1090 IES-12. lf the permissible tensile stress in the metal is 200 kgf/cm2. Change in volume of the boiler cylinder per unit volume will be: [IES-1993. The hoop strain in boiler shell is: [IES-1995] 3 3 3 3 (a) 0. is [IES-2012] ?? 100?? ?? 100?? ? ?≥ ?? ? ?≥ ?? ? ?≤ ?? ? ?≤ ?? 2? 2? 2? 2? Longitudinal stress IES-13.84 × 10–4 (c) 4 × 10–4 (d) 4. A water main of 1 m diameter contains water at a pressure head of 100 metres.56 ×10 –4 IES-11.

8 MPa [IES-2013] IES-18. The ratio of circumferential stress to longitudinal stress in a thin cylinder subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure is: [IAS 1994] (a) 1/2 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4 IAS-2. Match List-I (Terms used in thin cylinder stress analysis) with List-II (Mathematical expressions) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [IAS-1998] List-I List-II For-2015 (IES. spherical pressure vessels are preferred over cylindrical pressure vessels because they [IES-1997] (a) Are cost effective in fabrication (b) Have uniform higher circumferential stress (c) Uniform lower circumferential stress (d) Have a larger volume for the same quantity of material used Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Circumferential or hoop stress IAS-1.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s Spherical Vessel IES-17. if the maximum allowable tensile stress is 45 MPa? (a) 0. From design point of view.7 MPa (d) 1. [IAS-2000] Reason(R): The circumferential stress in the thin cylindrical shell is two times the magnitude of longitudinal stress.9 MPa (b) 3.1 . Assertion (A): A thin cylindrical shell is subjected to internal fluid pressure that induces a 2-D stress state in the material along the longitudinal and circumferential directions.5 m internal diameter and 1.5 cm wall thickness. GATE & PSUs) Page 353 of 473 Rev. The shell is subjected to internal fluid pressure of 10 N/mm2 and an axial external pressure P1. material and internal pressure. A thin cylindrical shell of mean diameter 750 mm and wall thickness 10 mm has its ends rigidly closed by flat steel plates.6 MPa (c) 2. induced in a thin cylindrical and in a thin spherical pressure vessel will be: [IES-2001] (a) 2 (b) 1/2 (c) 4 (d) ¼ IES-17(i). What is the safe working pressure for a spherical pressure vessel 1. For the same internal diameter. wall thickness. what should be the approximate value of P1? [IAS-2007] (a) 8 N/mm2 (b) 9 N/mm2 (c) 10 N/mm2 (d) 12 N/mm2 IAS-4. Diameter of the pipe is 25 mm and thickness is 2·5 mm. What is the longitudinal stress induced in the pipe? [IAS-2007] (a) 0 (b) 2 N/mm2 (c) 5 N/mm2 (d) 10 N/mm2 IAS-3. If the longitudinal stress in the shell is to be zero. A thin walled water pipe carries water under a pressure of 2 N/mm2 and discharges water into a tank. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IAS-5. the ratio of maximum stress.

 3  2  (b) . At least three strain gauges is needed to know the stress state completely at any point on the shell. pd/4t B. [IAS-2001] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOTthe correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Maximum shear stress IAS-7. thickness t. The volumetric strain in case of a thin cylindrical shell of diameter d. Maximum shear stress 2. pd/8t Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 2 3 1 4 (b) 2 3 4 1 (c) 2 4 3 1 (d) 2 4 1 3 Longitudinal stress IAS-6. Change in volume of the boiler cylinder per unit volume will be: [IES-1993.  4  3  (c) . Reason (R): If the principal stresses directions are not know. E = 200 GPa and Poisson's ratio = 0·25 is: [IAS-2002] For-2015 (IES. GATE & PSUs) Page 354 of 473 Rev. the minimum number of strain gauges needed is three in a biaxial field. Longitudinal stress 3. A thin cylinder of diameter ‘d’ and thickness 't' is subjected to an internal pressure 'p' the change in diameter is (where E is the modulus of elasticity and μ is the Poisson's ratio) [IAS-1998] pd 2 pd 2 pd 2 pd 2 (a) (2   ) (b) (1   ) (c) (2   ) (d) (2   ) 4tE 2tE tE 4tE IAS-11. Hoop stress 1.1 .  5  4  (d) .  4  5  2tE 3tE 4tE 4tE (Where E = Modulus of elasticity. The percentage change in volume of a thin cylinder under internal pressure having hoop stress = 200 MPa. IAS 2003] (a) 1  2 2 (b)  2 1 2 (c) 21   2 (d) 12 2 IAS-9. IAS 1997] pd pd pd pd (a) . pd/2t C. μ = Poisson's ratio for the shell material) IAS-10. The maximum shear stress is induced in a thin-walled cylindrical shell having an internal diameter 'D' and thickness’t’ when subject to an internal pressure 'p' is equal to: [IAS-1996] (a) pD/t (b) pD/2t (c) pD/4t (d) pD/8t Volumetric strain IAS-8. Circumferential and longitudinal strains in a cylindrical boiler under internal steam pressure are 1 and 2 respectively. subjected to internal pressure p is: [IES-2003.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s A. Assertion (A): For a thin cylinder under internal pressure. pd/2σ D. Cylinder thickness 4.

What would be the change in volume of the bar? [IAS-2007] Pl Pl (1  2 ) Pl  Pl (a) (b) (c) (d) (1  2 ) E E E E IAS-13.Ans.(b)Inner radius (r) = 500 mm Thickness (t) = 10 mm Internal pressure (p) = 5 MPa pr 5  106  500 Hoop stress. (a) pd Hoop stress = 2t 700  103  2  0. (c) GATE-3(ii). A round bar of length l. breadth 10 cm and height 5 cm undergoes a volumetric strain of 1/5000.8 to 10. Maximum shear stress  c  2t 4t 2 8t GATE-5. (d) GATE-3(i). Ans.50 cm3 (b) 0.40 (b) 0·30 (c) 0·25 (d) 0·20 IAS-12. (c)  a    3  0. Ans.  c   Pa  250 Mpa t 10 pr 1 250 GATE-2.Ans. If a block of material of length 25 cm.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s (a) 0. (d)  c  .(d) When both ends are hinged. 9.75 cm3 OBJECTIVE ANSWERS GATE-1.5   14  106  14 MPa 2  25  103 GATE-8. (a)Circumferential or Hoop stress  c     50MPa t 5 pr Longitudinal stress  l    25MPa 2t c l 50  106 25  106 ec    9  0. Ans.1 . GATE & PSUs) Page 355 of 473 Rev.3  3  7 105 E E 100 10 100 10 GATE-7. elastic modulus E and Poisson's ratio μ is subjected to an axial pull 'P'. (a) GATE-9.25  104 E E 200  10 200  10 GATE-3. the buckling load is given by For-2015 (IES.Ans.2  9  2.20 cm3 (d) 0. Ans. then change in volume will be: [IAS-2000] (a) 0. (a)Pressure (P) = h  g = 1  1000  10 = 10 kPa Axial Stress (  a )  a  2Rt  g  R L 2  gRL 1000  10  1  1 or  a    10 MPa t 1  103 PR 10  1 Circumferential Stress(  c )=   10 MPa t 1  103 a c 10 10 GATE-6.Ans.Ans.6 pr 10 100 Maximum principalstress  1     100 t t or t  10 mm pd pd    l pd GATE-4.25 cm3 (c) 0. Ans.Ans. l  .

(d) 2 o   o  o Longitudinal stress   o and hoop stress  2 o Max.(a) Point 'X' is subjected to circumferential and longitudinal stress. Ans. (c) IES-7. ec  c   l  2    E E 2Et l c pr Longitudinal strain. Ans. Ans. Ans. (a)Circumferential strain = 1   2  E For-2015 (IES. then buckling load 2 EI L  Where L1  (L1 )2 2 42 EI   4  200  800 kN L2 IES IES-1. Ans. (d)Circumferential strain.e.5 cm 2t 2t 400 1 IES-10.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s 2  EI Pcr  L2 2 EI  200  L2 When the lateral movement at the mid-height is not available.Ans. i. (b) pd 10 100 1000 IES-9. tension on all faces. el    1  2  E E 2Et Pr IES-4. Ans. (a) IES-2. Ans. Ans. (d) Hoop stress  or 200  or t   2. IES-8. (d) Ratio of longitudinal strain to circumferential strain 1 1 l     c  l    2 l  m  2 = m  m  1 1 2m  1  c     l 2 l      l m m   pr Circumferential strain.1 . Ans. (c) c l pr IES-3. but there is no shear stress because vessel is supported freely outside. ec    2    E E 2Et l pr c Longitudinal strain. GATE & PSUs) Page 356 of 473 Rev. Ans. shear stress   2 2 IES-8(i). (b) longitudinal stress  l   2t Pr hoop stress  c   t l 1 c 1 1   l m2   E m E  2 m  c  c 1  l 1 2m  1  1 E mE 2m IES-5. el    1  2  E E 2Et IES-6.

P  gH  980000N / m2 980000  10  Tensile stress  3  544. Ans. Ans. (b) 1 1 IES-13. Ans.44MN / m2  544. GATE & PSUs) Page 357 of 473 Rev. Ans. (a)    7502  10    IAS-3.44MPa 2  9  10 6 2 IES-12. variation of radial strain is zero. (b) Tensile stress in the pipe wall= Circumferential stress in pipe wall= 2t Where. IAS-9. Ans. (c) Volumetric stream = 2 × circumferential strain + longitudinal strain (Where E = Modulus of elasticity.   750  10 Pr Pr IAS-4. Ans. Ans. Ans. (c) IAS IAS-1. Ans. Compressive longitudinal stress due to external pressure p1 (  l)c=    750  2 P1     4  compressive. μ = Poisson's ratio for the shell material) IES-16. (d) Hoop stress( c )  and Longitudinalstress( l )   max  c  2t 4t 2 8t IAS-8.(d)For thin cylinder.425 103 E 200 1000 IES-14. Ans.28  40 106  3. Ans. (d) IAS-6. IAS-10.44 x104 2 10 10 5 Pd IES-11. (c) Remember it. Ans. Ans.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s Since circumferential stress  1  80 MPa and longitudinal stress  2  40 MPa 1 6  Circumferential strain  80  0. Ans. Ans. (a) IES-15. (c)Remember it. Ans. (a) Hoopstrain =  h   l   100  0. PD PD    l PD IAS-7. (d) IES-18. (b)Pressure in the main  gh  1000  10  1000 = 10 N / mm  1000 KPa Pd Hoop stress  c  2t  t Pd   106 1  1 m  20 mm 6 2c 2  25  10 50 IES-12(i). (a) IES-17(i).1 . Ans. (a) For-2015 (IES. Ans. Ans. So only circumferential and longitudinal strain has to measurer so only two strain gauges are needed. (c) IAS-2. (b)For thin cell  c  l  t 2t IAS-5. Ans. For zero longitudinal stress (  l) t = (  l)c. (c)Tensile longitudinal stress due to internal fluid pressure (  1) t =  4    750 10 tensile. IES-17. (c) Volumetric stream = 2 x circumferential strain + longitudinal strain.44  106 N / m2  544.3  50  0.

25   2  200 10 1000 IAS-12. GATE & PSUs) Page 358 of 473 Rev.1 m. T= 2000 Nm. (d) Hoop stress  t    200 106 Pa t Pr  Volumetric strain (ev )   5  4   t  5  4  2 Et 2E 200 10 6 2 9   5  4  0. Al  1  2  E IAS-13.25cm3 5000 Previous Conventional Questions with Answers Conventional Question GATE-1996 Question: A thin cylinder of 100 mm internal diameter and 5 mm thickness is subjected to an internal pressure of 10 MPa and a torque of 2000 Nm.1 Longitudinal stress.  y   E E x and  z    E x P or  v   x   y   z  1  2   1  2  E AE Pl  V   v  V   v .11  0. pd 10  106  0.005 To find the shear stress.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s Pr IAS-11.1 .005     xy     24.  y  0 and  z  0 A x x or  x  .1 Circumferential stress. we have J R TR T R 2000   0. Ans.1 + 2 x 0.11 m p = 10 MPa.05  0. T   .005 pd 10  106  0.005 m. D = d + 2t = 0. using Torsional equation. Calculate the magnitudes of the principal stresses. (b) P x  .005 = 0. Answer: Given: d = 100 mm = 0. 10 x 106N/m2. Ans. t = 5 mm = 0.14MN / m2 J   32 4 D d4 32  4 0. Ans. (b) Volume change(δV) Volumetricstrain( v )  Initial volume(V) 1 or ( V )   v  V   25 10  5  0.  l   x    50  106 N / m2  50MN / m2 4t 4  0.  c   y    100MN / m2 2t 2  0.1 4   Principal stresses are: For-2015 (IES.

1  2t pd Longitudinal stresses.3 [15-Marks] Ans. 2  4t For-2015 (IES.25MN / m 2  1 Major principal stress   109. How much would be the hoop and longitudinal stress in the material? Answer: For thin cylinder we know that Pd Hoop or circumferential stress σ c   2t Pd And longitudinal stress σ   = 4t Therefore σc  2σ  Conventional Question IES-2009 Q.75MN / m2 . A cylindrical shell has the following dimensions: Length = 3 m Inside diameter = 1 m Thickness of metal = 10 mm Internal pressure = 1. GATE & PSUs) Page 359 of 473 Rev. pd Hoop stresses.5 MPa Calculate the change in dimensions of the shell and the maximum intensity of shear stress induced. What are the values of (i) Maximum normal stress? (ii) Maximum shear stress? p.75 and 40. Conventional Question IES-2008 Question: A thin cylindrical pressure vessel of inside radius ‘r’ and thickness of metal ‘t’ is subject to an internal fluid pressure p.r Therefore (ii) Maximum shear stress.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s 2 x  y x y     xy  2  1.r Answer: Circumferential (Hoop) stress c  = t p.25MN / m2 .2    2  2  2 50  100  50  100    24.  2  minor principal stress   40. (  max) =  2 4t Conventional Question IES-1996 Question: A thin cylindrical vessel of internal diameter d and thickness t is closed at both ends is subjected to an internal pressure P. Take E = 200 GPa and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. We can consider this as a thin cylinder.r Longitudinal stress   =  2t c   p.14  2     2  2   75  34.75  109.1 .

5  106 4  10  10  37.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s   2 Shear stress = 1 2 pd  8t Hence from the given data 1.5  106  1   8t 8  10  103  18.75 MPa Conventional Question IES-1998 Question: A thin cylinder with closed ends has an internal diameter of 50 mm and a wall thickness of 2.5  105 l or l  7.5  106  1 1  3  0. pd 1.5 mm.5  106  1   2  0.3  200  109  0.5  106   2  0.31875 mm Logitudinal strain.31875 × 103 m = 0.3 200  109  7.225 mm and maximum shear stress.225mm  Change in length = 0. GATE & PSUs) Page 360 of 473 Rev.5  105  3  2.75  108 2  10  10  75 MPa 1.5  105 l  7.5  106  1 2  3  37. 2 pd 2  1  2v  4tE 37.5  106  1  2  0.5 MPa 1 Hoop strain 1 1     v2  E 1 Pd  2  v  4tE 1. d = 1 × 0.3  4  10  103  200  109 37.3187  103 d  change in diameter. It is subjected to an axial pull of 10 kN and a torque of 500 Nm while under an internal pressure of 6 MN/m2 For-2015 (IES.25  104 m  0.1 .31875  103 d  0.

05    2. we have  55.2 ) in the tube and the maximum shear stress ( t max ): pd P 6  106  0.5  106 N / m2 pd 6  106  0.we get 500   2.42MN / m 2 1   2 106.33MN / m2 2 2 ii Stress configuration on a square element : For-2015 (IES.848  10 7  0.08MN / m2 .05  2. (schematic).5  106  60  106   55. GATE & PSUs) Page 361 of 473 Rev.055 / 2  or  7  48.  2  9. T= 500 Nm.Chapter-10 Thin Cylinder S K Mondal’s (i) Determine the principal stresses in the tube and the maximum shear stress.5  106  60  106    2  1.5  10 Principal stresses are: x  y  x y   1.848  107 m4 4 4   J  polar moment of in ertia  Substituting the values in i .5  60)  106   4.42 Maximum shear stress.5  103   0. max    48.055 / 2 500   0.2        xy 2    1  2   2  T  Us e Torsional equation.96  1012 2  57. Axial pull.05 y   3  60  106 2t 2  2.28  106 N / m2 2.08MN / m2 .055 m.055   0. substituting the various values in eqn.05 10  103 x     4t  dt 4  2. (ii) Represent the stress configuration on a square element taken in the load direction with direction and magnitude indicated.42MN / m2 Principal stresses are :  1  106.     i  J R    where J  32 D 4   d4  32   0.33  106  106.28  10 6  2   2  (55.5 = 55 mm = 0.2       48.08  9.5  106  55. (i).05 m D = d + 2t = 50 + 2 x 2.9.75  106  48. p = 6MN/m2 (i) Principal stresses (  1. P = 10 kN.84  1012  2330.848  10 Now. Answer: Given: d = 50 mm = 0.1 .5  10 3  30  106  25.

GATE & PSUs) Page 362 of 473 Rev. dr u  Circumferential /Tangential strain t  r z     Axial strain. 11. Difference between the analysis of stresses in thin & thick cylinders  In thin cylinders. General Expression 3. 4. Thick Cylinder Theory at a Glance (for IES. Thick cylinder Inner dia of the cylinder (di )  15 or 20 wall thickness (t) 2. z   r  t  E  E E  For-2015 (IES. GATE.  The radial stress r is neglected in thin cylinders while it is of significant magnitude in case of thick cylinders. the tangential stress  t has the highest magnitude at the inner surface of the cylinder & gradually decreases towards the outer surface.1 . PSU) 1. r  . it is assumed that the tangential stress  t is uniformly distributed over the cylinder wall thickness. Strain du  Radial strain. In thick cylinder.

A  and B  ( pi  po ) ro2  ri 2 (ro2  ri 2 ) 8. Stress pi ri 2  Axial stress. GATE & PSUs) Page 363 of 473 Rev. But in some books they B assume that compressive radial stress is positive and they use.e. Cylinders with internal pressure (pi) i.  r   pi At r  ro  r   po pi ri 2  po ro2 ri 2 ro2 7. r   A] r2 6.Chapter-11 Thick Cylinder S K Mondal’s 5. r  A r2 B  Circumferential /Tangential stress.1 . Boundary Conditions At r  ri . po  0 pi ri 2  z  r02  ri 2 pi ri 2  r02   r   2 2  2  1 [ -ive means compressive stress] r0  ri r  pi ri 2  r02   t   2 2  2  1 r0  ri r  (a) At the inner surface of the cylinder (i ) r  ri (ii )  r   pi pi (ro2  ri 2 ) (iii )  t   ro2  ri 2 ro2 (iv)  max  . t  A  r2 [Note: Radial stress always compressive so its magnitude always –ive.  z  2 r0  ri 2 B  Radial stress. pi ro2  ri 2 (b) At the outer surface of the cylinder (i ) r = ro (ii )  r  0 2pi ri2 (iii )  t = 2 2 ro  ri For-2015 (IES.

1 . pi  0 po ro2  ri 2    r   2 2 1  2  ro  ri  r  po ro2  ri 2   t   2 2 1  2  ro  ri  r  (a) At the inner surface of the cylinder (i) r = ri (ii) r  o 2 po ro2 (iii) t   ro2  ri 2 (b) At the outer surface of the cylinder (i) r = ro (ii)  r   po po (ro2  ri 2 ) (iii) t   ro2  ri 2 (c) Distribution of radial and circumferential stresses within the cylinder wall when only external pressure acts 10. Cylinders with External Pressure (po) i. GATE & PSUs) Page 364 of 473 Rev. The choice of equation depends upon two parameters. 9. open or closed end] There is a no of equations for the design of thick cylinders.e. For-2015 (IES.Chapter-11 Thick Cylinder S K Mondal’s (c) Radial and circumferential stress distribution within the cylinder wall when only internalpressure acts. Lame's Equation[for Brittle Material.

Where  = fos For-2015 (IES.1 . Venant's theory) is used. GATE & PSUs) Page 365 of 473 Rev. Lame's Equation is used to determine the wall thickness. Clavarino's Equation[for cylinders with closed end & made of ductile material] When the material of a cylinder is ductile. such as cast iron or cast steel. maximum strain theory of failure is used (St. Three principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows (i) (ii) & (iii) (i )  r   pi pi (ro2  ri 2 ) (ii ) t   (ro2  ri 2 ) pi ri 2 (iii ) z   (ro2  ri 2 )  t   r   z  1  t  E    yld / fos  t   E E  yld  Or    t   ( r   z ). It is based on maximum principal stress theory of failure.Chapter-11 Thick Cylinder S K Mondal’s  Cylinder Material (Whether brittle or ductile)  Condition of Cylinder ends (open or closed) When the material of the cylinder is brittle. such as mild steel or alloy steel. There principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows: (i) (ii) & (iii) (i )  r   pi pi (r02  ri 2 ) (ii )  t   r02  ri 2 pi ri 2 (iii )  z   ro2  ri 2  t  z  r ro  t  pi   t is the criterion of design  ri  t  pi  For ro  ri  t   p   t  ri   t i  1 ( Lame ' s Equation)   t  pi   ult  t  fos 11. Condition of cylinder ends may open or closed.

maximum strain theory of failure is used (St. Birne's Equation [for cylinders with open end & made of ductile material] When the material of a cylinder is ductile. such as mild steel or alloy steel. GATE & PSUs) Page 366 of 473 Rev. Venant's theory) is used. Barlow’s equation: [for high pressure gas pipe brittle or ductile material] pi t  ro [GAIL exam 2004] t y Where  t  for ductile material fos  ult  for brittle material fos 14. a contact pressure is created between the two parts.Chapter-11 Thick Cylinder S K Mondal’s   is the criterion of design ro   (1  2 ) pi  ri   (1   ) pi  For ro = ri + t    (1  2 ) pi  t  ri   1  Clavarion's Equation     (1   ) pi  12. Three principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows (i) (ii) & (iii) (i )  r   pi pi (ro2  ri 2 ) (ii ) t   (ro2  ri 2 ) (iii ) z  0  yld     t   r where  = fos   is the criterion of design ro   (1   ) pi  ri   (1   ) pi  For ro = ri + t    (1   ) pi  t  ri    1 (Birnie's Equation)    (1   ) pi  13. If the radii of the inner cylinder are a and c and that of the For-2015 (IES.1 . Compound Cylinder(A cylinder & A Jacket)  When two cylindrical parts are assembled by shrinking or press-fitting.

GATE & PSUs) Page 367 of 473 Rev.  The pressure 'P' tends to contract the cylinder and expand the jacket  The shrinkage pressure 'P' can be evaluated from the above equation for a given amount of interference   The resultant stresses in a compound cylinder are found by supervision losing the 2.  There is a shrinkage pressure 'P' between the cylinder and the jacket.1 . Now δ j  j c  j  tangential strain   1 =  σt  µσr c E   σ t =circumferential stress   cP  b 2  c 2   p(b2 +c 2 )  =  µ  (i )  +  E  b  c 2 2     b 2 -c 2       σ r =-p radial stress  For-2015 (IES.  being the radial interference the contact pressure is given by: E  b  c  (c  a )   2 2 2 2  P Where E is the Young's modulus of the material c  2c 2 (b 2  a 2 )     The inner diameter of the jacket is slightly smaller than the outer diameter of cylinder  When the jacket is heated. ) and b. without sign.Chapter-11 Thick Cylinder S K Mondal’s outer cylinder are (c. so δ= δ j + δc i.e.stresses  stresses due to shrink fit  stresses due to internal pressure Derivation: Due to interference let us assume δ j  increase in inner diameter of jacket and δc  decrease in outer diameter of cylinder. it tends to contract onto the inner cylinder. which induces residual compressive stress. it expands sufficiently to move over the cylinder  As the jacket cools.

µ  (ii ) Here -ive signrepresents contraction E  c 2  a 2  Adding (i ) & (ii ) Pc  2c 2 (b2  a2 )  E δ  (b 2  c 2 )(c 2  a 2 )   δ  δ j  δc  or P  E  (b2  c 2 )(c 2  a2 )  c  2c 2 (b 2  a 2 )  15.  3 μ  2  2  1 μ  2  Or.1 .Chapter-11 Thick Cylinder S K Mondal’s  2 2  1 σ t   p(c  a )  And in similar way δc c c =  σt  µσr  c  c 2  a2   E    σ r  p  cP  c 2  a 2  =. . We know that when the cylinder is subjected to internal pressure. Hoop’s stress. In autofrettage pre-stressing develops a residual compressive stresses at the inner surface. the circumferential stress at the inner surface limits the pressure carrying capacity of the cylinder. Thus autofrettage increases the pressure carrying capacity of the cylinder.r  8  r 3   Where Ri = Internal radius Ro = External radius  = Density of the disc material  = Angular speed  = Poisson's ratio. Rotating Disc The radial & circumferential (tangential) stresses in a rotating disc of uniform thickness are given by  2  2 R02 Ri2  r   3     R0  Ri  2  r 2  2 8  r   2  2 R02 Ri2 1  3 2  t   3     R0  Ri  2  2 . r    .  R0    Ri   4    3μ    3   Radial stress. the residual compressive stresses at the inner surface begin to decrease.  R0  Ri  2 2 2  8  For-2015 (IES. When the cylinder is actually loaded in operation. GATE & PSUs) Page 368 of 473 Rev. σt    . . 16. Autofrettage Autofrettage is a process of pre-stressing the cylinder before using it in operation. become zero and finally become tensile as the pressure is gradually increased.