International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-4, Issue-2, Feb- 2017

]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.4.2.27 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

Computational Investigation of Furnace Wall for
Silica Ramming Mass with FDM
Prof. Nirajkumar C Mehta1, Dr. Dipesh D Shukla2
1
Ph. D. Student, Rai University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2
Professor, University of Maldives, Maldives

Abstract— Furnaces are useful for melting different component which is used as insulation layer. It is made of
materials for casting process. In this research paper, we ramming mass like silica, silica, magnesia etc. The
had done advanced heat transfer analysis of induction refractory wall is directly influenced by the thermal cycling
furnace wall made of silica ramming mass using explicit of the high temperature molten iron in the furnace. Thermal
finite difference method. We have divided actual geometry fatigue failure is easy to happen for it because of the larger
of furnace refractory wall into 14 elements and 24 nodes. phase transformation thermal stresses and it has a shorter
We have derived explicit finite difference equations for all life. This can cause serious production accidents. Therefore,
24 nodes. We have calculated temperature distribution and the service life problem of the refractory wall has always
thermal stress distribution for all different nodes with been a focus of attention in the application of this to the
respect to time. We have plotted graphs for maximum industry. [13-15]
temperature v/s time and maximum stress v/s time. We The research on the distribution rule of temperature and
found that results indicate the effect of thermal fatigue in thermal stress field and on the fatigue life assessment
the induction furnace wall for silica ramming mass. The method for the refractory wall will not only lay foundation
analysis is very helpful in understanding how thermal for the study on the thermal fatigue of this kind of parts
fatigue failure of refractory wall happens. under thermal shock condition of low cycle and high phase
Keywords— Advanced heat transfer analysis, transition stresses but also offers effective control for
Temperature distribution, Stress distribution, Explicit thermal fatigue failure.
finite difference method, Silica ramming mass. Computational heat transfer, computational fluid dynamic
analysis is done for induction melting furnace, refrigerator
I. INRODUCTION condenser, induction heating furnace using different
Furnace is a term used to identify a closed space here heat is numerical methods like finite volume method and finite
applied to a body in order to raise its temperature. The element method by different researchers. [1-12]
source of heat may be fuel or electricity. Commonly, metals Here, Explicit Finite Difference Method is used to find out
and alloys and sometimes non-metals are heated in temperature and thermal stress variation with respect to
furnaces. The purpose of heating defines the temperature of time.
heating and heating rate. Increase in temperature softens the
metals. They become amenable to deformation. This II. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HEAT
softening occurs with or without a change in the metallic TRANSFER MODEL
structure. Heating to lower temperatures (below the critical We have divided Induction Furnace Wall into a Nodal
temperature) of the metal softens it by relieving the internal Network as shown in Fig. 1. It is divided into 24 nodes. We
stresses. On the other hand, metals heated to temperatures have derived Explicit Finite Difference Equations for all
above the critical temperatures leads to changes in crystal nodes as per the boundary conditions applied to it. The
structures and recrystallization like annealing. Further some furnace wall is having thermal conduction heat transfer
metals and alloys are melted, ceramic products vitrified, between different nodes. It is having atmospheric heat
coals coked, metals like zinc are vaporized and many other convection ha applied from top side of the furnace wall
processes are performed in Furnaces. which is open to atmosphere. It is having heat convection
Induction furnaces are widely used in the iron industry for from molten metal from inside which is hi. It is having heat
the casting of the different grades of cast iron products. convection ho from cooling water which is circulating
Refractory wall of induction melting furnace is a key outside the furnace wall. [16]

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-4, Issue-2, Feb- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.4.2.27 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
To solve this advanced heat transfer problem of induction Node 1:
melting furnace wall which is made from Silica Ramming ∆? ∆? ∆? ?2? − ?1? ∆? ?4? − ?1?
ℎ? (?∞ − ?1? )+ ℎ? (?∞ − ?1? ) + k +k =
Mass, the following initial and boundary conditions, 2 2 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
∆? ∆? ?1?+1 −?1?
material properties and basic assumptions are made: ? ∁
2 2 ∆?
 Refractory Materials for induction furnace wall ∆? ∆? ∆? ?2? − ?1?
?1?+1 = ((ℎ? (? − ?1? )+ ℎ? (?∞ − ?1? ) + k +
meets the basic assumptions in the science of 2 ∞ 2 2 ∆?
mechanics. ∆? ?4? − ?1? 4∆?
k ) )+ ?1?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?
 Environmental Temperature is homogeneous at 27°
C. T[1][i+1] = (((0.5*ha*x*(To-T[1][i])) +(ho*y*(Ta-
 Ignore the influence of heat radiation. T[1][i])/2)+(0.5*k*y*(T[2][i]-
 Ignore the effect of gravity field. T[1][i])/x)+(0.5*k*x*(T[4][i]-T[1][i])/y)
 The surface of induction melting furnace wall is )*((4*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[1][i];
clean.
 The initial temperature of the induction melting Node 2:
∆? ?1? − ?2? ∆? ?3? − ?2? ?5? − ?2?
furnace is set 27° C and it is agreement with the ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?2? )+ k +k + k∆? =
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆?
ambient temperature during solving the problem. ∆? ?2?+1 −?2?
 Heat convections are considered constant for this ?∆? ∁
2 ∆?
analysis. ∆? ?1? − ?2? ∆? ?3? − ?2?
?2?+1 = ((ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?2? )+ k +k +
 Scarp material input inside furnace is considered 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
?5? − ?2? 2∆?
uniform for our analysis. k∆? ) ) + ?2?
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[2][i+1] = (((ha*x*(To-T[2][i]))+(0.5*k*y*(T[1][i]-
T[2][i])/x)+(0.5*k*y*(T[3][i]-T[2][i])/x)
+(0.5*k*x*(T[5][i]-T[2][i])/y))*((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[2][i];

Node 3:
∆? ∆? ∆? ?2? − ?3? ∆? ?6? − ?3?
ℎ? (?∞ − ?3? )+ ℎ? (?ℎ − ?3? ) + k +k =
2 2 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
∆? ∆? ?3?+1 −?3?
? ∁
2 2 ∆?
∆? ∆? ∆? ?2? − ?3?
?3?+1 = (( ℎ? (?∞ − ?3? )+ ℎ? (?ℎ − ?3? ) + k +
2 2 2 ∆?
∆? ?6? − ?3? 4∆?
k ) ) + ?3?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[3][i+1] = (((ha*x*(To-T[3][i])*0.5) +( hi*y*(Th-
T[3][i])*0.5 ) +(0.5*k*y*(T[2][i]-
T[3][i])/x)+(0.5*k*x*(T[6][i]-T[3][i])/y))
*((4*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[3][i];

Node 4:
?5? − ?4? ∆? ?1? − ?4? ∆? ?7? − ?4?
ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?4? ) + k∆? +k +k =
∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
∆? ?4?+4 −?4?
Fig.1: Nodal network for finite difference method ? ∆?∁
2 ∆?

?5? − ?4? ∆? ?1? − ?4?
?4?+4 = ((ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?4? ) + k∆? +k +
∆? 2 ∆?
∆? ?7? − ?4? 2∆?
k ) ) + ?4?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-4, Issue-2, Feb- 2017]
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T[4][i+1] = ((( ho*y*(Ta-T[4][i])) +(k*y*(T[5][i]- T[8][i+1] = (((k*y*(T[7][i]-T[8][i])/x)+( k*y*(T[9][i]-
T[4][i])/x)+(0.5*k*x*(T[1][i]-T[4][i])/y) + T[8][i])/x ) +(k*x*(T[5][i]-T[8][i])/y) + (k*x*(T[11][i]-
(0.5*k*x*(T[7][i]-T[4][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[4][i]; T[8][i])/y)) *((t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[8][i];

Node 5:
?4? − ?5? ?6? − ?5? ?2? − ?5? ?8? − ?5? Node 9:
k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? =
∆? ∆? ∆? ∆? ?8? − ?9? ∆? ?6? − ?9? ? − ??
∆? ?12
?5?+1 −?5?
ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?9? ) + k∆? +k +k 9
=
∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
?∆?∆?∁
∆? ∆? ?9?+1 −?9?
?4? − ?5? ?6? − ?5? ?2? − ?5? ? ∆?∁
?5?+1 = ((k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + 2 ∆?
∆? ∆? ∆? ?8? − ?9? ∆? ?6? − ?9?
?8? − ?5? ∆?
?9?+1 = ((ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?9? ) + k∆? +k +
∆? 2 ∆?
k∆? ) ) + ?5? ? − ??
∆? ?∁∆?∆? ∆? ?12 2∆?
T[5][i+1] = (((k*y*(T[4][i]-T[5][i])/x)+(k*y*(T[6][i]- k 9
) ) + ?9?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[5][i])/x) + (k*x*(T[8][i]-T[5][i])/y)) *((t)/(r*c*x*y))) T[9][i+1] = (( (hi*y*(Th-T[9][i]))+(k*y*(T[8][i]-
+T[5][i]; T[9][i])/x)+ (0.5*k*x*(T[6][i]-T[9][i])/y) +
(0.5*k*x*(T[12][i]-T[9][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y)))
Node 6: +T[9][i];
?2? − ?6? ∆? ?3? − ?6? ∆? ?9? − ?6?
ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?6? ) + k∆? +k +k =
∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆? Node 10:
∆? ?6?+1 −?6? ? − ??
? ∆?∁ ? ?11 10 ∆? ?7? − ?10
? ? − ??
∆? ?15 10
2 ∆? ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?10 ) + k∆? +k +k =
∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
?2? − ?6? ∆? ?3? − ?6?
?6?+1 = (( ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?6? ) + k∆? +k + ∆? ?+10 −? ?
?10 10
∆? 2 ∆? ? ∆?∁
2 ∆?
∆? ?9? − ?6? 2∆? ? − ??
k ) ) + ?6? ?+10 ? ?11 10 ∆? ?7? − ?10
?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆? ?10 = ((ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?10 ) + k∆? +k +
∆? 2 ∆?
? − ??
∆? ?15 10 2∆? ?
T[6][i+1] = (((hi*y*(Th-T[6][i])) + (k*y*(T[2][i]- k ) ) + ?10
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[6][i])/x)+(0.5*k*x*(T[3][i]-T[6][i])/y) + T[10][i+1] = (( (ho*y*(Ta-T[10][i]))+(k*y*(T[11][i]-
(0.5*k*x*(T[9][i]-T[6][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[6][i]; T[10][i])/x)+ (0.5*k*x*(T[7][i]-T[10][i])/y) +
(0.5*k*x*(T[15][i]-T[10][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y)))
Node 7: +T[10][i];
?8? − ?7? ∆? ?4? − ?7? ? − ??
∆? ?10
ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?7? ) + k∆? +k +k 7
=
∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆? Node 11:
∆? ?7?+7 −?7? ? − ?? ? − ??
? ∆?∁ ?10 11 ?12 11 ?8? − ?11
? ? − ??
?16 11
2 ∆? k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? =
∆? ∆? ∆? ∆?
?8? − ?7? ∆? ?4? − ?7?
?7?+7 = (( ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?7? ) + k∆? +k + ?+1 −? ?
?11 11
∆? 2 ∆? ?∆?∆?∁
∆?
? − ??
∆? ?10 2∆? ? − ?? ? − ??
k 7
) ) + ?7? ?+1 ?10 11 ?12 11 ?8? − ?11
?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆? ?11 = (( k∆? + k∆? + k∆? +
∆? ∆? ∆?
T[7][i+1] = (((ho*y*(Ta-T[7][i])) + (k*y*(T[8][i]- ? − ??
?16 11 ∆? ?
T[7][i])/x)+(0.5*k*x*(T[4][i]-T[7][i])/y) + k∆? ) ) + ?11
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
(0.5*k*x*(T[10][i]-T[7][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) T[11][i+1] = (( (k*y*(T[10][i]-T[11][i])/x)+
+T[7][i]; (k*y*(T[12][i]-T[11][i])/x)+ (k*x*(T[8][i]-T[11][i])/y) +
(k*x*(T[16][i]-T[11][i])/y)) *((t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[11][i];
Node 8:
?7? − ?8? ?9? − ?8? ?5? − ?8? ? − ??
?11 8 Node 12:
k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? = ? − ??
∆? ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆? ?11
? ? 12
?8?+1 −?8?
ℎ? (?ℎ − ?12 ) + ℎ? (?ℎ − ?12 ) + k∆? +
2 2 ∆?
?∆?∆?∁ ? ?
∆? ∆? ?13 − ?12 ∆? ?9? − ?12
? ?
?17 ?
− ?12 3∆?∆? ?+1
?12 ?
−?12
?7? − ?8? ?9? − ?8? ?5? − ?8?
k +k + k∆? =? ∁
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆? 4 ∆?
?8?+1 = (( k∆? + k∆? + k∆? +
∆? ∆? ∆?
? − ??
?11 ∆?
k∆? 8
) ) + ?8?
∆? ?∁∆?∆?

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? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
?+1 ∆? ? ∆? ? ?11 12 ?15 16 ?17 16 ?11 16 ?21 16
?12 = (( ℎ? (?ℎ − ?12 ) + ℎ? (?ℎ − ?12 ) + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? =
2 2 ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆?
? − ??
∆? ?13 12 ∆? ?9? − ?12
? ? − ??
?17 12 4∆? ?
?+1 −? ?
?16
k +k + k∆? ) ) + ?12 ?∆?∆?∁ 16
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆? 3?∁∆?∆? ∆?
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
T[12][i+1] = (( (0.5*hi*x*(Th-T[12][i]))+( 0.5*hi*y*(Th- ?+1 ?15 16 ?17 16 ?11 16
?16 = (( k∆? + k∆? + k∆? +
T[12][i])) +(k*y*(T[11][i]-T[12][i])/x)+ ∆? ∆? ∆?
? − ??
?21 16 ∆? ?
(0.5*k*y*(T[13][i]-T[12][i])/x) + (0.5*k*x*(T[9][i]- k∆? ) ) + ?16
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[12][i])/y) + (k*x*(T[17][i]-T[12][i])/y))
T[16][i+1] = (( (k*y*(T[15][i]-T[16][i])/x)+ (k*y*(T[17][i]-
*((4*t)/(3*r*c*x*y))) +T[12][i];
T[16][i])/x )+(k*x*(T[11][i]-T[16][i])/y)+( k*x*(T[21][i]-
T[16][i])/y)) *((t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[16][i];
Node 13:
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
? ∆? ?12 13 ∆? ?14 13 ?18 13
ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?13 )+ k +k + k∆? = Node 17:
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆?
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
?+1 −? ? ?16 17 ?18 17 ?12 17 ?22 17
∆? ?13 13 k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? =
?∆? ∁ ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆?
2 ∆?
?+1 −? ?
? − ??
∆? ?12 ? − ??
∆? ?14 ?17 17
?+1
?13 ?
= (( ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?13 )+ k 13
+k 13
+ ?∆?∆?∁
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆?
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
? − ??
?18 2∆? ?+1 ?16 17 ?18 17 ?12 17
k∆? 13
) ?
) + ?13 ?17 = (( k∆? + k∆? + k∆? +
∆? ?∁∆?∆? ∆? ∆? ∆?
? − ??
T[13][i+1] = (( (hi*x*(Th-T[13][i]))+(0.5*k*y*(T[12][i]- ?22 17 ∆? ?
k∆? ) ) + ?17
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[13][i])/x)+ (0.5*k*y*(T[14][i]-T[13][i])/x)+
T[17][i+1] = (( (k*y*(T[16][i]-T[17][i])/x)+ (k*y*(T[18][i]-
(k*x*(T[18][i]-T[13][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[13][i];
T[17][i])/x )+(k*x*(T[12][i]-T[17][i])/y)+( k*x*(T[22][i]-
T[17][i])/y)) *((t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[17][i];
Node 14:
? − ?? ? − ??
∆? ? ∆? ? ∆? ?13 14 ∆? ?19 14
ℎ? (?ℎ − ?14 )+ ℎ? (?ℎ − ?14 )+k +k Node 18:
2 2 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
∆? ∆? ?+1 −? ?
?14 ?17 18 ?19 18 ?13 18 ?23 18
=? ∁ 14 k∆? + k∆? + k∆? + k∆? =
2 2 ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆? ∆?
? − ?? ?+1 −? ?
?+1 ∆? ? ∆? ? ∆? ?13 ?18 18
?14 = (( ℎ? (?ℎ − ?14 )+ ℎ? (?ℎ − ?14 )+k 14
+ ?∆?∆?∁
2 2 2 ∆? ∆?
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
∆? ?19 4∆? ? ?+1 ?17 18 ?19 18 ?13 18
k 14
) ) + ?14 ?18 = ((k∆? + k∆? + k∆? +
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆? ∆? ∆? ∆?
? − ??
T[14][i+1] = (( (0.5*hi*x*(Th-T[14][i]))+(0.5*hi*y*(Th- ?23 18 ∆? ?
k∆? ) ) + ?18
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[14][i])) +(0.5*k*y*(T[13][i]-T[14][i])/x)+
(0.5*k*x*(T[19][i]-T[14][i])/y)) *((4*t)/(r*c*x*y))) T[18][i+1] = (( (k*y*(T[17][i]-T[18][i])/x)+ (k*y*(T[19][i]-
+T[14][i]; T[18][i])/x )+(k*x*(T[13][i]-T[18][i])/y)+( k*x*(T[23][i]-
T[18][i])/y)) *((t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[18][i];
Node 15:
? − ??
?16 ? − ??
∆? ?10 ? − ??
∆? ?20
Node 19:
? 15 15 15
ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?15 ) + k∆? +k +k = ?
? − ??
?18 19
? − ??
∆? ?14 19
? − ??
∆? ?24 19
∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆? ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?19 ) + k∆? +k +k =
?+15 −? ? ∆? 2 ∆? 2 ∆?
∆? ?15 15
? ∆?∁ ∆? ?+1 −? ?
?19 19
2 ∆? ? ∆?∁
? − ??
?16 ? − ??
∆? ?10 2 ∆?
?+15 ? 15 15
?15 = (( ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?15 ) + k∆? +k + ?+1 ?
? − ??
?18 19
? − ??
∆? ?14 19
∆? 2 ∆? ?19 = ((ℎ?∆?(?ℎ − ?19 ) + k∆? +k +
? − ?? ∆? 2 ∆?
∆? ?20 15 2∆? ?
k ) )+ ?15 ? − ??
∆? ?24 19 2∆? ?
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆? k ) ) + ?19
2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[15][i+1] = (( (ho*y*(Ta-T[15][i]))+(k*y*(T[16][i]-
T[19][i+1] = (( (hi*y*(Th-T[19][i]))+(k*y*(T[18][i]-
T[15][i])/x)+ (0.5*k*x*(T[10][i]-T[15][i])/y)+(
T[19][i])/x)+ (0.5*k*x*(T[14][i]-T[19][i])/y)+(
0.5*k*x*(T[20][i]-T[15][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y)))
0.5*k*x*(T[24][i]-T[19][i])/y)) *((2*t)/(r*c*x*y)))
+T[15][i];
+T[19][i];
Node 16:
Node 20:

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-4, Issue-2, Feb- 2017]
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? − ?? ? − ??
∆? ? ∆? ? ∆? ?21 20 ∆? ? ∆? ? ∆? ?23 24
ℎ? (?∞ − ?20 )+ ℎ? (?∞ − ?20 )+k + ℎ? (?∞ − ?24 )+ ℎ? (?ℎ − ?24 )+k +
2 2 2 ∆? 2 2 2 ∆?
? − ?? ?+20 −? ? ? − ?? ?+1 −? ?
∆? ?15 20 ∆? ∆? ?20 20 ∆? ?19 24 ∆? ∆? ?24 24
k =? ∁ k =? ∁
2 ∆? 2 2 ∆? 2 ∆? 2 2 ∆?
?+20 ∆? ? ∆? ? ∆? ∆? ? − ??
∆? ?23
?20 = ((ℎ? (?∞ − ?20 )+ ℎ? (?∞ − ?20 ) + ?+1
?24 = ((ℎ? ?
(?∞ − ?24 )+ ℎ? ?
(?ℎ − ?24 )+k 24
+
2 2 2 2 2 ∆?
? − ?? ? − ??
∆? ?21 20 ∆? ?15 20 4∆? ? ? − ??
∆? ?19 4∆?
k +k ) )+ ?20 k 24
) ?
) + ?24
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆? 2 ∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[20][i+1] = (( (0.5*ho*x*(Ta-T[20][i]))+( 0.5*ho*y*(Ta- T[24][i+1] = (( (0.5*ho*x*(Ta-T[24][i]))+( 0.5*hi*y*(Th-
T[20][i]))+(0.5*k*y*(T[21][i]-T[20][i])/x)+ T[24][i])) +(0.5*k*y*(T[23][i]-T[24][i])/x)+
(0.5*k*x*(T[15][i]-T[20][i])/y))*((4*t)/(r*c*x*y))) (0.5*k*x*(T[19][i]-T[24][i])/y))*((4*t)/(r*c*x*y)))
+T[20][i]; +T[24][i];

Node 21:
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
? ∆? ?20 21 ∆? ?22 21 ?16 21
ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?21 )+ k +k + k∆? =
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆?
?+1 −? ?
III. PROGRAMMING & SOLUTION
∆? ?21 21
?∆? ∁ With the help of a computer program we can solve the
2 ∆?
?+1 ?
? − ??
∆? ?20 21
? − ??
∆? ?22 21
matrix created by finite difference equations for 24 nodes.
?21 = ((ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?21 )+ k +k +
2 ∆? 2 ∆? We can calculate temperature distribution and stress
? − ??
?16 21 2∆? ?
k∆? ) ) + ?21 distribution with respect to time.
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[21][i+1] = (( (0.5*ho*x*(Ta-
Table.1: Material Property and Boundary Conditions
T[21][i]))+(0.5*k*y*(T[20][i]-T[21][i])/x)+(
Material Properties and Boundary Unit
0.5*k*y*(T[22][i]-T[21][i])/x)+ (k*x*(T[16][i]-
Conditions for Silica Ramming Mass
T[21][i])/y))*((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[21][i];
1 Internal Film Co- 200 W/m2 K
efficient hi
Node 22:
? − ??
∆? ?21 ? − ??
∆? ?23 ? − ??
?17
2 External Film Co- 40 W/m2 K
? 22 22 22
ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?22 )+ k +k + k∆? = efficient ho
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆?
∆? ?+1 −? ?
?22 22 3 Atmosphere Film Co- 10 W/m2 K
?∆? ∁
2 ∆? efficient ha
? − ?? ? − ??
?+1 ? ∆? ?21 22 ∆? ?23 22
?22 = ((ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?22 )+ k +k + 4 Density 2800 Kg/m3
2 ∆? 2 ∆?
? − ??
?17 22 2∆? ?
5 Time Interval Δt 10 Seconds
k∆? ) ) + ?22
∆? ?∁∆?∆? 6 Thermal Conductivity k 1.7 W/m K
T[22][i+1] = (( (ho*x*(Ta-T[22][i]))+(0.5*k*y*(T[21][i]- 7 Temperature outside 303 Kelvin
T[22][i])/x)+( 0.5*k*y*(T[23][i]-T[22][i])/x)+ Furnace Wall
(k*x*(T[17][i]-T[22][i])/y))*((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) 8 Temperature inside 1673 Kelvin
+T[22][i]; Furnace Wall
9 Temperature of Air 303 Kelvin
Node 23: 10 Specific Heat 950 J/kg K
? − ?? ? − ?? ? − ??
? ∆? ?22 ∆? ?24 ?18
ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?23 )+ k 23
+k 23
+ k∆? 23
= 11 Elasticity Constant 180000 N/ m2
2 ∆? 2 ∆? ∆?
∆? ?+1 −? ?
?23
12 Thermal Expansion Co- 0.00000 m/ K
23
?∆? ∁ efficient 122
2 ∆?
? − ?? ? − ??
?+1
?23 ?
= ((ℎ?∆?(?∞ − ?23 )+ k
∆? ?22 23
+k
∆? ?24 23
+ 13 Ultimate Stress 500 MPa
2 ∆? 2 ∆?
? − ??
?18 23 2∆? ?
k∆? ) ) + ?23 IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
∆? ?∁∆?∆?
T[23][i+1] = (( (ho*x*(Ta-T[23][i]))+(0.5*k*y*(T[22][i]- We can see from the Fig. 2 that maximum temperature is
T[23][i])/x)+( 0.5*k*y*(T[24][i]-T[23][i])/x)+ increasing from atmospheric temperature 300 K and reaches
(k*x*(T[18][i]-T[23][i])/y))*((2*t)/(r*c*x*y))) +T[23][i]; to maximum temperature 1623 K in 45 minutes and then
starts reducing and reaches to 724 K in next 15 minutes. It
Node 24: again starts increasing and reaches to maximum 1623 K

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after 105 minutes and again starts reducing. There are 10 wall of silica ramming mass is under the effect of low cycle
similar temperature cycles in one day. thermal fatigue loading. The reason for its low life span is
We can see from the Fig. 3 that maximum thermal stress is low cycle thermal fatigue load.
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