IEEE 2007 International Symposium on Microwave, Antenna, Propagation, and EMC Technologies For Wireless Communications

Wireless Charging System Based on Switched Beam Smart
Antenna Technique
Zhu Xi Zhang Xiaodong Wu Qingyu
(College of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 China)
Abstract: This paper presents a scheme for designing attenuate less and the efficiency grows higher with
a kind of wireless charging system aimed to provide narrower beam. The smart antenna technology has the
power transmission for personal mobile devices such as contents of directional narrow beam, detect the user in
cell phone. This scheme consists of three parts: the area and radiate power beam to them. This paper
wireless power transmission design, wireless signal use the switched beam smart antenna technology's
transmission design and charging manage design. A directionalbeam, signal communication, user
circular array consisting of some antenna elements is management and algorithm design for reference,
employed in the scheme as transmit access of power and because of the user management is not highly required,
signal. In the supposed indoor condition, the transfer so the switched beam smart antenna technology is
efficiency can up to 66%. The charging manage adopt a sufficient and economical choice.
close-loop optimal charging, charging time can be
reduced by 30%, and the battery' s life can be
lengthened by 20%. A. Antenna element design
Key words-switched beam antenna array, printed dipole, In this scheme, a coaxial collinear printed dipole
close-loop optimal charging, residual capacity estimation. structure is used as the antenna elements to compose
the array antenna. Fig.l shows the structure of the
1. Introduction single antenna element, based on the principle of sleeve
dipole element, the coaxial transmission line feed has
As regards to the persistent increase in the scale of changed to microstrip feed, also substitute planar
mobile devices, it brings higher requirement to the structure for solid form with respect to the dipole, and
convenience of the devices' implement, the the planar dipole is attained. And it has been proved the
convenience largely depends on the constant and variations of antenna gain with azimuth is very small,
steady of power supply. The current electric power with the width of printed circuit board far less than the
storage technology has no breakthrough development, wavelength of the signal. In this design, the maximal
and normal wire charging mode has restrict in aspects radiation direction tile is made down with 7 by

such as distance and space, each of the charging optimizing the spacing between the elements [2].
frequency, electrical source's location, power transfer
interconnection and the length of transmission line can
bring disadvantage to the implement effect of the
mobile devices. This requires developing a wireless
=!L_ K
power supply system to solve such problems, and
provides possibility to develop robust power supply Fig. 1 The structure of antenna element
system in future.
2. Power transmission design B Antenna array design
In the beamforming application, the directional patterns
The efficiency of wireless power transmission depends of a uniform circular array (UCA) can be electronically
on the percentage of power received by rectanna, along rotated throughout the azimuth without significant
with the distance increasing, the power attenuation change the beam shape, and less sensitive to the
grow faster, so the transmission distance should be mutual coupling effects compared with other array
optimal calculated by both power efficiency and structures such as uniform planar array, so the UCA is a
implement requirements. The system is designed to more applicable scheme.
work under indoor condition, so, 5m is enough to fulfill In order to maximal the array factor gain, the array
the implement requirements and won't result in a lot of structure is optimized in terms of different N values,
waste. Fig.2 shows the relationship of the UCA diameter and
The other element affects the efficiency of power the array factors, where the optimal diameter of the
received is the directional of power beam, the power UCA is 182mm with respect to N=8.

1-4244-1044-4/07/S25.00 ©2007 IEEE.

Authorized licensed use limited to: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on March 12,2010 at 03:40:37 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Propagation. The vertical capacity.'J Ti. For (n+l)th sampling measurement JO . residual capacity Cr is unknown.-^.. according to smart antenna apply (1) instances. below: gain G>10. Where The conversion efficiency of rectenna is in direct proportion to incident power density. the cell phone's optimal charging Ri is the measured internal resistance ( ) power can reach about 5W.l.-n l-i 11 th ¦" nfc _i calculated as the short-term integration of charging or Fig. It can provides both shorter charging ii ii :>: _» time and sufficiently long cycle-life of the battery. Optimal charging management measurements on Cr. the transmission efficiency can reach over Cr aVb + fiRi + y. parametersa. and EMC Technologies For Wireless Communications Under the case that the charging condition is not well coordinated with the internal status of the battery. the battery life is shortened in comparison with the case of optimal charging. The last one is a constant given uniquely to the battery type. for example. Efficiency estimation battery residual capacity [6]. Under the V-taped charging pattern.+ Const = 85% at the distance of 5m. The third term rectenna is about 78%.the maximal conversion efficiency of the resistance is influential in the low range. ignored in the discussion below. Crn=aVbn+l3Rin+Const (2) II .. the The integrate maximal efficiency is above 66%.1-«_ ~|-._I_i_L frequency service. the rectenna's proportion is The first tern related to the electromotive force is 18. U-. Their relationship is given in the equation downtilt of the radiation pattern is 6° to 7 maximal ° . it can't be memorized. dominant in the higher range of the residual capacity. the total electricity charged into battery does not significantly vary with the number of charging cycles after the _. Restrictions apply. between the two consecutive measurements.2010 at 03:40:37 EST from IEEE Xplore.6cm and the incident power density is 269mW/ . Both of the electromotive force and the internal The power transfer efficiency depends on the power resistance of the battery are vary with the residual attenuation and the incident power density. In this scheme. Downloaded on March 12. If One antenna element is used as the rectenna. Cr is the residual capacity (Ah) to be estimated the charge object is personal mobile devices such as cell phone._I_.¦'cn*r*. Vbn is the pig ¦£-*--itt-\-¦. is one of the best charging patterns currently [1].3 Dependency of battery life on charging pattern discharging current.2 Relationship between the UCA diameter and the array with an identification of the battery. Antenna. based on Fig.r ?-ma r g Where Crn is the nth residual capacity. IEEE 2007 International Symposium on Microwave. it is possible to factors optimize the V-taped pattern according to the history.l it *ini nth measured electromotive force and Rin is the nth measured internal resistance. rig C-(B+1) aVb{n+l) + pRl{H+1) + Const = (3) From (2) and (3) rrU Crn=ocVbn+(5R (4) The change of the residual capacity Crn can be i:. .5dBi. the conversion efficiency goes down. while the second one associated with the internal cm . then down or the charge object's power is smaller. And when the incident power is is dominant only in the lower range close to zero. Pare known from the on-line 3. most of their charging power are below Vb is the measured electromotive force (V) 10W. the most promising way to know the history is an on-line estimation of the resultant C. If the service history can be memorized by some means Fig. it is a j impossible to make full use of the original battery capacity. during the change The target battery type is lithium type because it is the of the residual capacity in the short period of time most widely used type in personal mobile devices. "nial i. from the consecutive (at least three) 487- Authorized licensed use limited to: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Vb and Rf As regards the .3 shows the dependency of cyclic battery life on the following equation (2) given for nth sampling the charging patterns._I_. Thus. in either case of undercharging or measurement overcharging._I_.

1992. Feng Gao. Propagation. Bacon. Design of Antenna Array Used as Smart Antenna for TD-SCDMA Systems 2004 IEEE. 1992.07 GHz. 40.95 to 2. Ul 2. Yoo. Mcspadden. Microw. d.W. Control for IS 136". and EMC Technologies For Wireless Communications measurements aand P can be known according to (4)." in Proc. where Rn is the electrolyte resistance a. 2359-2366. Data transmission design 6. Hirai. which are measured at the economical.. pp. This paper based on the principle of switched beam As the electromotive force and the internal resistance smart antenna. and K. Fig. most existing charging resistance Ri is known from the terminal voltage systems have already possessed the ability to measure. extends from 1. 4. Klonz. The antenna is right-hand during this short time of period. "Decentralized control According to Fig. while it is circularly polarized for the 2. [3] J. Jun. and Ri2 is the results that needed by optimal charging management charge transfer resistance at the interface between the such as electromotive force Vb current I.. 1239-1250.0y __1M ?-0K experimental investigation of a rectenna element for microwave power transmission. [6] Y. Theory Tech. 1998.0H 1. Fig. [5] J. this way the residual capacity can be estimated more This scheme provides a novel convenient method in accurately than any other methods proposed up to personal mobile devices application. Hiraga. E. communication signal in switched beam smart antenna V(t) Vb (Rn+Ri2)I + Ri2Iexp(^. Novotony. 1993. R. electrode and electrolyte solution. T. Esser. system's compatibility. pp. Cb is the b. Qizhong Liu. Because the data needed to be Under the steady-state condition. the 3dB axial ratio bandwidth of machines with the use of inductive transmission of power and 488- Authorized licensed use limited to: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Winters. Fifth Stanford Workshop on Srnarf Anfennas in Mobile Wireless Communications. Rectenna side sent: the protect signal relate to solution. parameters and (2). Conclusion The electromotive force Vb can be measured as the terminal voltage under zero current condition.U. "An electric vehicle charging system with universal inductive interface. Divan. Restrictions apply. O. the total internal sent from the rectenna side. and R D. And the residual circularly polarized for the 2. 227-232. pp. Antenna.=Rn+Rl2=-f. Punder the on-line conditions. Brown and E. it is easy to implement from existing systems and more drop AV and the current I. July 23-24. .2010 at 03:40:37 EST from IEEE Xplore. The data transmission scheme concentrates all the arithmetic and control strategy in the antenna array side. improve the measured directly. Rectenna side sent: the directional measured including the electrode resistance. J.2 _.W. 12. D. (6) 5. Theory Tech. investigation. the best suited V-taped charging pattern needs under developing. Optimal charging pattern is still process.OU J. IEEE PCC-93 Conf. "Theoretical and 1. Where Vc is the voltage across Cb which can not be predigests the structure of rectenna side. and it is practical one in the developing wireless power transmission present. IEEE 2007 International Symposium on Microwave. R. Downloaded on March 12.00 -. [2] Xudong Wang. "Beamed microwave power transmission and its application to space. References [1] K.4 shows the equivalent circuit of sealed lead-acid The data communication includes: battery. Record. D. 6. and A. same time by sampling under on-line conditions.4.04 GHz wireless power transmission scheme. Lorenz.025 GHz wireless capacity Cr can be estimated according to the data communication.)(5) = system [2]. Eves. A. . Antenna side sent: the control signal to obtain electrostatic double-layer capacitor formed at the the results above and control the charging pattern." IEEE Trans. the presented on-line residual to be updated according to the time-by-time calculation of the parameters a. H. no." IEEE Trans. which is very good for on theassumption that these parameters does not vary a single-fed microstrip patch. R. Chang. vol. Dec. vol. Kawamura. 40.4 Computed axial ratio of the proposed antenna no. [4] W C. The battery terminal voltage V(t) is given battery charging condition. Microw. Communicate between both sides: the by (5). In capacity estimation is a currently advanced method. adapt it to a wireless power transmission system. M.01 to 2. gives prominence to it's advantage of varies with the progress in charging or discharging narrow directional beam. boundary between the electrode and electrolyte C.. "Forward'Link Smart Antenna and Power.

Downloaded on March 12. [7]Dickinson. September 1. "Evaluation of a Microwave [8]Friedman. IEEE IAS Annu. . RM. and EMC Technologies For Wireless Communications signal. 1994. IEEE 2007 International Symposium on Microwave." SP1E Vol. H." Technical Memo 33-741. JPL.W. "Near term feasibility demonstration High-Power ReceptionConversion Array for Wireless Power of laser power beaming. 875-881. Meeting. Propagation.2010 at 03:40:37 EST from IEEE Xplore. 1975. 489- Authorized licensed use limited to: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Transmission. Restrictions apply. 1994. Antenna. 2121." in Proc. pp..