Introduction: Below is the current specification for the first year of the OCR A Chemistry

A-Level (Which is the same as the AS-level). I have individualised each point and made
them into a learning objective. Modules 2-4 are in order and Module 1 and information on
the practical endorsement (PAG), how science works (HSW) and the mathematical
requirements (M) are also at the bottom.

The codes are matched against questions in the OCR Chemistry A-1st Year-AS Testbank so
you can use them to search for specific questions.

Module 2: Foundations in chemistry (FC)

(HSW = How science works, PAG = Practical endorsement, M =
Mathematical requirement)

Section Code Learning objectives Additional guidance
Atomic Identify isotopes as atoms of the
structure same element with different
and numbers of neutrons and different
isotopes masses
Describe atomic structure in HSW1 Different models for atomic structure can be
terms of the numbers of protons, used to explain different phenomena, e.g. the Bohr
neutrons and electrons for atoms model explains periodic properties. HSW7 The
and ions, given the atomic changing accepted models of atomic structure over
number, mass number and any time. The use of evidence to accept or reject
ionic charge particular models.
Explain the term relative isotopic
FC2i mass mass compared with 1/12th mass of carbon-12

Explain the term relative atomic weighted mean mass compared with 1/12th mass of
mass carbon-12
Explain the use of mass
spectrometry in the determination Knowledge of the mass spectrometer not required.
of relative isotopic masses and Limited to ions with single charges.
relative abundances of the isotope
Explain the use of mass
spectrometry in the calculation of
Relative the relative atomic mass of an
mass element from the relative
abundances of its
For simple molecules, the term relative molecular
mass will be used.
Use the terms relative molecular
For compounds with giant structures, the term
FC2v mass, Mr, and relative formula
relative formula mass will be used.
Definitions of relative molecular mass and relative
formula mass will not be required.
Calculate relative molecular
FC2vi mass, Mr, and relative formula
mass from relative atomic masses
Formulae Predict ionic charge from the Note that ‘nitrate’ and ‘sulfate’ should be assumed
and FC3i position of an element in the to be NO3 – and SO42–.
equations periodic table Charges on other ions will be provided.
Recall the names and formulae for
following ions: NO3–, CO32–, SO42–,
OH–,NH4+, Zn2+ and Ag+
Construct balanced chemical
equations (including ionic
equations), including state
FC3iii M0.2
symbols, for reactions studied and
for unfamiliar reactions given
appropriate information
The mole Explain and use the term amount
of substance
FC4ii Explain and use the term mole (symbol ‘mol’), as the unit for amount of substance
Dr A. Johnston, Southampton 2015

NA (the number of particles per mole, 6.02 × 1023
Explain and use the term the mol–1)
Avogadro constant The value for NA and the molar gas volume at RTP
are provided on the Data Sheet.
Explain and use the term molar
FC4iv mass per mole, units g mol–1
Explain and use the term molar Gas volume per mole,
gas volume (units dm3 mol–1)
Determinati Definition not required.
on of FC5i Use the term empirical formula The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each
formulae element present in a compound
Definition not required.
FC5ii Use the term molecular formula The number and type of atoms of each element in a
Calculate empirical and molecular
formulae from composition by M0.2, M2.2, M2.3, M2.4
FC5iii mass or percentage compositions To include calculating empirical formulae from
by mass and relative molecular elemental analysis data (see also 6.3.2 e).
Use the term anhydrous, hydrated
FC5iv M0.2, M2.2, M2.3, M2.4
and water of crystallisation
Calculate the formula of a
hydrated salt from given
FC5v percentage composition, mass PAG1
composition or based on
experimental results
Calculation Calculate mass using amounts of
of reacting substance in mol
masses, Calculate number of mols using
gas amounts of substance in grams
volumes Calculate solution volume and
and mole FC6iii concentration using amounts of Express concentration in mol dm–3 and g dm–3.
concentrati substance in mol
ons M0.0, M0.1, M0.4, M1.1, M2.2, M2.3, M2.4
Use the ideal gas equation pV = The value for R is provided on the Data Sheet.
nRT Learners will be expected to express quantities in SI
Use stoichiometric relationships in
FC6v M0.2
Percentage Calculate the percentage yield of
FC7i M0.2, M1.1, M2.2, M2.3, M2.4
yields and a reaction or related quantities
atom Calculate the atom economy of a
economy reaction
Describe the techniques and
procedures required during PAG1
FC7iii experiments requiring the HSW4 Many opportunities to carry out experimental
measurement of mass, volumes of and investigative work.
solutions and gas volumes
Describe the benefits of
sustainability of developing HSW10 Use of processes with high atom economy in
chemical processes with a high chemical industry and other areas.
atom economy
Acids, Recall the formulae of the
bases, common acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3
alkalis and and CH3COOH) and the common
neutralisati alkalis (NaOH, KOH and NH3)
on Explain that acids release H+ ions
in aqueous solution and alkalis
release OH– ions in aqueous
Qualitatively describe strong and
FC8iii weak acids in terms of relative
Describe neutralisation as the
reaction of H+ and OH– to form H2O
Including carbonates, metal oxides and alkalis
Describe neutralisation as the
FC8v (water-soluble bases), to form salts, including full
reactions of acids with bases

Dr A. Johnston, Southampton 2015

Oxidation Recall rules for assigning and number calculating oxidation number for Learners will be expected to know oxidation FC10i atoms in elements. Recall the number of electrons HSW1. with opposite spins FC12ii Describe the shapes of s. Acid–base Describe the techniques and titrations procedures used when preparing a PAG2 FC9i standard solution of a required HSW4 Many opportunities to carry out experimental concentration and carrying out and investigative work. Learners are expected to be familiar with the shells. sub. Zn.and d-blocks Redox Use equations to describe redox e. Define an orbital as a region around the nucleus that can hold FC12ii up to two electrons.e. M0. the Learners will be expected to write formulae from magnitude of the oxidation number names such as chlorate(I) and chlorate(III) and vice FC10ii when versa. Describe oxidation and reduction Should include examples of s-. FC11ii reactions reactions of metals with acids to Ionic equations not required. i an element may have Note that 'nitrate’ and ‘sulfate’.and d-sub-shells. p. p. M2.3.and d-sub-shells orbitals. M2. Mg.2. M2.1. atomic can fill s-. compounds numbers of O in peroxides and H in metal hydrides. p. Interpret redox equations to FC11i make predictions in terms of M0. HSW8 Systematic and unambiguous nomenclature. M1. and ions Write formulae using oxidation HSW8 Appropriate use of oxidation numbers in FC10ii numbers written communication.2. FC12i making up s-.and d-block FC11i in terms of electron transfer elements Describe oxidation and reduction FC11ii in terms of changes in oxidation number Metals should be from s-. but not be limited to. i. Southampton 2015 . Use Roman numerals to indicate iron(II) and iron(III). Al.7 Development of models to explain electron FC12i that can fill the first four shells structure. Describe electrons filling the first electron three shells and the 4s and 4p FC12v configuratio orbitals in order of increasing n energy State that electrons fill orbitals FC12v with the same energy singly before i pairing FC12v Recall electronic configuration of ii atoms up to atomic number Z = 36 FC12v Recall electronic configuration of Learners should use sub-shell notation.and p- Energy i orbitals levels. are assumed to be NO3 – and different oxidation numbers SO42–.g. M1. for iii ions up to atomic number Z = 36 oxygen: 1s22s22p4.2. Examples should include. p. Johnston. Fe.2 v oxidation numbers and electron loss/gain. acid–base titrations Calculate the results of titrations based on experimental results of FC9ii M0.1. State the number of orbitals shells. with no shown compounds/ions with oxidation number. v and the number of electrons that 'electrons in box' representations. Ionic Describe ionic bonding as bonding FC13i electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions FC13ii Construct 'dot-and-cross' diagrams to show ionic bonding Dr A.4 familiar and non-familiar acids and bases. i form salts Reactions with acids will be limited to those producing a salt and hydrogen.

including melting and v macroscopic properties. Interpret Pauling FC16ii electronegativity values Electronega Explain that a polar bond is a tivity and A polar molecule requires polar bonds with dipoles permanent dipole within molecules bond FC16ii that do not cancel due to their direction. solubility and electrical conductivity in solid. FC15ii explain the shapes of molecules trigonal planar. NaCl Explain the effect of structure and bonding on the physical properties of ionic FC13i HSW1 Use of ideas about ionic bonding to explain compounds.2 Using electron pair repulsion theory to predict molecular shapes. the stronger the measurement of covalent bond covalent bond. Describe hydrogen bonding as intermolecular bonding between FC17ii Including the role of lone pairs. H2O containing covalently-bonded polarity i and CO2 both have polar bonds but only H2O has an atoms with different overall dipole. boiling points.1. and the nuclei of the bonded atoms Construct 'dot-and-cross' FC14ii diagrams to show a single covalent bonding Construct 'dot-and-cross' FC14ii diagrams to show multiple i covalent bonding Construct 'dot-and-cross' FC14i diagrams to show dative covalent v (coordinate) bonding Use the term average bond Learners should appreciate that the larger the value enthalpy as a FC14v of the average bond enthalpy. –OH or HF FC17ii Use hydrogen bonding to explain (i) the density of ice compared with water i the anomalous properties of H2O (ii) its relatively high melting and boiling points Dr A. Southampton 2015 . non-linear. strength The shapes M4. O or F and the H atom of –NH. Use electron pair repulsion to linear. molecules containing N.g. electronegativities Explain in terms of permanent FC16i dipole(s) and molecular shape that v a polar molecule has an overall dipole Intermolecu Permanent dipole–dipole and induced dipole–dipole lar forces interactions can both be referred to as van der Describe intermolecular forces Waals’ forces. dipole interactions HSW1. FC16i bonding electrons in a covalent HSW1.2 Using ideas about electronegativity to bond predict chemical bond type. tetrahedral and and ions. E. liquid and aqueous states Covalent Describe covalent bonds as the bonding strong electrostatic attraction ‘Dot-and-cross’ diagrams of up to six electron pairs FC14i between a shared pair of electrons (including lone pairs) surrounding a central atom.g. pyramidal. M4. Johnston.2 Dipole interactions as a model to explain intermolecular bonding. based on permanent dipole–dipole FC17i Induced dipole–dipole interactions can also be interactions and induced dipole– referred to as London (dispersion) forces.2 of simple Describe the bond angles of Learners should be able to draw 3-D diagrams to molecules FC15i molecules and ions with up to six illustrate shapes of molecules and ions. and ions electron pairs HSW1. octahedral Explain that electronegativity is Learners should be aware that electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract the increases towards F in the periodic table. Explain that the solid structures of FC13ii giant ionic lattices result from i oppositely charged ions strongly attracted in all directions e.

Johnston. Southampton 2015 . Dr A.g. I2. solubility and FC17v electrical conductivity of covalent compounds. Use intermolecular bonds to FC17i explain the solid structures of e. ice v simple molecular covalent lattices Explain differences in the melting and boiling points.

solubility and involved. Group 2 with oxygen. strong covalent bonds and melting Explain the physical properties of Explanations should be in terms of the types of point giant metallic and giant covalent particle present in a lattice. i ionisation energies of Group 2 but learners should be able to write an equation for elements down the group the change involved. p- PTE2ii and d-blocks Periodic (removal of 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous trend in PTE2ii Describe first ionisation energy atoms) electron i and successive ionisation energy. Periodic PTE3ii Use of ideas about bonding to explain the strength graphite and graphene) and silicon trend in i and conductive properties of graphene. discovery and confirmation of new elements. PAG = Practical endorsement. atomic radius Predict using successive ionisation energies the number of HSW1.2 Trends in ionisation energy support the Bohr PTE2v electrons in each shell of an atom model of the atom.1 n and Explain the trend in first ionisation ionisation energies across Periods 2 and 3.g. in terms of of s. nuclear charge and B) and p-orbital repulsion (e. and the mobility of the particles v boiling points. between N and O). Module 3: Periodic table and energy (PTE) (HSW = How science works.and p-sub-shell energies (e. Explanation to include the small decreases as a result PTE2i energy and down a group. M = Mathematical requirement) Section Code Learning objectives Additional guidance State that periodic table is PTE1i ordered in order of increasing The atomic number HSW1.9 lattices of carbon (diamond. Johnston. between Be and v attraction. State the periodic trends in PTE2i electron configurations across periods 2 & 3.g. Describe the outer shell s2 electron configuration and the loss PTE4i of these electrons in redox Redox reactions to form 2+ ions reactions Describe the relative reactivities and of the Group 2 elements Mg to Ba Reactions with acids will be limited to those PTE4ii reactivity of shown by their redox reactions producing a salt and hydrogen. and its as networks of atoms bonded by structure potential applications and benefits. including melting and forces and bonds.7. Dr A. PTE1ii Describe the repeating trends in i physical and chemical periodicity. configuratio M3. Classify the elements into s-. water & dilute acids metals Describe the trend in reactivity in M3.1 PTE3v points across Periods 2 and 3 in Trend in structure from giant metallic to giant terms of structure and bonding covalent to simple molecular lattice. the relative strength of PTE3i lattices.11 The extension of the periodic table through table properties.1 PTE4ii terms of the first and second Definition of second ionisation energy is not required. the periodic PTE1ii group have similar chemical HSW7. and the group of an element Explain metallic bonding as strong electrostatic attraction between PTE3i No details of cubic or hexagonal packing required. Explain the variation in melting M3. electrical conductivity in terms of HSW1 Use of ideas about bonding to explain structure and bonding macroscopic properties. cations (positive ions) and delocalised electrons Explain a giant metallic lattice PTE3ii e. Definition required for first ionisation energy only.11 The development of the Periodic Law and structure of Explain that elements in the same acceptance by the scientific community. all metals structure Explain the solid giant covalent HSW1. as appropriate. Southampton 2015 .g.

12 Decisions on whether or not to PTE7v use in water treatment chlorinate water depend on balance of benefits and risks. tic including using ionic equations. use as a test for different halide ions. State that halogens exist as PTE6i diatomic molecules Characteris Explain the trend in the boiling tic physical points of properties PTE6ii Cl2. (BaCO3 and Ag2SO4 are both insoluble. explanations of redox Describe the outer shell s2p5 reactions should emphasise electron transfer and PTE7i electron configuration and the oxidation number changes and include full and ionic equations State that halogens gain one PTE7ii electron in many redox reactions to form 1– ions Describe the trend in reactivity of PTE7ii the halogens Cl2. sulfate then ions on a test-tube scale & halide.g.4 a) by aqueous ammonia. by precipitation v with Ba2+(aq) PTE8v Write equations and predict the products of Cl –. and ethical considerations of people’s right to choose. in terms of attraction. compound Write equations and predict the PTE8ii products of CO3 2–.) PTE8ii processes and techniques needed PAG4 to identify ions in an unknown HSW4 Qualitative analysis. Johnston. Describe the action of water on Group 2 oxides and the PTE5i approximate pH of any resulting solutions. Describe qualitative analysis of Sequence of tests required is carbonate. followed PAG4 (see also 3. Br– and I– observations. atomic reactivity of radius and electron shielding halogens Examples include: and their i) the reaction of chlorine with water as used in water Explain the term compounds PTE7i purification disproportionation as oxidation and v (ii) the reaction of chlorine with cold. I– Dr A. by reaction with i H+(aq) forming CO2(g) Write equations and predict the PTE8i products of SO42–. dilute aqueous reduction of the same element sodium hydroxide. halide ions Redox Explain the trend in reactivity as reactions PTE7ii the decreasing ease of forming 1– and i ions. of Complexes with ammonia are not required other than reactions of the aqueous anions Cl –. Br2 and I2. hazards of toxic chlorine gas and possible risks from formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons) Explain the benefits of chlorine HSW9. halide ions PTE8i with aqueous silver ions. Consideration of other methods of purifying drinking water. and their HSW4 Qualitative analysis. Including colour change in aqueous and organic i illustrated by reaction with other solutions. Br–.10. including the trend of Reactions increasing alkalinity of Group 2 Include equations compounds Describe the use of some Group 2 for example (but not limited PTE5ii compounds as bases to): (i) Ca(OH)2 in agriculture to neutralise acid soils (ii) Mg(OH)2 and CaCO3 as ‘antacids’ in treating indigestion. Southampton 2015 . Br2 and I2. as used to form bleach (iii) analogous reactions (killing bacteria) contrasted with associated risks (e. in terms of induced dipole–dipole interactions Throughout this section. Characteris Describe precipitation reactions.1.

2. time Dr A. on the rate of a i reaction. v states (physical states under combustion standard conditions) and Explain and use of the term Enthalpy change associated with a stated equation.2. M0. the breaking and making of chemical bonds Use average bond enthalpies to PTE10 calculate enthalpy changes and iii related quantities M0. i enthalpy change of formation ΔfH PTE9v Explain and use of the term Complete combustion of 1 mol of a substance. Definition of average bond enthalpy not required.1. and investigative work.4 i enthalpy Definition of average bond enthalpy not required.2. Write equations and predict the PTE8v products of NH4+. Southampton 2015 . HSW2 Application of the principle of conservation of Use Hess’ law for construction of energy to determine enthalpy changes. M2.3. gas volume. Describe the effect of concentration. M0.1 Definition of Hess’ law not required. M2.5 PTE12 of graphs measuring how a Suitable physical quantities to monitor could include ii physical quantity changes with concentration.0.1. M3.2. Johnston.4 x experimental results PAG3 Breaking of 1 mol of bonds in gaseous molecules PTE10 Explain the term average bond M0. PTE11 procedures used to determine PAG3 ii enthalpy changes directly and HSW4 Opportunities for carrying out experimental indirectly. M2. M2. neutralisati PTE9v enthalpy change of reaction ΔrH on PTE9v Explain and use of the term Formation of 1 mol of a compound from its elements. negative) or endothermic (ΔH. PTE9i standard conditions and standard formation. Explain exothermic and Bond endothermic reactions in terms of PTE10 Learners are expected to understand that an actual enthalpies enthalpy changes associated with ii bond enthalpy may differ from the average value.2.2. M2.4.0. by reaction with i warm NaOH(aq) forming NH3 Explain that some chemical reactions are accompanied by PTE9i enthalpy changes that are exothermic (ΔH. M2.2.3. etc. M0. including the PTE12 pressure of gases. Unfamiliar enthalpy cycles will be provided. PTE11 enthalpy cycles to calculate Learners should be able to calculate: Hess’ law i enthalpy changes (i) an enthalpy change of reaction from enthalpy and changes of combustion enthalpy (ii) an enthalpy change of reaction from enthalpy cycles changes of formation (iii) enthalpy changes from unfamiliar enthalpy cycles Describe the techniques and M3.1 the enthalpy of reactants Enthalpy compared with products changes: PTE9ii Use a qualitative explanation of Including use of enthalpy profile diagrams ΔH of i the term activation energy Explain and use of the term reaction. M3.0. M3. mass. in terms of frequency of Simple collisions collision Calculate reaction rate from the theory gradients M3. ΔneutH Calculate enthalpy changes Including use of the relationship: q = mcΔT PTE9i directly from appropriate M0. M1. M2. ΔcH ii enthalpy change of combustion PTE9v Explain and use of the term Formation of 1 mol of water from iii enthalpy change of neutralisation neutralisation. positive) Construct enthalpy profile diagrams to show the difference in PTE9ii M3. M2. M3. M2.3.2.1.

PTE15 the effect of a change in HSW1. Southampton 2015 .2. pressure or effect of factors on the position of equilibrium. constant.2. PTE15 changes to the position of HSW4 Opportunities to carry out experimental and iv equilibrium for changes in investigative work.2.1 distribution PTE14 exceeding the activation energy HSW1. Dynamic concentration on the position of equilibrium equilibrium and le Explain that a catalyst increases Chatelier’s the rate of both forward and principle PTE15 reverse reactions in an equilibrium iii by the same amount resulting in an unchanged position of equilibrium Describe the techniques and procedures used to investigate Qualitative effects only. changes or when a catalyst is used. combustion of fossil fuels with resulting reduction in CO2 emissions Explain the techniques and procedures used to investigate PAG9 PTE13 reaction rates including the HSW4 Many opportunities to carry out experimental v measurement of mass. M2. Haber process. concentration and temperature.1 i relationship with activation energy Explain using Boltzmann The distributions the qualitative effect Boltzmann on the proportion of molecules M3. M2.5 Use of le Chatelier’s principle to explain ii temperature.1. as shown by enthalpy profile diagrams PTE13 Explain the terms homogeneous iii and heterogeneous catalysts Explain that catalysts have great Catalysts economic importance and benefits for increased sustainability by HSW9. volumes and time Explain qualitatively the PTE14 Boltzmann distribution and its M3.10 Benefits to the environment of improved PTE13 lowering temperatures and sustainability weighed against toxicity of some iv reducing energy demand from catalysts.4 equilibrium equilibrium constant.5 Use of Boltzmann distribution model to ii when reaction temperature explain effect on reaction rates.g. for i Learners will not need to determine the units for Kc. Johnston. Explain the role of a catalyst in PTE13 increasing reaction rate without Details of processes are not required. Explain that a dynamic equilibrium exists in a closed system when the rate PTE15 of the forward reaction is equal to i the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentrations of reactants and products do not change Use le Chatelier’s principle and its application for homogeneous equilibria to deduce qualitatively Definition for le Chatelier's principle not required. gas and investigative work. Explain the importance to the chemical industry of a compromise HSW6 Balancing the effects of equilibrium. i being used up by the overall reaction Explain the role of a catalyst in allowing a reaction to proceed via PTE13 a different route with lower ii activation energy. Kc . PTE15 between chemical equilibrium and safety and economics to determine the conditions v reaction rate in deciding the used in industrial reactions e. M1. Kc homogeneous reactions Dr A. operational conditions The Create expressions for the PTE16 M0. rate.3.

from provided ii equilibrium concentrations Estimate the position of PTE16 M0. Kc Dr A. Calculate the equilibrium PTE16 constant. Southampton 2015 . Johnston. Kc .3 equilibrium from the magnitude of iii A qualitative estimation only is required.

Johnston. but also other fragments of organic compounds not involved in reactions.2 Definitions not required. The symbols below will be used for cyclohexane and Interpret and use the term CO1v benzene: skeletal formula HSW8 Communication using organic chemical structures. homologous series R may be used to represent alkyl groups. Functional A series of organic compounds having the same groups functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2 Interpret and use the term CO2i Definition required for homologous series only. for butane: CH3CH2CH2CH3 or structural formula CH3(CH2)2CH3 Interpret and use the term The relative positioning of atoms and the bonds CO1iv displayed formula between them The simplified organic formula. for an alkane: CnH2n+2 The minimal detail that shows the arrangement of Interpret and use the term CO1iii atoms in a molecule e. M = Mathematical requirement) Section Code Learning objectives Additional guidance Naming and representin Nomenclature will be limited to the functional groups g the within this specification. the carboxyl group will be represented as COOH and the ester group as COO. formulae of E. PAG = Practical endorsement. branched chains or non- aliphatic aromatic rings Interpret and use the term An aliphatic compound arranged in non aromatic CO2v alicyclic rings with or without side chains Interpret and use the term CO2vi A compound containing a benzene ring aromatic CO2vii Interpret and use the term Single carbon–carbon bonds only saturated Dr A. compounds Apply IUPAC rules of nomenclature Learners will be expected to know the names of the CO1i for systematically naming organic first ten members of the alkanes homologous series compounds and their corresponding alkyl groups. CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2OH has the systematic name: organic 2-methylbutan-1-ol. shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains. HSW11 The role of IUPAC in developing a systematic framework for chemical nomenclature.g. HSW8 Use of systematic nomenclature to avoid ambiguity. Southampton 2015 . Interpret and use the term The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a CO1ii general formula homologous series.g. In structural formulae.g. selecting the appropriate type of formula for the context. Interpret and use the term A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic CO2ii functional group reactions of a compound Interpret and use the term alkyl CO2iii Of formula CnH2n+1 group a compound containing carbon and hydrogen joined Interpret and use the term CO2iv together in straight chains. Module 4: Core organic chemistry (CO) (HSW = How science works. e. leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups M4.

‘Curly arrow’ is described as the movement of an Use ‘curly arrows’ to show either electron pair ‘Half curly arrows’ are not required CO3vi heterolytic fission or formation of a HSW1. C/C and aromatic rings The terms saturated and unsaturated will be used to CO2vii Interpret and use the term indicate the presence of multiple carbon–carbon i unsaturated bonds as distinct from the wider term ‘degree of saturation’ used also for any multiple bonds and cyclic compounds.g. to show clearly the Curly arrows should start from a bond. The presence of multiple carbon-carbon bonds. Use diagrams. forming two radicals Use and explain the term In terms of one bonding atom receiving both CO3iii heterolytic fission electrons from the bonded pair CO3iv Use and explain the term radical Radical mechanisms will be represented by a Isomerism sequence of equations.2 Compounds with the same molecular formula but Explain and use the term CO3i different structural formula and determination of structural isomers possible structural formulae of an organic molecule.8 Use of the ‘curly arrow’ model to covalent bond demonstrate electron flow in organic reactions. of alkanes electron pair repulsion Explain the variations in boiling points of alkanes with different carbon chain length and CO4iv M3.2 Properties CO4iii atom in alkanes in terms of Learners should be able to draw 3-D diagrams. O). and very low polarity of the σ- bonds present Use balanced equations to Incomplete combustion from lack of oxygen results in CO5ii describe the complete and CO being produced incomplete combustion of alkanes CO5iii Explain the potential dangers from CO Dr A. reaction mechanisms to explain organic reactions. Use the general formula of a homologous series to predict the CO2ix formula of any member of the series M4.1. M4. a lone pair of CO3vii movement of an electron pair with electrons or a negative charge. Johnston. Cl • and CH3•). given its molecular formula Use and explain the term In terms of each bonding atom receiving one electron CO3ii homolytic fission from the bonded pair. Southampton 2015 . including C=C. Dots s are not required for species that are diradicals (e. CO3vii Use partial charges to label a i dipole Describe alkanes as saturated overlap of orbitals directly between the bonding CO4i hydrocarbons containing single C– atoms C and C–H bonds as σ bonds Describe C-C bonds as having CO4ii free rotation of the σ-bond Explain the tetrahedral shape and bond angle around each carbon M4.8 Use of ‘curly arrows’ and relevant dipoles.2. HSW1. •. Any relevant dipoles should be included. Reaction Use ‘dots’ to represent species Dots. in terms of induced dipole-dipole interactions (London forces) Reactions Explain the low reactivity of of alkanes alkanes with many reagents in HSW1 Use of ideas about enthalpy and polarity to CO5i terms of the high bond enthalpy explain macroscopic properties of alkanes.1 branching.g. are required in all instances where there is a CO3v mechanism that are radicals in mechanisms single unpaired electron (e.

A π-bond is a sideways overlap of adjacent p-orbitals Describe alkenes as unsaturated above and below the bonding C atoms.2. of alkenes State that there is restricted CO6ii rotation of the π-bond Explain the trigonal planar shape and bond angle around each CO6iii M4. ultraviolet radiation Equations should show which species are radicals using a single ‘dot’. M4. Describe the limitations of radical substitution in synthesis by the formation of a mixture of organic CO5v products. to form alkanes presence of a suitable catalyst Including the use of bromine to detect the presence Describe the addition reactions of of a double C=C bond as a test for unsaturation in a CO8iii alkenes with halogens to form carbon chain dihaloalkanes PAG7 Describe the addition reactions of CO8iv alkenes with hydrogen halides to form haloalkanes Describe the addition reactions of CO8v alkenes with steam in the presence e. M4.g. in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached Explain and use the term E/Z CO7ii to each carbon atom of the C=C group isomerism Use of E as equivalent to trans and Z as equivalent to cis is only consistently correct when there is an H on Stereoisom each carbon atom of the C=C bond. given its structural formula Addition Describe the reactivity of alkenes reactions of CO8i in terms of the relatively low bond alkenes enthalpy of the π bond Describe the addition reactions of CO8ii alkenes with hydrogen in the e. HSW1 Use of model of orbital overlap to explain Properties covalent bonding in organic compounds.3 molecule. to represent the unpaired electron. H3PO4. Ni. Z stereoisomers Determine possible E/Z or cis– trans stereoisomers of an organic CO7v M4. hydrocarbons containing a C=C A σ-bond is an overlap of orbitals directly between CO6i bond comprising a π-bond and a σ. to form alcohols of an acid catalyst CO8vi Define and use of the term An electron pair acceptor electrophile Dr A.3 An example of stereoisomerism. M4.2. Southampton 2015 . in terms of further substitution and reactions at different positions in a carbon chain. Johnston.2 carbon in the C=C of alkenes in terms of electron pair repulsion Compounds with the same structural formula but with CO7i Explain the term stereoisomers a different arrangement in space M4.g. Including a mechanism involving homolytic fission and radical reactions in terms of initiation.1. erism in A special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the alkenes Explain and use the term cis– CO7iii substituent groups attached to each carbon atom of trans isomerism the C=C group are the same Use Cahn–Ingold–Prelog (CIP) Assigning CIP priorities to double or triple bonds CO7iv priority rules to identify the E and within R groups is not required. •. the bonding atoms bond Hybridisation is not required. Describe the reaction of alkanes propagation and termination with chlorine and bromine as Learners are not required to use ‘half curly arrows’ in CO5iv radical substitution using this mechanism.

photodegradable polymers CO11i Describe the polarity of alcohols Explain in terms of hydrogen CO11i bonding.g.g. H3PO4 or H2SO4 vii acid catalyst and heat to form Mechanism not required. HSW1. CO8vii electrophilic addition in alkenes by HSW1. carboxylic acids Explain the control of the CO12i oxidation product using different PAG7 v reaction conditions Reactions CO12 Describe the oxidation of of alcohols v secondary alcohols to form ketones CO12 State the resistance to oxidation vi of tertiary alcohols Describe the elimination of H2O CO12 from alcohols in the presence of an e. Cr2O72–/H+ (i. in terms of the relative stabilities of carbocation intermediates in the Use Markownikoff’s rule to predict mechanism CO8vii formation of a major organic Limited to stabilities of primary. alkenes Describe the substitution with CO12 e. Describe the addition CO9i polymerisation of alkenes and substituted alkenes Polymers Identify the repeating unit of an from CO9ii addition polymer from the alkenes monomer Identify the monomer of an CO9iii addition polymer from the repeating unit Describe the benefits for sustainability of processing waste CO10i polymers by combustion for energy production Describe the benefits for sustainability of processing waste CO10i polymers by use as an organic Waste i feedstock for the production of polymers plastics and other organic and chemicals alternatives Describe the benefits for CO10i sustainability of processing waste e. PVC) waste products Describe the benefits to the HSW9.5 Use of stability to explain products of organic reactions.g. H–Br to propene. ii secondary and tertiary alcohols Describe the combustion of CO12i alcohols CO12i Describe the oxidation of alcohols e.10 Benefits of reduced dependency on finite CO10i environment of development of resources and alleviating problems from disposal of v biodegradable and persistent plastic waste. secondary and i product in addition reactions of H– tertiary carbocations. Johnston. K2Cr2O7/H2SO4) i by an oxidising agent Describe the oxidation of primary CO12i Equations should use [O] to represent the oxidising alcohols to form aldehydes and ii agent.g. water solubility and the Properties i relatively low volatility of alcohols of alcohols compared with alkanes CO11i Classify alcohols into primary.2. either a carbocation Describe the mechanism of or a halonium ion intermediate is acceptable. removal of HCl formed during disposal by ii polymers by removal of toxic combustion of halogenated plastics (e. Explanation for relative X to unsymmetrical alkenes stabilities of carbocations not required.2. to form haloalkanes Dr A. For the reaction with halogens.g. Southampton 2015 .8 Use of reaction mechanisms to explain heterolytic fission organic reactions.g.e. NaBr/H2SO4 halide ions in the presence of acid viii Mechanism not required. e.

10. catalysed breakdown of ozone by ii HSW9. State that infrared (IR) radiation CO17i causes covalent bonds to vibrate more and absorb energy Describe the absorption of HSW9. HSW3 Development of synthetic routes. Describe the hydrolysis of CO13i haloalkanes in a substitution PAG7 reaction by aqueous alkali Describe the hydrolysis of CO13i haloalkanes in a substitution i reaction by water in the presence of AgNO3 and ethanol Compare experimentally the rates CO13i Substitutio of hydrolysis of different carbon– ii n reactions halogen bonds of CO13i Define and use of the term an electron pair donor haloalkanes v nucleophile Describe the mechanism of CO13 nucleophilic substitution in the HSW1. molecule Synthetic CO16i Predict the properties of a routes i multifunctional organic molecule CO16i Predict the reactions of a HSW3 Development of synthetic routes. CaCl2) purification of an organic liquid • redistillation Identify individual functional Learners will be expected to identify the functional CO16i groups in a multifunctional organic groups encountered in Module 4. ultraviolet (UV) radiation on CFCs CO14i C2F2Cl2 → C2F2Cl • + •Cl in the upper atmosphere and the Environmen •Cl + O3 → •Cl O + O2 resulting catalysed breakdown of tal •Cl O + O → •Cl + O2 the Earth’s protective ozone layer concerns CO14i Use equations to represent the from use of i production of halogen radicals organohalo e.11. Describe the techniques and procedures for the use of Quickfit PAG5 CO15i apparatus including for HSW4 Opportunities to carry out experimental and distillation and heating under investigative work Practical reflux skills • use of a separating funnel to remove an organic Describe the techniques and CO15i layer from an aqueous layer procedures for the preparation and i • drying with an anhydrous salt (e. Extra information may be v compounds provided on exam papers to extend the learner’s toolkit of organic reactions. Johnston. Explain the suspected link to CO17i global warming and resulting ii changes to energy usage Dr A. acceptance of Cl• and other radicals scientific evidence explaining ozone depletion leading to government legislation against CFC use. Southampton 2015 .g. MgSO4.12 Benefits of CFCs.10.2 Use of reaction mechanisms to explain v hydrolysis of primary haloalkanes organic reactions.g. with aqueous alkali Explain the trend in the rates of CO13 hydrolysis of primary haloalkanes C–F. e.g. C–Br and C–I vi in terms of the bond enthalpies of carbon–halogen bonds Describe the production of Simple equations of the breakdown process are halogen radicals by the action of required.11.12 Acceptance of scientific evidence Infrared CO17i infrared radiation by atmospheric explaining global warming has prompted spectrosc opy i gases containing C=O. O–H and C– governments towards policies to use renewable H bonds energy supplies. ii multifunctional organic molecule Learners will be expected to be able to devise two stage synthetic routes by applying transformations Describe two-stage synthetic between all functional groups encountered up to this CO16i routes for preparing organic point of the specification. C–Cl. gen Learners could be expected to construct similar compounds Use equations to represent the CO14i equations for other stated radicals. •NO.

infrared absorption data will be organic CO17 provided on the Data Sheet.5 Analysis and interpretation of spectra. Describe the use of infrared spectroscopy to monitor gases CO17 causing air pollution and in modern (e. Southampton 2015 . Dr A. compound to identify an v Learners should be aware that most organic aldehyde or ketone from an compounds produce a peak at approximately 3000 absorption peak of the C=O bond cm–1 due to absorption by C–H bonds.5 Analysis and interpretation of spectra. HSW3. CO and NO from car emissions) viii breathalysers to measure ethanol in the breath M3.5 Analysis and interpretation of spectra.1 Limited to ions with single charges. structures HSW3.g. Use an infrared spectrum of an organic CO17 compound to identify a carboxylic vi acid from an absorption peak of the C=O bond and a broad absorption peak of the O–H bond M3.1 Interpret and predict an infrared CO17 Restricted to functional groups studied in this spectrum of familiar or unfamiliar vii specification substances using supplied data HSW3. Identify the molecular ion peak in Limited to organic compounds encountered in this CO18i a mass spectrum and use it to specification Mass determine molecular mass Learners should be aware that mass spectra may spectromet contain a small M+1 peak from the small proportion of ry carbon-13. Use an infrared spectrum of an organic CO17i compound to identify an alcohol v from an absorption peak of the O– H bond Use an infrared spectrum of an In examinations. Learners will not be expected to interpret mass spectra of organic halogen compounds. Johnston.1 CO18i mass Learners should be able to suggest the structures of i spectrum to identify parts of fragment ions. Analyse fragmentation peaks in a M3.

1 1. Evaluate results and draw DPS4i HSW6 conclusions Identify anomalies in experimental DPS4ii measurements DPS4ii Identify limitations in experimental i procedures 1.1.1 context. Johnston.1.2.3 i answers Analysis Plot and interpret suitable graphs from experimental results. M1. M = Mathematical requirement) CGP Revision Section Code Learning objectives Additional guidance guide page number Part 1: Practical skills for the written assessment Including selection of suitable apparatus. ent PSA1 methods to practical work HSW3 thinking Dr A. Process. 1. HSW3 Use the appropriate number of DPS3ii significant figures to display M1. DPS3i including: selection and labelling of M3. PAG = Practical endorsement. Module 1: Development of Practical Skills in chemistry (DPS) (HSW = How science works. where appropriate. M3.5 including: measurement of gradients and intercepts. analyse and interpret Including reaching valid conclusions. Planning HSW3 Identify variables that must be DPS1ii controlled where appropriate Evaluate that an experimental DPS1ii method is appropriate to meet the HSW6 i expected outcomes.1. DPS3i qualitative and quantitative HSW5 experimental results Refer to Section 5 for a list of mathematical skills that Use appropriate mathematical skills learners should have acquired competence in as part of DPS3ii for analysis of quantitative data the course.3.2 v axes with appropriate scales. Explain how to use a wide range of As outlined in the content of the specification and the DPS2i practical apparatus and techniques skills required for the Practical Endorsement.1. including margins of error. quantities and units Plot and interpret suitable graphs from experimental results. Part 2: Practical skills assessed in the practical endorsement A-Level only (PSA) 1.3 v percentage errors and uncertainties in apparatus Refine experimental design by DPS4v suggesting improvements to the HSW3 procedures and apparatus.4 Evaluate the precision and Evaluatio accuracy of measurements and n DPS4i data. including be DPS1i able to solve problems set in a Learners should be able to apply scientific knowledge practical context based on the content of the specification to the practical 1.0 ting measurements DPS2ii Present observations and data in HSW8 i an appropriate format. M3.1 Practical skills Independ Apply investigative approaches and Including how to solve problems in a practical context. equipment and techniques for the proposed experiment. Design experiments.4. DPS3v M3. Southampton 2015 .2 correctly HSW4 Implemen Use appropriate units for DPS2ii M0.

1 to process data.2. PSAxv irritant. Dr A. or pH probe on a data logger PSA5i Perform a titration. time. flammable and toxic substances Measure rates of reaction by an PSAxv initial rate method such as a clock i reaction a continuous monitoring method. t 1. including PSA5v apparatu accurate technique for making up a HSW4 iii s and standard solution technique Use acid–base indicators in s PSAix titrations of weak/strong acids with HSW4 weak/strong alkalis Purify a solid product by PSAx recrystallisation Purify a liquid product using of a PSAxi separating funnel PSAxii Use melting point apparatus PSAxii Use thin layer or paper i chromatography PSAxi Set up of electrochemical cells and v measure voltages Safely and carefully handle solids and liquids. Including identification of potential hazards. or pH HSW4 i meter. using burette v and pipette Describe the differences between PSA5v distillation and heating under reflux PSA5v Use qualitative tests for ions and HSW4 i organic functional groups Use laboratory apparatus such as PSA5v filtration.2 Use of apparatus and techniques Use appropriate apparatus to record a range of measurements PSA5i HSW4 (including mass. Johnston. including use of fluted ii filter paper. practical equipment and materials HSW4 Use and PSA2ii Follow written instructions applicatio Make and record SPA2iii HSW8 n of observations/measurements scientific PSA2i Keep appropriate records of methods v experimental activities and Present information and data in a PSA2v practices scientific way Use appropriate software and tools PSA2v M3. Southampton 2015 . carry out research i HSW3 and report findings Use online and offline research Research skills including websites. Instrume Use a wide range of experimental nts and PSA4 and practical instruments. textbooks PSA3i and and other printed scientific sources referenci of information ng Correctly cite sources of The Practical Skills Handbook provides guidance on PSA3ii information appropriate methods for citing information. volume of liquids and gases. including corrosive. or filtration under reduced pressure Use of Use a volumetric flask. Learners Safely and correctly use a range of PSA2i should understand how to minimise the risks involved. HSW4 equipmen equipment and techniques. temperature) Use a water bath or electric heater PSA5ii HSW4 or sand bath for heating PSA5ii Measure pH using pH charts.

recognising correlations and causal relationships HSW6 Evaluate methodology. in a range of contexts HSW5 Analyse and interpret data to provide evidence. models and ideas to develop scientific explanations HSW2 Use knowledge and understanding to pose scientific questions. Appendix 1: How science works Code Description HSW1 Use theories. other organisms and the environment HSW11 Evaluate the role of the scientific community in validating new knowledge and ensuring integrity HSW12 Evaluate the ways in which society uses science to inform decision making. Dr A. including appropriate risk management. to answer scientific questions and solve scientific problems HSW4 Carry out experimental and investigative activities. define scientific problems. and resolve conflicting evidence HSW7 Know that scientific knowledge and understanding develops over time HSW8 Communicate information and ideas in appropriate ways using appropriate terminology HSW9 Consider applications and implications of science and evaluate their associated benefits and risks HSW10 Consider ethical issues in the treatment of humans. including information and communication technology (ICT). Southampton 2015 . Johnston. evidence and data. present scientific arguments and scientific ideas HSW3 Use appropriate methodology.

uncertainty when data are combined M2 – Algebra M2.g. 0.5 Use logarithms in relation to quantities that i) Carry out pH and pKa calculations. cm3 to dm3 as part of calculations volumetric calculations ii) Give units for an equilibrium constant or a rate constant iii) Understand that different units are used in similar topic areas. No exemplification required. k from a rate equation.g. M1. +. so that conversions may be necessary e.) M0. M2. Southampton 2015 . i) Interpret and analyse spectra numerical and algebraic forms ii) Determine the order of a reaction from a graph and derive rate expression. e. e. entropy in J mol–1 K–1 and enthalpy changes in kJ mol–1.3 Estimate results i) Evaluate the effect of changing experimental parameters on measurable values (e. M0. M2.4 Solve algebraic equations i) Carry out Hess’ law calculations ii) Calculate a rate constant. calculation of an atomic mass based on supplied isotopic abundances ii) Select appropriate titration data (i. &. M1.4 Use calculators to find and use power.2 Change the subject of an equation i) Carry out structured and unstructured mole calculations ii) Calculate a rate constant.3 Identify uncertainties in measurements and i) Determine uncertainty when two burette readings use simple techniques to determine are used to calculate a titre value. Kc.1 Use an appropriate number of significant i) Report calculations to an appropriate number of figures significant figures given raw data quoted to varying numbers of significant figures ii) Understand that calculated results can only be reported to the limits of the least accurate measurement. %. how the value of Kc would change with temperature given different specified conditions. Appendix 2: Mathematical Skills Example of the mathematical skill in the context of A Level Chemistry Code Mathematical skill to be assessed (assessment is not limited to the examples below) M0.g. Dr A. identification of outliers) in order to calculate mean titres.g.1 Understand and use the symbols: =.2 Use ratios. fractions and percentages i) Calculate percentage yields ii) Calculate the atom economy of a reaction iii) Construct and/or balance equations using ratios.0050 mol dm–3 is equivalent to 5.1 Translate information between graphical. ? M2.1 Recognise and use expressions in decimal i) Use an appropriate number of decimal places in and ordinary form calculations ii) Carry out calculations using numbers in standard and ordinary form (e. 1.g. M2. use of Avogadro constant) iii) Understand standard form when applied to areas such as (but not limited to) Kw iv) Understand that significant figures need retaining when making conversions between standard and ordinary form. M0.g. M0.0 × 10–3 mol dm–3.e.2 Find arithmetic means i) Calculate weighted means.3 Substitute numerical values into algebraic i) Carry out enthalpy change calculations equations using appropriate units for physical ii) Carry out rate calculations quantities iii) Calculate the value of an equilibrium constant. Johnston. k from a rate equation. 2. range over several orders of magnitude M3 – Graphs M3. \.0 Recognise and use appropriate units in i) Convert between units e. i) Carry out calculations using the Avogadro constant exponential and logarithmic functions ii) Carry out pH and pKa calculations iii) Make appropriate mathematical approximations in buffer calculations. M1-Handling data M1.

CH4.2 Visualise and represent 2-D and 3-D forms i) Draw different forms of isomers including 2-D representations of 3-D objects ii) Identify chiral centres from a 2-D or 3-D representation.3 Understand the symmetry of 2-D and 3-D i) Describe the types of stereoisomerism shown by shapes molecules/complexes ii) Identify chiral centres from a 2-D or 3-D representation. M3. for example NH3. M3. Southampton 2015 . H2O etc. Johnston.2 Plot two variables from experimental or other i) Plot graphs from collected or supplied data to data follow the course of a reaction ii) Draw lines of best fit iii) Extrapolate and interpolate iv) Construct calibration curves. Dr A.4 Calculate rate of change from a graph i) Calculate the rate constant of a first-order reaction showing a linear relationship by determination of the gradient of a rate– concentration graph.M3.5 Draw and use the slope of a tangent to a i) Calculate the rate of a reaction from the gradient of curve as a measure of rate of change a concentration–time graph for a first or second order reaction.1 Use angles and shapes in regular 2-D and 3-D i) Predict/identify shapes of and bond angles in structures molecules with and without a lone pair(s). M3.3 Determine the slope and intercept of a linear i) Calculate values for Ea and A from the gradient and graph intercept of a graph using the Arrhenius equation. M4. M4. M4 – Geometry and trigonometry M4.

Southampton 2015 . Appendix 3: Practical activity endorsement Practical activity group (PAG) Techniques/skills covered Example of a suitable practical (minimum) activity 1 Moles determination i) Measurement of mass Determination of the composition of ii) Measurement of volume of gas copper(II) carbonate 2 Acid–base titration i) Measurement of volume of a liquid Titration of sodium hydrogencarbonate ii) Use of volumetric flask. including against hydrochloric acid accurate technique for making up a standard solution iii) Titration. using burette and pipette iv) Use of acid–base indicators in titrations of weak/ strong acids with weak/strong bases 3 Enthalpy determination i) Measurement of temperature Determination of the enthalpy change of neutralisation 4 Qualitative analysis of ions i) Use of apparatus for qualitative Identification of the anions and cations tests for ions present in a mixture of Group 2 salts ii) Make and record qualitative observations 5 Synthesis of an organic liquid i) Heating under reflux Synthesis of a haloalkane ii) Purification using a separating funnel iii) Distillation iv) Risk assessment 6 Synthesis of an organic solid i) Purification by recrystallisation Synthesis of aspirin ii) Use of melting point apparatus iii) Use of thin layer or paper chromatography iv) Filtration v) Heating under reflux vi) Risk assessment 7 Qualitative analysis of organic i) Use of apparatus for qualitative Identifying functional groups in a functional groups tests for organic functional groups series of unknown organic compounds ii) Heating using water bath or electric heater iii) Make and record observations 8 Electrochemical cells i) Set up of electrochemical cells and The effect of concentration on the cell measurement of voltages potential of an electrochemical cell 9 Rates of reaction – continuous i) Measurement of rate of reaction by Finding the half-life of a reaction monitoring method a continuous monitoring method ii) Measurement of time iii) Use of appropriate software to process data 10 Rates of reaction – initial rates i) Measurement of rate of reaction by Finding the order and rate constant for method an initial rate method a reaction ii) Use of appropriate software to process data iii) Identify and control variables 11 pH measurement i) Measurement of pH Identifying unknown solutions via pH measurements 12 Research skills i) Apply investigative approaches How long does it take iron tablets to ii) Use online and offline research break down in the stomach? skills iii) Correctly cite sources of information Dr A. Johnston.

precise and sufficient data for experimental and investigative procedures and records this methodically using appropriate units and conventions. materials Uses appropriate safety equipment and approaches to minimise risks with minimal prompting. references and Uses appropriate software and/or tools to process data. carry out research reports and report findings. Obtains accurate. Identifies safety issues and makes adjustments when necessary. (5) Researches. Sources of information are cited demonstrating that research has taken place. Selects appropriate equipment and measurement strategies in order to ensure suitably accurate results. (3) Safely uses a range of Identifies hazards and assesses risks associated with these hazards when practical equipment and carrying out experimental techniques and procedures in the lab or field. and plans approaches to take account of variables that cannot readily be controlled. Southampton 2015 . in sequence and in combination. supporting planning and conclusions. Dr A. (2) Applies investigative Correctly uses appropriate instrumentation. Carries out techniques or procedures methodically. apparatus and materials approaches and methods when (including ICT) to carry out investigative activities. Appendix 4: Practical Assessment Criteria Competency Practical Mastery (1) Follows written procedures Correctly follows instructions to carry out the experimental techniques or procedures. Identifies and controls significant quantitative variables where applicable. identifying practical issues and making adjustments when necessary. Johnston. experimental techniques using instruments and equipment and procedures with minimal assistance or prompting. (4) Makes and records Makes accurate observations relevant to the experimental or investigative observations procedure.