NAM (Non-Aligned Movement

)
Reasons:

Fear of Neo-
imperialism

Role of
Personalities Reasons Inspiration

Enlightenment

1. Fear of Neo-imperialism:
In 1945, most of the Asia, Africa and South America got independence but they were infant and
backward countries requiring help and support from outside especially financial support. US
came out with Marshall Plan and USSR with Moltova Plan but taking the help from any of these
groups meant getting the dictation from Moscow or Washington. This was the fear of Neo-
imperialism to the Third World Countries.

2. Inspiration-European Economies Community 1947:
Second World War created financial crisis for European Countries as Britain took $440 Million
from US for its survival. This was true for other European Countries. This created the fear that
financial dependency will create political dependency on US. In this background, Britain took the
initiative in 1947 and formed European Economic Community. The members were Sweden,
France, Spain, West Germany etc. and objective was cooperation and assistance among each
other for economic development.

3. Enlightenment due to incidents of Cold War:
In 1945, US said that they stand for Humanism and Democracy in this World while USSR was
determined to protect the Rights of Working Class in the World. These declarations initially

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So to get the outside support Nehru organized Delhi Conference in 1947. The Asian leaders praised Nehru. Bandung Conference of 1955 not only gave the Preamble of NAM. 2. Naseer. This enlightened the 3rd World Countries to unite and stand for their personal interest.Nehru was the representative of India in this conference and this became the foundation for the idea of the unity of 3rd World Countries.attracted the 3rd world Countries but from 1950’s whenever the interest of the super power was in danger the price was paid by the 3rd World Countries. Cuba etc. 4. Example: Korea. Birth Of Sprout- 1961 NAM 1947 Plant- 1955 1. After 2nd World War some of the Western Countries tried to reoccupy their former colonies like France occupied Vietnam. J. Example: Bhandar Naiyke (Sri Lankan leader) said that Nehru and India are future hope of 3rd World Countries but no one was serious for unity and cooperation. African and South American Countries suffering from Imperialism organized Brussels Conference in 1927. Sukarno Birth of NAM: Seed- 1927 Tree. it also developed the faith among 3rd World Countries and after 1955 as the countries in Africa and South America Page 2 of 11 . Stalin was angry and Britain was bankrupt. Role of Personalities: Nehru. Vietnam. Similarly Holland re-entered in Indonesia. US was not willing to help. 3. 4. With the independence of India in 1947. The objective was to unite and fight against imperialism and to create a good future.L. He invited Asian Nations and appealed them to unite and cooperate with each other in growth and development. Titto. The Asian. This created the trouble for Sukarno leading to the Bandung Conference of 1955. Belgium occupied Congo.

of Economically International weaker Contractors Section World Peace Cooperation in the field of Army. European and South American Countries and this also proves to be the 1st Summit of NAM. from Belgrade Conference of 1961 to Tehran Summit of 2012. It was attended by Asian. This was the official birth of NAM in 1961 Objective: Objective NATO.1961 Org. they started moving closer to NAM and this led to the Belgrade Conference of 1961. Therefore.1949 NAM. Cuba etc. edu NAM Humanism etc Fight against injustice and exploitation The objective of NAM was based on the requirement of 3rd World Countries as all of them were backward and weak so their immediate priority was peace. African. one of the core issue of NAM was Nuclear Page 3 of 11 .came into trouble like Egypt.

There may be some truth in all these statements but NAM is an organization based on Moral Philosophy which is not bound to any space or time. The Delhi Summit of 1983 and Harare Summit of 1986 stood up against Apartheid i. While others are of the opinion that in this era of capitalism Organizations having economic power are useful so NAM has lost its utility.e. The only thing it requires is personality because success of philosophy depends upon propagation by talented personality. It was relevant. Evaluation: According to the critics of NAM. it was born in the background of Cold War so with the end of Cold War its relevancy has came into an end.Disarmament. Page 4 of 11 . racial discrimination against blacks in South Africa. it is relevant and it will be relevant.

Nehru gave shelter to Dalai Lama on humanitarian grounds but Chou-en-lai accused Nehru of violating Panchsheel which is again a wrong blame because Dalai Lama was not allowed to form government in exile in the 1st phase. Historians are of different opinion regarding Indo-China War of 1962. According to some of them. backward and without any outside support it was not possible for India to open the 2nd front with any other neighbor especially against the Chinese Dragon. All these perceptions may be true but the real answer is expressed in the statement of Mao after the war. b) Khampa Rebellion. Nehru followed the Policy of Total Appeasement but Chinese under Mao blamed India on one or the other ground. Mao violated this Treaty and occupied Tibet. China took Military action and Dalai Lama escaped into India. b) By the Shimla Agreement of 1914 between British India and Chinese. Mao not only succeeded in bringing down the pace of Indian Economic Development because after the war a good part of budget was diverted towards defence. Infant. Nehru became the biggest supporter of Chinese entry in Security Council. Therefore. Nehru asked him to settle border disputes. He said. After some hesitation. INDO-CHINA WAR. Pakistan emerged as an enemy for India and Pakistan was getting assistance from US. Example: a) In 1949. China wanted to expose to USSR the closeness of India with Western World. In 1950. c) From 1960’s. with the birth of India. This is a wrong blame because Chinese Military entered into India and destroyed Indian Military Posts which was reconstructed by Indian Army. China got the support from Western Powers especially US and from 1949 it got the support from USSR. 1959: in which Tibetans stood up under the leadership of Dalai Lama against Chinese exploitation. Example: a) Forward Policy: Under it China accused Indian Army of entering into No Man’s Land and creating Military Posts proceeding slowly towards Chinese Territory. Nehru gave acceptance to conquest of Tibet by China. c) Chinese accused Nehru for border disputes but when Chao-en-lai visited India. Britain Government accepted Tibet as the zone of Chinese influence and China gave the promise not to occupy Tibet but use it as a buffer between India and China which will act as a bond of faith between the countries. In 1947. Page 5 of 11 . Nehru adopted the policy of Total Appeasement towards China. He made the excuse of being unaware about Chinese Map. China was having the edge with India because from 1921-49. 1962 1. 2. when China turn towards Communism India became the first country to give acceptance to Communist China.” China is not hungry for territories but we wanted to bring down the status and arrogance of Nehru and India”. India gave the status of big brother to China and India had no big issue with China but then also Chinese attacked India in 1962. Some are of the opinion that Mao facing internal crisis too this step to divert the mind of the people. In this scenario.

General Thimmayya. 1961.Both India and China were born almost at the same time and both were competitors. Belgrade Conference turned India and Nehru as a leader of 3rd World Countries which was as economic and political edge to India and this was possibly unbearable for a conscious competitor. Page 6 of 11 .  He neglected the basic principle of precaution against Emergency. China in this background attacked India in 1962 and Nehru cannot escape from criticism on China Policy because  He neglected the advice of well-wishers like Sardar Patel.

It also became the birth place of Indian renaissance and freedom struggle. Pakistan People’s Party under the leadership of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto got 88 seats out of 170 while in Eastern Pakistan. Example: in 1948. INDIRA GANDHI Birth of Bangladesh: 1. Orissa etc. Tripura. The biggest blow was to Bengali’s culture and language. He thought if he gives opportunity to Mujibur Rahman to form the Government it may go against the interest of Pakistan because Mujibur Rahman was demanding autonomy for Eastern Pakistan and also the right to print separate currency. Army started atrocities specially targeting non-Muslims. She also gave political support to Mukti Vahini.  2nd Phase: Yahya Khan in fear committed series of mistakes. This gave the legal right to Indira Gandhi to interfere in the affairs of Eastern Pakistan. In Western Pakistan. Along with this foreign reserve earned by Eastern Pakistan instead of being used in growth and development was used in military empowerment of Pakistan and this was the frustration for Bengalis of Eastern Pakistan. the Gureilla Organization of Page 7 of 11 . With the partition of India and creation of Eastern Pakistan the jute producers of Eastern Pakistan lost their market of West Bengal.Jinnah visited Dhaka. To their bad luck after independence in 1947 for the next 23 years Pakistan saw military dictatorship.  3Rd Phase: Indira Gandhi not only gave support and shelter to the immigrants from Eastern Pakistan. This became the trouble for Yahya Khan. War was not the option because they have already fought Two Wars with India so Yahya Khan. National Awami League under the leadership of Mujibur Rahman got 168 seats out of 169. West Bengal. civil liberties etc.  Social Trouble: The Punjabi’s of Western Pakistan followed a policy of discrimination in polity and administration towards the Bengali’s of Eastern Pakistan. The spark for the blast in Eastern Pakistan was given by 1st General Elections in Pakistan in 1970.A. 1970: In 1970. This led to the immigration of Eastern Pakistanis into India and within 5 Months Two million refugees were present in the Indian States like Assam. This started social unrest in Eastern Pakistan and Yahya Khan committed the next mistake when he send the army to suppress the people. Pakistan was in trouble internally and externally. This became the pain for the conscious Bengali’s. the Army General of Pakistan conducted the 1st General Election in 1970. he declared that anyone who will oppose Urdu will be considered as a traitor. Therefore. Reasons for trouble in Eastern Pakistan:  Economic Trouble: Eastern Pakistan or East Bengal is famous for jute production while West Bengal saw concentration of jute mills. Phases:  1st General Election.  Political Trouble: Bengal was the 1st state to face the brunt of British imperialism. when M. Bengali’s were and are very conscious about modern political ideologies like democracy. Arrest of Mujibur Rahman and sending him to unknown destination.  Immediate Problem: In this way Eastern Pakistan was in trouble from all the sides. 2.

 She ended the pressure of Pakistan on Eastern front and also gave relief to North East with the independence of Bangladesh.  She also respected the infant democracy in Pakistan because if she would have tried to snatch away everything from Pakistan there would have been Army Revolt and future democracy would have ended in Pakistan turning Pakistan into North Korea of South Asia. Eastern Pakistani’s to fight their exploitation. Indira Gandhi signed a Friendship Treaty with USSR in which both the parties committed to help each other in case of 3rd party invasion.  The most important aspect was all the dispute between India and Pakistan was to be solved through bilateral negotiation i.  Pakistan made the commitment not to use force in the issue of Jammu and Kashmir. No Third party intervention including UN. Indira Gandhi completed her homework and Yahya Khan committed the last mistake when he attacked the Western Frontier of India. On 17 December 1971.  She closed the door for Third Party intervention forever. This was a counter to China while US was still entrapped in Vietnam. She not only managed the Western Command on Eastern Front General Arora compelled General Niayazi of Pakistan to sign the instrument of defeat and surrender on 16 December 1971.000 Pakistani prisoners of war in return for Pakistan’s acceptance of independent Bangladesh.  4th Phase: Shimla Agreement of 1972 The important provisions were:  India left Pakistani territories occupied by Indian Army with few exceptions like Kargil as it is the connecting link between Srinagar and Leh. The interference of Indira Gandhi alarmed China and US. This would have been against the interest of India. The critics of Indira Gandhi are of the opinion that Indira Gandhi won the war of 1971 but Shimla Agreement proved to be a diplomatic loss for Indira Gandhi because according to them it was again the appropriate time to solve all the disputes with Pakistan including PoK. He gave the opportunity to Indira Gandhi to take military action. Page 8 of 11 .e. she declared the independence of Eastern Pakistan in Indian Parliament. It seems to be correct in the first instance but overall analysis of condition of India and limitations of Indira Gandhi give the other side of the story and Shimla Agreement seems to be the Grand achievement of Indira Gandhi because  She ended the was within specific time period which not only ended the fear of Third Party intervention it also brought down the double burden on Indian Government.  India left 90. On December 9th 1971. This was followed by Shimla Agreement of 1972.

 Failure of Monsoon for two consecutive years 1972-73which proved harmful for primary and secondary sectors and it also gave big blow to power generation. The reason for these crisis were:  Indo-Pak war of 1971 depleted foreign reserve of India bringing down the imports of India specially Oil import raising the price of oil which in turn raised the prices of other commodities. she kept the hand on Syndicate and this led to the split in Congress in 1969 into Congress(R) led by Indira Gandhi and Congress(O) led by the rivals of Indira Gandhi. Middle class was facing the pain of unemployment while Aristocracy was also angry with Indira Gandhi because  In 1967.Kamraj raised L.  In 1969. From 1970. Syndicate which was a powerful lobby in Congress under the leadership of Tamil leader K.  In 1970. In this way after 1970’s every section was irritated from present government and Indira Gandhi. she introduced MRTP which annoyed big business houses in India. 2. This once again increased the oil prices in turn increasing inflation in India. Page 9 of 11 . she ended Privy Purse which irritated the existing princely class in India. Immediate Cause: Tension was prevailing on all the fronts in India. Within 18 months Shastri also died and Morarji Desai once again stood up for his ambition. 4. unemployment and food crisis. This time syndicate elected Indira Gandhi because she was having emotional appeal with the people and she can be a good puppet as before coming into power she was called as Dumb doll but after coming into power according to the Law of Aristocracy. India was in acute Economic Crisis suffering from inflation. Social Causes: Warrior Class was suffering from food crisis. Movement and Emergency: Reasons: 1.  The oil shocks of 1973 when OPEC countries decided to cut down the oil supply to the world as a reaction against Arab-Israel War. she came out with 10 Point Program for the upliftment of rural poor based on the principle of Socialism which irritated the Capitalist class in India. Morarji Desai stood up as a Prime Ministerial candidate.J. This increased unemployment in India.P. In this way economic condition was very critical and this was evident by food riots in this period. The coming down of power production led to the closing down of industries. 3. Political Causes: After the death of Nehru in 1964. The spark to the tension was given by the students protest in Gujarat and Bihar in 1974.B.Shastri who got majority support because of his honesty. These rivals wanted to humiliate her to bring out of power.

stood in the support of people and gave the call of Total Revolution. he demanded the dismissal of Bihar Government and fresh elections in Bihar. Therefore. Features Of Emergency:  Political Feature:  Parliament became ineffective because the proceedings were not reported to the Press. Page 10 of 11 . Indira Gandhi understood the game plan of the rivals and she denied to listen to demand of the people. 4. Gujarat Episode. said that he will start an All India Movement from 29 June 1975. They were joined by the masses and students protest slowly turned into mass movement.P.  On 12 june 1975. the trouble was over in Bihar by itself. J. January 1974: The students of L. Bihar Episode. On the other side Total Revolution died by itself because majority population failed to understand the meaning of the call and J. On 23 June 1975 while addressing the people in Delhi J. Indira Gandhi understood the intention. Although she got the relief from Supreme Court by getting the stay order against HC judgement which gave her the right to maintain the post of PM. Under it. neglected the limitations of Mass Movement. 3. Engineering College came out on the streets to protest against the price rise in student’s canteen.P.P. But she was not given the right to vote in the Parliament.D.March 1974: In March 1974. students started in Bihar and once again joined the students on the issue of corruption. With the beginning of mass movement Jai Prakash Narain left his political sanyas.A Crucial Year  Janta Party was victorious in Gujarat defeating Congress and this reflected the mood of the people against Congress. Under it he appealed to the people to establish parallel government and also appealed the armed forces not to listen to the orders of the government. She immediately dissolved Chimanbhai Patel’s Government in Gujarat and ordered for fresh elections. inflation etc. As a precautionary step on 25th June 1975 Indira Gandhi imposed Internal Emergency in India. But 1975 proved to be dangerous year for Indira Gandhi. This ended the trouble in Gujarat but it was not the end of the trouble for Indira Gandhi because the waves of Gujarat affected Bihar in March 1974. Moreover Desai sat on fast to give moral support to fighting people. These odds were against Indira Gandhi and this proved to be the right opportunity for her rivals to stand up against Indira Gandhi. 2.Phases: 1. Justice Sinha of Allahabad High Court on the petition of Raj Narain that Indira Gandhi has used foul means in Lok Sabha elections found her guilty and in his judgement restricted her not to hold any official post or contest elections for the next 6 years. He once again stood up with the call of Total Revolution but this time he took extreme steps when he declared Civil Disobedience Movement against the Government. rejected it and called it the manipulation of Indira Gandhi. 1975 .

But emergency is called as a Black Spot on Indian Democracy and Indira Gandhi was punished for this misbehavior. took the right issues of corruption.  End of Civil Liberties.  General Feature:  20 Point Program of Indira Gandhi for the upliftment of rural and urban poor. unemployment but his approach was extremist which created the ground for Anarchy in India. On the other side. It seems both the people were bothered about self interest rather than public interest. Evaluation: J. Page 11 of 11 . Dismissal of Non-Congress Governments like DMK in Tamil Nadu and Janta Party in Gujarat. Democracy not only passed but got distinction because in the elections after emergency Indira Gandhi was punished by the people and when the opposition failed to manage the Nation people again showed faith in Indira Gandhi and Congress and in 1980 she returns back to power with complete majority.  Economic Feature:  Economy started showing the signs of recovery and government was successful in controlling the problem of inflation by targeting hoarding and black marketing. But this era is famous for 4 Point Program of Sanjay Gandhi which included-  Plantation of trees  Promotion to education  Control on social evils like dowry  Population control  Administrative Features:  Complete law and order in the Country and administration became highly responsible to the people.P. Along with this the previous policies of Nehru and Shastri also started giving results from this period. That is why this movement is also called as ‘Insurrection Without Revolution’. On the question of Black Spot on democracy. inflation. Indira Gandhi cannot escape from her criticism because before emergency she had the option of elections in India.  Ban on certain organizations like RSS.