COMPUTER 5. SPEAKER- provide the audio output for the system
1. INPUT- keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, camera, PERIPHERAL DEVICE- everything attached to the system unit
joystick that performs (I/O) Input / Output functions.
3. STORAGE – HDD, FDD, Optical Disc, Flash Drive (USB 1. Power Input- is where you plug in the PC’s electrical
Removable Disk) power cord
4. OUTPUT- monitor, speaker, printer(LaserJet, Inkjet, Dot 2. Keyboard Port – dedicated port for the keyboard
matrix) 3. Mouse Port- dedicated port for the mouse
4. USB Ports- general purpose connectors for newer PC’s
IDENTIFYING THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A PC 5. Parallel Port- 25-pin connector remain a popular means
1. SYSTEM UNIT- is the box that contains the essence of for connecting printers
the computer - is a type of interface found on computers (personal
 CPU and otherwise) for connecting various peripherals. It is
 Short-term & Long Term Memory also known as a printer port.
 Peripheral Devices 6. Serial Port- 9-pin connector one of the oldest & most
 Wirings universal ports found in the back of the PC.
7. Video Port- 15-pin connector is where the monitor
2. KEYBOARD- is the typewriter component of the connects to the system unit
computer. Enables you to enter data into computer. 8. Audio Ports- used to connect speaker, microphones, &
Connector/Interface use: other audio devices
9. Game Port- a.k.a. joystick port, 15-pin connector can be
 SERIAL (Recommended Standard 232)
used both Joystick & Musical Instrument Digital Interface
 PS2 (Personal System/2)
 USB (Universal Serial Bus) 10.Modem Port- enable your PC to communicate with other
PC via a telephone line
3. MOUSE- enables you to interact with images on the 11.Network Interface- connects your PC to other PC in a
monitor’s screen by controlling an on-screen icon called Local Area Network (LAN).
 Optical-uses optical light sensor 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) - also called the
Connector/Interface use: microprocessor, is the brain of the computer, the place
 SERIAL (Recommended Standard 232) where all the work gets done.
 PS2 (Personal System/2) a) Slot Processor
 USB (Universal Serial Bus)  Slot 1 – refers to the physical and electrical
specification for the connector used by some of
4. MONITOR- PC primary output device Intel's microprocessors; Intel Celeron,
Type: Pentium II, Pentium III
 LCD- Liquid Crystal Display
Page 1 of 6

RIMM – (Rambus Inline Memory Module) Intel Processors:  Pentium .k. SIMM – (Single Inline Memory Modules) came in 2  Socket 370. 333. Hard Drive – is your PC’s primary storage device. Floppy Drives – read floppy disks. Pentium.a.  Pentium II – 1997 (233-450 Mhz)  Pentium III – 1999 (450-1. video card. E. LAN card 2.1993(60-200 Mhz) 3. Expansion Slots. CD-ROM Drives – are designed to read CDs 5 TYPES OF RAM TECHNOLOGY a.g. RDRAM – Rambus Dynamic RAM. DIMM – (Dual Inline Memory Modules) used by Intel for Pentium III and Celeron DIIM Type Technology SPEED (Mhz) processors to replace the older Slot 1 CPU 168 pin SDRAM 60. A.133 interface on personal computers. Video Card – a. Modern Socket 370 fittings are usually found on Mini-ITX motherboards and c. 400 refers to the number of holes in the socket for CPU pins. Motherboard . speed 400-533 Mhz b) Socket Processor (P4)  Socket 7-is a physical and electrical specification for an x86-style CPU socket on a 4 BASIC PACKAGES OF RAM (PHYSICAL FORM personal computer motherboard. 4 common and electrical specification for a 242-lead speed 200. single-edge-connector used by early Athlon XP. 266.enable you to expand the capabilities  Pentium 4 – 2000 (1. Computer memory is measured in megabytes 5. (MB) for most PC’s. FACTORS) Pentium MMX. 400 Mhz (Intel Celeron.a.13 Ghz) 4. EDO RAM – Extended Data Out RAM ( Pentium II. AMD K6. systems. laptop computers d. 100. or gigabytes (GB) for high-end computer long-term the central printed circuit board (PCB)  Pentium Pro – 1995 (150-200 Mhz) that covers most of the bottom of the system unit. Celeron & Athlon) c. simply as floppies. The disks are known b.k. It provides area where all of the internal components of the  Pentium MMX – 1997 (166-233 Mhz) PC can connect. FPM RAM – Fast Page Mode RAM (Pentium & Earlier) 7.  Slot A (Socket 462) – refers to the physical d. sound card. 333. The "370" 184 pin DDR SDRAM 200. SO DIMM – (Small Outline DIMM’s) exclusively in embedded systems. SDRAM – Synchronous Dynamic Random Access 8. Duron. Random Access Memory (RAM) – CPU’s short-term memory. a graphics adapter acts as the Memory (All Pentium & Later) interface between the computer and monitor Page 2 of 6 . P4) versions of AMD's Athlon & Duron processor e.(also known as the PGA370 sizes: 30 pins or 72 pins both for FPM & EDO socket) is a common format of CPU socket first b.3-4 Ghz) of your system by adding extra components. DDR SDRAM – Double Data Rate SDRAM. Cyrix 6x86 MX a. 6. 266.

IDE and 1 long and 2 short beeps Video card error floppy ribbon cables and power cables can often go loose. For instance. Modems come in two flavors: 4.enable your PC to communicate with other PC via a telephone line. 12. Swap compatible Award and Phoenix BIOS: components and see if the system still works. it's time to leave it for a while and go back with 11. copy the entire message onto a piece of paper. Take notes! external and internal Take notes of what you have done and all the error messages.connects your PC to some new ideas or call someone who can help. You may need to use them later. 1 short beep: Normal 2. Ensure all cables are connected firmly. memory modules.Network Interface Card (NIC) . It is often the best opportunity to learn. "It's the cable. when you see an unusual blue screen with an error message. The most outside the power supply. Power Supply – converts standard household AC current owning a computer. Don't be frustrated! Short continuous beeps heating Don't be afraid of computer problems. There is 1. Rule of thumb: other PC in a Local Area Network (LAN). Long continuous beeps RAM not installed correctly Bad power supply or over 3. s-----.Sound Card – provide the sound input and output for Of course the fun could ran out quickly once you are frustrated your PC and have spent too much time on the same problem. 9. In many situations. Try different peripherals on different machines and see if the same problem Indicator System Status occurs. Imagine the satisfaction you could get by into the DC current needed by the PC solving a problem yourself. Those who have never seen the powerful trouble-shooting technique is to isolate the problem to inside of a computer are often amazed by how simple it looks.Modems . 1 long and 3 short beeps Keyboard error Ensure microprocessor. that message may point to the right direction in getting the problem solved quickly. If you feel frustrated. 10. Trial-and-error only 5V and 12V DC voltage supplied to the components Personal computers are highly modular by design. You shouldn't spend more than three hours on the same problem at one time. a specific component by trial-and-error. COMMON TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES & 5. Take a look? STRATEGIES It's OK to open a computer case and take a look inside. Make one change at a time." 2 short beeps CMOS error More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling 1 long and 1 short beep RAM error and connections. and adapters such as video card and sound card are inserted correctly and didn't 1 long and 9 short beeps ROM error "pop-up" during transportation. Trouble-shooting is part of the fun of SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Page 3 of 6 .

some mother boards require get any beep codes. You should have no PCI cards and that includes modems and sound cards. consider when building a computer. make sure it Problems after booting: is mounted properly. power supply for over heating. Stay Static Free (Electro Static Discharge) . Check hard drive. If the problem persists change ram.Building a computer today can then make sure the chip is in the first slot (i. Be safe with electricity . The PC should now only consist of a power  Long-nose pliers supply. Some CPU). a motherboard and a CPU/HSF. remove chip and clear dust. This means your PC  Antistatic wrist strap should have no video card. regularly ground yourself by touching the metal case Remove ram inspect for cracks. is electricity. Download MS computer cases are designed so that you can install memory diagnostic. especially RAM.A very important issue to Remove video card and inspect for cracks or bad connectors. Whilst working on your using a different video card.e. closest to the almost be done with just your bare hands. everything without needing many tools. To prevent damage to your components while building a RAM error: computer. Never work on your computer with the Keyboard error: power supply plugged in. The most common tools you will likely need for construction of your No beeps and no POST PC are:  Phillips screwdriver Pull everything out of the machine except for the CPU and  Flat nose screwdriver power the PC up. CPU. the chip back into the slot and make sure its firmly seated properly in the slot. 1. or any computer for Make sure the video card mounted correctly in the slot. refer to mother board CPU. case fan and power box fan. manual. motherboard or power supply. wear an antistatic wrist strap. Some video cards may also heat up Page 4 of 6 . Either the key board is not functioning or is not attached 2. make sure all are working and clean off dust. RAM or IDE cables. Use the Right Tools . if its has a PS/2 connector electricity can easily cause damage to sensitive then make sure its not plugged into the mouse connector. Check CPU fan. bad connectors or dust. Pc Freezes: Video card problem: Check CPU fan. CPUs and motherboards. make sure all power cords are disconnected. computer. Insert when all power cords are disconnected. try a different key board. then you may have an issue with either the two connectors from the power supply. try that matter. Have a power button and speaker hooked up to the board so you can Problem with power supply or CPU chips: turn it on and listen for beep codes. If the problem persists try using a different power supply. Make sure the power connector is connected correctly and fitted If you have the PC stripped down this much and you still do not firmly in the mother board socket. if the mother board has more then one slot 3.Static correctly. components. In addition.

put your is used up. Take off any metal objects on your arms or fingers such as bracelets. then there is a problem with a voltage on the power supply being incorrect or the CPU overheating. there may still be some remaining electric charge. plugged in. 6. Unplug any faulty device. Handle all parts with care. Before touching any part within the tower. rings or watches. many instances of internet explorer until all the ram 5. If system doesn't freeze or restart then return old hands against another metal surface (such as the chip to manufacturer. A container or piece of paper with labels for each part Scan for viruses. leaking. Check capacitors on motherboard make sure that they aren't bulging. check that you are removing it correctly and that no wires or other parts are in the way. (casing. damaging any mechanical parts as well as to avoid electrocution.and create excessive heat inside the case. Be careful when holding the motherboard. it’s underside actually quite pointy and able to hurt you. Photoshop.  Scan hard drive for bad sectors. CD drive. Make sure your hands are completely dry to avoid  Unplug any new devices or software installed. machine. Page 5 of 6 . which may damage sensitive devices.that's the problem. continuously. make any attempts to disassemble the tower. a box disassembling your computer tower to keep both your unit and attached to the side or bottom of the unit to which all yourself safe cables are connected. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Few warnings and reminders before you start 10. Even if your unit is  Make sure all devices are functioning properly are unplugged. 9. Go into 8. Instead. Work in a cool area to avoid perspiration for the same One problem could be bad RAM. or burned. fan speed and voltages forcefully remove it. Prepare a place to keep any screws you may remove. computer casing) to remove static charge. do not the BIOS and check CPU temperature. etc) is ideal to avoid confusion between the similar-looking screws. Make sure that the 1. replace RAM and restart reason as seen in the previous number. Open up resource hungry applications like Office. Place each piece you remove If the computer is actually functioning and the computer beeps carefully down onto a stable surface. If a component does not come out easily. Voltage problem or overheated components: 7. Fully shut down and unplug the computer before you case is kept cool. motherboard. 3. If they are . Pc Restarts while in use: 4.Never attempt to remove the power source. by maintaining good air flow. 2.

computer are moisture (sweat. Remember that those on the motherboard’s surface are fan or disk drive. but vital parts of the system unit. 2.Be careful not to drop any small parts (particularly there are no static energy. Make sure that your hands are not wet. screws) into unreachable areas such as into the computer 3. unplugged. 13.Take note that the three of the most damaging things to a 4. Prepare a screwdriver (preferably a Philips screwdriver). wires or ribbons. We may be dismantling it. Make sure that 12. make sure to grasp the wire at the base or head to keep it from 1. Physical contact may damage it. 11. SYSTEM UNIT DISASSEMBLY Do the steps in order to avoid confusion and getting lost. but we are not destroying it. here are some safety reminders and precautions that you should take note of: Page 6 of 6 . 6. The system unit may be functional so handle it with care. Make sure that the computer is shut down and breaking. shock 5. from household dust to bits of food).When removing any cables. Do not mess with the power supply unless you know what (electric or from being dropped) and dust (any debris you are doing. not designs. drinking water). But before proceeding to the disassemble system unit.